A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 9, Hampstead, Paddington. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1989.
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Hampstead church apparently originated in a chapel built to serve the manor of Hampstead when it lay within Hendon parish. The chapel was first mentioned in the period 1244-8, when it was included in the valuation of the rectory and vicarage of Hendon, (fn. 1) as it was again in 1262-3. (fn. 2) It may have been founded by the Barentyns when they held the manor from the reign of Henry II until c. 1255, (fn. 3) because in 1333 the king as guardian of the heir of Gilbert de Barentyn granted the chapel in the manor of Hampstead to Stephen de Duddeley, king's clerk. (fn. 4) This grant may have been erroneous or an assertion of right, since the manor had been returned to Westminster abbey in the meantime (fn. 5) and had been valued as part of Hendon rectory; (fn. 6) the grant probably never took effect. (fn. 7)
The process by which Hampstead gained independence from Hendon is uncertain. In 1365 the church and cemetery at Hampstead were dedicated by the bishop of London. (fn. 8) The chapel was referred to as a parish church, and its chaplains were called parish priests, in 1382, 1384, 1413, and 1441. (fn. 9) The chapel was not mentioned at the institution of the rector of Hendon in 1433, (fn. 10) and property was described as being in Hampstead parish in 1470. (fn. 11) However, the chapel was not valued in 1535, (fn. 12) and no first fruits, tenths, or synodial or other dues were charged; (fn. 13) the tithes presumably still went to Hendon, leaving Hampstead in that regard part of Hendon parish. Moreover, in 1461, 1466, and 1477 the rectors of Hendon were instituted to that church with the chapel of Hampstead annexed to it; (fn. 14) no wills have been found to indicate whether Hampstead still had its own chaplain who carried out burials there. It is not clear whether the annexation was mentioned because of a new arrangement about the chapel, or because of a desire to check a growing independence at Hampstead. A definite change did occur in 1478 when Westminster abbey, the patron of Hendon, appropriated the rectory and the annexed chapel and became responsible for providing a chaplain at Hampstead. It was probably then that Hampstead became a separate perpetual curacy in the gift of Westminster. (fn. 15) The vestiges of Hampstead's dependence on Hendon were represented in 1826 in a clause of the Act for rebuilding Hampstead church, which protected the rights of the vicar of Hendon. (fn. 16)
In 1541 the chapel and its advowson were part of the grant by the Crown to the new bishopric of Westminster, (fn. 17) and in 1542-3 the chapel was described as annexed to the manor of Hampstead; (fn. 18) both manor and chapel were returned to the Crown by the bishop in 1550. (fn. 19) In the same year the chapel with its tithes and emoluments were included in a grant of the manor to Sir Thomas Wroth, (fn. 20) who thereby became the lay rector. The advowson was not mentioned but presumably passed to Wroth and succeeding lords, as Baptist Noel, Viscount Campden, held the right to appoint ministers in 1650, (fn. 21) and the advowson of the so-called vicarage of Hampstead was included in the sale of the manor and rectory in 1707. (fn. 22) In 1801 the Wilson family granted the next presentation to William White for £1,890. (fn. 23)
The advowson passed with the manor until 1929, when Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson sold it together with the advowson of Holy Trinity, Hampstead, to Sir Charles King-Harmon and the Martyrs Memorial Trust for £2,700. The sale, which affected the patronage of four other churches in Hampstead, aroused an outcry since neither the incumbent nor the congregation had been consulted. The parochial church council, fearing that the work of the vicar, H. T. Carnegie, in promoting good relations between Anglicans of different outlooks might be undone, would itself have purchased the advowson. The matter was raised in parliament but was left to a committee of the Church Assembly, leading to the Benefices Measure of 1933. The measure enabled Hampstead parochial church council to buy the advowson in 1935: when King-Harmon refused its offer, the matter went to arbitration and in 1936 the advowson was transferred to the diocesan board of patronage. (fn. 24)
No vicarage was created and the incumbents were properly styled perpetual curates until the District Churches Tithes Act Amendment Act, 1868. The tithes great and small of Hampstead, which belonged to the lord of the manor as impropriator, are treated above as part of the manorial estate. (fn. 25) In 1548 the rector, the bishop of Westminster, paid £10 a year to a chaplain to serve the cure. (fn. 26) By his will of 1629, Baptist Hicks, Viscount Campden, settled a moiety of the tithes of Woodhorn (Northumb.), due to him after the death of the earl of Northumberland, on the church and chapel of Hampstead to maintain an able preacher; the church had to pay half the fee farm of £34 13s. 4d. reserved to the Crown. (fn. 27) John Sprint, minister 1633-58, let the tithes in 1648 for 3 years at £50 a year, out of which he paid the fee farm. Sprint's other income in 1650 was £50 a year paid as a supplement by Baptist Noel, Viscount Campden, on the instructions of the Committee for Compounding, by which Campden reduced his fine as a delinquent. (fn. 28) In the earlier 18th century four successive curates each received a grant from the lord of the manor of the rectory, all tithes except corn and hay, the chancel with the benefit of the seats there, and a dwelling house in Hampstead. In addition they continued to receive the moiety of the Woodhorn tithes, which were let for £120 a year by a lease expiring in 1783, and in 1832 would have given the incumbent £422 10s. from the tithe composition for that year, had they not been abated because of agricultural distress. (fn. 29) In 1835 the incumbent received a net income of £887 out of which he paid £80 to his assistant curate. (fn. 30)
The lord provided a house and garden worth £5 a year for the incumbent in 1650. (fn. 31) In 1757 the lord gave £50 to Dr. Warren towards furnishing his new house at Hampstead, and in 1762 the incumbent inhabited a parsonage house on the east side of High Street, near its southern end, (fn. 32) possibly the site of the house of 1650. In 1835 the house was described as unfit for residence: the incumbent was living at Frognal by 1833, but his successor was at the parsonage house, High Street, presumably the house of 1762, in 1851. (fn. 33) The house was sold in 1923. No. 14 Church Row was bought in 1924 and was the Vicarage in 1981. (fn. 34)
Few medieval parish priests are known. There is no evidence that John de Newport served Hampstead chapel. (fn. 35) John Abingdon, parish priest of Hampstead, was required in 1382 to answer for debts, for which he had been summoned in the previous reign (probably the 1370s): (fn. 36) John, parish priest of Hampstead, ordered to be released in 1384 after imprisonment at the suit of William Woodward for rape and abduction of his wife and goods, may have been the same man. (fn. 37) The only other medieval parish priest known for certain was John Bastard, recorded in 1413. (fn. 38) Robert Henry, clerk, pardoned in 1347 for the death of another Hampstead man, (fn. 39) and John Cuchow, ordained priest in 1370, (fn. 40) may also have served the chapel, since both were described as of Hampstead. A succession of ministers is known from 1545. (fn. 41)
From the late 17th century most of the perpetual curates held Hampstead with other livings: Langhorn Warren held livings in Essex and Kent, besides two other rectories at different times for short periods; he was resident in Hampstead for only six months of the year. (fn. 42) Of the ministers in the 18th and 19th centuries the most outstanding was Thomas Ainger, incumbent 1841-63 and canon of St. Paul's 1859-63. He was an energetic pastor and poor-law guardian, who enlarged the church, reorganized and rebuilt the schools, and helped to found a dispensary and to provide new churches as the population grew. (fn. 43)
The extent of episcopal jurisdiction was often felt to be uncertain, possibly because the incumbents were not instituted by the bishop. In 1709 the parishioners approached the lord to rebuild the chapel, as they believed that the bishop could not grant them a faculty and they could not be helped by a diocesan collection. (fn. 44) In 1725, when the incumbent tried to ban preaching in the Wells chapel, it was stated that during the incumbency of Samuel Nalton (1678-1706) the bishop had been refused permission to visit the church and children had been sent to Highgate for confirmation. (fn. 45) Hampstead's parish officers, however, attended the bishop's visitations from the earliest recorded in 1554, (fn. 46) and there is nothing in the diocesan records to suggest any alternative jurisdiction.
The chapel had lights for St. Mary in 1441 (fn. 47) and for St. Christopher in 1494. (fn. 48) In 1548 the lights on the high altar were kept for 2s. 4d. a year by arrangement with Eton College; there were two small obits. (fn. 49) In 1658 John Rixton left 20s. a year to the minister for a sermon in April. (fn. 50) In the early 18th century Esther Blondell left annuities worth 40s. in trust for a sermon by the minister on Good Friday. (fn. 51) William Pierce left stock in 1771 to provide £24 a year for evening prayer and the litany with a lecture every Friday, with payments for candles, for ringing the bell, and to the clerk for attending; £3 a year was to be spent on bibles and prayer books for the poor. (fn. 52) Occasional clashes occurred between minister and parishioners over who was entitled to appoint the lecturer. (fn. 53) By the late 18th century services were held twice on Sundays and once on Wednesdays, Fridays, and holy days, besides the lecture and prayers on Friday evening. Communion was held monthly and at the three great festivals, and was fairly well attended. (fn. 54)
The medieval chapel was dedicated to ST. MARY, probably following the dedication of Hen don church, by 1441. (fn. 55) It served the whole parish until the early 18th century, when proprietary chapels were opened. (fn. 56) The building was demolished in 1745 and is known only from engravings of the church from the south-east published after that date, one of c. 1860 after a view by J. E. dated 1640 and several others published from 1750 on. The latter, which are slightly more easterly, are thought to have been taken from a painting made shortly before demolition rather than from the view of 1640, from which they differ in detail though most of the architectural features are the same. The low, rambling building apparently had a 14th-century nave with a steeply pitched tiled roof with dormers, one very large, and a Perpendicular north aisle under a separate roof. The walls were of brick or small stone, with stone dressings. There was a two-storeyed south porch, which had a sundial on a gable in the 18th century, and the main entrance was said to have been at the west end, where there was a bell-tower of wood. In 1640 the tower had a well proportioned steeple-like roof. In the later prints a low roof, making the tower appear squat, and the general air of decrepitude may represent artistic licence, but more probably indicate rebuilding and decay. The later engravings also show a north-west extension, either a porch or a vestry. (fn. 57) John Rixton (d. 1658) bequeathed money to repair the belfry, and 20s. a year to repair the north-west side and end of the church. (fn. 58) Constant repairs were made during the late 17th century, (fn. 59) but in 1709 the minister and inhabitants complained that the chapel had for some time been so ruinous that many stayed away lest it should fall on them. Great sums had been spent but no further repairs were possible. (fn. 60) Failure to replace the fabric may have given the impetus for the opening of the proprietary chapels. (fn. 61) More repairs were carried out, apparently by Sir William Langhorne, and in 1733 the churchwardens brought bills for repairs to the manorial court for payment. (fn. 62)
Only in 1745 was the old church replaced, after the parishioners, advised in 1740 that the cost would be too onerous to leave to the lord, (fn. 63) and failing to secure parliamentary funds, raised a subscription and appointed trustees from those who paid £20 or more. The funds included £1,000 given for rebuilding by Sir William Langhorne in 1714, and the deficit was made up by mortgaging the offertory and pew rents. Subscribers were illegally allocated pews and, despite advice in 1777, an Act to legitimize the trustees' activities was not obtained until 1827. The Act vested pew rents in the trustees to pay for the upkeep of the church, making the parish virtually exempt from church rates. (fn. 64)
The new church, consecrated in 1747, was dedicated simply to ST. JOHN, whom the bishop further identified in 1917 as St. John the Evangelist. (fn. 65) The trustees appointed John Sanderson, a local builder, to design and build the new church. (fn. 66) It had five bays and a sanctuary of plain London brick with Portland stone dressings in classical style, with an unusual embattled tower at the east end over the sanctuary; part of the spire had to be rebuilt in 1759, and in 1784 the tower was extended and given a taller copper spire. Alterations in 1756 increased the accommodation. The church was entered from the east end by two doors. flanking the tower and opening almost directly to the sanctuary. The tunnel vault of the nave was supported on Ionic columns with galleries between. In 1843-4 Robert Hesketh added transepts, an extension westward, and a new large gallery; reseating increased the accommodation to 1,600, and the interior decoration possibly dated from that time. (fn. 67) In 1851 969 of the seats were free and attendance on census Sunday was 1,144 in the morning, 500 in the afternoon, and 900 in the evening. (fn. 68) By 1870 a new building was proposed but it was decided to rebuild the tower farther east, allowing room for an extension. In the resulting outcry, the beauty of Church Row and the church as a group was stressed by many leading architects and artists, led by Sir George Gilbert Scott. He proposed a new chancel at the west end built in 1878 to designs by F. P. Cockerell, adding c. 400 sittings. (fn. 69) The interior was thus turned round; the new sanctuary had a balustraded parapet, and the galleries new open fronts. Decoration of the chancel, with the reredos and choirstalls, was by Thomas G. Jackson, 1878, but much of the chancel decoration was removed in the 1950s. (fn. 70) The pulpit is 18th-century. The tomb of the benefactor John Rixton was retained from the old church.
Monuments in the church include those to Charles Duncan (d. 1806), the Hon. Frances Erskine (d. 1809), Louisa Lownds (d. 1811), and Marianne Beresford (d. 1818), all by John Bacon the younger, to Samuel White (d. 1841) by William Graves, to William Bleamire (d. 1803) by Joseph Kendrick, to T. N. Longman (1771-1842) by Christopher Moore, and to George Todd (d. 1829) by Sir Richard Westmacott. (fn. 71)
Except for a paten presented in 1701, the communion plate was given in 1747 or later, including three pieces of the early 17th century. (fn. 72) Attendance in 1886 was 754 in the morning and 753 in the evening. (fn. 73) In 1903 it had fallen slightly to 695 in the morning and 507 in the evening. (fn. 74) In 1970 the church used Anglo-Catholic ritual, (fn. 75) but by the 1980s it used different rites on alternate Sundays, with the full choir on the first Sunday of each month. It was also claimed to be one of the few churches which retained English church music as part of worship, with a long established musical tradition. Scholarships were available for choir boys and Hampstead Music Trust was formed to help finance the choir. (fn. 76)
The wrought iron gates and railings at the Church Row entrance to the churchyard were bought at the sale of Canons Park, Edgware, in 1747. (fn. 77) The churchyard was enlarged in 1755 by a plot on the south side given by John Maryon. (fn. 78) Land on the north side of Church Row was bought by trustees appointed under a local Act to provide an additional burial ground in 1811 and was consecrated in 1812. (fn. 79) In 1854 burials beneath the church were discontinued, as were those in the churchyard and in the parts of the new burial ground already used, except in private vaults and graves. (fn. 80) From 1878 only family vaults that could be opened without disturbance might still be used, and every new coffin had to be enclosed by cemented brickwork. (fn. 81) A small strip of the burial ground was sold to the council for road widening in 1908. (fn. 82) In 1940 a columbarium or cloister was added to the new burial ground as a site for memorial tablets. (fn. 83) Among those buried in the churchyard are John Constable (1776-1837), Henry Cort (1740-1800), inventor of the iron purifying process, John Harrison (1693-1776), inventor of the chronometer, George Du Maurier (1834-96), R. Norman Shaw (1831-1912), and T. F. Tout (1855- 1929).
In the early 18th century two unconsecrated chapels were opened. Sion chapel, at Belsize House, was in use from c. 1710 to 1720. Although it was said that two sermons were preached there every Sunday, its principal function was to provide cheap weddings for visitors to the gardens, and it was probably not frequented by local residents. (fn. 84) Well Walk chapel was converted from the Great Room of the wells in 1725. Although proprietary, it was officially described as a chapel of ease and was hired by the parish when the church was being rebuilt or repaired. (fn. 85)
With new building another proprietary chapel, St. John's, Downshire Hill, was opened in 1823. It, too, was considered a chapel of ease to the parish church. (fn. 86) Kilburn, where building was spreading along Edgware Road, was served by the parish church and, from 1825, by another proprietary chapel, St. Paul's, Kilburn Square, on the Willesden side. (fn. 87) From the 1840s the building of large estates of houses south and west of the old town led to the formation of district parishes. (fn. 88) The church was usually among the earliest buildings on an estate, in order to attract middle-class buyers, although occasionally provision lagged behind, as at St. Saviour's where a temporary church was opened in 1848 but the permanent church not until 1856. (fn. 89) The first district church to open, however, Christ Church in 1852, was built to replace the crowded Well Walk chapel. It aroused much opposition from Sir Thomas Maryon Wilson, patron of St. John's, who saw its sponsorship by the Hoares and their friends as an attack on his interests. Sir Thomas wanted, not unreasonably, to keep the old town as the district for St. John's, but about half of its parishioners, including many of the wealthiest, were included in the district of Christ Church, thus substantially reducing the income, derived mainly from fees and offerings, of the incumbent of the parish church.
The other district churches were built without opposition, those on the large new estates being the first to open: St. Saviour's, 1856; St. Mary's, Priory Road, 1856; St. Peter's, Belsize Square, 1859; St. Paul's, Avenue Road, 1864; All Souls', Loudoun Road, 1865; St. Stephen's, Rosslyn Hill, 1869; Trinity (later Holy Trinity), Finchley Road, 1872; St. Mary's, Primrose Hill, 1873. In West Hampstead, where estates were smaller, the provision was different: apart from St. Mary's, Priory Road, only St. Luke's, 1898, was built to serve an estate. (fn. 90) Emmanuel, 1885, St. Cuthbert's, 1886, and St. James's, 1888, all originated as mission churches before support could be gathered for a permanent church; in the case of Emmanuel, services had started at West End as early as 1846 in the schoolroom, but it was only in 1875 that a mission church was provided.
Missionary work was much needed only in the relatively poor districts of West Hampstead and Kilburn, where there was such duplication of work by Anglicans and dissenters that in 1902 there were said to be four churches after every poor family. (fn. 91) Evangelical Anglicans were on friendly terms with nonconformists, in common resistance to Roman Catholicism, which was especially strong in Kilburn with its Irish immigrants, and ritualism. Antiritualism was exacerbated by two High Church sisterhoods, both called the Kilburn Sisters, which by 1900 had spread over England. One was formed for parochial work but became a nursing order and from 1875 ran St. Peter's Home, a hospital at Mount Greville, Mortimer Road, on the boundary with Marylebone. (fn. 92) The second, a teaching order called the Church Extension Association, aroused more hostility, being accused of extravagance and disobedience. (fn. 93) Opposition to ritualism and Roman Catholicism led to increased evangelical effort and probably raised church attendances before 1900. In the longer term, however, attendances showed a sharp decline: excluding missions, whose numbers were in any case small, Anglican attendances dropped from 13,515 recorded in 1886 to 9,925 in 1903. Dissenting congregations were more stable: though individual churches showed a slight fall in attendance between 1886 and 1903, the opening of new churches meant that the overall total, excluding mis sions, rose from 6,503 in 1886 to 7,413 in 1903. Though Roman Catholic attendances also increased in this period, from 694 to 1,599, this was solely due to their advance in Kilburn, and Catholics made up less than 8 per cent of Hampstead's total church attendances in 1903; dissenters represented just under 37 per cent while Anglicans totalled 51 per cent. Among worshippers of all denominations only c. 5 per cent were at mission services. (fn. 94)
Other C. of E. chs. were: (fn. 95)
All Souls, Loudoun Rd. (fn. 96) Founded and endowed by Revd. Hen. Robinson Wadmore, asst. at St. John's Wood chapel. Patron H. R. Wadmore (incumbent until 1890), then bp. of Lond. Dist. formed 1865 from St. Paul's, Avenue Rd., St. Mary's, Kilburn, and All Saints', Marylebone. G. F. Terry, V. 1901-9, later canon of Edinburgh, revitalized congregation. His bro. C. J. Terry, V. 1909-19, increased endowment. Attendance 1886: 274 a.m.; 176 evg.; 1903: 294 a.m.; 248 p.m. Ch. fashionable in 1920s when many came from Kensington and Westm. Bldg. of stock brick with bands of red and Bath stone dressings, seating 600, by Jas. F. Wadmore, bro. of V., 1864-5: apsidal chancel, aisled nave with E. bellcot, W. saddleback tower, NW. vestry. Small S. porch 1903. S. aisle, tower, baptistery, porches, and choir vestry, giving 250 more seats, 1905 by Sir Chas. Nicholson, Bt. Consecrated 1905. (fn. 97) Apse panelled and filled with oak triptych, by C. G. Hare, 1905. Chancel roof decorated like ancient choir roof of St. Albans abbey. Large oak altar installed as First World War mem. Floor-plan reordered 1965: altar placed in front of chancel steps, font brought forward, former chancel arranged as weekday chapel, baptistery for exhibitions.
Christ Church, New End. Founded through application led by Hoare fam. to replace overcrowded Well Walk chapel (q.v.); opposed by Sir Thos. Maryon Wilson as threat to value of par. benefice. (fn. 98) Patron trustees. Attendance 1886: 1,137 a.m.; 1,188 evg.; 1903: 497 a.m.; 412 p.m. Bldg. of Kentish rag in Dec. style by S. W. Dawkes 1851-2: chancel with N. tower and spire and S. chapel, aisled nave with N. porch, W. gallery 1860 by Sir Gilb. Scott, member of congregation. (fn. 99) Organ by Willis 1857. (fn. 100) New N. aisle, extension of N. porch, and conversion of base of tower into vestry, by Ewan Christian c. 1881. Organ moved to S. chancel chapel. Seated 1,250 in 1889. (fn. 101) Rededicated, after restoration, 1920. (fn. 102) Missions held 1903 at Bickersteth mem. hall, built in Grove Pl. 1895, (fn. 103) attendance 142 a.m.; 80 p.m.; also at North End sch., (fn. 104) attendance 79 a.m.; 105 p.m. Miss Juliana M. Hoare (d. 1936) used charitable collns. to support North End mission hall and left c. £1,500 to maintain it. Legacy later used for Bickersteth hall, (fn. 105) which was converted into nos. 29-31 Grove Pl. 1970. (fn. 106)
Emmanuel, Lyncroft Gdns., West End. (fn. 107) Svces. in West End Nat. sch., licensed from 1846, (fn. 108) served from par. ch., St. Paul's, Avenue Rd., and temp. ch. in Belsize Lane. In 1851 sch. seated 110 and attendance was 91 evg. Revd. Hen. Sharpe, who held mission svces. at Belsize Lane ch., (fn. 109) was appointed curate-in-charge of West End 1870 and held Sun. evg. svces. at sch. Became part of Trinity par. Mission ch. built by Trinity at corner of Mill Lane and Aldred Rd., (fn. 110) opened 1875, seating 120. Resident curate-in-charge appointed 1876. Ch. enlarged 1884 to seat nearly 400, and consecrated 1885, when dist. assigned. Endowed with £200 p.a. by Church Com. Patron Evangelical trustees. (fn. 111) Svces. strongly evangelical from start, less so after Second World War. Attendance 1886: 249 a.m.; 171 evg. Larger attendance 1895-1908 led to perm. ch. 1897. Attendance 1903: 425 a.m.; 340 p.m. Nos. declined from 1930. Bldg. in red brick on basilican plan in Early Eng. style by J. A. Thomas of Whitfield & Thomas: chancel with N. vestry and 4 bays of aisled nave, seating 570, 1897-8; W. end of nave, baptistery, and porches 1903; seated 800 on completion. Tower over NE. porch not built. Repairs to counter subsidence 1923 and 1929. S. chapel renovated 1952 with painting by Frank Salisbury, who also gave panelling for reredos, as mem. to wife; thereafter known as Salisbury chapel. Vestries incorporated into new Vicarage, and new vestry in S. aisle, 1967-8. Mission started at no. 38 Broomsleigh Street 1892; special evangelistic svces. held Sun. evgs. Mission ch. demol. as unsafe 1901. New mission hall replaced nos. 8 and 10 Broomsleigh Street 1905, seating 250 with club and reading rooms on 1st floor; sited away from ch. as possible centre for new par. Evangelistic svces. ended 1923 because of small attendance and social distinction between ch. and mission, but revived 1931 to bring in new residents. Hall and men's institute let to Camden L.B. 1980. E. N. Sharpe, V. 1894-1908, later archdeacon and canon of St. Paul's.
Holy Trinity (Trinity until c. 1930),
Holy Trinity (Trinity until c. 1930), Finchley Rd. Temp. ch. in Belsize Lane licensed 1845; erected by Sir Thos. Maryon Wilson, who paid minister's stipend, although area not built up until much later. (fn. 112) In 1851 seated 393; attendance: 185 a.m.; 107 aft.; average attendance 230 a.m.; 120 aft. In 1865 Revd. Hen. Sharpe began mission work among navvies working on Belsize rly. tunnel; svces. in brick mission ch., built 1865 opposite no. 101 Belsize Lane, also attracted local residents and led to funds for perm. ch. (fn. 113) Dist. formed 1873 from St. John's, Hampstead. (fn. 114) Patron Evangelical trustees 1887, Maryon-Wilson fam. in reversion 1913, Ch. Pastoral Aid Soc. 1955. (fn. 115) Attendance 1886: 823 a.m.; 564 evg.; 1903: 481 a.m.; 470 p.m. Social change and decline in 20th-cent. churchgoing led to financial difficulties, but after Second World War ch. remained a community focus, especially for temp. overseas residents, and co-operated with welfare authorities to help old and sick living alone. Bldg., on site given by Sir John Maryon Wilson, of Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings in Gothic style by Hen. S. Legg: aisled nave 1871-2; chancel, gift of lady impressed by Sharpe's preaching, 1875. Tower and spire not built. Completed ch. seated 1,000. (fn. 116) Parochial rooms in Belsize Terr. c. 1900. Hall adjoining S. side of ch. built in similar materials 1902. Ground in front taken for road widening 1964. Private Act to redevelop site 1968: ch. demol. 1976 and svces. held temporarily at no. 295 Finchley Rd. Smaller ch. consecrated 1978, with hall, meeting rooms, and vestries, paid for by leasing rest of site for a small office block and 6-storey block of 24 flats. (fn. 117) Temp. mission ch. built at West End 1874, became Emmanuel ch. (q.v.) 1885. Mission ch. built in Fordwych Rd. 1882 became St. Cuthbert's (q.v.) 1886. (fn. 118) Mission held in 1903, attendance: 32 p.m.
St. Cuthbert, Fordwych Rd., W. Hampstead. Dist. formed 1888 from Holy Trinity (q.v.). (fn. 119) Patron ch. trust fund trustees. Attendance 1886: 253 a.m.; 138 evg.; 1903: 218 a.m.; 149 p.m. Iron ch. founded by Trinity, superseded 1882 by brick mission ch., designed by W. C. Street and served by Lond. Diocesan Home Mission 1882-7. Bldg., at right angles to mission ch., of red brick with stone dressings in Early Eng. style by Street 1886: aisled nave consecrated 1887; chancel with 3-sided apse 1903-4; SW. tower not built. Mission ch. became par. hall until demol. 1902 by Midland Rly. Co., which rebuilt it nearer ch. 1903. (fn. 120) Proposed to use hall again for svces. and sell site of ch. to housing assoc. 1979. Ch. still standing 1986. Iron mission hall blt. 1894 at Maygrove Rd., (fn. 121) attendance 1903: 95 p.m.
St. James, Sheriff Rd., West End Lane. Patron trustees. Attendance 1886: 215 a.m.; 208 evg.; 1903: 359 a.m.; 293 p.m. Mission hall by A. W. Blomfield by 1882. Bldg. of red brick with stone dressings in Early Eng. style, seating 1,000, by Blomfield 1887-8: chancel with S. vestry, N. chapel, aisled nave. 18thcent. wooden figure of St. Jas., possibly Spanish. Mission hall in Netherwood Street by 1900; (fn. 122) attendance 1903: 68 p.m.
St. John, Downshire Hill (proprietary chapel). Probably originally intended as chapel of ease to par. ch., hence dedication. (fn. 123) Revd. John Curry offered to pay for bldg. and site if appointed min., so chapel became proprietary and in 1982 was last remaining in Lond. (fn. 124) Not consecrated. Chapel bought 1832 by Revd. John Wilcox who established evangelical ministry. Attendance 1851: 1,370 a.m.; 120 aft.; 325 p.m.; exceptionally high due to sermon by abp. of Canterbury. Proposed conversion to dist. par. ch. 1863 rejected but new dist. ch. of St. Steph., Rosslyn Hill (q.v.), blt. and min. of St. John's became 1st V.; (fn. 125) many worshippers, however, remained at St. John's. Attendance 1886: 288 a.m.; 262 evg.; 1903: 172 a.m.; 125 p.m. Chapel in financial difficulties 1916, bought by Leslie Wright and leased to congregation at token rent. Patronage vested in C.P.A.S. and chapel safeguarded under Wright's will as long as it should be used for worship. (fn. 126) Stuccoed bldg., on copyhold site acquired 1817, in classical style designed and built by Wm. Woods opened 1823: (fn. 127) 5-bay nave with no recessed chancel, vestibule staircase each side of W. porch, galleries on 3 sides supported by 2 orders of slim columns, Doric portico and cupola at W. entrance. Evangelical design: prominent pulpit; small communion table backed by inscribed panels; box pews. Seated 1,000 in 1851. Temp. closure for repairs 1896, when svces. in vestry hall. Further repairs 1964-71 and subject of major appeal 1982. (fn. 128)
St. Luke, Kidderpore Ave. Dist. formed 1896. (fn. 129) Patron trustees. Iron ch. built on site of later Vicarage 1896. (fn. 130) Bldg. of red brick with stone dressings in Arts and Crafts Perp. by Basil Champneys 1898-9: chancel, aisled nave, W. gallery, asymmetrical W. front, SE. turret. (fn. 131) Attendance 1903: 300 a.m.; 280 p.m. Some internal improvements made 1920s. (fn. 132)
St. Mary, Priory Rd., Kilburn. Dist. formed 1863 from St. John's, Hampstead. (fn. 133) Patron Ch. Patronage Soc. Briefly one of leading ritualistic chs. in Lond. 1860s. (fn. 134) Attendance 1886: 859 a.m.; 585 evg.; 1903: 431 a.m.; 452 p.m. Bldg., near site of Kilburn priory and containing fragment of 15thcent. brass of nun found nearby, of Kentish rag in Dec. style by F. & H. Francis 1857-62: chancel with N. vestry and S. chapel, aisled nave with transepts, SW. tower and spire. Consecrated 1862. Vestry enlarged 1889. Reredos 1885, with 7 new panels 1902. (fn. 135) Clock and bells given by Sam. John Housley and maintained by char. endowed by him 1879. (fn. 136)
St. Mary The Virgin,
St. Mary The Virgin, Primrose Hill Rd. Local residents came to svces. held by Chas. Jas. Fuller, chaplain of boys' home moved 1865 from Euston Rd. (St. Pancras) to corner Regent's Pk. Rd. and King Henry's Rd. Part of St. Saviour's assigned as mission dist. and iron ch. opened in Ainger Rd. 1867; Eton Coll. gave site for larger ch. Patron 7 trustees inc. provost of Eton and V. of Hampstead. Despite enthusiastic crowds, consecration of perm. ch. refused by John Jackson, bp. of Lond., on grounds of ritualism. Members of guilds carried out all functions of ch. life by 1876. Protests 1877 led bp. to suppress sung celebrations and most ornaments, but ritualism restored after consecration by Jackson's successor 1885. Attendance 1886: 148 a.m.; 133 evg.; 1903: 407 a.m.; 241 p.m. Resistance to Anglo-Cathm. led to emphasis on minutiae in 1930s. Liturgical movement brought more moderate approach under G. B. Timms, V. 1952-65. Par. libr. in N. porch, specializing in religious educ., 1955. United with St. Paul's, Avenue Rd. (q.v.), 1956-7. Bldg. of dark red brick in early French Gothic style, seating c. 750, by Wm. Manning, member of congregation, 1870-2: apsidal chancel with N. and S. vestries, incomplete tower, aisled nave with S. chapel, N. transept, N. porch. Nave and chancel opened 1872; S. aisle with chapel, sacristry, and choir vestry 1892, smaller than Manning's design because part of site had been sold. Interplay of light and shade in interior to increase apparent size. (fn. 137) Reredos by Bodley & Garner 1895; restored 1974. (fn. 138) Massive rood cross at chancel arch 1914. Percy Dearmer, V. 1901-15, later professor of ecclesiastical art at King's Coll., Lond., and canon of Westm., made St. Mary's well known for music and liturgical reforms: whitewashed interior as foil for ornaments and for ceremonial in wholly English tradition. (fn. 139)
St. Paul, Avenue Rd. Dist. formed 1860 from St. John's, Hampstead, and St. Saviour's, with addition 1865. (fn. 140) Patron V. of Hampstead. Attendance 1886: 719 a.m.; 367 evg.; 1903: 372 a.m.; 187 p.m. Par. united with St. Mary's, Primrose Hill Rd. (q.v.), 1955 Bldg., seating 870, by S. S. Teulon consecrated 1859: apsidal chancel, N. and S. chapels, galleried transepts, aisled nave, W. front with elaborate 2-storeyed half-hexagonal porch with diagonal flanks adorned with stone caps and turrets. Unusual, much criticized style. (fn. 141) Tile reredos by Teulon. (fn. 142) Bombed 1940 and svces. held in St. Paul's sch., Winchester Rd. Declared redundant 1956 and demol. 1958; replaced by Polygon flats. (fn. 143)
St. Peter, Belsize Pk. Dist. formed 1861 from St. John's, Hampstead. (fn. 144) Patron dean and chapter of Westm. Endowed 1861 with £200 p.a. from Belsize ground rents by Westm. abbey. (fn. 145) Attendance 1886: 724 a.m.; 334 evg.; 1903: 1,398 a.m.; 125 p.m. Bldg., on site given by Westm., of Kentish rag in Dec. style by W. Mumford: aisled nave and transepts, paid for by F. W. Tremlett, first V., consecrated 1859; chancel with S. vestry, stained glass in W. window, and SW. tower, designed by J. P. St. Aubyn, consecrated 1876. Seated 1,040 in 1889. (fn. 146) Extensive repairs with underpinning of foundations 1917. (fn. 147) W. and S. galleries removed and chapel added 1927. (fn. 148) Sanctuary redesigned 1965. Proposal to put movable altar in front of chancel steps 1985. (fn. 149)
St. Saviour, Eton Rd. Worshippers from Haverstock Hill at chapel of Asylum for Relief of Journeymen Tailors, east of Haverstock Hill (St. Pancras), decided 1846 to build ch.; (fn. 150) site given by Eton Coll. Work begun 1847 to design of H. E. Kendall jr. but stopped for lack of funds. Iron chapel, seating 574, nearby at corner of Eton Rd. and Eton College Rd., later site of Wellington Ho., (fn. 151) licensed for worship from 1848. Attendance 1851: 300 a.m.; 150 evg. Dist. had 120 hos. in which 27 families were dissenters, but was increasing rapidly 1851. (fn. 152) Closed when perm. ch. opened and dist. assigned from St. John's, Hampstead, 1856. (fn. 153) Patron V. of Hampstead. Attendance 1886: 398 a.m.; 423 evg.; 1903: 139 a.m.; 126 p.m. Bldg. of Kentish rag in Early Eng. style, seating 800, by E. M. Barry 1855-6: chancel with N. and S. vestries, aisled nave with N. and S. transepts, SW. tower and spire finished 1864. Repairs to walls and foundations 1872. Choir vestry by Ewan Christian 1882; chancel lengthened 1909. Reredos added 1885, screen 1890. Mission room in Fleet Rd., 1889; svces. held there or elsewhere in 1903, attendance: 42 a.m.; 100 p.m.
St. Stephen, Rosslyn Hill. Dist. assigned 1870 from St. John's, Hampstead. (fn. 154) United with All Hallows', Gospel Oak (St. Pancras) 1977. (fn. 155) Patron V. of Hampstead. Worshippers at St. John's, Downshire Hill, decided 1864 to build dist. ch. Site given by Sir T. Maryon Wilson. Attendance 1886: 752 a.m.; 620 evg.; 1903: 301 a.m.; 242 p.m. Bldg. of purple-red Dunstable brick, with bands of Kentish rag and dressings of rag and granite, in Gothic style with strong French characteristics, seating 1,200, by S. S. Teulon 1866-9: apsidal chancel with N. and S. transepts, massive tower with spires, aisled nave with W. gallery and N., W., and S. porches. (fn. 156) Vaulted crypt below. Steeple completed 1871. Peal of 10 bells by Taylors of Loughborough 1872; returned to Taylors 1982. (fn. 157) Chapel in S. transept 1905; stalls and screen by Temple Moore 1912. (fn. 158) Intended for Low Ch. svces. with broad well-lit nave, but placing of tower E. of nave created long chancel, which led to much decoration; described as one of most moving Victorian interiors. Cost was 3 times that estimated, with rich ornament inside and out. (fn. 159) Alabaster roundels 1880, one of Latimer given by Ewan Christian, member of congregation, in protest against Anglo-Cathm. Glass by Lavers & Westlake, and Clayton & Bell, inc. mem. window to Teulon. Subsidence 1896, 1898, 1901, and serious cracking 1969, when foundations for new Royal Free hosp. dug. Although no further movement found between 1970 and 1981, ch. closed 1977 while new use sought. (fn. 160) No firm plans 1985, but diocese criticized for neglect, as most fittings had been stolen or vandalized. (fn. 161) Grant by G.L.C. for urgent repairs 1985. (fn. 162) Possibly Teulon's best work, set off by sloping site. Denning hall, no. 38 Denning Rd., built for missions 1883, later converted into artists' studios. (fn. 163)
Sion chapel (proprietary),
Sion chapel (proprietary), Belsize. Built at Belsize Ho. by Chas. Povey (fn. 164) and open by 1710 when advertised for performance of weddings, with two sermons each Sun. Fees for weddings to be waived for those who had wedding dinner in gdns. 1716. (fn. 165) Chapel probably closed by 1720 when Povey left.
Well Walk or Hampstead chapel (proprietary).
Well Walk or Hampstead chapel (proprietary). Opened 1725 in Great or Pump Room at Hampstead wells, after alterations started by Wm. Hoar and completed after financial difficulties by Jos. Rous; Mr. Wood presented bell, and Dr. Gibbon communion plate. Chapel, seating c. 370 in 1810, used continuously until Christ Ch. opened 1852 and regarded as chapel of ease to par. ch. although never consecrated. Hired while par. ch. was being rebuilt or repaired, e.g. 1745-7, 1755, 1843. (fn. 166) Seated 774 in 1851, when attendance 359 a.m.; 92 aft.; 287 evg. (fn. 167) Used as Presb. chapel 1853-62 and H.Q. of 3rd Mdx. (Hampstead) Rifle Volunteers (fn. 168) before demol. 1882. (fn. 169)