Islington: Education

A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8, Islington and Stoke Newington Parishes. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1985.

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A P Baggs. Diane K Bolton. Patricia E C Croot, 'Islington: Education', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8, Islington and Stoke Newington Parishes, (London, 1985) pp. 117-135. British History Online [accessed 18 May 2024].

A P Baggs. Diane K Bolton. Patricia E C Croot. "Islington: Education", in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8, Islington and Stoke Newington Parishes, (London, 1985) 117-135. British History Online, accessed May 18, 2024,

Baggs, A P. Bolton, Diane K. Croot, Patricia E C. "Islington: Education", A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8, Islington and Stoke Newington Parishes, (London, 1985). 117-135. British History Online. Web. 18 May 2024,


The parish had a schoolmaster from c. 1588, (fn. 64) and from 1613 Owen's school in Clerkenwell provided free education for 24 Islington children. (fn. 65) A boy from a school at Islington was admitted to Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1644. (fn. 66) Peter Vowell; schoolmaster at Islington, appeared before the House of Commons in 1643, and was hanged in 1654 for plotting against Cromwell. (fn. 67) In 1679 children maintained by the parish were to be sent out for schooling and a master and mistress were to receive 2d. a week for each child. (fn. 68) Dame Sarah Temple, by will proved in 1699, left £500 for a rent charge to be paid to the minster and churchwardens for maintaining and educating poor children. The money was obtained from her executor, Sir Thomas Draper, Bt., in 1702 after a Chancery case, and c. 22 a. at Potters Bar (Herts.) were purchased. Two boys were maintained at a boarding school at Chertsey (Surr.), where they received elementary instruction in 1843. (fn. 69) Two girls were maintained and educated by the charity in 1895. (fn. 70) In 1710 the minister and parishioners subscribed to form charity schools to educate and clothe 24 boys and 20 girls, in a room over the church porch. (fn. 71) A bequest of £300 in annuities by John Westbrook (d. 1768) for young children to be taught to read the catechism paid for three boys and four girls at the charity schools in 1769. The charity's stock was increased by a gift of £100 from Isaac Needham in 1809. Six 'Westbrook children' were taught at a private school at no. 10 Smith's Buildings in 1827 and ten in 1828. In 1836 the trustees decided to extend the charity by leasing a room in Smith's Buildings and employing a regular mistress. (fn. 72)

In 1819 the charity schools and the two charities provided the only free primary schooling, (fn. 73) although a school of industry for girls had been founded by Islington chapel in 1801, and Union chapel had a girls' school founded in 1807 and a boys' founded in 1814. (fn. 74) By 1833 provision had greatly increased, with the opening of several infants' and National schools, and the charity schools had also established a connexion with the National Society. There were 4 infants' schools, supported by subscriptions and private gifts, and 11 day schools, similarly supported and in some cases charging school pence. In addition there were 51 private day schools, including one attended by eight 'Westbrook children', a proprietary school, and 38 boarding schools. More advanced education for the poor was available only for boys at Owen's school. In all 578 infants, 642 boys, and 447 girls received free or almost free education; 578 boys and 536 girls attended private day schools, and 798 boys and 421 girls attended private boarding schools. Sunday schools also provided free basic education, and 719 boys and 769 girls attended the four Anglican and five nonconformist ones. (fn. 75)

The growth in population brought more places for the poor, mainly linked with the provision of new churches or with the ragged school movement. By 1847 there were 27 infants' and National schools attached to 11 Anglican churches. (fn. 76) Although as many as nine in ten of Islington's schools in 1851 were private, they taught less than half of the district's schoolchildren. (fn. 77)

The London school board was formed in 1870 with Islington as part of Finsbury Division. (fn. 78) Under the Elementary Education Act of 1871 the board inspected all elementary schools offering education for 9d. a week or less: Islington had 35 public schools held under trusts, including National, British, and other church schools, 20 schools run by private committees, mainly the ragged and mission schools, and 139 adventure schools, being mainly small dame schools. All but three of the public schools and over half the privately managed schools were found efficient. Many of the adventure schools refused inspection and others had closed when the inspectors called; of the rest only two were efficient, two others were efficient in instruction but not premises, and another might be made efficient. Most of those not recognized appalled the inspectors. In all, 47 schools for working-class children could be recognized, giving places for 7,675 boys and 6,165 girls of all ages. Night schools were of value for children who worked during the day and had not received basic instruction when younger. In 1871 sixteen schools, including three adventure schools, provided evening classes for 922 boys and 467 girls, aged 9 and up. The schools were usually held for six or seven months in the winter, although two were open all year, and their hours varied from three to ten a week. (fn. 79)

By early 1875 the board had completed four new schools in Islington, with three more under way. (fn. 80) When the L.C.C. took over responsibility for elementary education in 1904, the board had 38 local schools with c. 43,000 places, including schools transferred to the board. (fn. 81) In 1906 many voluntary schools had to reduce their intake or make other improvements, and some, having survived competition from board schools, were obliged to close or transfer to the L.C.C. for financial reasons. (fn. 82)

Three schools, Montem Street, Upper Hornsey Road, and Duncombe Road, had about a third of their pupils in higher grade classes by 1900, and Montem Street's upper boys formed a science school. (fn. 83) In 1903 Islington had nine secondary and higher educational establishments administered by the Board of Education, including evening classes at two board schools. (fn. 84) In 1904 the first higher grade school was opened by the L.C.C. at Barnsbury Park, followed by Camden secondary school in 1907. (fn. 85) In 1908 four private secondary schools were recognized as efficient, (fn. 86) of which Highbury Hill High school was taken over by the L.C.C. in 1912. Higher grade classes in elementary schools were gradually replaced by separate central schools. From 1927 most Islington council schools were reorganized into senior and junior schools, though a few all-age schools, many of them denominational, remained to be adapted after the Second World War. The London school plan, drawn up between 1944 and 1947, laid down a complete scheme of primary and comprehensive secondary education but included several aided grammar schools which remained outside the reorganization. (fn. 87) By 1955 Islington had 36 council primary schools, some divided into separate junior and infants' sections, 12 voluntary aided primaries, 16 country secondary schools, and 5 voluntary aided secondaries. (fn. 88) Some single-sex secondary schools were amalgamated into mixed schools in 1957-9; former grammar or high schools remained single-sex but had become comprehensive by 1982, again taking pupils from other secondary schools. In 1980 there were 26 county and 13 voluntary aided primaries (6 of them Roman Catholic and 7 Anglican), 8 county secondary schools (5 singlesex), and 3 voluntary aided Roman Catholic secondary schools (all single-sex). (fn. 89)

Special centres were opened, at Laycock school to teach English to pupils with other mother tongues and at the Islington Centre, Delhi Street, to give basic education to immigrants of secondary school age. A centre for persistent truants from Archway and Tollington schools was set up in 1971 at no. 6 Cromartie Road, Upper Holloway; it had 16 attenders in 1976. (fn. 90)

Public schools. (fn. 91) Basic historical information and numbers in existing schools have been supplied by head teachers and Mr. A. R. Neate of the G.L.R.O. Except where otherwise stated, the remaining historical information and figures of accommodation and average attendance have been taken from: files on Church of England schools at the National Society; P.R.O., ED 3/ 4-6; ED 7/76, 80, 82; ED 14/5, 35; Return of Sums expended for Educ. H.C. 444 (1843), xl; Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1846 [787], H.C. (1847), xlv; 1849 [1215], H.C. (1850), xliii; 1852-3 [1623], H.C. (1853), lxxix; Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1865-6 [3666], H.C. (1866), xxvii; 1878 [C. 2342-I], H.C. (1878-9), xxiii; Return of Schs. 1893 [C. 7529], H.C. (1894), lxv; Return of Non-Provided Schs. H.C. 178-XXIII (1906), lxxxviii; List of Sec. Schs. Recognised as Efficient [Cd. 4374], H.C. (1908), lxxxiii; Bd. of Educ., List 21, 1908-38 (H.M.S.O.); L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Particulars (1937 and later edns.); L.C.C. (I.L.E.A. from 1965) Educ. Svce. Inf. (1951 and later edns.).

The following abbreviations are used in addition to those in the index: a.a., average attendance; accn., accommodation; amalg., amalgamated, amalgamation; B, boy, boys; Bapt., Baptist; C.E., Church of England; Cong., Congregationalist; demol., demolished; dept., department; G, girl, girls; J, JB, JG, JM, junior, junior boys, girls, mixed; I, infant, infants; M, mixed; mod., modern; Meth., Methodist; Nat., National; parl., parliamentary; perm., permanent; R.C., Roman Catholic; reorg., reorganized; roll, numbers on roll; S, SB, SG, SM, senior, senior boys, girls, mixed; S.B.L., School Board for London; sch., school; sec., secondary; sep., separate; tech., technical; temp., temporary; vol., voluntary; V., vicar; Wes., Wesleyan. The word 'school' is to be understood after each named entry. Separate departments are indicated by commas: B, G, I; JM, I.

ALBANY DAY AND SUNDAY, 14 Albany Pl., Hornsey Rd. Opened by 1848 by Independents. Roll 1871: 52 B, 44 G, all ages; accn. 87 M, 90 I. Financed by sch. pence, subscriptions. Instruction not adequate but good moral training 1871. Not recognized by Bd. of Educ. and day sch. probably closed soon after 1871.


ALL SAINTS' NAT. AND I, Muriel Street. I sch. for 140 with teacher's ho. built 1842 W. of Muriel Street. (fn. 92) Praised by inspector 1846. 1849 accn. 161, a.a. 130; 1852 accn. 200. Nat. sch. for 272 B, 272 G built 1852 E. of Muriel Street, (fn. 93) with grants from parl., Nat. Soc. Roll 1853: 206 B, 96 G, 130 I; a.a. 176 B, 96 G, 130 I. Financed by sch. pence, vol. contributions, parl. grants. Small evg. sch. in winter, 6 hrs. a week. Roll 1871: 238 B, 191 G, 171 I; 1878 accn. 584 M, I, a.a. 292; 1908 accn. 134 M, 190 I, a.a. 238 M, 123 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 289 JM & I. 1935 a.a. 207. Closed 1947-51.

AMBLER PRIMARY, Blackstock Rd., Finsbury Pk. Opened 1898 as Ambler Rd. bd. sch. for B, G, I. 1908 accn. 300 B, 300 G, 333 I, a.a. 242 B, 212 G, 123 I; 1911 a.a. 723. Reorg. 1932-6 to form Finsbury Pk. Junior B, Junior G, with 348 JB, 351 JG (see also Finsbury Pk. primary). Reorg. for JM c. 1949, and renamed Ambler primary. Amalg. 1971 with Finsbury Pk. primary to form Ambler primary for JM & I. Nursery block added c. 1971. Adjoining ho. demol. for playground c. 1975. Roll 1982: c. 250 JM & I.

ANGEL CT. RAGGED, 41 Rufford's Bldgs., Islington High Street. Possibly Rufford's Bldgs. ragged sch. opened 1854 for G & I, supported by Turnpike Cts. Dist. Visiting Soc. Took pupils from Protestant Institute's Parsley Ct. sch. leaving latter mainly for B. (fn. 94) By 1871 a free sch. run by Ch. Missionary Coll., Upper Street. Roll 1871: 60 B & 38 G, 127 I; evg. sch. 3 hrs. a week 21 B, 22 G. Irregular attendance but sch. capable of meeting Bd. of Educ.'s standards 1871. Nothing further known.

ANGLERS GDNS., see Charles Lamb.

ARCHWAY SEC., Duncombe Rd., Upper Holloway. Formed 1959 for SM from Archway sec. B, Duncombe Rd., and Archway sec. G, which moved to Duncombe Rd. 1957 (see Duncombe; Cottenham Rd.). Took over whole of Duncombe Rd. site, with annexe at Whittington sch. Additions to bldg. after 1959. Roll 1981: 750 SM. Amalg. 1981 with Tollington Pk. sch. to form George Orwell (q.v.).

ARLINGTON SQ., see St. Philip.

ASHMOUNT, Ashmount Rd., Hornsey Lane. Opened 1957 as Ashmount primary for JM, I. Rolls 1982: 172 JM, 146 I.

BALL'S POND RD. MISSION (St. Jude's), 37 Ball's Pond Rd. Opened 1866 in iron bldg. for 225 M. Roll 1871: 61 B & 68 G, all ages, under I mistress; a.a. 60-70. Financed by sch. pence (2d.), vol. contributions, parl. grants. 1878 accn. 159, a.a. 109. Closed by 1893.

BARFORD STREET WES., Liverpool Rd. Day and Sun. sch. built c. 1834 adjoining chapel. Existed 1849, but no longer a day sch. 1871. (fn. 95)

BARNSBURY B CENTRAL, see Barnsbury sec. for B.

BARNSBURY CENTRAL, see Barnsbury sch. for G.

BARNSBURY PK., Liverpool Rd. Opened 1910 by L.C.C., taking pupils from Harvist Rd. temp. 1911 accn. 320 M, 180 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 320 JM, 156 I; 1932-6 for 196 I. In 1947 was day special sch. for M, age 5-14. Closed by 1951.

BARNSBURY SCH. FOR G, Barnsbury Pk. (fn. 96)

Opened 1904 as Offord Rd. Higher Grade country sch. for 400 SM; renamed Barnsbury Pk. c. 1905. 1908 a.a. 355. Commercial subjects introduced. Renamed Barnsbury Central 1911. 1919 a.a. 404; 1922 accn. 444 SM; 1927 a.a. 471. Reorg. 1931 as Barnsbury Girls' Central for 400 SG; B went to Barnsbury Boys' Central (see Barnsbury sec.). Renamed Barnsbury sec. for G 1947- 51, Barnsbury Sch. for G c. 1966. Roll 1982: 780 SG.

BARNSBURY SEC. FOR B, Geary Street, Eden Grove, Holloway. Opened 1931 as Barnsbury B Central for 400 SB from former Barnsbury Central (above). Renamed Barnsbury sec. for B 1947-51. Closed 1967 and pupils moved to Highbury Grove (q.v.).

BARNSBURY STREET. Bd. sch. opened 1878 for BG as feeder for new permanent sch. in Thornhill Rd. (q.v.).

BELLE ISLE BRITISH, Brewery Rd., York Way. Opened by Camden Rd. Bapt. chapel; moved to Brewery Rd. 1871. Roll 1871: 99 B & 85 G, all ages; accn. 200, a.a. 140. Financed by sch. pence. Efficient 1871 but probably closed by 1878.

BISHOP GIFFARD R.C. SEC., Gifford Street. Vol. aided R.C. sec. sch. opened 1961 in former Gifford Street sch. Closed 1967; bldg. later used by St. William of York (q.v.).

BLACKSTOCK RD., see Finsbury Pk.

BLENHEIM RD., Hornsey Rd. Opened 1872 by S.B.L., B in iron room belonging to Park chapel, Hornsey, G & I in Blenheim hall. Sch. pence (2d.). 1872 a.a. 50 B, 115 G & I, 66 I. Closed by 1878; probably replaced by Hornsey Rd. bd. (q.v.).

BLESSED SACRAMENT R.C. PRIMARY, Boadicea Street, Copenhagen Street. Opened 1965-7 as vol. aided sch. for JM & I. Roll 1982: 217 JM & I.

BLUNDELL STREET, see Robert Blair.

BOWMAN'S PL., see Grafton.

BREWERY RD. (temp.), York Way. Opened 1877 by S.B.L. in rented premises for BGI. Sch. pence (2d.). 1878 accn. 232 M, a.a. 191. Closed by 1893.

BRITANNIA ROW, Essex Rd. Opened 1872 by S.B.L. in rented premises for 130 G, 100 I. Sch. pence (Id.). Closed by 1878.

BRITANNIA ROW (ISLINGTON) RAGGED, 36 Britannia Row. Opened by 1868. (fn. 97) Efficient but overcrowded 1871: accn. 150 M, 105 G and I. Roll 1871: 78 B, 89 G under master; 145 I under mistress; evg. sch. 40 B, 47 G, from age 10. Nothing further known.

BRUNSWICK RD. TEMP., Upper Holloway. Opened 1895 by S.B.L. for BGI in former St. Peter's Nat. sch., until Hargrave Pk. enlarged (q.v.).

BUCKINGHAM STREET, see Copenhagen primary.

CALEDONIAN RD., Bingfield Street. Opened 1872 by S.B.L. for B in premises belonging to Caledonian Rd. chapel. Caledonian Rd. G and I mission bd. sch. opened by 1878, accn. 187, a.a. 154. Both schs. replaced by new sch. for BGI 1878. Sch. pence (3d.). 1893 accn. 1,104, a.a. 1,027; 1927 accn. 797 BGI, a.a. 708. Closed 1931.

CAMDEN SEC. FOR B, see Holloway.

CANONBURY, Canonbury Rd. (fn. 98) Originated as Union Chapel British schs. for 50 G, opened 1807, and 50 B, opened 1814. New sch. built in Compton Mews 1836, for B, G. Roll 1838: 161 B, 95 G. Financed by subscriptions, collections, sch. pence (2d., 3d.). Roll 1850: 132 B, 120 G. I sch. opened 1853; used room under vestry behind chapel from 1868. Sch. pence (2d.). Roll 1871: 103 B, 92 G, 153 I. Sch. and bldg. in Compton Mews transferred to S.B.L. 1873, accn. 239 BG. I sch. taken over 1875 and moved to iron bldg. in Canonbury Rd. 1876. Perm. bd. sch. opened 1877 at Canonbury Rd. for B, G, I. 1878 accn. 572, a.a. 296. Additions to bldgs. 1893, 1910, 1972. 1908 accn. 929, a.a. 850; 1912 accn. 1,252. a.a. rose to 1,146 in 1914, fell to 904 by 1927. Reorg. 1932-6 for 358 SB, 360 JM, 390 I. SB left 1947-51; reorg. for JM, I. Rolls 1982: 172 JM; 120 I & 73 nursery.

CHAPEL OF EASE PAROCHIAL, see St. Mary Magdalene C.E.

CHARLES LAMB PRIMARY, Popham Rd. Opened 1875 as Anglers Gdns. bd. sch. for 1,090 B, G, I. Sch. pence (1d.). 1878 accn. 1,147, a.a. 948; 1893 accn. 1,213, a.a. 921. Renamed Popham Rd. and remodelled 1903. JM, I depts. opened 1914 in new bldg. 1919 accn. 339 B, 304 G, 240 JM, 288 I, a.a. 317 B, 275 G, 223 JM, 292 I. Reorg. 1932-6 for 359 JB, 318 JG, 369 I. Renamed Chas. Lamb primary for JM, I, c. 1949. JM & I amalg. 1972; old J bldg. replaced 1972 by onestoreyed bldg. and extended playground. Roll 1982: 232 JM & I, 35 nursery.

CHARLOTTE STREET, Barnsbury. Opened 1872 by S.B.L. in bldg. at corner of Bryan Street rented from Free Meth. chapel. GI only. Sch. pence (3d., 2d.). Closed by 1878; may have been feeder for Caledonian Rd. (q.v.).

CHRIST CHURCH NAT., see St. John's, Highbury Vale.

CHRIST THE KING R.C. PRIMARY, Tollington Pk. Originated as independent mixed prep. sch. run by Sisters of St. John of God. Became vol. aided R.C. primary for JM & I 1961. Roll 1982: 501 JM & I.


COPENHAGEN STREET RAGGED, 119 Copenhagen Street. Opened as part of N. Lond. Industrial Home for destitute boys, Bryan Street, c. 1852 with c. 80 B. (fn. 99) New bldg. 1862 with sch. over industrial sch., built by Islington Reformatory Cttee., B, G, I. Financed by contribution to reformatory and grant from Ragged Sch. Union, which ceased 1872 when sch. pence (Id.) charged. Efficient 1872. Roll 1872: 90 B, 81 G, 32 I; accn. 332. Sch. closed by 1878, but home for destitute boys remained there 1912. (fn. 1)

COPENHAGEN PRIMARY, Treaty Street, Copenhagen Street. Opened 1887 as Buckingham Street bd. sch. for 1,033 B, G, I. Sch. pence (2d.). 1893 a.a. 970; 1908 a.a. 1,072. Reorg. 1927 for 280 JB, 320 JG, 334 I. Renamed Copenhagen council sch. 1938. Reorg. 1964 for JM, I. Reorg. 1979 for JM & I with 2 nursery classes. Admin. block and nursery wing added 1970. Roll 1982: 230 JM & I.

COTTENHAM RD., Cottenham Rd. (later Sussex Way), Upper Holloway. Opened 1873 by S.B.L. for 966 B, G, I. Sch. pence (2d.). 1893 accn. 1,108, a.a. 981; 1908 accn. 446 B, 446 G, 570 I, a.a. 395 B, 356 G, 415 I. Reorg. 1931 for 320 SB, 320 SG, 389 I. Renamed Hanley sch. 1938. Reopened c. 1945 as Hanley sec. G (renamed Archway sec. G 1951), and Hanley I (renamed Hanleigh I 1951); SB moved to Duncombe Rd. (see Archway sec.). Hanleigh I closed 1957; Archway sec. G exchanged sites with Duncombe primary 1957 (see Archway sec.).

CROSS STREET CHAPEL BRITISH, Grove Rd. Opened 1857 by Cross Street Bapts., with 73 BI, 23 G. Financed by sch. pence (4d. to Is.), vol. contributions. Roll 1871: 76 B, 27 G, all ages. Nothing further known.

DENMARK TERR. (temp.), see South Islington and Pentonville British.

DRAYTON PK. PRIMARY, Drayton Pk., Holloway. Opened 1860 as Highbury Wes. sch. for BG in room under ch. Financed by sch. pence (4d.), vol. contributions, parl. grants from 1866. Roll 1860: 58 B & 27 G. New bldg. 1866 for B, G, I; a.a. 125 B, 45 G, 60 I. Roll 1871: 161 B, 135 G, 132 I; 1878 accn. 578, a.a. 433. Vol. sch. in 1906 but taken over by L.C.C. and renamed Drayton Pk. council sch. by 1908 with same accn. Reorg. 1927 for 240 JM, 260 I in sep. depts. in new bldg.JM, I amalg. 1966. Nursery opened 1980 in part of I accn. Roll 1982: 200 JM & I.

DUDDY'S RENTS, see Protestant Institute.

DUNCOMBE, Sussex Way, Upper Holloway. Temp. bd. sch. for c. 74 B opened 1878 in Duncombe Rd. Perm. sch. opened 1881 for B, G, I. 1893 accn. 1,591, a.a. 1,437. Higher grade classes 1905-10; one-storeyed bldg. added 1905. 1908 accn. 382 SM, 480 JB, 480 JG, 607 I, a.a. 404 SM, 654 JM, 507 I. Reorg. 1911 for 382 B, 308 G, 508 JM, 510 I. 1913 a.a. 1,666; 1927 a.a. 1,498. Reorg. 1931 for SB, JB, JG, I. Reopened c. 1945 as Duncombe Rd. primary (Rd. omitted from 1951) with JB, JG, I, and Duncombe Rd. sec. B (renamed Archway sec. B 1951) with SB from Cottenham Rd. (see Archway sec.). Primary sch. exchanged sites with Archway sec. G and moved to Sussex Way 1957 (see Cottenham Rd.). Reorg. for JM, I 1965. Roll fell from 350 in 1970 to lowest point c. 1979. Rolls 1982: 188 JM; 150 I.

ECCLESBOURNE PRIMARY, Ecclesbourne Rd., New North Rd. Opened 1886 as Ecclesbourne Rd. bd. sch. for 1,209 B, G, I. Sch. pence (2d.). 1893 accn. 1,209, a.a. 1,035; 1908 accn. 472 B, 472 G, 562 I. Reorg. 1932-6 for 396 SB, 356 SG, 400 I. Reorg. 1947-51 for JM, I. Roll 1982: 251 JM & I.

ELDER WALK RAGGED, Elder Walk, Essex Rd. Opened 1848 by Congs. with funds raised by local missioner for one of poorest and most populous areas; a.a. 60-80, reached 105 in winter. Bldg. enlarged 1850 for 120. 1851 a.a. 90 I at day sch. with 8 vol. teachers and I paid. (fn. 2) Roll 1871: 90 M, 68 I; evg. sch. 3 hrs. a week 39 B & 51 G. Attendance irregular and I accn. cramped 1871. New premises being built in Britannia Row 1871, but nothing further known.

FINSBURY PK., Blackstock Rd. Opened 1888 as Blackstock Rd. bd. sch. for B, G, I. Sch. pence (3d.). 1893 accn. 1,002, a.a. 1,050; 1908 accn. 416 B, 416 G, 552 I, a.a. 320 B, 309 G, 286 I. Accn. reduced 1927 to 280 B, 280 G, 336 I. Reorg. 1932-6 as Finsbury Pk. SB, SG and I council sch. for 400 SM, 324 I (for JB, JG, see Ambler). Reorg. 1947-51 as Finsbury Pk. sec. for SM, and Finsbury Pk. primary for I. Primary sch. closed 1960 and I joined Ambler primary. Sec. sch. closed c. 1964.

FORSTER, see William Forster.

FROG LANE, Popham Rd. Opened 1872 by S.B.L. in rented premises. Roll: 120 B. Sch. pence (Id.). Probably replaced by Anglers Gdns. (see Charles Lamb).

GEORGE ORWELL, Turle Rd., Tollington Pk. Comprehensive sec. sch. opened 1981 with SM pupils from Tollington Pk. and Archway schs. (qq.v.). Annexes at Duncombe Rd. and Highgate Hill. Roll 1981: 1,390 SM.

GIFFORD SEC., Gifford Street, Caledonian Rd. Opened 1872 as Gifford Street bd. sch. in mission hall with 80 M, 152 I. Sch. pence (3d., 2d.). New sch. opened 1877 for 1,104 B, G, I. 1878 a.a. 938. Gifford Hall, Gifford Street, and Blundell Street temp. schs. reopened 1879 as feeders for enlargement of Gifford Street. 1893 accn. 1,988, a.a. 1,520. Bldg. remodelled 1915-16. Reorg. 1927-32 for 480 SB, 480 SG, 516 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as Gifford sec. for SM. Closed 1960. Site used for Bishop Gifford (q.v.).

GILLESPIE PRIMARY, Gillespie Rd., Highbury. Opened 1878 as Gillespie Rd. bd. sch. for B, G, I. 1893 accn. 1,200, a.a. 1,175. Reorg. 1932-6 for 256 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as primary for JM, I. Reorg. as JM & I 1957. Roll 1982: 150 JM & I.

GORDON CT. RAGGED, see St. John, Upper Holloway, ragged.

GRAFTON, Eburne Rd., Holloway. Opened 1879 as Bowman's Pl. bd. sch. for B, G, I. Sch. pence (3d., 2d.). Renamed Grafton Rd. by 1893; accn. 1,300, a.a. 1,088. Reorg. 1927-32 for 280 JB, 382 JG, 304 I. Reorg. 1936 for 360 JM, 304 I. Primary sch. for JM, I from 1947. Rolls 1982: 138 JM, 158 I.

GREENMAN'S LANE BRITISH, see Lower Road British.

HANLEIGH (HANLEY), see Cottenham Rd.

HANOVER PRIMARY, Noel Rd., Islington Green. Opened 1877 as Hanover Street bd. sch. for B, G, I. Sch. pence (2d., 1d.). 1878 accn. 828, a.a. 788; 1893 accn. 1,229, a.a. 1,026. Reorg. 1932-6 for 280 JB, 280 JG, 336 I. New bldg. 1936, after subsidence caused by canal. Renamed Hanover sch. 1938: accn. 200 JB, 200 JG, 280 I. Reorg. 1947-51 for JM, I. Became JM & I c. 1966. In 1983 top floor occupied by Children's Theatre Group, performing at Islington primary schs. Roll fell to 150 JM & I c. 1980. Roll 1983: 205 JM & I.

HARGRAVE PK. PRIMARY, Junction Rd., Upper Holloway. Opened 1877 as Hargrave Pk. Rd. bd. sch. for B, G, I; I dept. used initially as covered playground. 1878 accn. 528, a.a. 341; 1893 accn. 1,328, a.a. 909. Reorg. 1927-32 for 358 JB, 359 JG, 391 I. Reorg. 1936-8 for 400 JM, 391 I. Primary sch. from 1947. Included unit for partially hearing by 1977.

HARVIST RD. TEMP., Hornsey Rd. Opened possibly in former St. Barnabas sch. c. 1901. 1908 accn. 207 G, 201 I. Closed 1910 and replaced by Shelburne (q.v.).

HIGHBURY, see Highbury Grove.

HIGHBURY FIELDS, Highbury Hill. (fn. 3) Founded as Home and Colonial Sch. Soc.'s Mayo, or Middle-Class, sch. in Gray's Inn Rd. 1844 and moved to Highbury Hill Ho. 1894, with non-government part of training coll. and nucleus of 17 pupils. Alterations 1899 to provide great hall. Students housed in Highbury New Pk., and then no. 5 (later 15) Highbury Hill, which was used for Kindergarten Training Coll. and sch., leaving Ho. for high sch. only. No. 27 Highbury Hill leased from 1903 for junior sch. L.C.C. grants for laboratories and maintenance from 1902. As Highbury Hill, with 130 G, the sch. was recognized as efficient sec. sch. 1903. Sch. transferred to L.C.C. 1912 and training coll. and kindergarten closed; roll 280 including 70 under 10 years. 1914 roll 350, later reduced as new bldgs. postponed. Four-storeyed bldg. for 450 SG opened in garden 1928. Ho. demol. Additional land 1936. Roll 1939: 400 SG; 1946: 465; 1954: 480. Reorg. 1981 as Highbury Fields comprehensive for G, with SG from Shelburne; annexes in Annette and Benwell rds. Roll 1982: 1,118 SG.

HIGHBURY GROVE, Highbury New Pk. (fn. 4) Sec. sch. founded 1901 by governors of Northern Polytechnic, Holloway Rd.; SM from 1902, with 140 B, 98 G in 1908; fees £7 16s. Reorg. for SB 1912. Transferred to L.C.C. and moved to Highbury Grove as Highbury county sch. 1922. As part of 1947 plan, amalg. with Laycock SB and Barnsbury SB to form Highbury Grove comprehensive 1967, in new bldgs. on Highbury site. Roll 1982: 1,280 SB.

HIGHBURY HILL HIGH, see Highbury Fields.

HIGHBURY QUADRANT PRIMARY, Highbury New Pk. Opened 1956 for JM, I. Classrooms added. Reorg. for JM & I c. 1973. Roll 1982: 378 JM & I.

HIGHBURY VALE C.E., see St. John, Highbury Vale, C.E.


HIGHGATE HILL R.C., see St. Joseph's R.C. primary.

HOLLOWAY, Hilldrop Rd., Camden Rd. (fn. 5) Opened 1907 by L.C.C. as Camden sec. sch. for B, including top form of commercial section of University Coll. sch. Fees 10 gns. 1908. Three-storeyed bldg. with four-storeyed wings. Renamed Holloway sch. by 1927. Acquired premises of Camden Sch. of Art, Dalmeny Ave., 1923 as annexe; new wing 1927 and further additions 1930s. Bldgs. on 3 1/2-a. site in Carleton Rd. opened 1956; sch. reorg. as comprehensive for SB. Roll 1955: 1,250 SB. Teaching included tech. subjects, accounting. Roll 1982: 1,156 SB.

HOLLOWAY FREE AND RAGGED, Brand Street, Hornsey Rd. (fn. 6) Opened 1846 and moved to purpose built sch. in Brand Street by 1854, accn. 300. In 1851, 60 B, 30 G, 80 I at day sch.; 20 B, 10 adults at evg. sch.; 17 vol. teachers and 2 paid. Included penny bank and working-class lectures. New sch. 1866 in Ingram Pl., opposite side of Hornsey Rd. 1867 a.a. 86 B, 90 G, 125 JM, 93 I; evg. sch. 38 B, 40 G. Roll 1871: 166 G at Ingram Pl.; 164 B and 172 I at Hornsey Rd.; 53 B at evg. sch. Schs. transferred to S.B.L. 1872; closed by 1878.

HOLY TRINITY NAT. AND I, Cloudesley Street. (fn. 7) I sch. opened 1830; in rooms adjoining Oldfield's dairy until sch. and master's ho. built 1830. Roll 1835: 240 I, with 60 older children in evg. sch. Nat. sch. built 1839-40 behind I. Roll 1840: 133 B, 224 I. Roll 1858: 116 B, 74 G, 171 I. Financed by vol. subscriptions, sch. pence (2d., 1d.), endowment of £5 a year by 1893. Roll 1871: 189 B, 119 G, 193 I; 1875 a.a. 551. Premises found unsuitable for perm. sch. 1905; accn. reduced to 394, a.a. 447. Transferred to L.C.C. and renamed Cloudesley Street temp. 1908. Closed 1915 and replaced by Laycock.

HOPE STREET, see Ring Cross.

HORNSEY RD. WES. DAY. Opened 1871 adjoining chapel, with 91 B & 29 G under I master; a.a. 90-100. Financed by vol. subscriptions, sch. pence (4d., 6d.), parl. grants. 1878 accn. 219 M, a.a. 218; 1893 accn. 403 M, a.a. 128. Bldg. transferred to S.B.L. 1893 for 3 years for temp. bd. sch., and later demol. (see Hornsey Rd., Upper).

HORNSEY RD. BD. Opened 1875 for 486 B, G, I. (fn. 8) 1878 accn. 860, a.a. 645. Demol. 1887 and pupils temporarily transferred to Pakeman Street (see Hornsey Rd., Upper).

HORNSEY RD., UPPER, near Seven Sisters Rd. Temp. bldgs. at Pakeman Street sch. used for Hornsey Rd. pupils 1888-93. Hornsey Rd. Wes. sch. opened 1893 as temp. sch. for B, G, I, by S.B.L., and site later used for perm. sch. In 1894 two iron rooms opened for I. Upper Hornsey Rd. perm. bd. sch. opened 1897 for B, G, I. 1908 accn. 552 B, 552 G, 543 I, a.a. 447 B, 461 G, 430 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 462 SB, 455 SG, 447 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as Isledon primary for I, and Isledon sec. for SM. Reorg. 1957 when Isledon sec. joined Tollington Pk. (q.v.), Isledon primary closed; Montem (q.v.) took over bldg.

HUNGERFORD I, North Rd.; HUNGERFORD J, Hungerford Rd., York Way. Opened 1896 as Hungerford Rd. bd. sch. for B, G, I. 1908 accn. 480 B, 485 G, 528 I, a.a. 346 B, 331 G, 365 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 379 JB, 387 JG, 440 I. Renamed Hungerford primary c. 1947. Reorg. 1967 for JM, I; class taught in Welsh for pupils from all over Lond. 1960s. I moved to new openplan bldg. in North Rd. 1971; further bldg. 1981. Included 3 nursery classes (I off-site) from 1975. Rolls 1982: 266 JM; 200 I & 100 nursery.

ISLEDON PRIMARY, SEC., see Hornsey Rd., Upper.

ISLINGTON CHAPEL, Church (later Gaskin) Street. (fn. 9) Sch. of industry opened 1801 to clothe and educate 30 G aged 8 to 13 years, in room adjoining chapel. N. Lond. and Islington Royal British Free Sch. Soc. formed 1817, fitted up chapel as sch. for 200 G; many still clothed. Financed by subscriptions. Roll 1820: 247 G; needlework taught. Sch. pence charged by 1838 (1d., 2d.). Roll 1838: 140 G. Sch. closed c. 1841 and former chapel sold to St. Mary's parochial sch. 1842. Probably replaced by Lower Rd. British (q.v.). By 1850 G sch. reopened in Church Street, probably adjoining new Islington chapel at corner of Upper Street. Roll: 125 G. Closed by 1871.

ISLINGTON GREEN, Prebend Street. Opened 1886 as Queen's Head Street bd. sch. for B, GI. Sep. I opened 1887 with additional accn. for 320. (fn. 10) Sch. pence (3d.). 1893 accn. 1,460, a.a. 1,176; 1908 accn. 446 B, 460 G, 474 I, a.a. 447 B, 426 G, 420 I. Reorg. 1911 for 494 B, 460 G, 319 JM, 404 I, taking pupils from Arlington Sq. and St. Bartholomew's. 1911 a.a. 1,311; 1922 a.a. 1,540. Reorg. 1932-6 for 560 SB, 556 SG, 424 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as Tudor sec. for G and Tudor sec. for B. Reorg. for SM 1954. Reorg. as Islington Green comprehensive for SM 1965 on same site. Tudor G block demol. 1963-4; six-storeyed teaching block and two-storeyed houseroom block built. Roll 1982: 860 SM.

ISLINGTON GUARDIANS' RECEIVING HOME TEMP., 'Sandal Magna' and 1-2 Cromartie Rd., Hornsey Rise. Opened 1913 by L.C.C. in bd. of guardians' premises, for M & I. 1914 accn. 116 M & I; a.a. 81. Closed 1915.

ISLINGTON WORKHOUSE SCH., see above, local govt.

ISLINGTON AND N. LOND. SHOE-BLACK BRIGADE, 15 York Rd. (later Way), King's Cross. (fn. 11) Formed 1857 in Church Street as refuge for c. 20 B, employed c. 25 more as shoe-blacks, and provided evg. sch. Self supporting by 1867: 307,925 pairs of boots cleaned @ 1d. a pair in 1866. Moved to York Rd. 1867. 107 B passed through refuge in 1866. Roll 1871: 47 B from age 13. Received parl. grants. 1878 accn. 100, a.a. 36. Moved to no. 146B King's Cross Road by 1912 when accn. 29. Nothing further known.

ISLINGTON RAGGED, see Britannia Row (Islington).

LAYCOCK, Laycock Street, Upper Street. Opened 1915 as Laycock Street council sch. for B, G, I, replacing Cloudesley Street temp. 1919 accn. 395 B, 395 G, 462 I, a.a. 315 B, 310 G, 291 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 395 SB, 355 SG, 395 JB, 395 JG, 462 I. In 1939 JM, I in Laycock Street, SB, SG in former Station Road sch. Reorg. 1947-51 as Laycock primary, Laycock Street, for JM, I, and Laycock sec., Highbury Station Rd., for SB. Laycock sec. amalg. 1967 with other SB schs. to form Highbury Grove (q.v.), and bldg. used for Isledon Teachers' Centre and media resources bldg. for local schs. 1982. Primary reorg. for JM & I c. 1971, and included unit for partially hearing from c. 1974. Roll 1982: c. 250 JM & I.

LITTLE WILLIAM STREET BRITISH. Opened c. 1851 with 130 B & G. Sch. pence (3d., 4d.). (fn. 12) Closed by 1852.

LOWER RD. BRITISH, Greenman's Lane. Opened 1844 for B; success soon led to opening of G sch. to replace Islington chapel sch. Roll 1844: 142 B, 100 G. (fn. 13) Financed by sch. pence (2d.), parl. grants, vol. contributions. Roll 1845: 286; a.a. 120 B, 100 G, geography and history taught. By 1850 for B only; G sch. reopened in Church Street (see Islington chapel sch.). 1850 roll 190 B.

MARRIOTT RD. CENTRAL, see Tollington Pk.

MATTHIAS RD., see Newington Green.

MILTON YARD RAGGED, Elizabeth Terr., Liverpool Rd. (fn. 14) Opened 1856 as evg. sch. only, a.a. 15-20. Moved to larger premises, a.a. 30. Enlarged 1862, a.a. 62 during winter. Roll 1866: 350 B; a.a. 73 summer, 95 winter. G included later. Penny bank and lending libr. In 1868 sch. 'crammed' each evg.; B sch. 4 evgs. a week, a.a. 120 winter, 90-100 summer, aged 10-20. Roll 1871: 164 B, 120 G. Nothing further known.

MONTEM, Hornsey Rd. Opened 1886 as Montem Street bd. sch., Montem Street, Tollington Pk., with 1,000 B, G, I. Sch. pence (4d., 3d.). 1893 accn. 1,400, a.a. 1,389; 1908 accn. 452 B, 420 G, 276 SG, 520 I. SB organized into Montem Street higher elementary sch. until 1910 when it became Montem Street central; SG joined central 1911 (see Tollington Pk.). Reorg. 1927-32 for 400 JB, 360 JG, 419 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as Montem primary for JM, I. Moved to former Upper Hornsey Rd. sch. bldg. 1957. Reorg. as sep. JM, I schs. 1962. Noteworthy conversion of buildings by John Harvey 1969-72. Roll c. 1970: 400 JM, 250 I. Rolls 1982: 214 JM; 130 I & 30 nursery.


MORTON RD., 30 Morton Rd., Essex Rd. Opened 1850 by Congs. as ragged sch.; moved to new bldg. 1865. Roll 1871: 43 B & 34 G, 126 I; 340 B at evg. sch. run by vol. teachers; a.a. 66 M, 72 I. Apparently transferred to S.B.L. as Morton Rd. bd. sch. 1878 accn. 168, a.a. 125; later closed. Reopened 1885 as Morton Rd. temp. for M, I, as feeder for Ecclesbourne Rd. (q.v.).

MOUNT CARMEL R.C. G, Eden Grove, Holloway. Opened 1967 as vol. aided sec. sch. for SG, replacing Our Lady of Sion sch. on same site. By 1970 upper sch. in Eden Grove, lower sch. in former Wellington Rd. bldg., Westbourne Rd. Roll 1982: 588 SG.

NEW NORTH RD., see St. Bartholomew's C.E.

NEWINGTON GREEN, Matthias Rd. Opened 1884 as Matthias Road bd. sch. for 360 B, 360 G, 460 I. Sch. pence (2d., 3d.). Enlarged by 1893 for 476 B, 476 G, 605 I, a.a. 1,063. Reorg. 1927-32 for 353 JB, 360 JG, 435 I. Rebuilt 1930s but largely destroyed in Second World War. Existing temp. bldg. opened 1951 with Newington Green JM and Newington Green I in sep. schs. Roll 1982: 240 JM; 131 I & 65 nursery.

OFFORD RD. HIGHER GRADE, see Barnsbury sch. for G.

OUR LADY OF SION SEC., Eden Grove, Holloway. Opened as private day and boarding sch. (below). Became vol. aided R.C. sec. sch. for SG 1947-51. Closed 1967; replaced by Mount Carmel (q.v.).

OUR LADY OF THE SACRED HEART R.C., Eden Grove, Holloway. Opened 1868 with 35 B, 30 G in Eden Grove. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence (2d., 1d.), parl. grants. Moved to new ho. 1869 with c. 90 M and to bldg. adjoining presbytery 1869. Roll 1871: 81 B, 135 G. Over half pupils admitted free. 1878 accn. 274 BGI, a.a. 152; 1908 accn. 120 B, 180 G, 195 I, a.a. 101 B, 121 G, 91 I. Wing on S. side of ch. 1904 for G and I; B remained in old bldg. Hut on playground opposite ch. used for meals; replaced by community centre 1973. 1912 a.a. 409; 1922 a.a. 444. Reorg. 1949 as JM and I primary. Annexe at St. Joan, Highbury Pk. (q.v.), became sep. sch. 1956. Annexe at Westbourne Rd. opened 1965; 2 floors of former Alfred Prichard bldg. used 1982. Roll 1982: 302 JM & I.

PAKEMAN, Hornsey Rd., Holloway. Opened 1888 as Pakeman Street bd. sch. with G, I from Hornsey Rd.; B in iron bldg. nearby until new Upper Hornsey Rd. sch. opened. Reorg. 1889 for JM, I. Sch. pence (2d., 1d.). 1893 accn. 1,051, a.a. 575 M, I; 1908 accn. 360 SM, 300 JM, 391 I, a.a. 284 SM, 273 JM, 299 I. Reorg. 1915 for 286 B, 283 G, 293 I. 1919 a.a. 721. Reorg. 1927-32 for 235 JB, 234 JG, 261 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as primary for JM only. Reorg. for JM & I c. 1971. Roll 1982: 277 JM & I.

PAROCHIAL CHAR. SCHS., see St. Mary, Islington, C.E.

PARSLEY CT., see Protestant Institute.

PENTON PRIMARY, Ritchie Street, Liverpool Rd. Opened as Richard Street bd. sch. 1891 for B, G, I. Sch. pence (2d.). 1893 accn. 1,193, a.a. 957; 1908 accn. 360 B, 356 G, 473 I, a.a. 338 B, 332 G, 380 I. Renamed Ritchie council sch. 1938; accn. 266 B, 306 G, 328 I. Reorg. as Ritchie sec. for SG 1947-51. Closed 1969. Penton J & I sch. moved to site 1969 from White Lion Street (Clerkenwell). Renamed Penton primary for JM & I 1971. Roll 1982: 183 JM & I.

POOLE'S PK., Lennox Rd., Finsbury Pk. (fn. 15) Opened 1876 as Poole's Pk. bd. sch. for 716 B, G, I. Sch. pence (2d.). Too small within 6 months. 1878 accn. 1,016, a.a. 706; 1893 accn. 1,058, a.a. 1,058. Accn. for B, G increased over covered playground 1906. Bldg. demol. 1938; new threestoreyed bldg. on same site unfinished 1939. Reopened 1946 as primary sch. for JB, JG, I. Additions to bldg. 1949, 1970. Reorg. for JM, I 1959. In 1960s half pupils of Cypriot origin. Rolls 1982: 210 JM; 161 I.

POPHAM RD., see Charles Lamb.

PROTESTANT INSTITUTE RAGGED SCHS. Institute opened two schs. in 1851 mainly for children of R.C.s. One in Duddy's Rents, Lower Rd.: 1853 a.a. 93 BGI. One in Parsley Ct., Islington High Street: a.a. 38, also evg. sch. (fn. 16)

QUEEN'S HEAD STREET, see Islington Green.


RING CROSS PRIMARY, Eden Grove, Holloway. Opened 1931 as Hope Street council sch. for 392 JM & I. Renamed Ring Cross 1936 for 353 JM & I. 1939 accn. 132 JM & 178 I. Reorg. 1947-51 for I only. Moved to Chillingworth Rd. by 1955. Ring Cross J opened c. 1969 at Eden Grove. Reorg. 1977-80 as JM & I at Eden Grove site. Roll 1982: 215 JM & I.

RITCHIE COUNCIL and SEC., see Penton.

ROBERT BLAIR PRIMARY, Blundell Street, Caledonian Rd. Temp. schs. opened 1872 by S.B.L. with 161 B in Blundell Street mission rooms, 139 G in room under Primitive Meth. chapel. Perm. Blundell Street bd. sch. opened 1873 for B, G, I. 1878 accn. 830, a.a. 825; 1893 accn. 1,433, a.a. 1,357; 1908 accn. 439 B, 428 G, 566 I, a.a. 402 B, 396 G, 418 I. 1913 a.a. 1,108; 1927 a.a. 969. Sch. rebuilt 1923-4. Reorg. 1927-32 for 440 SB, 400 SG, 320 JM, 298 I. Renamed Rob. Blair 1936. Reorg. 1947-51 for JM, I. Later amalg. as JM & I. Roll 1982: 169 JM & I.

ROMILLY LODGE PRIMARY, 59 Hornsey Rise. Opened c. 1947 as temp. primary for 200 JM & I in former Romilly Lodge special sch. Closed 1957.

ROTHERFIELD, Rotherfield Street, Essex Rd. Opened 1898 as Rotherfield Street bd. sch. for B, G, I. 1908 accn. 360 B, 360 G, 435 I, a.a. 309 B, 325 G, 308 I. Reorg. 1932-6 for 548 JG, 360 I. Rotherfield primary from 1947. JB from Shepperton Rd. amalg. 1957 with JG to form JM. Additions to bldg. 1967. Rolls 1982: 167 I & 30 nursery; 212 JM.

RUFFORD'S BLDGS., see Angel.

ST. ALOYSIUS COLLEGE, Hornsey Lane, Highgate. Founded 1879 by Brothers of Mercy as private R.C. sec. sch. for B. Became vol. aided grammar 1950. (fn. 17) Largely rebuilt 1969-71 on same site, as comprehensive for c. 1,000 SB. Roll 1982: 1,020 SB.

ST. ANDREW CH., 22A Storey Street, Caledonian Rd. Possibly opened by 1861. Roll 1871: 146 B, 170 G, all ages; accn. 4 rooms for 50, a.a. 50 M, 80 I. Financed by sch. pence, vol. contributions. Not recognized as efficient and probably soon closed.

ST. ANNE, TOLLINGTON PK., C.E., Poole's Pk. Opened 1870 with Nat. Soc. grant in former St. Anne's iron ch., Durham Rd. Roll 1871: 111 B, 248 G, all ages; evg. sch. 6 hrs. a week, 27 B, 19 G. New schs. for B, G, I completed 1877 next to ch. Financed by sch. pence (3d., 4d.), vol. contributions, parl. grants. Roll 1877: 148 B, 139 G, 120 I. 1893 accn. 353, a.a. 328; 1898 a.a. 117 B, 124 G. Closed 1898.

ST. BARNABUS NAT., Harvist Rd., Hornsey Rd. Opened 1872 for 200 B, 200 G, 230 I. Also evg. sch. Financed by sch. pence (2d.-4d.), vol. contributions, parl. grants. 1878 accn. 724, a.a. 590; 1893 accn. 744, a.a. 587. Bd. schs. drew away pupils, until B closed c. 1899, G and I 1900. Premises may have been let to S.B.L. 1901 for Harvist Rd. temp. (q.v.).

ST. BARTHOLOMEW C.E., Shepperton Rd., New North Rd. Opened 1856 in Newhall Street, off Popham Rd., moving to ho. in Shepperton Rd. 1857, for B, G, I. Financed by sch. pence (2d., 1d.), vol. contributions, and grants from parl., Islington Ch. Home mission, C.E. Educ. Soc. Roll 1858: 60 B, 40 G, all ages. 1865 a.a. 84. New schs. in Shepperton Rd. (fn. 18) opened 1871 for 450 BG. Roll 1871: 101 B, 70 G. I sch. for 140 by 1874 when enlarged for 220 I. 1893 accn. 469 B, M, a.a. 305. Sch. amalg. with St. Matthew C.E. 1894; Shepperton Rd. bldg. used for B. Transferred to S.B.L. 1901 and renamed New North Rd. bd. for B. 1908 accn. 294 B. Closed 1911 and replaced by Queen's Head Street.

ST. CLEMENT NAT., Cumberland (later Ponder) Street, Roman Way. Opened 1861. New sch. in Cumberland Street 1866, for 260 B, G, I, in one dept. until bldg. finished. (fn. 19) Sep. depts. by 1871. Roll 1871: 236 B, 170 G, 220 I. Financed by sch. pence, parl. grants. 1878 accn. 722, a.a. 605; 1893 a.a. 492; 1908 accn. 192 B, 192 G, 165 I, a.a. 177 B, 152 G, 132 I. 1932 a.a. 166 B, 142 G, 95 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as vol. aided primary for B, JG & I; and for JM & I by 1955. Closed 1972-4.

ST. DAVID C.E. NAT., Wellington Rd., St. James's Rd., Holloway. Iron room for 120 M opened 1869. Roll 1871: 95 B, 128 G, all ages; accn. 90, a.a. 120 M and I under 1 mistress. New sch. for 450 B, G, I on same site completed 1874; a.a. 80 B, 61 G, 140 I. Financed by sch. pence (2d.-8d.), parl. grants. 1878 accn. 594, a.a. 377. Transferred to S.B.L. 1879, and probably became Wellington Rd. (q.v.).

ST. GEORGE, TUFNELL PK., C.E., Grafton Rd., Holloway. Opened by 1871 with 63 B, 40 G, 120 I; a.a. 52 B, 28 G, 96 I. Evg. sch. 70 B, G. Closed 1874 as new site unobtainable.

ST. JAMES NAT. and I, George's Rd., Holloway. Built 1838 with Nat. Soc. grant on part of ch. grounds, for M & I until new schs. built. Roll 1840: 210 I. (fn. 20) Roll 1846 215; accn. 250; 1852 a.a. 160 M. New schs. built 1854 (fn. 21) for 142 B, 142 G, 142 I. B enlarged by 100 in 1861. 1865 a.a. 432. Financed by parl. grants, sch. pence, vol. contributions. Roll 1871: 253 B, 163 G, 227 I; a.a. 208 B, 131 G, 1781 I. 1878 accn. 716, a.a. 572. By 1908 recognized accn. reduced to 422 B, G, I, a.a. 448. Reorg. 1925 for 200 SM, 192 JM & I. Closed 1947-51.

ST. JAMES MISSION ROOM, Rosemary Street, Islington. Opened by 1871 for 350 I; a.a. 130 I to age 11. Not recognized by Bd. of Educ. and probably soon closed.

ST. JOAN OF ARC R.C. PRIMARY, Northolme Rd., Highbury Pk. Opened at 66-70 Highbury Pk. as war emergency sch. and became annexe to Our Lady of the Sacred Heart primary 1947-51. Became sep. vol. aided R.C. primary for JM & I, 1956. Annexe in Aberdeen Pk. opened 1963. New bldg. on adjoining site in Northolme Rd. 1964. Old bldg. demol. for playground. Roll 1982: 324 JM & I.

ST. JOHN, UPPER HOLLOWAY, C.E. PRIMARY, Pemberton Gdns., Upper Holloway. (fn. 22) Sch. for G and I in Hornsey Lane by 1828; temp. sch. for B in two rented cottages at 11 Gordon Pl. opened 1829 with 41 B. Both schs. in union with Nat. Soc. 1829, roll 63 B, 56 G. Site adjoining St. John's ch. intended for parsonage presented by Corporation of Sons of Clergy 1830. Sch. designed by Sir Chas. Barry (fn. 23) opened 1831. Roll 1831: 74 B, 52 G. Extended 1858, 1867. I by 1867. Roll 1871: 193 B, 174 G, 282 I; a.a. 168 B, 130 G, 219 I. Financed by vol. contributions, parl. grants, sch. pence (2d.). Improvements to accn. required by L.C.C. 1904. Reorg. 1945 as vol. aided C.E. primary for JM & I. New sch. built on site of 14-30 Pemberton Gdns. and 51-9 St. John's Grove; part moved 1967, remainder 1972. Nursery unit added 1977. Roll 1982: c. 220 JM & I.

ST. JOHN, UPPER HOLLOWAY, RAGGED, Gordon Ct., Highgate Hill. Opened c. 1864 in converted ho. as Gordon Ct. I sch. by V. of St. John's and cttee., as free sch. Roll 1870: 60 I. Sch. pence (1d.) charged from 1870. 1871 accn. 35, a.a. 50 B, 30 G, all ages, under 1 teacher. New sch. built 1872 in Vorley Rd. for 200 I and known as St. John's mission I sch. Financed by vol. contributions, parl. grants, sch. pence. Roll 1875: 146 G and 476 I. 1878 accn. 182, a.a. 129. Not receiving grants by 1893.

ST. JOHN, HIGHBURY VALE, C.E. PRIMARY, Conewood Street, Blackstock Rd. (fn. 24) Opened 1836 as Highbury Vale sch. with 102 M, with aid of parl. grant, by ladies who founded chapel; accn. 186, a.a. 68 in 1849. Site enlarged and sch. rebuilt 1864; B, G, I and known as Christ Ch. Nat. schs. Financed by vol. contributions, parl. grants, sch. pence (2d.-4d.). Praised by inspector 1852. Roll 1871: 58 B, 76 G, 109 I; a.a. 53 B, 68 G, 84 I. 1878 accn. 279, a.a. 270. Handed over to new ch. of St. John's 1883. New I room built 1884 and B, G enlarged 1885, with aid from Nat. Soc. 1893 accn. 541, a.a. 380. Roll fell by over half after Free Educ. Act. L.C.C. required thorough repairs 1908; accn. 108 B, 108 G, 145 I, a.a. 140 B, 140 G, 112 I. Playgrounds added 1934, 1937. Reorg. 1947-51 as vol. aided C.E. primary for JM & I. New I block 1982. Roll 1982: c. 210 JM & I.

ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST R.C. PRIMARY, Duncan Street, Islington Green. Built 1839 behind ch. site, B on ground floor, G on first, with teacher's ho. Roll 1857: 55 B, 50 G & I. Connected with R.C. Poor Sch. Cttee. Financed by vol. contributions, parl. grants, sch. pence when possible. 1865 a.a. 283. Roll 1871: 190 B, 200 G & I; evg. sch. 8 hrs. a week for 48 B. Third of pupils free. 1878 accn. 569, a.a. 250; 1908 accn. 236 B, 176 G, 192 I, a.a. 213 B, 173 G, 138 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as vol. aided R.C. primary for JM & I. Roll 1982: 293 JM & I.

ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST R.C. SEC., Duncan Street. Opened 1947-51 with pupils from St. John the Evangelist primary R.C. and on same site, as vol. aided sch. for SM. Closed 1957.

ST. JOHN'S RD. (TEMP.), Upper Holloway. Opened 1879 by S.B.L. in rented premises as feeder for perm. sch. on Highgate Hill. B, GI. Sch. pence (3d.).

ST. JOSEPH R.C. PRIMARY, Highgate Hill. Opened 1860 in temp. room fronting Dartmouth Pk. Hill for BGI. Financed by vol. contributions, parl. grants, sch. pence (1d.). 1863 a.a. 33 M. New bldg. opened 1867 for B, G. Sch. pence (1d.-3d.). Roll 1871: 125 B all ages in 1 dept., 76 G & 75 I in 1 dept.; majority did not pay. 1878 accn. 424, a.a. 147; 1893 accn. 379, a.a. 264. 1908 accn. 204 B, 225 G, 98 I, a.a. 113 B, 114 G, 75 I. G & I still in 1 dept. 1932. Reorg. 1947-51 as vol. aided R.C. primary for M & I. Reorg. 1961 for JM & I. Roll 1982: 405 JM & I.

ST. JUDE, MILDMAY PK., C.E. PRIMARY, King Henry's Walk. Opened 1857 in Mildmay Grove beside ch. with 37 B, 40 G, 40 I. (fn. 25) Replaced by St. Jude elementary C.E. sch. 1865. Financed by vol. contributions, parl. grants, sch. pence (1d.). Roll 1866: 88 B, 54 G, 118 I; a.a. 233. B moved to St. Jude Dist. B sch. 1870 in iron room in Woodville Grove, Mildmay Rd. Roll 1870: 116 B. New sch. for B, I opened 1885 in King Henry's Walk; G remained in Mildmay Grove. 1893 accn. 840, a.a. 586. B, I sch. burned down 1924; new bldg. on same site opened 1926. Reorg. 1953 as vol. aided C.E. primary for JM in King Henry's Walk, I in Mildmay Grove. Roll 1982: 180 JM & I.

ST. JUDE MISSION, see Ball's Pond Rd. mission.

ST. LUKE, CATTLE MARKET, Holloway. Opened 1868 by V. of St. Luke in three rooms at Queen's Arms bldg., Cattle Market, for c. 110 I who could not reach bd. sch. New bldg. opened 1878 belonging to par. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence (2d.). Not recognized.

ST. MARK C.E. PRIMARY, Sussex Way, Upper Holloway. I sch. of two rooms with teacher's ho. above in Grove Lane or Rd. (later Tollington Way), built 1836 and maintained by Hen. Venn, V. of St. John, Upper Holloway. Roll 1842: 71 I. (fn. 26) Enlarged 1846. Premises given to St. Mark's dist., which it served after 1851. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence (1d., 2d.). Site at corner of Tollington Way and Mitford Rd. conveyed by Venn 1863 for Nat. and I schs. for St. Mark and St. Mary, Hornsey Rise, jointly. Opened 1863, 1 bldg. for I, 1 for B, G; playground acquired 1865. (fn. 27) 1863 a.a. 63 B, 72 G, 130 I. Roll 1871: 141 B, 115 G, 338 I. 1908 accn. 148 B, 143 G, 150 I, a.a. 146 B, 132 G, 178 I. Reorg. 1927- 32 for 359 JM & I. New bldgs. after Second World War, also iron huts. Roll 1982: 207 JM & I.

ST. MARY, ISLINGTON, C.E. PRIMARY, Halton Rd. Char. schs. founded by subscription 1710 to clothe, board, educate, and apprentice 24 B, 20 G in sep. schs.; subscriptions c. £100 in 1712. (fn. 28) Schs. in room over ch. porch. (fn. 29) Lease of ho. and gdn. near corner of Cross and Upper streets devised by Geo. Saver for benefit of schs. 1725 and renewed 1741. (fn. 30) Schs. moved 1751 from ch. to new ho. on S. side of Cross Street; adjoining Corner Ho. bought by sch. trustees 1779 and freehold of adjoining property in Cross Street 1788, with 1 1/2 a. of waste of Canonbury manor (later site of 27 Cross Street). Schs. enlarged 1788 and rest of property leased. (fn. 31) In 1810 schs., in Rufford's Row, corner of Cross and Upper streets, had 46 B, 34 G supported by char. and clothed, in grey for B, blue for G; clothing continued until c. 1860. (fn. 32) New schs. for 400 B, G and teacher's ho. designed by John Wm. Griffith, surveyor to Jas. Rhodes's est., built 1815 on c. 1/2 a. in Liverpool Rd. near chapel of ease, given by Sam Rhodes. Bldg. financed by subscriptions, donations, and Nat. Soc. grant. (fn. 33) Old bldg. then let. (fn. 34) Roll 1816: 250 B, G (only 80 clothed, etc., under char.); (fn. 35) 1818: 225 B, 125 G, and steadily increased. (fn. 36) I admitted until sep. sch. set up by 1822, when roll 100 I. New sch. for I in Greenman's Lane, Essex Rd., opened 1825. (fn. 37) Roll 1828: 368 B, 174 G, 244 I. G spent half of sch. time making char. clothing. G sch. included c. 50 I living too far from I sch. until St. Jas. opened 1838. (fn. 38) Roll 1841: 205 B, 113 G, 215 I. (fn. 39) Par. bought lease of former Islington chapel, Church Street, 1841 and in 1842 schs. were split into par. ch. branch at Church Street, and chapel of ease branch at Liverpool Rd. bldg. (fn. 40) (see St. Mary Magdalene). Roll 1846: 125 B, 69 G, accn. in both Nat. schs. 300 B, 200 G; results found insufficient for amount spent. Par. ch. branch obtained leases of 6 Little Cross Street 1851 (fn. 41) and adjoining land where new sch. built 1859. (fn. 42) 1865 a.a. 482. Roll 1871: 215 B, 126 G; evg. sch. 27 B, 95 G. I sch., established 1847, moved to new bldg. 1850 in Church Passage, off Cross Street. Roll 1864: 228; new bldg. required by inspector. Land bought in Little Cross Street adjoining Nat. schs. and I sch. built 1867-8 fronting Grove Street. (fn. 43) Roll 1871: 201 I; a.a. 155. 1878 accn. 667 B, G, I, a.a. 470. Financed by parl. grants, sch. pence (1d.-6d.); 7 B, 5 G free under Westbrook's char. Roll 1888: 200 B, 186 G, 247 I, accn. 240 B, 240 G, 250 I, a.a. 164 B, 150 G, 179 I. Under Scheme 1888, Grace Jackson's char. assisted G to remain after legal requirement. (fn. 44) Steady decrease in BG, increase in I; free scholarships needed to put sch. in range of poor. (fn. 45) 1908 accn. 194 B, 194 G, 198 I, a.a. 172 B, 197 G, 173 I. Reorg. 1909 for 150 SM, 150 JM, 180 I, a.a. 155 SM, 197 JM, 173 I. Reorg. 1925 for 270 M, 168 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as vol. aided C.E. primary for JM & I. Bombed 1944 and housed at William Tyndale 1944-62. 1964-7, Canonbury 1962-4. Bldg. on old site opened 1967 for c. 160 and enlarged for 280 1969-70, Roll 1982: 150 JM & I.

ST. MARY MAGDALENE C.E. PRIMARY, Liverpool Rd., Lower Holloway. Originated as chapel of ease branch of St. Mary, Islington (q.v.), 1842, remaining in Liverpool Rd. bldg. with B, G, I. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence, small endowment. Roll 1875: 260 B, 258 G, 271 I; a.a. 227 B, 220 G, 220 I. 1878 accn. 898. Hambleton memorial sch. rooms for I built 1874 in memory of previous V. Old bldg. remodelled 1908 through aid of C.E. Perceval. 1908 accn. 216 B, 174 G, 220 I, a.a. 230 B, 239 G, 227 I. Bombed 1940; sch. used Wellington Rd. until pupils dispersed 1945. Bldg. for 320 JM & I on old site opened 1945, as vol. aided C.E. primary. Roll 1982: 166 JM & I.

ST. MATTHEW M AND I C.E., New Norfolk (later Rotherfield) Street, Essex Rd. I sch. opened 1837 adjoining St. Paul's Episcopal chapel, New Norfolk Street, as branch of St. Paul, Canonbury, I sch. (fn. 46) Enlarged 1838 for 140 I. Chapel became M sch. for St. Mat.'s dist. 1851, in addition to I sch. Roll 1858: 253 BGI; a.a. 160. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence (2d., 1d.). Land in Queen's Pl. adjoining sch. bought 1862 for new sch. and teacher's ho. Nat. Soc. grant for bldg. 1865; new bldg. used for G & I, old bldg. converted for 234 B. Roll 1871: 110 B in Rotherfield Street, 82 G, 191 I in Queen's Pl. 1878 accn. 450 BGI, a.a. 344. Amalg. with St. Bartholomew (q.v.) 1894; G and I moved to Rotherfield Street. Closed 1901.

ST. MATTHEW, CITY RD., NAT., Nelson Pl. (fn. 47) Built 1851-3 for 150 B, 150 G; additional bldg. 1858 for B, allowed accn. for 90 I. 1878 accn. 408, a.a. 346; evg. sch. 55. Financed by parl. grants, vol. contributions, sch. pence. 1906 accn. 403. 1908 accn. 91 B, 88 G, 135 I, a.a. 111 B, 115 G, 119 I. Reorg. 1932-6 for JM & I. Damaged by bombs 1940. Closed by 1955.

ST. MATTHIAS MISSION, Blundell Street, Caledonian Rd. C.E. sch. in two rooms opened by 1871 for G, I. Roll in G sch. 38 B, 35 G; 43 I. G sch. recognized as efficient 1871, but not receiving parl. grant 1878.

ST. MICHAEL C.E., 74, 76, 78 Bingfield Street, Caledonian Rd. Opened 1853 in new bldgs. owned and managed by John Randell, who met expenses not covered by sch. pence. 1865 a.a. 382. Sep. rooms for B, G, I and accn. for I and B teachers by 1871. Roll 1871: 236 B, 138 G, 157 I; a.a. 177 B, 99 G, 116 I. Not receiving grant 1878.

ST. PAUL NAT. AND I, Dorset Street (later Dove Rd.), Ball's Pond. (fn. 48) Sch. for 150 I and teacher's ho. fronting Dorset Street built 1829. One-storeyed Nat. schs. for 140 B and 140 G with master's ho. built on adjacent land fronting Henshall Street 1833 with parl. grant. Roll 1840: 100 B, 46 G, 128 I. Financed by subscriptions, vol. contributions, sch. pence, and grant from Betton's char. c. 1851. Additional I sch. in New Norfolk Street 1838 (see St. Matthew C.E.). B, G schs. and ho. rebuilt 1862 as two-storeyed bldg. for B, G. 1862 accn. 542 B, G, I. Roll 1871: 110 B, 93 G, 188 I; a.a. 80 B, 66 G, 146 I. 1878 a.a. 310. Accn. reduced by L.C.C. to 164 B, 110 G, 134 I in 1908; a.a. 172 B, 156 G, 151 I. I bldg. demol. 1908 and replaced by twostoreyed bldg. for G and I; B took over former G dept. 1909 accn. 248 B, 186 G, 126 I; 1939 accn. 259 B, 204 G, 126 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as vol. aided C.E. sch. for M, I. Reorg. 1954 into primary and sec. schs. with 93 SM and 107 I. Primary closed 1955. Roll 1969: 220 SM. Closed 1971.

ST. PAUL NAT., Blenheim Rd., Upper Holloway. Opened 1875 in mission hall with accn. for 308 M to replace sch. in mission ho. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence (3d., 4d.), C.E. Educ. Soc. grant. 1878 accn. 322, a.a. 228; 1893 accn. 340 M, a.a. 256. Closed 1901.

ST. PETER NAT., Devonia Rd., Islington Green. I sch. and master's ho. built in Devonia Rd. adjoining ch. 1840 with grants from Nat. Soc. and Thos. Cubitt. (fn. 49) Financed by subscriptions, sch. pence (2d.). Roll 1846: 122 B, 74 G. New G and I sch. built 1850 for 166 G, 166 I; old G room added to sch. for 300 B, using additional land fronting Grantbridge Street. Roll 1871: 190 B, 112 G; evg. sch. 42 B, 35 G. Closed c. 1878; bldgs. later used as German sch. (below, private schs.).

ST. PETER, HIGHGATE HILL, NAT. G, Brunswick Rd., Upper Holloway. Opened c. 1871 as I sch. Reopened 1879 as G sch. with Nat. Soc. grant. Closed c. 1893; premises later used for Brunswick Rd. sch. (q.v.).

ST. PHILIP THE EVANGELIST NAT., Hale (later Rees) Street, New North Rd. Sch. for G and I opened 1856. New bldg. 1861. Roll 1870: 197 G and I; a.a. 125. Bldg. enlarged for I and sep. schs. for BG built 1871 with Nat. Soc. grant. 1871 accn. 150 B, 120 G, 180 I. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence. Evg. sch. for BG from 1873. 1878 accn. 492, a.a. 391. Transferred to S.B.L. 1901 and opened as Arlington Sq. (St. Phil.) temp. bd. 1908 accn. 138 B, 120 G, 132 I, a.a. 125 B, 115 G, 129 I. Closed 1911 and bldg. returned to St. Phil. par.

ST. SILAS, PENTON STREET, NAT., Vittoria Pl., Half Moon Crescent. B sch. opened c. 1862 in temp. room. Schs. for B, G, I built on site of 1-3 Vittoria Pl. 1869-70, (fn. 50) with Nat. Soc. grant. Roll 1871: 198 B, 127 G, 162 I; a.a. 155 B, 95 G, 105 I. Financed by vol. contributions, parl. grants, sch. pence. Probably closed soon after transfer to S.B.L. c. 1875.

ST. STEPHEN NAT. AND I, River Street, Essex Rd. (fn. 51) Built 1842 for 293 B, G, I with Nat. Soc. grant. 1849 accn. 266, a.a. 195. Financed by subscriptions, sch. pence. I sch. built 1860 in Hayes Pl. behind ch. Roll 1871: 130 B, 99 G, 145 I; a.a. 105 B, 76 G, 123 I. Closed 1880s; I sch. sold 1882.

ST. THOMAS, BARNSBURY, C.E. PRIMARY Everilda Street. (fn. 52) Opened 1856 as M sch. Reopened 1857 for B. G and I sch. opened in temp. rented bldg. in Alma Grove (later Pulteney Terr.). 1857 a.a. 73 B; 1860 a.a. 96 G and I; 1865 a.a. 320 BGI. Financed by vol. contributions, C.E. grants including Islington Ch. Home Mission, sch. pence (2d., 1 1/2 d.). New schs. for B, G, I 1866-7 replaced 13 hos. in Everilda Street near ch. Roll 1871: 340 B, 259 G, 384 I; a.a. 272 B, 196 G, 223 I; evg. sch. all year, 29 B, 29 G. 1906 accn. 672 B, G, I reduced to 440 in 1908, 340 in 1909. Reorg. for M, I 1941; closed 1945 due to bomb damage, but reopened by 1955 as vol. aided primary for M, I. Management passed to St. And.; reorg. as M & I 1957. Reorg. for JM & I 1959. Roll 1982: 163 JM & I.

ST. WILLIAM OF YORK R.C. SEC., Brewery Rd., Caledonian Rd. Opened 1957 as vol. aided sec. for SM in Blundell Street. From 1968 upper sch. used former Bishop Giffard bldg., Gifford Street, lower sch. shared Robert Blair, Brewery Rd. Reorg. 1978-80 for SB, with lower sch. at Gifford Street and upper at Brewery Rd. Roll 1982: 390 SB.

SEBBON STREET, see William Tyndale.

SERMON LANE RAGGED, Liverpool Rd. (fn. 53) Opened 1849 on Clerkenwell side, but almost entirely supported by Islington inhabitants. Housed in loft over blacksmith's shop; accn. 100, a.a. 40 B, 30 G, 30 I. Industrial classes each afternoon for 50 G; evg. sch. for 23 B, 7 adults; 3 paid teachers, 10 vol. New bldg. 1851 with aid of subscriptions. 1867 a.a. 90 B, 50 G, 40 I, with other occasional pupils; evg. sch. a.a. 50-60 in summer, 140 in winter. 1869 a.a. 182. Nothing further known.

SHELBURNE, Annette Rd., Holloway. Opened 1910 as Shelburne Rd. council sch. taking pupils from Harvist Rd. 1910 accn. 320 M, 175 I. Enlarged 1922 for 360 M, 223 I. Reorg. 1924 for 232 B, 232 G, 309 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 520 SM, 309 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as Shelburne primary for I, and Shelburne sec. for SM on same site. Primary moved to Pakeman Street 1958 and closed c. 1960. Sec. reorg. 1958 for SG. Annexe at York Way opened 1961. Moved to former William Forster bldg., Benwell Rd., c. 1963. By 1967 upper sch. at Benwell Rd., lower sch. at Annette Rd. Amalg. as part of Highbury Fields c. 1981; bldgs. in Benwell and Annette rds. used as annexes.

SHEPPERTON ROAD BD., New North Rd. Opened 1879 by S.B.L. for B, G, I. Sch. pence (2d.). 1893 accn. 998, a.a. 962. Accn. reduced 1922-7 to 264 B, 248 G, 272 I. Reorg. 1932-6 for 472 JB. Primary for JB from 1947. Closed 1957 and replaced by Rotherfield primary (q.v.).

SOUTH ISLINGTON AND PENTONVILLE BRITISH, Denmark Terr., Cloudesley Rd. (fn. 54) Opened 1842 in purpose built sch. with covered playground with aid of parl. grant; accn. 250 I on ground floor, 600 B on 1st, sch. of industry for 200 G on 2nd. Roll 1845: 60 I, 189 JB & 131 SB, 95 G. 1852 a.a. 245 B, 245 G & I; 1865 a.a. 380. Roll 1871: 216 B, 121 G, 82 I; a.a. 178 B, 81 G, 72 I. Recognized but by 1883 transferred to S.B.L. as Denmark Terr. bd. sch. Temp. sch. reopened 1885 for B, G, I to test demand. Closed by 1893.

STATION RD., Upper Street. Opened 1885 by S.B.L. in new bldg. for B, G, I. Sch. pence (3d., 2d.). 1908 accn. 355 B, 355 G, 397 I, a.a. 301 B, 292 G, 241 I. Accn. reduced 1922-7 to 275 B, 315 G, 311 I. Closed 1927; bldg. used by Laycock (q.v.).

THORNHILL, Thornhill Rd., Barnsbury. Opened as Thornhill Rd. bd. sch. 1881 for B, G, I. Sch. pence (4d., 2d.). 1893 accn. 1,204, a.a. 1,146; 1908 accn. 480 B, 480 G, 577 I, a.a. 442 B, 438 G, 474 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 410 JB, 410 JG, 432 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as primary for JM, I. Reorg. for JM & I 1972-4. Roll 1982: 279 JM & I.

TOLLINGTON PK., Turle Rd., Upper Holloway. Originated as Montem Street central 1910 with B from Montem Street higher elementary; SG from Montem Street 1911. 1911 accn. 300 B, 240 G. Renamed Marriott Rd. central 1914. Reorg. 1925 into sep. Tollington Pk. B central and G central, Turle Rd. (same site); accn. 320 B, 320 G. Amalg. again 1957, and with Isledon sec. formed Tollington Pk. sec. for SM at Turle Rd. Finsbury Pk. sec. joined sch. 1964. Technical block built 1960s, drama hall early 1970s. Roll 1981: 710 SM. Amalg. 1981 with Archway sch. to form George Orwell (q.v.).

TUDOR SEC., see Islington Green.

TUFNELL PK. PRIMARY, Dalmeny Rd. Opened 1955 for JM & I. Roll 1982: 240 JM.


UNITY CHURCH DAILY, Florence Street, Upper Street. Opened 1864 in rooms behind ch. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence (3d., 2d.). Roll 1871: 24 B, 39 G, all ages; evg. sch. 10 B, 37 G. 1878 accn. 169, a.a. 71. Closed by 1893.

UPPER HORNSEY RD. BD., see Hornsey Rd., Upper.

VITTORIA PRIMARY, Half Moon Crescent, Barnsbury. Opened 1879 as Vittoria Pl. bd. sch. for G, I. New bldg. for G, I opened 1881; B and cookery centre in old bldg. Sch. pence (2d., 1d.). 1893 accn. 1,398, a.a. 791; 1908 accn. 318 B, 318 G, 392 I, a.a. 302 B, 292 G, 310 I. Reorg. 1947-51 for JM, I. New bldg. one of two experimental primary schs. built by Architectural Development Group of D.E.S., with split-level classrooms. (fn. 55) Reorg. for JM & I 1952. Roll 1982: 125 JM & I.

WARD'S PL. RAGGED, Lower Rd. Opened c. 1856 in old bldg.; connected with Union chapel. Rebuilt and enlarged c. 1858. Included evg. sch. (fn. 56) Nothing further known.

WELLINGTON RD., Wellington (later Westbourne) Rd., Lower Holloway. Temp. bd. sch. for BGI opened 1879 in leased bldg., probably former St. David Nat. Nearby bldg. opened 1892; temp. bldg. continued in use until enlargement of new sch. complete. 1893 accn. 1,163, a.a. 884; 1908 accn. 352 B, 345 G, 428 I, a.a. 321 B, 318 G, 393 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 256 JB, 263 JG, 304 I. 1939 accn. 396 JM, 299 I. Renamed Alfred Prichard primary for JB, JG, I 1947-51. Closed by 1965; bldg. partly used as Our Lady of Sacred Heart annexe.

WESTBROOK CHAR. SCH. Opened 1836 in Smith's Bldgs. by trustees of Westbrook's char. Subscriptions and donations augmented income from £400 stock. Roll 1836: 77. 1838 a.a. 60-70; 1841-51 a.a. 50. In 1855 premises taken over by Turnpike Cts. Dist. Visiting Soc. to expand Angel Ct. sch. and ragged schs. of Protestant Institute, which had reduced need for Westbrook. Endowment used by soc. to support 20 poor children at its schs. until 1859, when income paid to St. Mary's I sch. for 12 Westbrook children placed there by char.'s trustees. Payments still made 1904.

WHITTINGTON, Highgate Hill. Opened 1882 by S.B.L. for B, G, I. 1893 accn. 1,000, a.a. 772. Reorg. 1927-32 for 536 SG, 313 I. Reorg. 1932-6 for 477 SG. Reorg. 1947-51 as Whittington primary for I. Closed 1957; bldg. used as annexe for Archway sec. and later George Orwell.

WILLIAM FORSTER PRIMARY, Benwell Rd., Holloway. Opened 1889 by S.B.L. as Forster bd. sch. for BGI. Sch. pence (1d.). Staff transferred from Pakeman Street. 1893 accn. 988, a.a. 908; 1908 accn. 360 B, 300 G, 378 I. Reorg. 1932-6 for 360 JM, 237 I. Primary sch. for JM & I 1951; renamed Wm. Forster c. 1955. Closed 1961; bldg. used by Shelburne (q.v.).

WILLIAM TYNDALE PRIMARY, Sable Street, Canonbury Rd. Iron bldg. opened by L.C.C. in 1914 as Sebbon Street sch. for 144 JM & I, a.a. 76. Replaced 1916 by perm. sch. for 272 B, 272 G, 324 I, a.a. 178 B, 203 G, 220 I. Reorg. 1932-6 for 280 SG, 280 JM, 294 I. Renamed Wm. Tyndale 1949 for JM, I. By 1970s had many poor children, including recent immigrants, but was popular with middle-class parents. Changed teaching methods in mid-1970s led to divisions among staff that involved parents and managers; teachers' strike and long legal inquiry followed, giving rise to many studies of sch. system. (fn. 57) Roll 1974: 217 JM & I. Roll 1982: 246 JM & I.

WINDSOR STREET BD., Essex Rd. Opened by 1872 when it moved to leased bldg. on Packington estate used as a Sun. sch. B only; G, I in sep. bldgs. nearby. Roll 1872: 150 B. 1878 accn. 102. Closed by 1893.

YERBURY PRIMARY, Foxham Rd., Upper Holloway. Opened 1884 by S.B.L. as Yerbury Rd. bd. sch. for 360 B, 360 G, 473 I. Sch. pence (3d., 2d.). Extension built 1895; accn. 478 B, 478 G, 633 I. Reorg. 1927-32 for 348 JB, 348 JG, 394 I. Reorg. 1947-51 for JM, I. JM & I amalg. by 1977. Roll 1982: 110 JM, 67 I, 50 nursery.

YORK RD. (later WAY) BD., Delhi Street, King's Cross. Opened 1874 for B, G, I. Sch. pence (1d.- 3d.). 1878 accn. 1,388, a.a. 1,288; 1893 accn. 1,451, a.a. 1,153. Bldg. remodelled 1910. Reorg. 1927-32 for 384 JB, 382 JG, 358 I. Reorg. 1947-51 as primary for I. Closed c. 1969; bldg. used as annexe for Risinghill sch., Clerkenwell, in 1977.

Special schools. AMBLER RD., Blackstock Rd. Centre for 60 physically and mentally handicapped children opened 1900 in Ambler Rd. bd. sch.

BARNSBURY PK., Liverpool Rd. Opened 1932 for 100 partially sighted children of all ages in part of council sch. Closed 1947-51.

CLOUDESLEY, Dowrey Street, Richmond Ave. Opened 1909. 1937 accn. for 123 mentally handicapped B all ages, and 90 physically handi-capped SB. Reorg. by 1951 as sec. sch. for physically handicapped SB; for SM by 1964. Closed 1972; site used for Samuel Rhodes (q.v.).

COLEBROOKE, Colebrooke Row, Islington Green. Opened 1914 for mentally handicapped children. 1937 accn. 168 SG and JM. Reorg. by 1951 for educationally subnormal SG until move to Chequers sch., E.C. 1 1960. Reopened as allage sch. for maladjusted children. Roll 1982: 50 M.

DEAF AND DUMB CENTRE, opened in Winchester Street, and temp. centre at Barnsbury Street sch. in 1887. (fn. 58)

EDWARD SEGUIN, Prah Rd., Finsbury Pk. Opened as sec. sch. for educationally subnormal SB c. 1963 in part of Finsbury Pk. sch. Closed c. 1975; bldg. used for Jack Ashley (q.v.).

FORSTER, Hornsey Rd. Opened 1904. 1937 accn. for 84 physically handicapped SG and JM in William Forster bldg. Closed by 1947.

HARBOROUGH, Elthorne Rd., Upper Holloway. Opened 1913 as Elthorne Rd. for delicate children. Reorg. by 1937 for 102 physically handicapped B. Closed by 1951. Harborough M primary and sec. schs. for partially sighted opened by 1951, sharing Laycock primary. Moved to Elthorne Rd. by 1955. Reorg. 1967 as M sch. for autistic children. Roll 1982: 25 M.

JACK ASHLEY, Prah Rd., Finsbury Pk. Sch. for deaf SM opened in former Edw. Seguin bldg. c. 1975, named Jack Ashley 1976.

OFFORD. Opened 1905 in Offord Rd., sharing site with Barnsbury G. 1937 accn. for 100 mentally handicapped JM. Sharing Ring Cross sch. as M primary for educationally subnormal 1951, but returned to Offord Rd. by 1955. Moved to former Wellington Rd. sch. 1957. Closed c. 1967.

ROMILLY LODGE, 59 Hornsey Rise. Opened 1902. 1937 accn. for 99 mentally handicapped B. Used as a temp. primary by 1947.

ROSEMARY, 75 Prebend Street. Opened 1970-2 for educationally subnormal children and including special care unit. Annexe at Camden Rd. United Reformed ch., 577 Caledonian Rd.

SAMUEL RHODES, Dowrey Street, Richmond AVe. Opened 1972 as all-age sch. for educationally subnormal children. New bldg. on site of former Cloudesley sch. Roll 1982: c. 150 M.

Technical education. The Polytechnic of North London was founded as the Northern Polytechnic Institute with aid from London Parochial Charities funds, under a Scheme of 1892, and substantial donations from the Clothworkers' Company of London. (fn. 59) The first building, designed by Charles Bell, was opened in 1896 fronting Holloway Road, with blocks added on 1 1/2 a. behind. The great hall (later the theatre) was opened in 1897 and large additions were made in 1902, designed by A. W. Cooksey. In 1923 the polytechnic acquired 3/4 a. between the existing buildings and Hornsey Road, which had been cleared of slums, and the women's department rooms were built in 1927. Nevertheless, in 1929 overcrowding had led to the use of Forster board school nearby, and a grant was received to extend the building department. Further extensions were needed in 1937 but prevented by war. (fn. 60) New premises for the National College of Rubber Technology (below) were opened in Benwell Road in 1952 and additional catering facilities in 1954 and 1955. Shortage of space persisted, despite a tower block opened in 1966 (fn. 61) and the use of Marlborough House office block from 1974, (fn. 62) and in 1980 the polytechnic had annexes in Prince of Wales Road in St. Pancras, Ladbroke House, Highbury Grove, nos. 207-225 Essex Road, and nos. 2-16 Eden Grove. (fn. 63)

Early courses were varied, mainly in evening classes, providing technical instruction for mechanics and artisans, besides general education for 14-year olds. (fn. 64a) There was also a training school for teachers and a day school, which in 1902 became a mixed secondary school and later Highbury Grove school. (fn. 65a) Among the first courses were natural sciences, engineering, architectural and building studies, and domestic subjects for women, and the polytechnic was soon approved by the University of London for teaching internal degrees in sciences. A domestic economy school, started in 1899 to train girls for domestic service, from 1916 evolved into a secondary school with a domestic bias and in 1930 made way for more advanced work in the women's department. From 1913 rationalization amongst polytechnics caused the Northern to give up engineering and the arts, and concentrate on sciences, building, and women's classes. From 1915 a music trades' school trained apprentices in local industries, especially the making of pianos, organs, and brass instruments. It gave rise to radio courses in 1929 and eventually to the department of Electronic and Communications Engineering. In 1920 courses in rubber technology were started, forming in 1948 the foundation for the polytechnic's College of Rubber Technology, which had its own building from 1952. The School of Architecture also emerged as a major training centre, with courses recognized by the R.I.B.A. from 1925. (fn. 66a)

After the Second World War full-time day courses became more important than evening and part-time. The three secondary schools associated with building, rubber, and music trades, which had 236 boys, had been reduced by 1939 and in 1951 were moved out, but facilities for post-graduate research remained restricted until the polytechnic became one of the 24 regional colleges set up in 1956 to cater for advanced study, and more premises were built. In the 1960s the major departments were rubber; electronic engineering; architecture, surveying and building; chemistry; physics; mathematics. In 1967 the polytechnic covered 4 1/2 a. with 200 full-time and 250 part-time staff, and 1,100 fulltime and 4,000 part-time students, including 360 taking postgraduate courses or research and 800 taking postgraduate short courses. In 1971 the Northern polytechnic was amalgamated with the North-western to form the large Polytechnic of North London, with 4,000 full-time and 3,000 part-time students in addition to those taking specialized short courses.

North London Day College run by the L.C.C. was housed in the Working Men's College in Crowndale Road, St. Pancras, in 1955, with evening departments in Islington at Offord, Finsbury Park, and Shelburne schools. (fn. 67a) The college moved to Camden Road c. 1967, (fn. 68a) and was the North London College for Further Education in 1977. (fn. 69a)

Private schools. Dame Alice Owen's free school, founded c. 1613 on the Hermitage fields in St. John Street, Clerkenwell, took 24 children from Islington and 6 from Clerkenwell. Further grammar education for Islington was provided when a girls' school was added in 1886. Having become voluntary aided under the Education Act, 1944, (fn. 70a) the schools, as a co-educational comprehensive, moved to South Mimms in 1976. (fn. 71a)

Israel Tonge (1621-80), divine, taught a successful grammar class in the gallery of Sir Thomas Fisher's house, 1659-60. He is also said to have held an academy teaching Latin and Greek to girls. (fn. 72a)

John Mitchell, a nonconformist ejected from a Dorset living, kept boarders who may have been pupils at his house in Islington in 1669. (fn. 73a) Other nonconformist ministers kept academies, many at Newington Green. (fn. 74a) Theophilus Gale (1628- 78) formed an academy there in 1665, which was continued after his death by his pupil Thomas Rowe (1657-1705). (fn. 75a) Rowe moved away but had returned to Islington when Isaac Watts was a pupil there, and remained until c. 1705. Other pupils included John Evans, D.D., Daniel Neal, Henry Grove, John Hughes (d. 1720), poet and dramatist, Jeremiah Hunt, D.D., and Josiah Hort, archbishop of Tuam. Rowe was the first to desert the traditional text books, introducing 'free philosophy', and one of the earliest exponents of John Locke. (fn. 76a) Ralph Button (d. 1680) moved his academy to Newington Green in the early 1670s, where his pupils, some of them for the dissenting ministry, (fn. 77a) included Sir Joseph Jekyll (1663-1738), Master of the Rolls. Charles Morton (1627-98), (fn. 78a) who received most of Button's students at his death, formed an academy at Newington Green, possibly in 1667 and certainly by 1673, which became the principal Independent academy in London. In 1682 he had two houses with at least 60 boarders. A range of traditional and newer subjects was taught, to university standard, including modern languages and politics as a science, and Morton was a pioneer in the use of English as a medium of instruction. (fn. 79a) His pupils included Timothy Cruso, whose family lived at Newington Green, Daniel Defoe, and Samuel Wesley, father of John and Charles. The vicar of Islington reported on the school in 1685 and Morton left England that year; his school continued until c. 1696 under Stephen Lobb, William Wickens, and Francis Glasscock. Thomas Doolittle (1632?-1707) in 1672 moved his academy to Islington, (fn. 80a) where in 1680 he had 28 students and where the historian Edmund Calamy (1671-1732) (fn. 81a) attended. It closed temporarily in 1685, when Doolittle was compelled to move. Robert Woodcock, clothworker of London, ran a girls' boarding school 1679-87 in the house formerly belonging to the Draper family behind the church; (fn. 82a) his school and Morrett's, both reported on by the vicar along with Morton's in 1685, (fn. 83a) may have been nonconformist.

Mrs. Smith had a pew in the parish church for herself and her scholars in 1664. In 1668 too many seats had been given to schools and none was to be so allotted, although galleries might be built. In 1673 Capt. Stacy applied to take over a gallery for his school. (fn. 84a) Hannah, wife of the musician and publisher John Playford, kept a boarding school for girls in Upper Street, opposite the parish church, at her death in 1679. (fn. 85a)

Islington had several day and boarding schools in the 18th and early 19th centuries, few of which outlived their founders. In 1787 nine boarding schools had pews in the church: Messrs. Young and Co., Rosomans Buildings, Mr. Charron, Lower Street, Mr. Duff, Hornsey Row (Upper Street), Mrs. Weaver, Mrs. Gibbs, Mrs. Blackstone, all Upper Street, Miss Reynolds, Canonbury, Mrs. Cockburn, Newington Green, and Mrs. Dubois. (fn. 86a) In the 1790s 14 schools were listed: Charron's French boarding school for young ladies, boarding schools under Childs, Mrs. Clark, Ann Harris, Kirkman, and Miss Weaver, girls' boarding schools under Cotton, Samuel Morley, and Samuel Reynolds, academies under William Frances, John Price, A. Rae, and the Revd. A. Croles, and a ladies' school under Frances Longbottom. (fn. 87a)

Mrs. Science, wife of a watchmaker, kept a boarding school for young ladies in a house in Upper Street (later no. 107) c. 1740, where her son-in-law John Shield (d. 1786) opened a boys' school which acquired a high reputation. Pupils included William Hawes, M.D. (1736-1808), founder of the Royal Humane Society, William Tooke (1744-1820), historian, and John Nichols (1745-1826), printer and author. E. Flower ran a highly regarded boarding school in the same house, adding a large schoolroom, in 1810, (fn. 88a) and still did so in 1828. (fn. 89a) By 1844 the school, belonging to T. E. Edgeworth, had closed and the building of 20 rooms with its 35 school beds was sold. (fn. 90a)

Mrs. Paul ran a boarding school for young ladies in the vicarage in 1754, as she had before the old church was demolished in 1751. (fn. 91a)

The Revd. John Rule kept a well reputed academy for young gentlemen in the house at the north end of Colebrooke Row in the 1760s and 1770s. (fn. 92a)

Mary Wollstonecraft transferred her school from Islington to Newington Green in 1783. It closed in 1785 but provided the experience for her books on the education of girls. (fn. 93a)

Mr. Crole kept a school in Queen's Head Lane, where Thomas Uwins (1782-1857), painter, was a day boy for 6 years c. 1790. (fn. 94a)

John Evans (1767-1827), a Baptist minister, opened a school at Hoxton Square, Shoreditch, in the 1790s, moving to no. 7 Pullins Row, Islington, by c. 1800, and continuing until his death. Charles Whittingham (1795-1876), printer, was among his pupils. (fn. 95a)

A girls' boarding school was housed for many years in the original no. 1 Colebrooke Row, at the north corner with Gerrard Road. It was followed by a boys' boarding school known as Colebrooke House academy, where in 1828 the Revd. R. Simpson, with two assistants, offered classics, mathematics, and English literature. (fn. 96a) In 1835 Simpson's academy exemplified an advanced system of infants' education. (fn. 97a) It had closed by 1851. (fn. 98a)

In 1828 there were advertised 26 girls' boarding schools and 14 boys' including Flower's and Colebrooke House. Almost all were in or near the town, with one or two at Highbury, Ball's Pond Road, Highgate Hill, and along Holloway Road. (fn. 99a) In 1833 the parish had 38 boarding schools, of which several took day pupils and all but one had started since 1818: 15 had 773 boys, 21 had 396 girls, and two had 50 boys and girls. In addition there were 51 day schools for fee payers: 34 were single-sex schools, although two boys' schools provided evening classes for a few girls. The 506 girls and 425 boys educated in those schools, besides another 61 children of unspecified sex, excluded the proprietary school (below) with 160 boys. (fn. 1a) Islington's many adventure schools were generally short lived. Other private schools soon included some, mainly day schools, held under trusts, providing professional and commercial education for a growing number of middle-class boys. In 1851 there were 28 boarding schools for girls and 16 for boys, only four of them traceable from schools existing in 1828. In 1879 there were 17 schools of note for older boys, mainly boarding, and 9 similar schools for girls in 1884. (fn. 2a) Some of the longer lived schools are noticed below. (fn. 3a)

South Islington Commercial and Mathematical school was established in 1818, offering mathematics, commercial accounts, elementary classics, and modern languages. In 1851 it was at Parkfield House, Parkfield Street, owned by Frederick J. Minasi, who was still there in 1879.

Islington Proprietary school, Barnsbury Street, was founded in 1830 in union with King's College for day boys, in a building designed for it by John Newman. (fn. 4a) Proprietors could nominate one free pupil for each share held, paying fees for additional admissions; consent of the directors was required if a boy was not the proprietor's son. The roll of 99 in 1831 increased to 150 in 1832, 160 in 1833, 170 in 1835. Boys were offered classics, mathematics, modern languages, and Hebrew, and preparation for university, commerce, and government examinations. Scholarships to Oxford or Cambridge were available. The proprietors were professional men or had businesses outside the parish, local traders being excluded, and the headmaster was to be an Anglican clergyman. In 1865 there were 137 boys; in 1879 c. 140, aged 7 to 18. (fn. 5a)

South Islington Proprietary school, in union with King's College, London, stood on the north-east corner of Duncan Street by 1839 and was still there in 1842; (fn. 6a) it had been replaced by the country court by 1851. (fn. 7a)

The College, nos. 3-4 Turle Road, Tollington Park, was established in 1833 as a day and boarding school for boys, in union with the College of Preceptors. Classics, mathematics, and languages were offered, with preparation for university and professional examinations. In 1851 it had 32 boarders, aged 6 to 16, under William Griggs and three assistant masters. G. Moxon was the master in 1879.

Roxburgh House Collegiate school for boys, no. 328 Liverpool Road, was established in 1820, and took a few boarders in 1879. Subjects included English, classics, and languages, and preparation was given for Oxford Local examinations.

Histon House College, Barnsbury Park, was established in 1830 in a purpose built house with garden and croquet-lawn. Day girls and boarders were offered an English education with music and French, and preparation for Oxford and Cambridge Local and university entrance examinations. There were 12 boarders, aged 13 to 17, in 1851 under Elizabeth Matthews; Miss S. A. Fitt was headmistress in 1884.

East Islington Commercial school, Lower Road, opened next to the new market in 1841. Designed for fee payers who could not afford the proprietary schools, it catered only for day boys in 1851. (fn. 8a)

The School of Commerce, no. 32 New North Road, was established in 1840, to prepare day boys and boarders for commerce and the professions, and for professional examinations in 1879.

Alexander Stewart, a Congregationalist minister, had a school at Palmer House, no. 1 Palmer Terrace, Lower Holloway, from 1847, assisted by his two sons. In 1851 he had 26 boys boarding aged 9 to 15 years. The school may have continued until his death in 1874; his sons entered the ministry, one of them, Halley (later knighted), working at Caledonian Road before going into business. (fn. 9a)

George Darnell (1798-1857) for many years conducted a large day school at Islington. He composed very popular handbooks designed to make beginning schoolwork more inviting to both pupil and teacher, and his famous copybooks started c. 1840. He died at Gibson Square. (fn. 10a)

Barnsbury Park Collegiate school, no. 1 Barnsbury Park, was established by 1849 for the sons of gentlemen, both day and boarding, with particular advantages for the sons of clergymen. The curriculum included modern languages, physical science, mercantile subjects, and preparation for public school, university, and other examinations. A junior school took boys from 4 years of age. The school had 23 boarders aged 8 to 15 in 1851. It closed between 1879 and 1897. (fn. 11a)

Manor House school, Holloway, was a boys' boarding school under Mr. Softley in 1828 and 1831. In 1851 it was kept by E. Dukes, with 26 boarders aged 7 to 15 years. In 1879 subjects included English, classics, modern languages, mathematics, and land surveying, with preparation for the Indian Civil Service, Sandhurst, and other professional examinations. (fn. 12a)

Miss Oates in 1828 ran a finishing school for girls at no. 7 Canonbury Place, (fn. 13a) where by 1851 Emma Springett's girls' school had 17 boarders aged 6 to 19. Caroline Bifield ran a similar school at no. 6, with 26 boarders in 1851 and a staff including teachers for English, music, and drawing.

In 1878 the Girls' Public Day School Trust, in connexion with the National Union for Improving the Education of Women, opened Highbury and Islington High school at nos. 6 and 7 Canonbury Place, part of the east range of Canonbury House. It offered a broad education with preparation for Oxford and Cambridge Schools Board examinations. There were 215 pupils in 1884, with a kindergarten, and priority was given to nominees of shareholders. It was a recognized secondary school in 1908 with 144 girls. The first head was Miss M. C. Whyte; Miss M. A. Minasi was head in 1884 and 1908. The school closed in 1911. (fn. 14a).

Mr. Sprange ran a boarding school for 20 boys at no. 21 Arundel Place, White Conduit Fields in 1828. (fn. 15a) He was probably the Daniel Sprange who had eight boarders aged 8 to 14 at no. 5 Lonsdale Square in 1851, when he was assisted by his wife, son, and two other teachers.

William Baker ran a finishing seminary for boys at no. 1 Francis Place, Holloway, in 1828. (fn. 16a) In 1851 he had 47 boarders aged 8 to 16, and subjects offered included English, classics, French, and mathematics.

William Barker's finishing seminary for boys, in Lower Street in 1828, (fn. 17a) had 15 boarders aged 8 to 15 at no. 37 Lower Street in 1851.

Charlotte Brady and her sister advertised their school for young ladies at nos. 22-3 Portland Place (Canonbury Road) in 1837. (fn. 18a) In 1851 they had 8 boarders, aged 5 to 16.

The Church of England Metropolitan Training Institution, which opened at Highbury College in 1849 to train men and women for Anglican schools, included a model school which had 175 boys in 1854. It closed c. 1865. (fn. 19a)

The School of Science and Art, Windsor Street, Essex Road, was a secondary or middleclass school connected with the Science and Art Department, South Kensington. It was established in 1852 to teach sons of tradesmen and artisans all the sciences, including human physiology, besides English, book-keeping, and mathematics, as required by the Civil Service. (fn. 20a) Boys were admitted from 7 years into the junior division and in 1879 there were 220.

Highbury New Park Collegiate school was established in 1855, and offered classics, mathematics, and modern languages, including Hindustani and Persian for careers in India. (fn. 21a) Preparation was given for all major examinations. In 1879 there were c. 50 boys aged 10 to 18. Possibly the school continued as the Highbury Park New College listed in 1903. (fn. 22a)

Thornhill College for Ladies, no. 1 A Thornhill Crescent, from 1854 offered a broad education, including French, drawing, and music, and pre-paration for university and public examinations. In 1884 there were 40 boarders and day pupils.

Queen's College Institution for Ladies, Brecknock Road, was founded c. 1847 with Mrs. Anna Maria Morel as principal, and stood in c. 2 a. on the edge of Tufnell Park. It offered preparation for all examinations open to women, and had finishing, senior, middle, and junior schools in 1884. In 1851 there were 64 boarders aged 5 to 19 and 14 governesses, including an Italian for singing and teachers of French, German, and music. In 1879 Miss Button was principal, succeeded by Mr. and Mrs. James Baker Pyne by 1881. The school closed c. 1888. (fn. 23a)

Alfred House Collegiate Institute for Young Ladies was run by Trevillian Spicer, who in 1849 aimed to prove that women's intellectual capacity was equal to men's. Subjects included higher mathematics, classics, geography, German literature, and English history. (fn. 24a)

The Church Missionary Children's Home kept a boarding school for the children of overseas missionaries in Milner Square from 1850 and in a purpose built school in Highbury Grove from 1853. In 1865 there were 39 boys and 38 girls. The boys received a classical education and left at 15, many for public schools; the girls were taught languages, English, and music, and left at 16. The home had closed by 1891, when the S.B.L. opened a truant school in its building. (fn. 25a)

Holloway College, nos. 2, 4, 6 Spencer Road, Hornsey Road, was established in 1864 and provided a commercial education, including French, English, science, and music, for 250 boys in 1879. A girls' department existed.

A boys' day school at no. 45 Ellington Street, Arundel Square, was established in 1856 and offered classical, mathematical, and commercial subjects. A girls' school was connected with it in 1879.

A Ladies' College, no. 3 Marquess Grove, Canonbury, was established in 1865, giving a broad education to c. 35 day girls, with preparation for public examinations in 1884.

Tollington Park College was bought in 1879 by W. Brown, who had increased it from 80 to 400 boys by 1893. In the absence of endowed schools it filled a need for languages and science. A branch opened in Muswell Hill in 1902. (fn. 26a)

Other boys' schools in 1879 included a day preparatory school at no. 18 Alwyne Place, Canonbury Park North, which had 25 boys in 1919; a school at no. 23 Devonshire Street (later Devonia Road) preparing boys for City of London school; Englefield College, no. 127 Englefield Road, Islington, established in 1877 with 130 day boys from 6 years, offering a commercial education with Latin, French, and natural sciences; Higher Middle Class school, no. 18 Mildmay Grove, established in 1870 for boarders and day pupils; Castle House Collegiate school, nos. 44 and 46 Mildmay Grove, established in 1869 for boarding and day boys, preparing for university and Civil Service examinations.

Girls' schools in 1884 included Kinnoull House, Highbury New Park, a boarding school; Owthorne, Highbury Crescent, a boarding school established in 1873; Manston House, Junction Road, Upper Holloway, boarding and day; Clyde House, no. 65 Tufnell Park Road, a boarding school established in 1873. Most prepared girls for public examinations.

A Roman Catholic grammar school for boys was at Cornwall Villa, Eden Grove, Holloway, by 1879, connected with the church of the Sacred Heart. (fn. 27a) Brothers of Mercy opened St. Aloysius' College in 1879 as a secondary school, with 405 boys in 1919. It was voluntary aided from 1950. (fn. 28a)

Sisters of Our Lady of Sion at Aberdeen Park, Highbury, ran a day and boarding school for girls in 1949; in 1960 they ran a mixed pre-preparatory boarding and day school, which apparently had closed by 1966. (fn. 29a)

The convent of Our Lady of Sion at Eden Grove, Holloway, was established in 1870, when the nuns assisted with the parish school. A private boarding and day school had opened at the convent by 1919. It became voluntary aided c. 1950, but continued to take fee paying boarders and closed 1967. (fn. 30a)

The Company of the Daughters of Mary Notre Dame ran a convent boarding school at no. 55 Tollington Park by 1908, when it had 85 girls. In 1919 there were 60 girls. It was still a boarding school in 1934, but took only day girls in 1952 and 1960 and had closed by 1975. (fn. 31a)

Sisters of the Cross and Passion ran a school at their convent, no. 41 Duncan Terrace, Islington Green, in 1919 when it had 77 boys and girls including senior pupils. In 1934 it was a girls' day school and in 1952 a preparatory school. Called St. Gabriel's Preparatory school in 1969, when recognized as an efficient independent school, it had closed by 1975. (fn. 32a)

Sisters of St. John of God ran a mixed preparatory school which became voluntary aided in 1961 as Christ the King R.C. primary school. (fn. 33a) In 1975 the convent had an independent mixed preparatory school at no. 81 Wray Crescent, Tollington Park. (fn. 34a)

The Home and Colonial Society moved its boarding school for girls from Gray's Inn Road to Highbury Hill House in 1894. It prepared for London matriculation examinations and for the Society's teacher training college. The school was transferred to the L.C.C. in 1912. (fn. 35a)

Arundell House school, no. 137 Highbury New Park, was established by 1903 and offered a broad education for day girls and a few boarders, with boys taken up to 7 years. In 1919 it had 114 pupils. It had closed by 1934. (fn. 36a)

In 1908 only five secondary schools in Islington were recognized as efficient by the Board of Education: Camden Secondary, run by the L.C.C., Notre Dame High, Highbury and Islington High, Highbury Hill High, and the Northern Polytechnic Secondary. (fn. 37a) In 1919 there were 31 private schools offering some secondary education but not recognized as efficient, though a few were recognized later. Those not already mentioned included Colebrooke School at no. 29 Duncan Terrace, with c. 90 boys and girls in 1919, a mixed preparatory school under Caroline Mariben in 1934; Marquess Garden school, no. 8 Marquess Road, with 16 boys in 1919, a mixed school under Clara Tappe in 1934; Clarke's High School, Bridge House, Anson Road, with 179 girls in 1919, which had become a branch of Clark's College by 1934, providing business training for boys and girls. (fn. 38a)

In 1934 there were 14 private schools listed in Islington, including Clark's and Pitman's business colleges. The other schools were 2 boys' and 2 girls' boarding, a boys' and a girls' day, 3 mixed or unspecified, 2 mixed preparatory, and a kindergarten. (fn. 39a) By 1952 only three private schools, all convent schools, were listed. There was one, at the convent of St. John of God, in 1975. (fn. 40a)


  • 64. Guildhall MS. 9537/7, f. 111.
  • 65. Below, private schs.
  • 66. Hist. MSS. Com. 4, 5th Rep. p. 482.
  • 67. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1641-3, 476; Walker Revised, 262.
  • 68. Islington libr., vestry mins. 1663-1708, 125.
  • 69. Digest of Schs. and Chars. for Educ. H.C. 435, pp. 614-15 (1843), xviii.
  • 70. G.L.R.O., P83/MRY 1/406, no. 2; P83/MRY 1/133, f. 18; P.R.O., C 5/309/6; vestry mins. 1663-1708, 335.
  • 71. Vestry mins. 1708-34, 14-15; below, St. Mary C.E.sch.
  • 72. G.L.R.O., P83/MRY 1/140; below, Westbrook char. sch.
  • 73. Digest of Returns on Educ. of Poor, H.C. 224, p. 550 (1819), ix (I).
  • 74. For individual schs., see below.
  • 75. Educ. Enq. Abstract, 565-6.
  • 76. Nat. Soc. Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx. 8.
  • 77. V.C.H. Mdx. i. 237.
  • 78. T. A. Spalding, Work of Lond. Sch. Bd. (1900), 27.
  • 79. P.R.O., ED 3/4-6.
  • 80. J. F. B. Firth, Municipal Lond. (1876), 459, 461.
  • 81. S.B.L. Final Rep. of Sch. Bd. for Lond. 1870-1904 (1904), maps
  • 82. P.R.O., ED 16/201; Nat. Soc. files.
  • 83. Spalding, Lond. Sch. Bd. 195.
  • 84. Sec. Schs. under Admin. of Bd. 1902-3 [Cd. 1752], p. 405, H.C. (1903), lii.
  • 85. Below.
  • 86. Sec. Schs. Recognized as Efficient [Cd. 4374], p. 306, H.C. (1908), lxxxiii.
  • 87. S. Maclure, One Hundred Years of Lond. Educ. 1870-1970 (1970), 146-7, 170.
  • 88. L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Inf. (1955).
  • 89. I.L.E.A. Green Bk. (1980).
  • 90. R. Grunsell, Born to be Invisible (1978), passim.
  • 91. Private schs. are treated separately below.
  • 92. P.R.O., C 54/12848, no. 2.
  • 93. Ibid. C 54/14349, no. 3.
  • 94. Lewis, Islington As It Was, 84.
  • 95. P.R.O., C 54/11458, no. 17; C 54/12523, no. 20; C 54/ 13791, no. 1.
  • 96. Additional inf. from Barnsbury Central Sch. (jubilee hist. 1954, in Islington libr.); Barnsbury Central sch. log. bk., in Islington libr.
  • 97. Ragged Sch. Union Mag. xx (1868), p. 181.
  • 98. Additional inf. from Lewis, Islington, 260; P.R.O., C 54/ 11627, no. 9; Brit. and Foreign Sch. Soc. Rep. (1838), 35; (1850), 32.
  • 99. Additional inf. from Lewis, Islington As It Was, 83-4.
  • 1. Reformatory and Refuge Union, Class. List of Child-Saving Institutions (1912), 26.
  • 2. Ragged Sch. Union Mag. ii (1850), 56, 305; iii (1851), 207.
  • 3. Para. based on Highbury Hill High Sch.: Short Hist. (booklet c. 1958, in Islington libr.).
  • 4. Additional inf. from G.L.R.O., EO/HFE/5/107, Rep. of Northern Polytechnic 1930-31; Sec. Schs. Recognised as Efficient, 306; I.L.E.A. Highbury Grove Sch. (TS. prospectus in Islington libr.).
  • 5. Para. based on R. J. King and T. H. Price, Holloway Sch. Jubilee Retrospective 1907-57 (1957, copy in Islington libr.); inf. from sch. librarian.
  • 6. Para. based on Ragged Sch. Union Mag. xix (1867), 125; iii. 207; xx. 239; Lewis, Islington As It Was, 82; P.R.O., C 54/ 15557, no. 16.
  • 7. Additional inf. from Lewis, Islington, 343-4; P.R.O., C 54/12082, no. 16.
  • 8. Firth, Municipal Lond., 459.
  • 9. Para. based on Rep. of Cttee. of Islington chapel sch. of industry for G (1845, in Islington libr.); Lewis, Islington, 263; British and Foreign Sch. Soc. Rep. (1817), 26, 131; (1820), 113-14; (1821), 128; (1838), 35; L.D. Dixon, Seven Score Years and Ten, 17
  • 10. S.B.L. Rep. 1886-7 (1887), 18.
  • 11. Para. based on Ragged Sch. Union Mag. xx. 11-12; Reformatory and Refuge Union, Class. List (1912), 30.
  • 12. British and Foreign Sch. Soc. Rep. (1851), 39.
  • 13. Ibid. (1844), 55.
  • 14. Para. based on Ragged Sch. Union Mag. xix. 192; xx. 263.
  • 15. Additional inf. from Poole's Pk. Schs. Islington 1876-1976 (centenary booklet supplied by junior sch. head).
  • 16. Lewis, Islington As It Was, 83.
  • 17. V.C.H. Mdx. i. 262; below, private schs.
  • 18. P.R.O., C 54/16900, no. 12.
  • 19. Ibid. C 54/16450, no. 8.
  • 20. Lewis, Islington, 377; P.R.O., C 54/14573, no. 14.
  • 21. Above, plate 25.
  • 22. See St. Mark C.E. for I sch. in Grove Lane.
  • 23. Colvin, Dict. Brit. Architects, 91.
  • 24. Para. based on J. Hall, Hist. Highbury Vale Schs. 1834-1936 (TS. booklet c. 1977 supplied by head); P.R.O., C 54/16186, no. 4; C 54/16288, no. 6.
  • 25. P.R.O., C 54/15039, no. 11.
  • 26. Lewis, Islington, 299.
  • 27. P.R.O., C 54/16031, no. 6; C 54/16442, no. 15.
  • 28. Acct. of Char. Schs. in G.B. & Irel. (1712), 13.
  • 29. G.L.R.O., P83/MRY 1/156, p. 8.
  • 30. Ibid. MRY1/157/9, 12.
  • 31. Ibid. MRY1/156, p. 9; 158/1, 13, 15; 159/1, 2; P.R.O., C 54/6532, no. 8; C 54/5846, no. 4.
  • 32. G.L.R.O., P83/MRY1/276/8; MRY1/156, p. 9.
  • 33. Ibid. MRY1/232; P.R.O., C 54/9473, no. 13; Lewis, Islington, 380; Colvin, Dict. Brit. Architects, 366.
  • 34. G.L.R.O., P83/MRY1/159, no. 3; Digest of Returns on Educ. of Poor, 550.
  • 35. Rep. of Sel. Cttee. on Educ. of Lower Orders of Metropolis, H.C. 497, p. 314 (1816), iv.
  • 36. Par. Schs., List of Subs. and Accts. (1818, in Islington libr.).
  • 37. G.L.R.O., P83/MRY 1/187/1, 2, 4.
  • 38. Ibid. MRY 1/187, Ann. Reps.
  • 39. Lewis, Islington, 380.
  • 40. P.R.O., C 54/12864, no. 14; G.L.R.O., P83/MRY 1/ 160/1; MRY 1/156, p. 11.
  • 41. G.L.R.O., P83/MRY 1/162.
  • 42. Ibid. MRY 1/156, p. 11; P.R.O., C 54/15443, no. 5.
  • 43. P.R.O., C 54/16824, no. 6.
  • 44. G.L.R.O., P83/MRY 1/137/6.
  • 45. Ibid. MRY 1/285/4.
  • 46. Lewis, Islington, 330.
  • 47. Para. based on O. C. Taylor, Our Parish Story: St. Mat.'s Ch., City Rd. [1932], 15-16 (booklet in Islington libr.).
  • 48. Additional inf. from Hist. St. Paul's Sch., Canonbury, 1829-1969 (booklet in Islington libr.); Char. Com. files.
  • 49. Additional inf. from P.R.O., C 54/12307, no. 18; C 54/ 14143, no. 3; Lewis, Islington, 361.
  • 50. P.R.O., C 54/17010, no. 1.
  • 51. Additional inf. from Nat. Soc. Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx.; P.R.O., C 54/15250, no. 1; C 54/15310, nos. 18, 19; G.L.R.O., P83/STE1/27/1.
  • 52. Additional inf. from Souvenir of Centenary of St. Thomas's C.E. Sch. (booklet supplied by head); P.R.O., C 54/ 16579, no. 1.
  • 53. Para. based on Lewis, Islington As It Was, 84; Ragged Sch. Union Mag. iii. 207; xix. 103; xx. 24.
  • 54. Additional inf. from Lewis, Islington, 344; P.R.O., C 54/12513, no. 2; ibid. ED 14/5; Ann. Rep. of Cttee. of S. Islington & Pentonville British Schs. 1843, 1845 (in Islington libr.).
  • 55. Maclure, One Hundred Years of Lond. Educ. 163.
  • 56. Ragged Sch. Union Mag. xi. 9.
  • 57. J. Gretton and M. Jackson, Wm. Tyndale: Collapse of a Sch.- or a System? (1976).
  • 58. S.B.L. Rep. 1886-7 (1887), 20.
  • 59. Times Higher Educ. Supplement, 24 Apr. 1981, 10; Northern Polytechnic 1892-1967 (75th anniv. booklet).
  • 60. G.L.R.O., EO/HFE/5/107.
  • 61. N. Polytechnic 1892-1967.
  • 62. Islington L.B. Official Guide 1977-8, 67.
  • 63. I.L.E.A. Green Book (1980).
  • 64a. N. Polytechnic 1892-1967.
  • 65a. G.L.R.O., EO/HFE/5/170; above.
  • 66a. N. Polytechnic 1892-1967; G.L.R.O., EO/HFE/5/170; Islington L.B. Official Guide 1977-8, 67.
  • 67a. L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Inf. (1955), 84.
  • 68a. G.L.R.O., EO/HFE/5/278.
  • 69a. Islington L.B. Official Guide 1977-8, 67.
  • 70a. For details see V.C.H. Mdx. i. 310-11. Treatment of sch. bldgs. reserved for article on Clerkenwell.
  • 71a. M. Ball, Worshipful Co. of Brewers (1977), 67-8, 99, 117-18; V.C.H. Mdx. v. 305.
  • 72a. D.N.B.
  • 73a. Calamy Revised, 351.
  • 74a. Rest of para. based on I. Parker, Dissenting Academies in Eng. (1914), 138; 'Early Nonconf. Academies', Trans. Cong. Hist. Soc. iii (1907-8), 274-88, 395; 'Islington', Fnl. of Presb. Hist. Soc. of Eng. ii, no. 4 (1923), 207.
  • 75a. D.N.B.
  • 76a. Ibid.
  • 77a. Ibid.; Calamy Revised, 95; R. T. Jones, Congregationalism in Eng. 1662-1962 (1962), 88.
  • 78a. D.N.B.
  • 79a. Jones, op. cit. 88; Cal. S.P. Dom. 1682, 551; Parker, Dissenting Academies, 59-60.
  • 80a. D.N.B.
  • 81a. Ibid.
  • 82a. P.R.O., C 6/259/11.
  • 83a. Guildhall MS. 9537/20, p. 85.
  • 84a. Islington libr., vestry min. bk. 1663-1708, 7, 32, 67.
  • 85a. Nelson, Islington, 361; D.N.B.
  • 86a. Guildhall MS. 474, par. ch. seating plan.
  • 87a. Univ. Brit. Dir. (1791-7).
  • 88a. Nelson, Islington, 113-15; D.N.B. s.v. Hawes, Nichols.
  • 89a. Boarding Sch. and Lond. Masters' Dir. (1828), 34.
  • 90a. Sale cat. in Islington libr.
  • 91a. Vestry min. bk. 1735-77, 91.
  • 92a. N. & Q. 2nd ser. iv. 9; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 247; Nelson, Islington (1829), 195.
  • 93a. Oxford Literary Guide to Brit. Isles (1977), 220.
  • 94a. D.N.B.
  • 95a. D.N.B. s.v. Evans, Whittingham; A.D. Morris, Hoxton Sq. and Hoxton Academies (priv. print. 1957, copy in Islington libr.), 5.
  • 96a. Boarding Sch. Dir. (1828), 41; Nelson, Islington (1829), 195.
  • 97a. Rep. Sel. Cttee. into State of Educ. of People, H.C. 465, p. 941 (1835), vii.
  • 98a. P.R.O., HO 107/10/2/5.
  • 99a. Boarding Sch. Dir. (1828).
  • 1a. Educ. Enq. Abstract, 565-6.
  • 2a. Figs. from P.R.O., HO 107/10/1-2; F. S. de Carteret- Bisson, Our Schs. and Colls. (1879), 707-13, 930; (1884), 428, 530-2.
  • 3a. Inf. on schs. taken from 1851 census: P.R.O., HO 107/ 10/1, 2; Bisson, op. cit. (1879, 1884)
  • 4a. Above, plate 26.
  • 5a. Cromwell, Islington, 349-54; Schs. Inquiry Com. 1865 [3966-IX], pp. 242-6, H.C. (1867-8), xxviii (9).
  • 6a. P.R.O., C 54/15673, no. 12, plan; Lewis, Islington, 367.
  • 7a. P.R.O., HO 107/10/2/2.
  • 8a. Lewis, Islington, 330.
  • 9a. Trans. Cong. Hist. Soc. xv (1945-8), 75.
  • 10a. D.N.B.
  • 11a. Hist. of 353 (Lond.) Medium Regt. R. A. (T.A.), 1861-1961 (in Islington libr.).
  • 12a. Boarding Sch. Dir. (1828), 41; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 275; Cromwell, Islington, 327.
  • 13a. Boarding Sch. Dir. 20.
  • 14a. Girls' Public Day Sch. Trust, 1872-1972, Cent. Review,26, 29; List of Sec. Schs. recognised as Efficient [Cd. 4374], p. 306, H. C. (1908), lxxxiii.
  • 15a. Boarding Sch. Dir. 41.
  • 16a. Ibid. 28.
  • 17a. Ibid.
  • 18a. Cath. Dir. (1837).
  • 19a. Lewis, Islington As It Was, 57-8; 1st Ann. Rep. of Cttee. (1850, in Islington libr.).
  • 20a. V.C.H. Mdx. i. 273.
  • 21a. Ibid. i. 276.
  • 22a. Paton, List of Schs. 381.
  • 23a. A. S. J. [Jones], 'College Gdns. Story' (TS. 1967 in Islington libr.).
  • 24a. V.C.H. Mdx. i. 263; Islington libr., local colln. cutting 1849.
  • 25a. Schs. Inquiry Com. 1865 [3966-IX], pp. 247-9, H.C. (1867-8), xxviii (9); S.B.L. Final Rep. 256.
  • 26a. V.C.H. Mdx. i. 274; vi. 195.
  • 27a. Ibid. i. 262.
  • 28a. Above (pub. schs.).
  • 29a. Cath. Dir. (1949 and later edns.).
  • 30a. Above (pub. schs.); P.R.O., ED 15/23.
  • 31a. List of Sec. Schs. recognised as Efficient [Cd. 4374], p. 306, H.C. (1908), lxxxiii; P.R.O., ED 15/23; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1934 and later edns.).
  • 32a. P.R.O., ED 15/23; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1934 and later edns.); Cath. Dir. (1969).
  • 33a. Above (pub. schs.).
  • 34a. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1975).
  • 35a. Above (pub. schs., Highbury Fields).
  • 36a. P.R.O., ED 15/23; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1934).
  • 37a. List of Sec. Schs. [Cd. 4374], p. 306; above (tech. educ.) for Northern Polytechnic sch.
  • 38a. P.R.O., ED 15/23; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1934).
  • 39a. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1934).
  • 40a. Ibid. (1952, 1975).