A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8, Islington and Stoke Newington Parishes. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1985.
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Islington church served the whole parish until 1814. It was recorded in the settlement, enrolled between 1163 and 1180, of a dispute about the rectory and advowson between the dean and chapter of St. Paul's and the nuns of St. Leonard's priory, Stratford-at-Bow. The dean and chapter received the church from the bishop and thereupon presented the nuns, who were to pay them I mark a year and find a chaplain to serve the church. (fn. 30) Thereafter the nuns held the rectory and advowson until the priory was dissolved in 1536. In 1539 the rectory and advowson were granted by the Crown in fee to Sir Ralph Sadler, reserving the rent of I mark to the dean and chapter. (fn. 31) In 1548 Sadler was licensed to grant the rectory and advowson to Thomas Perse or Percy of Islington, (fn. 32) who in turn was licensed in 1565 to sell the rectory to Roger Martin, alderman of London, and Humphrey his son. (fn. 33) Humphrey Martin sold it in 1582 to John Cheke, (fn. 34) but Percy had retained some interest because he was involved in a dispute with Humphrey Martin over a tenement called the Grange belonging to the vicarage of Islington, as was his son Jerome in 1586. (fn. 35) In 1587 Percy, Martin, and Cheke surrendered to Humphrey Smith of the Inner Temple a house, 2 gardens, an orchard, and 45 a. of the rectory, with all tithes and offerings and the advowson. (fn. 36) By 1618 the rectory had passed to Sir Walter Smith, M.P., of Great Bedwyn (Wilts.), (fn. 37) who presented to the living in 1639. (fn. 38) Early in 1646 he settled the rectory on his cousin Duke Stonehouse and his heirs, (fn. 39) but as a royalist Smith secured a reduction of his fine when in 1647 he settled the rectory in trust for the parishioners of Islington, who also presented to the living. (fn. 40)
The advowson and rectory reverted to private ownership at the Restoration, and Duke Stonehouse presented in 1662, followed by George Stonehouse in 1691 and 1720 and Francis Stonehouse in 1733 and 1738. (fn. 41) George Stonehouse, vicar 1738-40, resigned the living and conveyed the advowson in 1740 to Robert Holden in trust for Sir Gilbert Williams, Bt., vicar 1740-68, but retained some interest in the building known as the parsonage house at least, of which he granted a lease in 1755. In 1768 Holden presented Richard Smith (d.1772), and in 1771 the advowson was sold to Richard Smith (d.1776), a West India merchant of London and probably father of the vicar. (fn. 42) Under Smith's will the advowson was to go to whichever son of his son Benjamin became an Anglican clergyman; by 1811 it had passed to the Revd. Richard Smith who sold it to William Wilson, a London merchant. (fn. 43) Wilson (d. 1821) left the living to his kinsman and son-in-law Daniel Wilson, who presented himself in 1824 and his son Daniel in 1832, conveying the advowson thereafter to Evangelical trustees, possibly the Simeon Trust. (fn. 44)
The rectory estate was in the possession of the vicar in 1792 (fn. 45) and seems to have passed to the Wilson family with the advowson, but there is no indication of how it was conveyed. In 1832 the land was held by trustees for the benefit of the vicar. (fn. 46)
The benefice was valued at 15 marks in 1254, (fn. 47) and the vicar was taxed on £5 in 1379. (fn. 48) In 1535 the value of the rectory and tithes was £5 13s. 4d. on average, (fn. 49) but in 1539 the farm of the rectory had been let to Richard Wheteley for £8 a year, (fn. 50) while the vicar received £30 a year in 1548. (fn. 51) In 1645 the rectory was valued at £40 a year, (fn. 52) and c. 1650 the rectory, vicarage, and all tithes were worth £111 together. (fn. 53) In 1708 the benefice was rated at £30 a year; the tithes were then valued at c. £100, (fn. 54) but in 1732 (fn. 55) and in the late 18th century at c. £200. (fn. 56) In 1841 the vicar received a modus of 4d. an acre, 2d. a cow, and 2d. a calf, and no tithes were payable to any one else. (fn. 57) In southern Islington, which was largely built over, most of the tithes had already been commuted by 1849, when the remaining tithes were commuted. (fn. 58) By 1851 the value of the benefice had greatly increased: although tithe composition amounted to only £60, the benefice was endowed with land worth £373 a year, glebe worth £57, and other permanent income of £40, beside pew rents, fees, and offerings, in all worth £1,073. (fn. 59)
The estate in the possession of the vicar in 1792 consisted of 9 1/2 a. of freehold lying in two blocks, 4 a. bounded later by Liverpool Road, Sermon Lane (later Mantell Street), White Conduit Street, and Cloudesley Place, and 5 1/2 a. bounded later by Ball's Pond Road, Wall Street, Wakeham Street, and Essex Road. (fn. 60) The origin of the estate is unknown: in 1890 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners could find no terriers and noted that the Local Act of 1792 was the earliest known title. (fn. 61) It is uncertain whether the land belonged to the vicarage, or, more likely, was part of the rectory and settled on the vicar. The parcel at Ball's Pond Road lay on the north side of Iveney, given to St. Paul's in 1239, (fn. 62) and may therefore once have been part of that estate and bestowed on the vicar by the dean and chapter; it was called the Parsonage field in 1554. (fn. 63) Another possibility is that land was settled on the vicar in the 17th century when there seems to have been a reduction in the land belonging to the rectory. In 1587, 15 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, and 20 a. of pasture belonging to the rectory were conveyed, (fn. 64) but only 15 a. of pasture were mentioned in 1694. (fn. 65) The rectory's glebe and tithes were held by lessees or their subtenants from 1539 to 1561, in 1583, and in 1636. (fn. 66) Building leases were granted on the Liverpool Road block from 1807 and the Ball's Pond block from 1822. In 1891 the vicar sold the glebe to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, who thereby acquired 133 houses at Liverpool Road and 155 at Ball's Pond. The Liverpool Road estate was sold to the L.C.C. in the 1950s. (fn. 67)
The vicarage house stood in Upper Street near the later site of Theberton Street, and a new house was built in its grounds, probably in the late 17th century; the two were known as the vicarage house and the parsonage house in 1755, when the latter was let on a long lease. (fn. 68) The vicarage house was a boarding school in 1754. (fn. 69) The vicar did not live there in 1810, (fn. 70) and Daniel Wilson and his son lived at no. 8 Barnsbury Park.
In 1888 the M.B.W. sold a site adjoining the churchyard for a vicarage, (fn. 71) which was built in 1897, designed by W.H. Barlow, and was still in use in 1970. (fn. 72)
A guild or fraternity of the Holy Trinity existed by 1427 and had its own priest in 1428 and 1432; it was mentioned in wills until 1467. (fn. 73) The fraternity of St. Thomas Martyr was founded in the 1440s, apparently for both men and women, and was mentioned until 1473. (fn. 74) The brotherhood of Jesus was founded by 1479 and maintained a priest to keep a continuous mass, being mentioned until 1541. (fn. 75)
Two obits were recorded in 1548. In 1517 Richard Cloudesley left £1 a year from the Stonefields estate for an obit, 6s. 8d. for the prayers of the poor, and 26s. 8d. to the brotherhood of Jesus for singing masses. At an unknown date John England gave a copyhold close valued at £4 6s. 8d. a year to the parish for an obit for himself and to support an honest priest to say mass. (fn. 76)
Pluralist vicars, often holding London rectories, were common, especially in the 16th to 18th centuries, and many held important ecclesiastical posts. (fn. 77) John Wardale, vicar 1455-72, was also prebendary of Twyford. Edward Vaughan, ?1499-1509, later bishop of St. David's, held the vicarage while prebendary of Brondesbury and of Harlesden and treasurer of St. Paul's. Dr. John Cocks, 1522-45, was Dean of the Arches. William Jennings, 1550-66, was also the first dean of Gloucester. Meredith Hanmer, 1583-90, also vicar of Shoreditch, was noted as a historian and his writing came under official notice in the 1580s. (fn. 78) William Cave, 1662-91, also rector of All Hallows the Great, chaplain to Charles II, and canon of Windsor, was known chiefly for writing on church history; described in 1690 as a learned and eloquent preacher, it was thought that his small congregation in Islington did not understand his sublime doctrine. (fn. 79) Cornelius Yeates, 1707-20, was also archdeacon of Wiltshire. George Stonehouse, 1738-40, supported the Methodists (fn. 80) and on his resignation joined the Moravian Brethren. (fn. 81) George Strahan, 1772- 1824, also held three rectories and a prebendal stall at Rochester, and was non-resident for half the year. He attended the deathbed of Samuel Johnson, a close friend who frequently stayed with him at Islington towards the end of his life. (fn. 82)
John Bancks, mercer of London, in 1630 left property worth £178 to endow sermons at the Mercers' chapel and at Islington. (fn. 83) Daniel Parke bequeathed a rent charge of 10s. in 1649 for a sermon on Christmas day, and Mrs. Amy Hill left 13s. 4d. a year for a sermon c. 1659. (fn. 84) In 1678 Ephraim Skinner bequeathed 5s. each Sunday to the minister for catechizing the poor. (fn. 85). In the 19th century Margareta Browne left £1,400 stock to provide £20 a year for the minister for catechizing children, the surplus to be used to buy prayer books as prizes. (fn. 86)
A lectureship (fn. 87) originated in the provision of a reader to assist William Cave in 1667, who was too weak to read the service and preach twice each Sunday. The vestry ordered £12 a year to be paid out of the parish lands. (fn. 88). In 1673 a lecturer was appointed from year to year; in 1675 the stipend was £30 to preach a sermon each Sunday afternoon, and in 1676 the money came from the Stonefields estate. (fn. 89) In 1679 the vestry again decided to obtain a reader, at £10 a year, (fn. 90) and a lecturer and reader was elected, to be paid by subscription. (fn. 91) Thereafter the lecturer was chosen by the vestry from several candidates, and the stipend was apparently met by an annual collection. By the 1820s it averaged £100 and, as only the Sunday afternoon duty was required, (fn. 92) the lectureship was often held with other preferments. Thomas Brett, the nonjuring divine, was lecturer 1691-6 at the beginning of his career. (fn. 93) William Hendley, lecturer 1718-24, was also lecturer at St. James's, Clerkenwell. (fn. 94) George Gaskin, later prebendary of Ely, held the lectureship from 1776 to 1822, while successively curate and rector of Stoke Newington. (fn. 95) On the resignation of John Denham in 1826, the vicar Daniel Wilson undertook to provide for the afternoon service and the lectureship lapsed, after some inhabitants had vainly sought legal advice. (fn. 96)
There was a chaplain in addition to the vicar in 1379, (fn. 97) and there were curates in 1517, 1531, and the 1540s. (fn. 98) Thereafter there was always an assistant curate, who in 1592 taught the Sunday school. (fn. 99) Two curates served in 1859, 3 by 1907, 1 in 1926, 3 in 1947, and 7 in 1965. (fn. 1) Among those of distinction were Hugh R. Gough, later archbishop of Sydney, curate 1928-31, vicar 1946-8, F. Donald Coggan, later archbishop of Canterbury, curate 1934-7, and David S. Sheppard, later bishop of Liverpool, who played cricket for England while an assistant curate at Islington, 1955-7. (fn. 2)
Two services were held each Sunday in 1667, (fn. 3) and until the 1820s; during the 18th century communion was held monthly and prayers were read on Wednesdays, Fridays, Saturday evenings, and holy days. Only 80-100 attended communion in 1810 out of a population of 15,000. (fn. 4) Despite the opening of a chapel of ease in 1814, church sittings were still inadequate, especially for the poor, so Daniel Wilson started Sunday evening services c. 1824, at which all the seats were free. He also introduced an early communion, later changed to the evening when attendance trebled, use of the litany on Wednesdays and Fridays, and a service every saint's day. (fn. 5)
The vicars who succeeded Dr. Strahan in 1824 ministered to an expanding population, which led to the foundation of c. 40 district churches, and presided over a rural deanery which became as large as some dioceses.
The investiture of Daniel Wilson, 1824-32, seen as the chief Evangelical event of early 19thcentury London, (fn. 6) changed the religious outlook and activity of the parish, establishing a notable tradition (fn. 7) which embraced many daughter churches in the vicar's gift. Under Dr. Strahan, a fine, old-fashioned clergyman and scholar, 'Islington slept; under his successor it awoke and has never slept since.' (fn. 8) Wilson immediately set in train the building of three churches: St. John's, Upper Holloway (1828), St. Paul's, Ball's Pond (1828), and Holy Trinity(1829). He started extra services; (fn. 9) districts were mapped out and house-to-house visitors enrolled; nine Sunday schools were opened straightaway and soon increased to fifteen. When he left to become bishop of Calcutta, the parish was renowed for the efficiency of a regime which had been established without losing all the original congregation, despite the dislike for Evangelicals felt by seatholders who thought that their vicar should minister only to those who paid. (fn. 10)
Wilson's activities extended beyond purely parochial matters. The Islington Clerical Meeting began when he invited 12 clerical friends to discuss prayer in the context of current church and international problems, a practice which became annual and was continued by Wilson's son Daniel, vicar 1832-86 and prebendary of Chiswick. Under the younger Wilson, a leader among London Evangelicals, the meetings grew to become a major Evangelical conference. In 1855 they were transferred to the hall of the Church Missionary College in Upper Street and in 1860 to the first Bishop Wilson Memorial hall. By the 1880s there were always more than 300 clergy present and the meetings, dealing primarily with spiritual matters, often in relation to topical issues, were preferred by Evangelicals to the church congresses, which dealt more with ecclesiastical matters. (fn. 11) The meetings later moved to Mildmay conference hall, but outgrew it and were transferred to Church House, Westminister, from 1920, where they continued annually as the Islington Clerical Conference. (fn. 12)
Sermons by the elder Wilson were published and led to the formation of the Lord's Day Observance Society in 1831 by his cousin Joseph Wilson. (fn. 13) A local association had already been formed in 1830 with 340 residents and clergy, who agreed to try to persuade tradesmen to close on Sundays and to check sales by street traders. (fn. 14)
Wilson also inaugurated an association to assist the Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) in 1827; thereafter Islington became a missionary parish, with mission sermons in St. Mary's and the district churches, and meetings addressed by notable men such as William Wilberforce. (fn. 15) The C.M.S., whose college was the first Anglican institution for training missionaries, had taken a house in Barnsbury Park in 1820, replacing it in 1822 with a copyhold house and land in Upper Street (fn. 16) for the principal and 12 students. A college with hall, library, and lecture room for 50 students was built in 1824 in the grounds (fn. 17) and remained in use until 1917. Its students held Sunday services and schools in three areas of South Islington, St. Matthew's, St. Peter's, and the 'Irish Courts' near the Angel, one of the roughest parts of the parish. The C.M.S. home for the children of missionaries overseas was in Milner Square from 1849, then from 1853 in a purpose-built home for 50 children at the corner of Highbury New Park and Highbury Grove. (fn. 18)
Another big Anglican institution, the London School of Divinity, was involved in local church life. (fn. 19) Founded in 1863 by the Revd. Alfred Peache and his sister Kezia as a strictly Evangelical theological college, it opened in temporary premises in St. John's Wood, and moved in 1866 to the former Highbury College, Aubert Park, (fn. 20) which was renamed St. John's Hall. There were 22 students in training in 1866 and 44 in 1870; 142 students from the college had been ordained by 1876. It aimed to provide a degree-level course, but few of the students reached the standard required. In 1909 the college opened St. John's Hall (later College) at Durham to enable its students to take a B.A. degree there, but in 1934 the college became the Associate London College of Divinity in London University. The college's first tutor was Charles Henry Waller, formerly a curate at St. Jude's, Mildmay Park, and local clergymen, including W. H. Barlow, then principal of C.M.S. college, gave lectures and examined admissions, while the students undertook voluntary work with local Sunday schools and open-air and mission services. The college left Highbury in 1939 and did not return, moving eventually to Northwood. (fn. 21)
Evangelicalism influenced many Islington laymen. In 1835 a group led by Frederick Sandoz publicized the need for a home missionary society to serve the new industrial urban centres and combined with a group from the City to form the Church Pastoral-Aid Society in 1836. (fn. 22) During the Tractarian disputes, when in 1842 Bishop Blomfield ordered his clergy to preach in surplices rather than the customary black gown, many congregations walked out, and when confirmations in Islington were due to take place, the local incumbents and their congregations forced the bishop to give way. (fn. 23)
Despite the nine new churches opened between 1828 and 1850, the rapid growth in house building meant that by 1851 there were 16,548 Anglican sittings for a population of 95,329. Only about a third of the seats were free and non of the churches was in a style likely to attract the poor. (fn. 24) Soon afterwards the Islington Churches Extension Society was formed to provide more buildings and clergy. It appealed for 10 new churches within 10 years, each with accommodation for 1,000, and founded St. Luke's, West Holloway, in 1855. (fn. 25) Churches opened regularly thereafter, between five and ten in each decade, until the last, St. Andrew's, Whitehall Park, opened in 1895. They still catered mainly for middle-class inhabitants, however, leaving the missions to attract the working class. By the end of the century the Evangelical impetus had worn itself out and the Church of England had lost ground to nonconformity, particularly because of Islington's changing social composition. In 1851 Anglican services had three-fifths of all church attendances, double those at nonconformist churches; in 1903 fewer than two-fifths of worshippers were Anglicans, whereas more than half were nonconformists. (fn. 26) Anglican churches c. 1900 were active where they had middle-class congregations, mainly in the northern half of the parish, but were largely empty in the southern half, their successful work being in the day and Sunday schools. The decline had also troubled nonconformist churches in the south part and was attributed less to the type of services than to the replacement of middle-class residents, especially shopkeepers, by workers who did not go to church. The successful churches farther north attracted congregations with bright, varied services and a range of social activities which irritated purist Evangelical clergymen by their ritualism, secularism, and pleasure-seeking. (fn. 27) Decline in attendance continued in the 20th century as population changes continued. The Second World War removed several churches and others were amalgamated after the war and in the 1970s. In 1982 only 20 remained in full use for Anglican worship.
A bishop suffragan of Islington was appointed in 1898 and continued until 1923. (fn. 28)
The church of ST. MARY, so called by 1392, (fn. 29) has been rebuilt at least three times on the same site. A stone from a building of the earlier 12th century was found in the walls of the crypt in 1938, (fn. 30a) but the church demolished in 1751 was apparently of the mid 15th century: (fn. 31a) it contained a monument of 1454, and the date 1483 was found at the south-east corner of the steeple when the west gallery was removed. A chapel of St. Thomas, Martyr, existed on the south side of the church by 1454, and a chapel of the Holy Trinity existed by 1467, both connected with parish fraternities. (fn. 32a) Built of brick and boulders, the church had a tiled roof in 1708, Gothic columns and windows, and a square tower with steeple. A gallery was built in 1663 and an altarpiece in 1671. The roof inside was panelled and painted over the chancel. The walls were wains-cotted. Among many monuments was the large marble tomb of Dame Alice Owen, parts of which were incorporated in the new church of 1751-4. The tower contained a peal of six bells: the treble was recast in 1683, and two others were recast in 1706; (fn. 33a) a clock and sundial were added in 1708. At the west end was a two-storeyed porch, which housed the charity school from 1710. (fn. 34a)
The fabric was decaying in 1708 and repairs were frequently needed. (fn. 35a) Accommodation was said to be inadequate in 1718, when the parishioners unsuccessfully sought rebuilding under the London Churches Act of 1711. (fn. 36a) An Act was obtained in 1750 to allow rebuilding and the old church was demolished in 1751 by Samuel Steemson, who blew up the tower. Steemson also built the new church, which opened in 1754. Designed by Launcelot Dowbiggin, joiner of London, it did not strictly accord with any architectural style, but consisted of a plain rectangle of brick with stone quoins and dressings, containing an aisled nave, a short chancel, and galleries supported by oak Tuscan columns. At the west entrance was a semicircular portico of four Tuscan columns. The west tower had an octagonal balustrade, open circular stage, and an obelisk spire, in diminishing stages; it was flanked by vestries. The organ was built in 1771 by John Byfield the younger. (fn. 37a)
The new church, which seated 1,500 in 1851, (fn. 38a) had above the altar a painting by Nathaniel Clarkson, who lived in Church Street. (fn. 39a) The picture made way for a stained glass window when a chancel was added in 1902-4; a colonnade at the west porch was also added and the interior extensively altered by Sir. A. W. Blomfield. The church was bombed in 1940. Everything except the tower was rebuilt in 1954-6 on the 18thcentury plan in an adapted Georgian style by Seely & Paget, with the addition of transepts at the east end, within which the sanctuary is marked with slender pillars, the choir and organ being placed behind the congregation. The font, two brasses of the Fowler family, the lectern eagle, and the coat of arms of George II are from the previous church and the organ is from the demolished church of St. Mary, Bourdon Street, Berkeley Square.
The peal of eight bells survived from the previous church; they were cast in 1775 by Pack and Chapman at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry, (fn. 40a) and the old bells were ordered to be sold, but may have been recast. (fn. 41a) The plate in 1685 consisted of two silver flagons, two gilt bowls and covers, a silver paten and a silver plate, (fn. 42a) which were in use in 1666. (fn. 43a) After the Second World War there were 2 patens dated 1636 and c. 1636, 2 flagons of 1637, and 2 dishes of 1783. (fn. 44a) The registers date from 1557 and are virtually complete except for 1648-61. (fn. 45a)
Although the opening of district churches had reduced its congregation, at the end of the 19th century the parish church remained fairly successful in its work, in contrast with more moribund Anglican churches around it, and the example of its simple services was recommended to others. (fn. 46a) Attendance in 1851 was 1,500 a.m.; 1,250 p.m.; and in 1903 was 283 a.m.; 326 p.m. (fn. 47a)
The churchyard, which was enlarged in 1793, was closed for burials in 1853, and several graves were removed in 1885 when Upper Street was widened. It was laid out as a public garden of 1 1/2 a. in 1885. (fn. 48a)
Other C. of E. chs. were: (fn. 49a)
ALL SAINTS, Caledonian Road. Dist. formed 1839 from Holy Trinity. (fn. 50a) Parts assigned to St. And., Thornhill Sq., 1854, and St. Silas, Penton Street (Clerkenwell), 1868. Patron V. of Holy Trinity. Three asst. curates 1892, 2 in 1907, none in 1926; included a Lond. City missioner in 19th cent. Served St. Matthias, Caledonian Rd., 1859. (fn. 51a) Joined to St. Silas under 1972 Pastoral Scheme, (fn. 52a) but svces. held in ch. hall under V. of St. And. (fn. 53a) Attendance 1851: 752 a.m.; 160. aft.; 564 evg.; 1903: 87 a.m.; 162 p.m. Plain brick bldg. in mixed Gothic style by Wm. Tress 1837-8; rectangular nave with galleries; turret and pinnacles. Seated 1,116 in 1851; 1,150 in 1896. (fn. 54a) Baptistry and NW. porch added 1914. Svces. ceased c. 1969 and held in hall by 1975. Ch. gutted by fire 1975 and demol. (fn. 55a) Missions at All Saints' mission ch., behind nos. 90-2 White Lion Street (Clerkenwell), from c. 1838 until c. 1953; (fn. 56a) St. John the Evangelist, Copenhagen Street (Church Hosp. mission) by 1879, closed between 1956 and 1961, (fn. 57a) attendance 1903; 121 a.m.; 140 p.m.; All Saints' Mission, Thornhill Bridge Pl., attendance 1903: 103 a.m.; 187 p.m.; Crinan Street, York Way, attendance 1903: 66 p.m. All Saints' hall, Caledonian Rd., used as chapel of ease to St. And., Thornhill Sq., 1981. (fn. 58a)
ALL SAINTS, Dalmeny Rd., Tufnell Park. Originated in mission ch. opened by St. Mat. 1881. (fn. 59a) Dist. formed 1886 from St. John, Upper Holloway, and St. Geo., Tufnell Pk. (fn. 60a) Patron trustees, Ch. Pastoral Aid Soc. by 1961. Three asst. curates 1892, 1 in 1896, none in 1926. Attendance 1903: 299 a.m.; 390 p.m. Bldg. of red brick with stone dressings in Perp. style by J. E. K. Cutts 1884-5: apsidal chancel with side chapels and E. vestry, aisled and clerestoried nave, W. vestibule, bellcot. Chapel of Resurrection by N. F. Cachemaille-Day 1935, given in memory of Mrs. Tufnell by her son. (fn. 61a) Ch. severely damaged 1941 and 1944; restored by A. Llewellyn Smith and rededicated 1953. (fn. 62a)
CHRIST CHURCH, Highbury Grove. Built following discussions by residents 1846. (fn. 63a) Dist. formed 1849 from Islington par. (fn. 64a) Parts assigned to St. Augustine, Highbury, 1871, and St. John, Highbury, 1882. Patron trustees. Usually 1 or 2 asst. curates between 1859 and 1966. Attendance 1851: 653 a.m.; 222 aft.; 387 evg.; 1903: 270 a.m.; 257 p.m. Served St. Padarn's Welsh mission ch. 1907. (fn. 65a) United with St. John, Highbury, 1979, (fn. 66a) and St. Saviour, Aberdeen Pk., 1981. (fn. 67a) Bldg. of Kentish rag with ashlar dressings in Dec. style by Thos. Allom, on site given by Hen. Dawes, 1847-8: unusual plan, with large central octagon and nave, transepts, chancel, all aisled and clerestoried; apsidal sanctuary; NW. tower and spire. Not oriented. Nave extended 1872 by Williams & Crouch. Windows in apse 1954 and transepts 1955. Seated 750 in 1851, 825 in 1896, (fn. 68a) 500 in 1982. (fn. 69a) Church hall, Leigh Rd., opened 1881. Mission hall in Whistler Rd. opened 1899. (fn. 70a)
EMMANUEL, Hornsey Road. Originated in small mission ch. from 1881 to 1884. Dist. formed 1886 from St. Mark, Tollington Pk., St. Paul, Upper Holloway, and St. Luke, W. Holloway. (fn. 71a) Patron trustees, Ch. Pastoral Aid Soc. by 1961. One asst. curate 1892, 2, in 1896, none in 1926. Served St. Padarn's Welsh mission ch. 1922-30. (fn. 72a) United with St. Barnabas, Hornsey Rd., 1945. (fn. 73a) Attendance 1903: 93 a.m.; 153 p.m. Red-brick bldg. in Early Eng. style by F. R. Farrow & E. S. Harris 1884: aisled and clerestoried nave and chancel under one long roof, transepts, curious turret at junction, tower at W. of S. aisle. Not oriented. Seated 800 in 1982. (fn. 74a)
HOLY TRINITY, Cloudesley Square. Dist. formed from Islington par. 1830. (fn. 75a) Parts assigned to All Saints, Caledonian Rd., 1839, St. And., Thornhill Sq., 1854, and St. Thos., Barnsbury, 1862. Patron V. of Islington until 1851, then trustees. (fn. 76a) Two asst. curates in 1859, 3 in 1896, none in 1926. Attendance 1851: 1,830 a.m.; 951 evg.; 1903: 360 a.m.; 476 p.m. Joined to St. And., Thornhill Sq., 1980 and ch. declared redundant. (fn. 77a) Buff brick bldg. with stone dressings in Perp. style by Sir Chas. Barry, on site given by Stonefields char. estate, 1826-9: small sanctuary, aisled and clerestoried nave, N. vestry, W. front with octagonal corner turrets. E. bay of nave furnished as chancel by E. Christian. Reseated and N. and S. galleries removed 1900. (fn. 78a) Seated 1,750 in 1851, 1,400 in 1896. (fn. 79a) Registers closed 1978. (fn. 80a) Bldg. taken over by Celestial Ch. of Christ 1980.
ST. ANDREW, Thornhill Square. Dist. formed 1854 from Holy Trinity and All Saints. (fn. 81a) Parts assigned to St. Thos., Barnsbury, 1862, and St. Mic. 1864; latter restored 1881. (fn. 82a) Patron V. of Trinity and Islington trustees. One asst. curate in 1866, 3 in 1896, 1 in 1907. Served St. Mic. until 1864. (fn. 83a) United with St. Thos., Barnsbury, 1953, with St. Matthias 1956, (fn. 84a) and with Holy Trinity 1980. (fn. 85a) Evangelical: open-air mtgs. in Clayton (later Tilloch) Street a regular feature before 1914. (fn. 86a) Attendance 1903: 219 a.m.; 348 p.m. Bldg. of Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings in Dec. style by Fras. B. Newman & John Johnson, on site given by Geo. Thornhill, 1852-4: chancel with N. and S. chapels, wide galleried transepts, aisled nave, SW. tower and broach spire. Seated 1,650; carved pulpit of Caen stone. (fn. 87a) Mission hall in East (later Gifford) Street opened 1882, closed after 1952; (fn. 88a) attendance 1903: 75 p.m. Helped found Paget Memorial mission hall, Randall Street. (fn. 89a)
ST. ANDREW, Whitehall Park. Originated in mission ch. built by St. John, Upper Holloway, 1887 to serve area between Highgate Hill and Holloway Rd. (fn. 90a) Dist. formed 1897. (fn. 91a) Patron trustees. No asst. curate 1907, 1 in 1947 and 1965. Attendance 1903: 351 a.m.; 363 p.m. Redbrick bldg. with stone dressings in an early Gothic style by Frederic Hammond, on triangular sloping site, 1894-5: apsidal chancel with vestries, transepts, aisled and clerestoried nave with transepts and bell flèche, W. porch. Seated 700 in 1907. (fn. 92a) Two 16th-cent. figures of St. Jas. and St. Sim. from Ram's chapel, Homerton, in transept windows, with pulpit also from chapel. (fn. 93a) Interior altered 1972 to accommodate par. hall at W. end of ch., retaining E. end for worship with seating for 250-300. Mission ch., Archway Rd., served as par. hall 1895-1972. (fn. 94a) Mission svces. attendance 1903: 46 a.m.; 58 p.m.
ST. ANNE, Poole's Park. Dist. formed from St. Mark, Tollington Pk., 1871. (fn. 95a) Patron V. of St. Mark, (fn. 96a) trustees by 1881, Ch. Patronage Soc. 1961. One asst. curate 1892, 1926, 1947, 2 in 1907. Joined to St. Mark between 1966 and 1970. (fn. 97a) Attendance 1903: 180 a.m.; 251 p.m. Iron ch. in Durham Rd. from c. 1866 until 1870, when it housed Nat. sch. (fn. 98a) Bldg. of multicoloured brick in Romanesque style by A. D. Gough 1870: narrow chancel, large aisled nave, N. vestries; SW. tower and spire by H. R. Gough 1877. (fn. 99a) Seated 1,050 in 1896. (fn. 1a) By 1957 mostly derelict for some years and used as hall; demol. 1965. (fn. 2a) Adjoining smaller ch. by Romilly Craze consecrated 1960; demol. by 1970. Mission in Palmerston Rd.; attendance 1903: 100 a.m.; 107 p.m.
ST. AUGUSTINE, Highbury New Park. Temp. ch. built 1864 for new area. (fn. 3a) Dist. formed 1871 from Christ Ch. and St. Paul. (fn. 4a) Patron Hen. Rydon, H. J. Rydon, then trustees. Two asst. curates 1881 and 1907, none in 1926. Attendance 1903: 778 a.m.; 722 p.m. First V., Gordon Calthrop, a well known preacher. (fn. 5a) Iron ch. in Highbury New Pk. built by Hen. Rydon on his estate in 1864, seating c. 850. Insufficient by 1868. Bldg. of stock brick in Dec. style with coloured bandings and stone dressings, seating 1,150, by Habershon & Brock paid for by Rydon, 1869-70: (fn. 6a) chancel flanked by organ chambers with vestries underneath, aisled and clerestoried nave, SW. tower. Additional seating necessary by 1873; W. gallery seating c. 200 added 1878, later removed. Choir vestry enlarged 1889. Ch. hall opened 1881. (fn. 7a) All svces. in larger hall built inside W. end of ch. c. 1970, interior of ch. being allowed to deteriorate, but hall too small by 1981. Restored ch., seating c. 800, used for svces. from 1982. (fn. 8a)
ST. BARNABAS, Harvist Rd., Hornsey Road. Dist. formed 1866 from parts of St. Mary, St. Jas., Lower Holloway, St. John, Upper Holloway, and St. Mark. (fn. 9a) Patron trustees. One asst. curate 1866, 3 in 1896, none in 1926. Attendance 1903: 174 a.m.; 231 p.m. Joined to Emmanuel 1945. (fn. 10a) Iron ch., possibly in Benwell Rd., (fn. 11a) used 1856-66. (fn. 12a) Bldg. in early Dec. style by T. K. Green 1864-6. Closed for worship 1945 and stood empty in 1966; (fn. 13a) demol. soon after, when area rebuilt as Harvist estate. Mission in former Wes. Meth. mission hall, Queensland Rd., from c. 1882. Attendance 1903: 57 a.m.; 156 p.m. Still in use 1924. (fn. 14a)
ST BARTHOLOMEW, Shepperton Road. Dist. formed 1865 from St. Steph., Canonbury Rd. (fn. 15a) Patron trustees. One asst. curate 1881, none in 1907. Attendance 1903: 96 a.m.; 83 p.m. Held svces. for St. Steph. 1927-38 and after St. Steph. was bombed 1940. Joined to St. Steph. unofficially in 1949 and officially from 1953. (fn. 16a) Bldg. in Early Eng. style, on part of site of nos. 9 and 10 New Norfolk Street Terr. (later Popham Rd.) and no. 1 Shepperton Street (later Rd.), by E. Clare 1861-2. (fn. 17a) Seated 1,000 in 1896. (fn. 18a) Demol. c. 1970.
ST. CLEMENT, St. Clement's Street, Westbourne Road. Dist. formed 1862 from St. Jas., Lower Holloway. (fn. 19a) Patron Cubitt fam., bp. of Lond. by 1955. One asst. curate 1881, 2 in 1896, 3 in 1907, none in 1947. Ch. founded by Geo. Cubitt, M.P., to be less Evangelical than other local chs. Attendance 1903: 134 a.m.; 232 p.m. From c. 1966 used as St. John the Baptist Greek ch. and by Anglicans on certain major festivals. Adjoining hall, bombed in Second World War, rebuilt with Anglican chapel seating c. 40 by 1973. Claimed to be only Anglo-Cath. ch. in area in 1973. (fn. 20a) Par. joined to St. David 1976. Iron ch. in Westbourne Rd. by 1857. (fn. 21a) Bldg. of stock brick with dressings of ashlar and coloured brick in Early Eng. style by Sir Gilb. Scott 1863-5: chancel with cradle roof, aisled and clerestoried nave with steeply pitched roof, W. end with large buttresses, 3 porches, and bellcot. (fn. 22a) Derelict 1983.
ST. DAVID, Westbourne Rd., Barnsbury (West Holloway). Dist. formed 1869 from St. Luke, W. Holloway. (fn. 23a) Patron trustees, Ch. Patronage Soc. 1961, 1973, bp. of Lond. 1981. One asst. curate 1892, 2 in 1896, 1 in 1907, none in 1947. Attendance 1903: 119 a.m.; 131 p.m. United with St. Clement 1976. (fn. 24a) Bldg. in transitional Gothic style by E. L. Blackburne 1866-9, burned 1935, rebuilt in brick with stone dressings by T. F. Ford and rededicated 1936: arcades and pieces of walls from former ch.; rest very plain with shallow E. apse, (fn. 25a) aisled and clerestoried nave with low-pitched roof. Seated 750 in 1896, (fn. 26a) 250 in 1982. (fn. 27a)
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI, see ST. LUKE.
ST. GEORGE, Carleton Rd., Tufnell Park. Founded 1858 after Hen. Hampton, min. at St. Luke's temp. ch. resigned and with other influential seceders built new temp. ch. V. of dist., St. John's, Upper Holloway, objected to new ch. as unnecessary; Hampton not licensed by bp. and ch. not recognized for Anglican worship, whereupon its c. 900 members formed Free Ch. of Eng. (fn. 28a) Despite ostracism, wealthy congregation flourished. Hampton left through an exchange in 1862 and first officially recognized V. took charge 1863. (fn. 29a) Dist. formed from St. John, Upper Holloway, and St. Luke. (fn. 30b) Patron trustees. One asst. curate 1881, 2 in 1896, none in 1926. Attendance 1903: 428 a.m.; 335 p.m. Temp. circular wooden ch. 1858, seating 900, in fields near present Chambers Rd., designed by Geo. Truefitt, surveyor to Tufnell Pk. estate: 84 ft. in diameter, 5 entrances, vestry and bell turret. Moved to Carleton Rd., Tufnell Pk. Rd., 1863. Permanent ch. of Kentish ragstone with ashlar dressings and banding of dark bricks in Dec. style, seating 1,022, built beside it, on land given by Tufnell Pk. estate trustees, by Truefitt 1866-7: (fn. 31b) unusual design, following temp. ch. and possibly based on ch. of St. Geo. at Salonika (Greece). (fn. 32b) Central octagon with circular ambulatory; apsidal-ended NW. and SW. arms; long apsidal chancel and long W. lobby; E. of aisles, chancel is surrounded by ambulatory leading to E. vestry. SW. porch added 1868. Detached tower with octagonal top and spire, later partly demol., 1875. (fn. 33b) Closed for roof repairs 1963 but vandalized and not reopened; sold 1970 and used as Shakespeare theatre 1982. (fn. 34b) Svces. in par. hall until new ch. to seat 500, at junction of Crayford and Carleton rds., by Clive Alexander, consecrated 1975: solid red-brown brick walls at ground level, with clerestory windows all round, flat roof; bell-frame outside front entrance, with tall free-standing cross. Mission ho. at no. 21 Ward Rd. 1895. No. 23. Hercules Rd. used as mission ho. from c. 1879 until Grafton hall, Eburne Rd., was built; survived 1975. (fn. 35b) Attendance at 2 missions 1903: 69 a.m.; 67 p.m.; 27 a.m.; 45 p.m.
ST. JAMES, Chillingworth (formerly Victoria) Rd., Lower Holloway. Dist. formed 1839 as St. Jas. the Apostle, Islington, from Islington par. (fn. 36b) Boundaries altered and name changed to St. Jas., Lower Holloway, 1846. (fn. 37b) Parts assigned to St. Clement 1862, St. Luke 1861, St. Barnabas 1861. Patron V. of Islington. Two asst. curates 1859, 1 in 1881, 3 in 1896, none in 1907. Wm. Bell Mackenzie, divine, first V. 1838-70, when par. very poor. (fn. 38b) Attendance 1851: 1, 591 a.m.; 1,700 evg.; 1903: 477 a.m.; 866 p.m. Some svces. held at St. Luke after ch. badly bombed 1944. Joined to St. Mary Magdalene 1954. (fn. 39b) Large neoclassical bldg. of stock brick with stone dressings, financed by private subscriptions, by H. W. Inwood & E. N. Clifton 1837-8 and enlarged at E. by Hambley of Holloway 1839: asymmetrical S. front with pedimented Ionic hexastyle centrepiece and short bell-tower; extended 1850. (fn. 40b) Seated 1,800 in 1851; 1,858 in 1896. (fn. 41b) Badly bombed 1944 and restored as par. hall constructed inside ch. 1952: derelict galleries and roof remain above. In 1982 used as hall for St. Mary Magdalene with St. Jas. Missions held at St. Jas.'s lecture hall, Eden Grove (built by 1879), (fn. 42b) 1903: attendance 106 a.m.; 143 p.m.
ST. JAMES THE APOSTLE, Prebend Street. Founded by Clothworkers' Company of Lond. under Act of 1872 to replace Lambe's chapel in Wood Street Sq. (Lond.). (fn. 43b) Dist. formed 1875 from St. Peter and St. Phil. (fn. 44b) Patron Clothworkers' Co. One asst. curate 1892, 2 in 1907, none in 1947. Attendance 1903: 117 a.m.; 173 p.m. Bldg. of Kentish rag in Early Eng. style by F. W. Porter, 1873-5: apsidal sanctuary, aisled and clerestoried nave with tower and spire on S. side. Figure of Lambe, 1612, from old chapel, in niche over door; 4 Flemish roundels, in old chapel 1577, placed here 1895. (fn. 45b) Mission in Britannia Row; attendance 1903: 51 p.m. Mission hall in converted wareho. at nos. 37 and 39, Britannia Row, conveyed to ch. 1908; sold by 1974. (fn. 46b)
ST. JOHN, Holloway Rd., Upper Holloway. Dist. formed 1830 from Islington par.; (fn. 47b) ch. served extensive area until creation of 14 daughter chs. Parts assigned to St. Mark 1854, St. Luke 1861, St. Barnabas 1866, St. Geo. 1868 and 1883, St. Paul, Upper Holloway, 1870, St. Mary, Brookfield (in St. Pancras), 1877, St. Peter, Upper Holloway, 1880, St. Steph., Upper Holloway, 1881. Patron V. of Islington, trustees by 1859. One asst. curate 1859, 3 in 1881, 2 in 1892, none in 1926. Hen. Venn, V. 1834-46, sec. of Ch. Missionary Soc. (fn. 48b) Attendance 1851: 1,300 a.m.; 200 aft.; 800 evg.; 1903: 632 a.m.; 752 p.m. Grey-brick bldg. with stone dressings in Perp. style, on site given by Corporation for Orphans of Clergymen, by Chas. Barry 1826-8: shallow sanctuary, aisled and clerestoried nave, slim pinnacled W. tower flanked with vestibules. Not oriented, Central pulpit removed 1900 and choir stalls inserted. (fn. 49b) Seated 1,600 in 1851, 1,750 in 1896. (fn. 50b) Mission, attendance 1903: 44 p.m.
ST. JOHN, Highbury Pk. (formerly Highbury Vale). Originated in iron ch. seating 400 in Park Pl. (later Conewood St.) opened 1875. (fn. 51b) Dist. formed 1882 from Christ Ch. (fn. 52b) Patron trustees. Asst. curates from 1887: one in 1892, none in 1896, 1907, one in 1926, none 1944-8; last one left 1970. (fn. 53b) Attendance 1903: 240 a.m.; 310 p.m. Staunchly Evangelical except during incumbency of Hen. Martin Sanders, 1900-11. Par. joined to Christ Ch. 1978. Bldg. of stock brick in Dec. style, on part of Cream Hall estate, by Wm. Bassett Smith 1881: apsidal chancel with N. chapel divided off to from vestry, transepts, aisled nave. Closed from 1979 and stood disused 1981. Mission hall at no. 164 Blackstock Rd. from c. 1891 to 1934. Attendance 1903: 22 p.m. Par. hall 1936 on site in Conewood Street given by Misses Quick. (fn. 54b)
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, Cleveland Road. Dist. formed 1873 from St. Paul, Ball's Pond. (fn. 55b) Site for ch. conveyed 1860, (fn. 56b) and chapelry served from St. Paul by 1866. (fn. 57b) Patron V. of St. Paul. One asst. curate 1896 and 1947. Attendance 1903: 119 a.m.; 220 p.m. Registers closed 1967; benefice joined to St. Steph. 1971. (fn. 58b) Simple bldg. of stock brick in Dec. style, by Wm. Wigginton on triangular corner site 1871-2: apsidal chancel, nave, N. and S. aisles. Damaged 1940, 1944; svces. held in ch. hall. Declared redundant 1971, (fn. 59b) and demol. by 1981. Mission in James Street; attendance 1903: 71 p.m.
ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, Copenhagen Street, see ALL SAINTS, missions.
ST. JUDE, Mildmay Grove. Dist. formed 1856 from St. Paul. (fn. 60b) Patron V. of St. Paul, trustees from 1907. Three asst. curates 1866, 1 in 1892 and 1981. Gave much support for missionary work: par. collected for 22 socs. and missions, home and abroad, 1899. (fn. 61b) Wm. Pennefather, V. 1864-73, hymn-writer and leading churchman, founded Mildmay Conference which led to many permanent organizations for home and foreign mission work; few clergymen exercised a wider personal influence; known throughout England as mission preacher. His wid. Cath. (d. 1893), hymn-writer, continued religious work at Mildmay Pk. (fn. 62b) Attendance 1903: 436 a.m.; 385 p.m. Joined with St. Paul 1982. (fn. 63b) Bldg. of Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings in mixed Dec. and Perp. styles by A. D. Gough 1855: originally chancel, transepts with galleries, nave with galleries at W., thin tower with spire centrally on S.; seated 1,072 in 1855. (fn. 64b) Enlarged in similar style 1871 by Edwin Clare, with addition of long chancel, aisles, and clerestory. Choir vestry added on S. of chancel 1906. Seated 1,200 in 1896; (fn. 65b) 350 in 1982. (fn. 66b) Church forms part of group with Vicarage to W. and schs. and adjoining hos. to N. Missions in St. Jude's lecture hall, King Henry Street, attendance 1903: 36 p.m.; at St. Jude's schs., King Henry's Walk, attendance 1903: 88 a.m.; 73 p.m.
ST. LUKE, Penn and Hillmarton roads. One of chs. founded by Islington Ch. Extension Soc. 1855. Svces. in sch. room in York Rd., accommodating 200, until temp. ch. built. (fn. 67b) Dist. formed 1861 from St. John, Upper Holloway, and St. Jas., Lower Holloway. (fn. 68b) Parts assigned to St. Geo., Tufnell Pk., 1868, and St. David, W. Holloway, 1869. Patron trustees. One asst. curate 1866, none in 1926. Attendance 1903: 267 a.m.; 268 p.m. Circular wooden ch. 1855-6 at rear of Holloway Castle hotel, S. side Camden Rd. (fn. 69b) Bldg. of Kentish rag and Bath stone in Middle Pointed style by Chas. Lee consecreated 1860: chancel, transepts, nave, NW. tower and spire; seated 967 in 1896. (fn. 70b) Choir vestry and ch. room built 1903. N. transept destroyed 1941. Rededicated after repair 1956. New bldg. by A. Llewellyn Smith 1961 on site of N. transept. Seated 600 in 1982. (fn. 71b) Mission hall in Goodinge Rd., North Rd., attendance 1903: 34 a.m.; 63 p.m. Demol. when area rebuilt, and replaced by a chapel of ease, St. Fras. of Assisi Ch. Centre, North Rd., 1976; seated 100 in 1982. (fn. 72b)
ST. MARK, Tollington Park. Dist. formed 1854 from St. John, Upper Holloway. (fn. 73b) Parts assigned to St. Mary, Hornsey Rise, 1865, St. Barnabas 1866, St. Paul, Upper Holloway, 1870, St. Anne 1871. Patron V. of St. John, Upper Holloway, until after 1972, Ch. Pastoral Aid Soc. 1981. One asst. curate 1859, 3 in 1881, 2 in 1926, 1 in 1981. Joined to St. Anne between 1966 and 1970. (fn. 74b) Attendance 1903: 301 a.m.; 327 p.m. Bldg. of Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings in Early Eng. style by A. D. Gough 1853-4: chancel flanked by vestries, wide transepts into aisled and clerestoried nave, thin SW. tower and spire. Not oriented. Walls of nave and galleries in transepts removed 1884 and new aisles, by F. R. Farrow, built. New vestry and E. window 1904. Seated 950 in 1896, 700 in 1907. (fn. 75b) Mission hall on W. side Hornsey Rd., near Tollington Way; attenance 1903: 83 a.m.; 77 p.m.
ST. MARY, Ashley Rd., Hornsey Rise. Benefice formed 1861; (fn. 76b) dist. 1865 from St. Mark. (fn. 77b) Parts assigned to St. Paul, Upper Holloway, 1870, and St. Steph., Upper Holloway, 1881 (qq.v.). Patron Islington trustees. One asst. Curate 1881, none in 1896, 2 in 1961. Attendance 1903: 305 a.m.; 252 p.m. Bldg. of Kentish rag in Dec. style by A. D. Gough 1860-1, on site presented by Mr. Warlters: small sanctuary, wide transepts, aisled and Clerestoried nave; thin SW. tower and spire added 1868. New E. aisles built to transepts, N., S., and W. porches added, chancel roof altered, and W. gallery built 1883-4. (fn. 78b) New W. porch after 1895. Fittings include screening formerly in St. Paul's, Hampstead. (fn. 79b) Seated 650 in 1982. (fn. 80b) Mission in Hornsey Rd., attendance 1903: 114 a.m.; 106 p.m. Mission hall in Marlborough Rd. 1961.
ST. MARY MAGDALENE (formerly the chapel of ease), Holloway Road. First new ch. in Islington, built under Act of 1811 to relieve par. ch. (fn. 81b) Renamed and dist. formed 1894. (fn. 82b) Patron V. of Islington. One asst. curate 1859, 2 in 1896, 1 in 1947 and 1981. Strongly Evangelical under T. C. Ralph, V. 1931-44, and A. W. Goodwin Hudson, V. 1948-55, later dean of Sydney. (fn. 83b) Attendance 1851: 1,336 a.m.; 1,100 p.m.; 1903: 495 a.m.; 748 p.m. United with St. Jas., Chillingworth Rd., 1954. Plain neo-classical bldg. of stock brick with Bath stone dressings, seating 1,324, by Wm. Wickings, Mdx. county surveyor, 1812-14. Paid for by par. rate and annuities, later found to be illegal; cost greatly exceeded estimate and led to much controversy. (fn. 84b) Part of Stonefields char. income also used for maintenance, which became a fixed annual sum of £350 in 1902. (fn. 85b) E. tower with Ionic pilasters and urns, flanked by vestibules with Tuscan porches; body of ch. a large galleried hall over crypts; Tuscan W. porch. Ceiling with coves and 3 roses. Upper galleries in NW. and SW. corners demol., windows inserted at ends of N. and S. galleries and W. ends of aisles, and reseated 1895. Restoration 1910 by J. R. Manning & W. Gilbee Scott. Seating increased to 1,371 in 1851; 1,500 in 1907. Changes to interior in 1983 greatly reduced nave to make way for offices and meeting rooms. (fn. 86b) Site included 4 a. for burial ground, closed 1856 except for private vaults; taken over by vestry and L.C.C. 1894 as public pk. (fn. 87b)
ST. MATTHEW, Essex Road. Originated as temp. St. Paul's Episcopal chapel, New Norfolk Street (later Ecclesbourne Rd.), 1836-51, in bldg. formerly Wes. chapel, seating 300. (fn. 88b) Attendance 1851: 282 a.m.; 237 evg. Dist. formed 1851 from St. Paul, Ball's Pond. (fn. 89b) Patron V. of St. Paul. One asst. Curate 1866, 2 in 1892, 1 in 1907, none in 1947. Attendance 1903: 197 a.m.; 275 p.m. Joined to St. Steph., Canonbury, 1953. (fn. 90b) Bldg. of Kentish rag with stone dressings in Perp. style by A. D. Gough 1850. (fn. 91b) Chancel, transepts, aisled nave, SW. tower with spire. In damaged condition 1944. (fn. 92b) Demol. by 1966. Rosemary Branch mission, Shepperton Street, extant 1872-9, 1895-1949; (fn. 93b) attendance 1903: 111 a.m.; 219 p.m. Mission at ch. room next to no. 19 Ecclesbourne Rd. until c. 1946; attendance 1903: 138 p.m. Mission hall, Raynor Pl., until c. 1946. (fn. 94b)
ST. MATTHIAS, Caledonian Road. Opened 1868 as chapel of ease of St. Luke in former Caledonian Rd. Presb. ch. Dist. formed 1888 from St. Luke, W. Holloway, and St. And. (fn. 95b) Patron trustees. One asst. Curate 1896, none in 1926. Joined to St. And., Thornhill Sq., 1956. (fn. 96b) Ragstone bldg. in Gothic style with twin W. porches by John Barnett & Birch c. 1853; chancel and S. chapel by Wm. Smith 1883; consecrated 1886. (fn. 97b) Used as chapel of ease to St. And. 1956- 72; (fn. 98b) nave used as sports hall 1970s. Declared redundant 1978. (fn. 99b) Demol. by 1981.
ST. MICHAEL, Bingfield Street, York Way. Originated in temp. ch. in boys' sch., Bingfield Street, by 1853. (fn. 1b) Perpetual curacy under St. And., Thornhill Sq., by 1859. (fn. 2b) Dist. formed 1864 from St. And. and endowed with ground rents of £198. (fn. 3b) Patron trustees 1866, Mrs. Shaw for life 1881 and 1892, G. Evans and Revd. W. A. Croft-Atkins 1907, bp. of Lond. by 1961. One asst. curate 1866, 2 in 1892, 1 in 1907. Attendance 1903: 370 a.m.; 189 p.m. Church 'very Oxford Movement' following incumbency of Clarence Simes, 1924-69. (fn. 4b) Joined to St. And. 1977. Stock brick bldg. with red and black decoration by R. L. Roumieu 1863-4: apsidal chancel, with N. chapel and small S. sacrament chapel, aisled and clerestoried nave, large SW. porch. Reopened 1954 after repairs. (fn. 5b) Closed 1973 and partly derelict 1981.
ST. PADARN'S WELSH CHURCH (extraparochial), Salterton Rd., Seven Sisters Road. Temp. iron ch. opened by 1903 by Lond. community belonging to Ch. in Wales, in connexion with N. Lond. Welsh Ch. mission. Served from Christ Ch., Highbury, 1907, but own min. licensed 1909; served from Emmanuel 1922-30. Patron bp. of Lond. Attendance 1903: 13 a.m.; 50 p.m. Permanent ch. after 1909, possibly by 1912. Yellow-brick bldg. with red-brick dressings in Early Eng. style: sanctuary, nave, W. vestibule. Closed 1970s, sold 1982 to British followers of Archbp. Lefebvre as Rom. Cath. ch. (fn. 6b)
ST. PAUL, Essex Road. Dist. formed 1830 from Islington par. (fn. 7b) Parts assigned to St. Mat. 1851, St. Jude 1856, St. Augustine 1871, and St. John the Baptist, Cleveland Rd., 1873. Patron trustees. One asst. curate 1859, 2 in 1866, none in 1926. Attendance 1851: 1,600 a.m.; 200 aft.; 900 evg.; 1903: 505 a.m.; 551 p.m. Most svces. held at St. Jude by 1981; par. to be joined to St. Jude 1982. (fn. 8b) Bldg. of grey brick with stone dressings in Perp. style by Chas. Barry, 1826-8, on site given by marquess of Northampton: similar to St. John, Upper Holloway, with sanctuary, aisled and clerestoried nave and galleries, but with pinnacled E. tower over altar, flanked by later apsidal vestries. Choir 1880, new choir vestry 1900. Tower contains entrances to galleries only. (fn. 9b) Seated 1,800 in 1851; 1,000 in 1981. (fn. 10b)
ST. PAUL, Kingsdown (formerly Brougham) Road. Dist. formed 1870 from St. John, Upper Holloway, St. Mary, Hornsey Rise, and St. Mark, Tollington Pk. (fn. 11b) Patron trustees. Three asst. curates 1881, none in 1892, 1 in 1907. Attendance 1903: 254 a.m.; 291 p.m. Joined to St. Saviour, Tollington Pk., 1953. (fn. 12b) Site for ch. conveyed to Bp. of Lond.'s Fund 1867 and ch. by Jarvis built but not consecrated by 1870. (fn. 13b) Closed 1953 and demol.
ST. PETER, Devonia Rd., Islington Green. Dist. formed 1839 from St. Mary, Islington, and enlarged 1858. (fn. 14b) Part assigned to St. Jas., Prebend Street, 1875. Patron V. of Islington. One asst. curate 1859, 2 in 1881, 4 in 1892, 1 in 1907. Attendance 1851: 1,220 a.m.; 970 evg.; 1903: 345 a.m.; 354 p.m. Joined to St. Jas., Prebend Street, 1982. (fn. 15b) Stock brick bldg. in Early Eng. style by Chas. Barry 1834-5: plain and box-like, with corner pinnacles. Enlarged and embellished 1842-3 (fn. 16b) with NW. spire with flying buttresses, new W. front; transepts, short sanctuary, and vestry added later. Seated 1,500 in 1851. Reseated 1884, when NE. porch replaced by vestry and upper galleries on each side removed. (fn. 17b) Seated 1,060 in 1896. (fn. 18b) By 1966 it housed the Angel's throne from Cath. Apostolic ch., Duncan Street. (fn. 19b) Ch. declared redundant 1982, and alternative use sought to preserve tower and W. front. (fn. 20b)
ST. PETER, Dartmouth Park Hill. Opened as St. Peter, Highgate Hill, 1874. (fn. 21b) Dist. formed 1880 from St. John, Upper Holloway. (fn. 22b) Patron trustees. One asst. curate 1892, 2 in 1907, 1 in 1926, 1965. Attendance 1903: 272 a.m.; 461 p.m.United with St. John, Upper Holloway, 1978. (fn. 23b) Red-brick bldg. with stone dressings in Early Gothic style by C. L. Luck 1879-80: short sanctuary, aisled and clerestoried nave, W. front with octagonal turrets and large central bellcot; S. vestry added 1955. Seated 730 in 1896. (fn. 24b) Mission at St. Peter's schs., Highgate; attendance 1903: 219 a.m.
ST. PHILIP, Arlington Square. Dist. formed 1858 from St. Steph., Canonbury, and St. Mary, Islington. (fn. 25b) Part assigned to St. Jas., Prebend Street, 1875. Patron trustees. One asst. curate 1866, 2 in 1892, 1 in 1896, none in 1926. Attendance 1903: 183 a.m.; 271 p.m. Joined to St. Jas. under 1953 Scheme. (fn. 26b) Bldg. of Kentish rag with stone dressings in ornate Norman style by A. D. Gough 1855: NW. tower square with short spire and Rhenish roof. (fn. 27b) Closed 1953 and demol.
ST. SAVIOUR, Aberdeen Park. Ch. built by Revd. W. D. Morrice who owned land around it. (fn. 28b) Patron W. D. Morrice and sons, followed by bp. of Lond. One asst. curate in 1881 and 1926. Attendance 1903: 205 a.m.; 140 p.m. Benefice joined to Christ Ch. 1981. Red-brick bldg. in Early Eng. style by Wm. White consec. 1866: chancel with N. organ chamber and S. chapel, transepts, aisled and clerestoried nave with short additional bay at W. end, central octagonal lantern tower with short spire. Square brick piers in nave. (fn. 29b) Seated 450 in 1896. (fn. 30c) Subject of poem by Sir John Betjeman, whose parents worshipped there. Attendance in single figures 1970s; svces. held in Vicarage 1980 and ch. closed. Declared redundant 1981. Highly thought of architecturally and efforts being made for its preservation 1982. (fn. 31c)
ST. SAVIOUR, Hanley Rd., Tollington Park. Dist. formed 1888 from St. Mark, Tollington Pk., and St. Mary, Hornsey Rise. (fn. 32c) Patron trustees, Ch. Pastoral Aid Soc. by 1961. One asst. curate 1892, none in 1907. Attendance 1903: 428 a.m.; 423 p.m. United with St. Paul, Kingsdown Rd., 1953. Red-brick bldg. with stone dressings in Dec. style by J. P. Cutts: aisled and clerestoried nave built 1887-8; chancel and vestries 1890; small bellcot over chancel arch; W. porches 1900. Proposed tower never built. Ch. repaired 1961. Seated 200 in 1982. (fn. 33c)
ST. STEPHEN, Canonbury (formerly New North) Road. Dist. formed 1839 from St. Mary, Islington. (fn. 34c) Parts assigned to St. Phil. 1858 and St. Bart. 1865. Patron V. of Islington. One asst. curate 1859, 2 in 1892, none in 1907. Attendance 1851: 874 a.m.; 406 aft.; 511 evg.; 1903: 152 a.m.; 281 p.m. United with St. Bart. 1939, and with St. Mat. 1953. (fn. 35c) Pale brick bldg. in Gothic style by W. and H. W. Inwood & E. N. Clifton 1837-9: E. front with octagonal turret and spire and small turrets at sides, flying buttresses. Two E. porches added 1850, later removed, and ch. lengthened by A. D. Gough. (fn. 36c) Seated 1,341 in 1851; 1,100 in 1896. (fn. 37c) Bombed and burnt out 1940; reconstructed by A. Llewellyn Smith & A. W. Waters 1957. Shortened to make room for vestries and chapel, and interior reoriented. Organ incorporates organ from St. Mat. (fn. 38c)
ST. STEPHEN, Elthorne Road. Originated as mission ch. in Elthorne Rd. Founded by St. John, Upper Holloway, c. 1877 to serve artisans in dist. and servants of those living near St. John's. (fn. 39c) Dist. formed 1881 from St.John and St.Mary, Hornsey Rise. (fn. 40c) Patron bp. of Lond. One asst. curate 1892, none in 1896, 1 in 1926, 1961. Attendance 1903: 76 a.m.; 161 p.m. Rebldg. of 30 a. around ch. from 1966 slowly destroyed congregation. Decision to join with St. Mary, Hornsey Rise, 1980. (fn. 41c) Red-brick bldg. with stone dressings in an Early Eng. style by E. Christian 1879-80: small chancel without arch, nave with aisles, triple gabled W. Front with vestibule, flèche. Not oriented. Seated 700-800. Unusual sloping floor to nave. Ch. Closed 1980 and demol. 1983. (fn. 42c) Mission ch. became ch. hall 1880. (fn. 43c) Missions held there; attendance 1903: 47 a.m. Demol. 1970s.
ST. THOMAS, Hemingford Rd., Barnsbury. Dist. formed 1862 from St. And., Thornhill Sq., and Holy Trinity. (fn. 44c) Patron trustees. One asst. curate 1892, none in 1896, 1907, 1 in 1926. Attendance 1903: 100 a.m.; 174 p.m. Joined to St. And. 1953. (fn. 45c) Bldg. of Kentish rag with stone dressings in Dec. style by A. Billing consecrated 1860: nave, aisles. Seated 1,026 in 1896, 950 in 1907. (fn. 46c) Registers closed 1946, and ch. demol. after 1953. St. Thos.'s mission room, Twyford Street, opened by 1902. (fn. 47c) Attendance 1903 (as St. John, Twyford Street): 89 p.m.
ST. THOMAS, St. Thomas's Rd., Finsbury Park. Originated as mission dist. c. 1880; svces. in new but unlicensed public ho., then in brick mission room. Former iron nonconf. chapel erected on site for permanent ch. Par. formed 1888, consisting of 6-7,000 people nearly all of 'lower middle class', from St. Anne, Tollington Pk. (fn. 48c) Patron abp. of Canterbury. Three asst. curates 1896, 2 in 1907, 1 in 1926. Attendance 1903: 495 a.m.; 443 p.m. Red-brick bldg. with stone dressings in Early Eng. style, built as successor to St. Mat., Friday Street (Lond.) by E. Christian 1889: chancel, nave with wide aisles, S. porch, triple gabled W. front with vestibule, flèche. Wagon roofs; dormer windows in chancel. Parsonage, vestry, and hall, 1901, built on S. Seated 900 in 1896, 800 in 1907. (fn. 49c) Mission ho. at no. 100 St. Thomas's Rd. by 1894. (fn. 50c)