Hampstead: Education

A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 9, Hampstead, Paddington. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1989.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.

'Hampstead: Education', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 9, Hampstead, Paddington, (London, 1989) pp. 159-169. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol9/pp159-169 [accessed 24 April 2024]

In this section


A charity school for the poor, possibly at the workhouse, existed in 1731, when the Wells charity repaid the parish's debt for fitting it up. (fn. 1) The only other assistance for educating the poor before 1787 came from John Stock's charity, by will of 1780, which included annual payments for educating and clothing 6 boys and 4 girls between the ages of about 8 and 14; in 1818 the charity paid for teaching and clothing 10 boys and 6 girls at Hampstead Parochial schools. (fn. 2) In 1787 a Sunday school for the poor was started and its success led to provision for day pupils in 1788: at first the 12 boys and 12 girls were taught in private schools but c. 10 years later their own schools had been formed, which in 1815 became affiliated to the National Society. (fn. 3)

In 1833 Hampstead had two infants' schools, one being at Kilburn, with a total of 159 pupils, and three weekday schools for the poor: the two Hampstead Parochial schools, with 150 boys and 112 girls, and the Roman Catholic school for 25 girls. Kilburn had a day and Sunday school for 45 boys and 40 girls, while another 16 girls received free instruction on Sundays from a lady at her home. Some basic education was also provided at the three recently started Church of England Sunday schools with a total of 282 boys and 202 girls, and at the Baptist Sunday school with 50 pupils and the Wesleyan with 51, both started in the 1820s. (fn. 4) By 1846 the Kilburn schools had disappeared, but the infants', Roman Catholic, and Parochial schools had been joined by a day school at West End with 31, a girls' school for 40, North End dame school for 26, and St. John's chapel schools for 76 boys, 40 girls, and 40 infants. In 1846 883 children out of the population of 10,093 received free or almost free education at the National or Church schools, and about 25 at the Roman Catholic school. (fn. 5) In 1851, of 1,577 pupils attending day schools, 857 were at public and 720 at private schools. Though the total was equally divided between boys and girls, the majority of boys, 500, attended the public schools, while the majority of girls, 428, attended private schools. Over 700 of the public school pupils went to the 8 National or Church schools, leaving 49 at the R.C. school, 62 at the blind school, 26 boys at a ragged school, and 15 girls at the orphan school. In addition 708 children received some education at the 4 Church and 3 nonconformist Sunday schools. (fn. 6)

Until the mid 1870s, new district churches all provided some form of day school, at any rate for infants, as did some of the nonconformist chapels, either singly, as at Rosslyn Hill in the 1860s, or as a combined effort, as at Heath Street in 1862. Church schools opening before 1875 included Christ Church (1855), All Souls (c. 1860), St. Mary, Kilburn (1864), St. Paul (1870), St. Saviour (1871), and Holy Trinity (1873). An additional Roman Catholic school was opened in Kilburn in the 1860s. (fn. 7) By the time that the London School Board took office the Church, British, and Roman Catholic schools provided accommodation for over 3,000, with only about 1,900 on their rolls. (fn. 8) Although two Church schools were not good enough to be recognized as elementary schools, the board did not need to provide a school in Hampstead until 1879 when Fleet Road opened.

Three more schools were opened by the London School Board, all in West Hampstead: Netherwood Street (1881), Broomsleigh Street (1886), and Kingsgate Road (1903). There was great difficulty, however, in obtaining a central site for a school to replace three voluntary schools which had been transferred to the board: Heath Street, Rosslyn Hill, and St. Stephen's. Attempts to purchase sites in Well Walk in 1900 and 1901 caused an outcry, (fn. 9) and the Parochial and Christ Church schools waged a vigorous campaign to raise their own numbers and so obviate the need for a new board school. Managers of Church schools grew all the more bitter as competition from board schools, with their much better facilities, increased. The improvements required by the London School Board and Board of Education caused much financial strain on the congregations, which was made worse by the abolition of fees in board schools, as the Church schools could not afford to follow suit. (fn. 10) Despite the campaign, which included the publication of the correspondence with the board in a pamphlet distributed to all Hampstead residents, (fn. 11) the board eventually compulsorily purchased a site at New End; the school there was opened in 1906 by the L.C.C. The Education Act, 1902, giving support from the rates to Anglican schools, aroused further anger in Hampstead. A branch of the Passive Resistance League was formed, with the support of leading nonconformist ministers, but only c. 100 received a court summons for nonpayment of rates. (fn. 12)

More difficulties came with the L.C.C., which inspected the eight surviving non-provided elementary schools in 1904. Only St. Mary's Roman Catholic school had to be closed, as it gave a serious fire hazard, but two others were restricted to girls and infants, as there were not enough entrances for boys, and the L.C.C. wanted the remaining five to be reorganized for mixed and infants under one head; (fn. 13) in most cases, however, reorganization did not take place until well after the First World War. In 1905 elementary school accommodation totalled 5,091 places in the four council schools, with another 612 to come at New End, and 1,906 places in seven nonprovided schools. Although the number of places exceeded demand, some schools, such as Fleet Road, were still overcrowded because of their popularity or because the distribution of places was uneven. (fn. 14)

A graver problem for Church schools was the L.C.C.'s insistence on improvements. Some, such as repairs to drainage systems, were very expensive, particularly for those congregations whose numbers were starting to fall. The Christ Church managers sought advice from the National Society, as they not only had to pay for improvements, but saw a threat from the big new school at New End and therefore wondered if they should close their own school. The society's response was sanguine: the managers should retain their school, as the L.C.C. would have to maintain it if it had the required number of pupils; if they should not be allowed to continue with three departments, they should try with boys only or with girls and infants, as a mixed school would not be morally or educationally good in their district. It was thought that there should be no difficulty in making a smaller school suitable for better-class children. The very existence of a large council school made it important to preserve the Church school, and there was a growing reaction in favour of provision for the middle class. (fn. 15)

The National Society's optimism was justified; despite financial problems, and the cramped sites and buildings, all the non-provided schools except All Souls survived in 1986, being popular especially with middle-class parents. One, St. Paul's, moved in 1972 to spacious new premises overlooking Primrose Hill. (fn. 16) The need to replace buildings was recognized: in 1974 the North Camden (Hampstead) deanery synod proposed an annual levy on each of Hampstead's 15 churches to help finance the maintenance and building costs of the remaining six Church schools. (fn. 17)

Council schools also had their problems. Overcrowding remained: the limit of 60 to a class was often exceeded, especially for infants, and the further reductions in size, to 48 for infants and 40 for seniors, were not achieved until 1936. (fn. 18) Only one new school, an infants' at Kingsgate Road in 1914, was opened before the 1950s. In the school plan of 1947 all the existing county primary schools were retained, (fn. 19) and one new one, Fitzjohn's, was opened in 1954, with opposition again from Hampstead Parochial where there were still places vacant. (fn. 20)

Secondary schools had little chance to become established in Hampstead. Under the London School Board, Fleet Road had had a higher grade school and Kingsgate had taken senior pupils. Neither, however, was accepted by the Board of Education as a higher elementary school, nor, despite its many scholarship successes, was Fleet one of the schools in the L.C.C. area that became a central school after 1910. Pupils had to transfer to schools outside the borough, in St. Pancras or Paddington, (fn. 21) a need that was the more surprising because Hampstead children won nearly twice the London average of junior county scholarships to grammar schools. (fn. 22)

In the reorganizations of the 1930s, Hampstead Parochial and Harben also took senior pupils, but under the 1947 plan only Harben was to become a secondary school. Another secondary school was opened at Fleet Road in 1955, but closed in the 1960s, and Harben became the annexe to a Paddington R.C. secondary school in 1961, so that almost all pupils of secondary age again went outside the parish. A very few elementary-school children won scholarships to leading local independent schools which took direct-grant pupils after 1918: Haberdashers' Aske's and University College schools for boys, and South Hampstead High for girls. In 1947 the L.C.C. supported 30 boys at Haberdashers' and 140 girls at S. Hampstead High; University College school no longer applied for grant aid but still took 25 boys supported by the L.C.C., (fn. 23) in order to gain bright pupils. (fn. 24) After Haberdashers' moved their boys' school to Hertfordshire in 1961, the L.C.C. opened a comprehensive secondary school in their buildings, but it was so located that it served Hendon and Willesden as much as Hampstead.

As part of Camden, the area joined Westminster in a division of the I.L.E.A. under the London Government Act, 1963. (fn. 25) In 1983 Hampstead had five county primary and eight non-provided primary schools, one county secondary school, and four special schools.

Public schools. (fn. 26) Except where otherwise stated, basic historical information and figures of accommodation and average attendance have been taken from: files on Church of England schools at the National Society; P.R.O., ED 3/19; ED 7/75, 81; Educ. Enq. Abstract, 1833, H.C. 62, p. 93 (1835), xlii; National Society, Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx. 6-7; Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1849 [1215], H.C. (1850), xliii; 1852-3 [1623], H.C. (1852-3), lxxix; Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1867-8 [4051], H.C. (1867-8), xxv; 1876-7 [C. 1780-I], H.C. (1877), xxix; 1880-1 [C. 2948-I], H.C. (1881), xxxii; 1890-1 [C. 643-I], H.C. (1890-1), xxvii; Return of Elem. Schs. 1899 [Cd. 315], H.C. (1900), lxv (2); Return of Non-Provided Schs. H.C. 178-XXXIII (1906), lxxxviii; Bd. of Educ., List 21, 1908-38 (H.M.S.O.); L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Particulars (1937 and later edns.); L.C.C. (LL.E.A. from 1965) Educ. Svce. Inf. (1951 and later edns.); Catholic Educ. (1978).

The following abbreviations are used in addition to those in the index: a.a., average attendance; accn., accommodation; amalg., amalgamated, amalgamation; B, boy, boys; Bapt., Baptist; C.E., Church of England; Cong., Congregationalist; demol., demolished; dept., department; G, girl, girls; J, JB, JG, JM, junior, junior boys, girls, mixed; I, infant, infants; M, mixed; mod., modern; Meth., Methodist; Nat., National; parl., parliamentary; perm., permanent; R.C., Roman Catholic; reorg., reorganized; roll, numbers on roll; S, SB, SG, SM, senior, senior boys, girls, mixed; S.B.L., School Board for London; sch., school; sec., secondary; sep., separate; tech., technical; temp., temporary; vol., voluntary; V., vicar; Wes., Wesleyan. The word 'school' is to be understood after each named entry. Separate departments are indicated by commas: B, G, I; JM, I.

All Souls C.E., Fairhazel Gdns., Belsize Rd. Founded c. 1860 in large hay loft in Victoria Mews, Fairfax Rd., granted free of rent by Mr. Yeo. 1871 accn. 72, a.a. 42: instruction poor and sch. mainly refuge for children of omnibus drivers and similar. Wilson fam. conveyed site in Victoria Mews (later Fairfax Pl.) at corner of Fairhazel Gdns. 1871, (fn. 27) where one room for 194 BGI built 1872. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence, parl. grant. From 73 in 1876, a.a. rose to 125 in 1899, and 173 in 1906. Union with Nat. Soc. 1892. Reorg. for 105 M, 52 I to meet L.C.C.'s improved standards. 1908 a.a. 125 M, 52 I. Lack of space prevented expansion. Bldg. and playground renovated 1927. Roll 1940: 125 M, 40 I. Sch. closed by 1951 as part of L.C.C.'s post-war plans. (fn. 28)

Bartrams R.C., see Rosary.

Beckford Primary, Dornfell Street, Mill Lane, West End. Opened 1886 by S.B.L. as Broomsleigh Street bd. sch. for BGI. Accn. nearly doubled to 1,381 by 1894. By 1895 had cookery and laundry centre and manual training centre. (fn. 29) Reorg. between 1927 and 1932 for 630 JM, 368 I, and renamed Beckford. Roll 1940: 693 JM, 364 I. Inc. nursery class 1958. Roll 1986: 358 JM & I.

Berkeley Rd. Bd. Temp. sch. opened 1874 for GBI in rooms rented for one year. 1874-5 a.a. 185.

Broomsleigh Street, see Beckford.

Christ Church C.E. Primary, Christchurch Hill, New End. Dist. schs. under construction 1854. (fn. 30) I opened in bldg. on Wells char. land; trustees refused a lease in order to preserve right to build, but sch. still there 1892. Site perhaps that vacated by Parochial I sch. Site for B, G schs. conveyed by Fras. Hoare 1855, (fn. 31) and schoolroom and classroom built for each with aid of parl. grants. Children not required to learn catechism or attend Sun. sch. (fn. 32) I sch. received grant of £250 from Wells char. 1857. Schs. financed by subscriptions, sch. pence, parl. grants. 1868 a.a. 254. Roll 1871: 117 B, 121 G, 104 I. 1880 accn. 393; 1906 accn. 449, but reduced to 372 by 1908; heavy expenditure required by L.C.C. Competition from New End sch., but Nat. Soc. advised sch. reorg. 1917 for 202 M, 130 I. New porch 1919 allowed official recognition of nursery class of 20. Recognized accn. reduced 1922 to 200 M, 96 I. Reorg. 1926 for 296 M, and again between 1932 and 1936 for 294 JM & I. 1937 a.a. 152; 1949 a.a. 207. Roll 1967: 170. Children mainly middle-class and from overseas by 1970s. Parents resisted proposals 1970-2 to merge with Parochial schs. on new site, preferring the 'village school' atmosphere. Decline in nos. during early 1970s reversed 1975. Teacher's ho. in playground converted to maisonnette 1975 and basement used as community centre. Roll 1986: 155 JM & I.

Emmanuel C.E. Primary (formerly West End Nat.), no. 101 Mill Lane. Site conveyed to trustees and enfranchised 1845. (fn. 33) Sch. and teacher's ho. 1845, designed by Chas. Miles of West End Hall; opened 1846 with accn. for 146. (fn. 34) Roll 1846-7: 14 B, 17 G under one mistress. Bldg. grant from Nat. Soc. Financed by subscriptions and sch. pence which did not cover teacher's salary 1848. Premises and instruction efficient for 95 in 1871, when roll 37. B, 39 G, aged 3 to 11. Single schoolroom with I in gallery 1872; teacher's ho. converted into classroom, making accn. 132, and new ho. built on opposite side of original bldg. 1874. In 1880s a.a. doubled and continued to rise in 1890s. Additional classroom 1886, making accn. 190. Enlargement of 1874 and part of original room replaced 1892, but both new room and I room badly ventilated 1895, when new roof and other repairs needed and lack of staff hampered sch. Dist. then poorest in Hampstead and had difficulty in financing sch. 1899 accn. 248 M & I, a.a. 242. For I and G of all ages by 1914, when inspection found many bldg. defects. G room divided into 3 to increase accn. from 80 to 116, with I room remaining at 93, by 1927. In 1936 36 SG transferred to Netherwood Street and sch. reorg. for 217 JG & I, a.a. 149. Reorg. for JM & I between 1964 and 1970. Former G.P.O. site at no. 160 Mill Lane cleared by 1973 but plans still in abeyance 1986. So overcrowded that over 90 children walked to par. hall in Broomsleigh Street for lunch 1968; 4 rooms for 140 children and only 1 room for head and staff 1970. (fn. 35) Roll 1986: 110 JM & I.

Fitzjohn's Primary, no. 86A Fitzjohn's Ave. Opened 1954 for JM & I, incorporating fine schoolroom and chapel designed by Wm. Munt and built 1858 for Royal Soldiers' Daughters' Home in grounds of Vane Ho. (fn. 36) Roll 1986: 202 JM & I.

Fleet Primary, Fleet Rd., Gospel Oak. First bd. sch. in Hampstead, opened 1879 for 1,207 with SM in one bldg. of 8 classrooms, I in another of 2 rooms on same site. Sch. pence. Served quickly growing area; new classroom for 377 1881 and several extensions until 1890s. (fn. 37) JM dept. opened 1884. 1890 accn. 1,891. By 1890s known as 'Harrow of the board schools', regularly winning majority of S.B.L. and Wells char. scholarships to sec. schs.; in 1896 won top 2 scholarships for G and top 2 for B out of all pupils' in L.C.C.'s competition. (fn. 38) By 1897 had cookery centre, laboratory, manual training centre, and drawing class, and senior part recognized as higher grade sch. By 1900 no longer catered only for poor, drawing children from considerable distance, but after establishment of central schs. did not receive S pupils from other schs. (fn. 39) Roll 1940: 520 SM, 424 JM, 408 I. Reorg. by 1951 as Fleet primary for JM, I, and combined JM & I by 1964. Fleet sec. M opened on same site by 1958, but became Fleet Youth Centre by 1964 and Fleet Community Educ. Centre between 1970 and 1976. In 1986 educ. centre was in original bldgs. fronting Agincourt Rd., while JM & I sch. used mod. bldgs. on Fleet Rd. side. Roll 1986: 226 JM & I.

Hampstead, Westbere Rd., Cricklewood. Opened c. 1961 for SM in former Haberdashers' Aske's B sch. Roll 1983: 1,114 SM, with additional bldgs. on c. 6-a. site and large 6th form. (fn. 40) Roll 1986: 1,069 SM.

Hampstead Parochial C.E. Primary, Holly Bush Vale. (fn. 41) Day sch. for poor founded 1788 by PhiloInvestigists Soc.: 12 B and 12 G selected from soc.'s Sun. sch. Funds increased by collections at par. ch. and Hampstead chapel, allowing increase to 58 pupils in 1790. Clothing given from 1789 to Sun. sch. pupils and then to some day pupils. In 1798 soc. known as Sun. Sch. Soc. and teachers had to be members of Reformed Ch. Day B taught reading, writing, and arithmetic; day G reading, knitting, and sewing. B taught at private sch. of Thos. Mitchell, member of soc., until 1806, and then temporarily in Chicken Ho. Early premises for G sch. unknown, but c. 1799 occupied new bldg. in Yorkshire Grey Yard. New B schoolroom built c. 1808 near Fenton Ho., Hampstead Grove. From 1815 schs. governed by Parochial Sch. Soc., which decided on support by vol. contributions and on educ. in accordance with doctrines of C.E., but admission without religious test; sch. was affiliated to Nat. Soc. By 1816 G bldg. dilapidated and sch. moved to new bldg. at corner of Holly Walk and Mount Vernon built with aid of vol. contributions. (fn. 42) B moved c. 1815 to Sam. Hoare's schoolroom (later New End Bapt. chapel) until 1826, when new room built with permission of guardians of poor at SE. corner of wkho. gdn. on site held at will from par. (fn. 43) with vol. contributions.

I sch. founded 1827 or 1829 in bldg. near Well Walk on site belonging to Wells char.: rent paid to lessees until lease expired 1850; thereafter none demanded. Roll 112 I in 1833, when master had rentfree ho. and salary paid from vol. contributions and sch. pence. B sch. had 150 in 1833, when master received £90 p.a. G sch. had 112; mistress had accn. and £50 p.a. B and G schs. also supported by sch. pence, vol. contributions, and up to £12 p.a. from John Stock's char. for educating 12 orphan B. Rolls 1846-7: 102 B, 89 G, 153 I.

B and I schs. were in dist. assigned to Christ Ch. 1854. B sch. very dilapidated, so new schs. on freehold site at Bradley's Bldgs. (later Holly Bush Vale) completed 1856, (fn. 44) paid for by subscriptions, grants from parl., Wells char., Shakespeare's char., Nat. Soc. Additional land 1862 and 1865; (fn. 45) G sch. for 100 built on site c. 1862. B, G & I schs. each had 2 rooms and teacher's ho. 1871; rolls: 125 B, 80 G, 90 I. Subjects inc. history, grammar, geography, needlework, singing. Part of site sold to M.B.W 1887 (fn. 46) to pay for new I classroom. Mission hall built on part of site 1891-2, with large upper room fitted up for cookery classes for many schs. by 1900. L.C.C. plan for M sch. resisted until 1926 when reorg. for 362 M & I. Falling pop. led to further reorg. 1936 whereby Parochial sch. became SM, with accn. 314, J went to Christ Ch., and I to New End. Roll 1940: 317 SM, before bldg. requisitioned. Reopened 1951 as JM & I vol. aided primary with roll of 299. Roll 1986: 131 JM & I.

Harben, Linstead Street, Kilburn. Opened 1881 by S.B.L. as Netherwood Street bd. sch. for c. 600 BGI, 18 classrooms. 1880 accn. increased to 1,587; a.a. 1,056 and 40 at evg. sch. Cookery centre added by 1895. (fn. 47) Reorg. between 1927 and 1932 for 360 SB, 360 SG, 426 I, and renamed the Harben. Reorg. 1940 with roll of 440 SM. In 1951 2 schs. formed: Harben sec. for SM, Harben primary for JM & I, but latter closed by 1955. Sec. sch. closed 1961, when bldg. became lower sch. annexe of St. George R.C. comprehensive, Lanark Rd. (Paddington). (fn. 48)

Heath Street British. (fn. 49) M & I schs. opened 1862 to meet demand for freer type of ch. sch. than C.E. Nat. Met in Heath Street Bapt. ch. schoolroom but controlled by cttee. of several dissenting chs. Over 100 enrolled by end of 1st year. In 1871 M sch. with 300 accn. in 2 rooms gave extensive range of instruction at expense of proficiency; roll 112 B and 58 G under one master. I sch. with 56 accn. in one room gave fairly good instruction; roll 70 under one mistress. Recognized as pub. elem. sch. and received parl. grant from 1872. Also financed by sch. pence (2d.-9d.), collections. Roll 1881: 303; 1886: 400. Evg. classes for S pupils started 1887, teaching drawing, shorthand, French, woodwork. 1890 accn. 508, a.a. 325. Taken over by S.B.L. 1900 when roll 264 M, 156 I, but treated as temp. sch. with accn. 261 M, 127 I. Defended as flourishing sch. by managers of Christ Ch. Nat. 1901. Roll 1906: 230 M, 110 I, when pupils transferred to New End.

Hoare's, see Mrs. Hoare's; Samuel Hoare's British.

Holy Trinity C.E. Primary (formerly Trinity Nat.), Trinity Walk, Maresfield Gdns. Opened 1873 in former temp. ch. in Conduit Fields (Belsize Lane) with rooms for M, I; roll c. 90. Sch. pence. Site for perm. sch. granted 1874 by Wilson fam. (fn. 50) Sch. built 1876 for 174 M, 70 I, with grants from parl. and Nat. Soc. 1880 a.a. 106. 1890 accn. 284, a.a. 179. After Educ. Act, 1902, large sums spent on improvements; by 1908 accn. reduced to 139 M, 102 I. 1927 accn. 109 M, 80 I. 1936 accn. 206 M & I. Renamed Holy Trinity 1932. Attendance declined from 183 to 157 in 1930s, when ch. had difficulty in financing the sch.; pop. of dist. 80 per cent foreign by 1942. Roll 1940: 176 M, 46 I. 1942 a.a. 150. By 1951 reorg. for JM & I. New classroom built in playground 1978. Roll 1986: 174 JM & I.

Kilburn Day And Sun. Founded 1829; in 1833 had 45 B under master, 40 G under mistress. Nothing further known.

Kilburn I. Started 1833 with 47 I; mistress paid from vol. contributions. Nothing further known.

Kilburn R.C., Quex Rd. Opened c. 1868 in 2 rooms of shopkeeper's ho. Roll 1871: 29 B and 34 G all ages under one mistress; I in dark kitchen but premises for 300 being purchased and would probably allow recognition as public elem. sch. 1880 accn. 337, a.a. 200. Not listed among public schs. thereafter, but an R.C. sch. in Mazenod Ave., behind ch., in 1891, (fn. 51) on site later used for Mazenod primary (q.v.).

Kingsgate, Messina Ave., Kilburn. (fn. 52) Opened 1903 as Kingsgate Rd. bd. sch. by S.B.L. and intended as higher grade sch., but after disagreement with Bd. of Educ. opened for SM, taking seniors from Netherwood Street. 1908 accn. 452 SM, a.a. 333. Standard not good enough for higher elem. status. I dept. for 366 opened 1914. Reorg. between 1927 and 1932 for 480 JM, 306 I. Roll 1940: 528 JM, 322 I. By 1951 became Kingsgate primary for JM, I. Roll 1986: 171 JM; 197 I.

Mazenod R.C. Primary, Mazenod Ave., Kilburn. Vol. aided sch. opened 1967 for JM & I, on site used for sch. or annexe since 1947. (fn. 53) Roll 1977: 250 JM & I; 1986: 215 JM & I.

Mrs. Hoare's. (fn. 54) Hannah Hoare, w. of Sam. (d. 1825), said to have had G sch. c. 1812. Probably that supported by dau. Sarah Hoare in East Heath Rd. and possibly that listed 1846 with 40 G under one mistress and financed by subscriptions. Nothing further known.

Netherwood Street BD., see Harben.

New End Primary, Streatley Pl. (fn. 55) Opened by L.C.C. 1906, after much difficulty in obtaining site, for 198 SM, 194 JM, 220 I, replacing Heath Street Brit., St. Steph.'s Nat., and Rosslyn Hill. Tried new system of combining GBI under one head, but without Bd. of Educ.'s sanction, so reorg. for M, I under 2 heads 1910; a.a. 489, but declined steadily to 94 in 1938. 1922 accn. 270 M, 192 I. 1927 accn. 350 M, 192 I. Reorg. 1932 for 336 M & I, and 1936 for 348 JM & I. Roll 1940: 176 JM, 1841. Became New End primary for JM & I 1951. Roll 1986: 187 JM & I.

North End 1, Sandy Rd. (fn. 56) Originated in sch. held in mistress's ho. at North End, which had 12 B and 14 G in 1846. Schoolroom built by pub. subscriptions 1840 on land given by lord of manor. Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence; deficit made up by John Gurney Hoare 1872 and sch. managed by his w. Room for 30 I under one mistress; premises and instruction satisfactory 1871. Reorg. as pub. elem. sch. but apparently did not receive parl. grant and was not maintained by L.C.C. 1903. Closed 1907.

North-West London Jewish, Minster Rd., Cricklewood. Opened 1945 as vol. aided Jewish sch. for JM & I. Moved to Willesden 1958. (fn. 57)

Rosary R.C. Primary, no. 238 Haverstock Hill. Formerly Bartrams R.C. sch. at orphanage run by Sisters of Providence from c. 1867. (fn. 58) 1871 accn. 68 and roll 48 G, aged 3 to over 13, of whom 39 boarded at orphanage. Sch. pence. Not recognized as pub. elem. sch. 1871 but received parl. grant from 1876. Accn. increased to 116 by 1880, 250 by 1890, 337 by 1899. Not maintained by L.C.C. until 1921. 1922 accn. 198 G, 741; 1937, 158 G, 114 I. (fn. 59) After Second World War became Rosary R.C. vol. aided primary for JG & I, reorg. for JM, I by 1969. Roll 1977: 188 JM, 128 I; 1986: 295 JM & I.

Rosslyn Hill British, Willoughby Rd. (fn. 60) M sch. opened by Rosslyn Hill Unitarian ch. between 1862 and 1869 in former chapel. 1871 accn. 288 in 2 rooms under one master, a.a. 31; evg. sch. 6 hrs. a week for 23 B all ages. Premises and instruction efficient but, unusually, more pupils needed for size of bldg. I sch. in 2 rooms at no. 3 Pilgrim's Pl., Rosslyn Hill, accn. 32, a.a. 19; not recognized as pub. elem. sch. Schs. financed by subscriptions, mainly from chapel members, sch. pence. 1876 a.a. 106. 1880 a.a. 136, beside small evg. sch. Declined to 1890 a.a. 54. Roll 1900: 34 G, 29 I, when taken over by S.B.L. as temp. sch. for M, I. Pupils transferred to New End 1906.

St. John's Chapel, Downshire Hill. B, G, and I schs. founded by Revd. John Wilcox, min. of chapel, in 1830s at no. 14A Downshire Hill. (fn. 61) Roll 1846-7: 76 B under master, 40 G under mistress, 40 I under mistress. Financed by subscriptions, sch. pence, parl. grant. Instruction for B useful 1852, but less so in G sch., partly organized like an I sch. Roll 1871: 46 B, 48 G, 43 I, with separate rooms and teachers. Transferred to St. Steph.'s elem. sch. (q.v.) 1874-5.

St. Mary, Kilburn, C.E. Primary, West End Lane. (fn. 62) Established 1864 in rented premises: I in same bldg. as master's ho., B & G in adjoining bldg. Financed by sch. pence, collections. B & G moved 1868 to bldg. at corner of West End Lane and Kilburn Pl., leased by bp. of Lond., and formed Nat. Sch., with 1 schoolroom, 1 classroom, and mistress's ho.; 1867-8 a.a. 125. New sch. built 1870 on adjoining site, with 2 rooms for B, 2 for GI, 2 classrooms, mistress's ho. Roll 1871: 162 B, 70 G, 80 I. New bldg. for I sch. 1874. Subjects inc. history, grammar, geography, singing, drawing, physical science. 1880 accn. 391, a.a. 320. Income 1899 from small endowment (£10 p.a.), sch. pence, parl. grant. 1900 accn. enlarged for 429 BGI, but L.C.C. wanted reduction and sch. for G and I only. By 1906 accn. 348 but still for BGI. 1908 a.a. 365; steady decline thereafter. Reorg. between 1932 and 1936 for 304 M & I, a.a. 321. Roll 1940: 242 M, 85 I. Reorg. by 1951 as vol. aided primary sch. for JM & I. Roll 1986: 160 JM & I. Appeal for new sch. 1984: bldg. to start in Quex Rd. 1989.

St. Mary, Primrose Hill, Day, no. 4 Ainger Rd. M sch. for all ages in 2 rooms opened by 1871. Roll 1871: 85, with amateur teachers and mostly from congregation. Inc. evg. sch. with 22 B and 9 G. Not considered efficient or recognized as pub. elem. sch. Nothing further known.

St. Mary R.C., Holly Pl. (fn. 63) R.C. day sch. with 25 G established by 1833, financed by vol. contributions. Cath. Poor Sch. Cttee. grant 1849. 19 B and 13 G examined 1851, when rooms too small but new bldgs. planned. Annual parl. grant until 1865, then closed until 1872. Reopened with a.a. 39. 1880 accn. 77, a.a. 60. 1900 accn. 50 M, 27 I and further 20 I in temp. room. Roll 1905: 50 M, 28 I. Closed 1905 because of fire risk, as premises lay behind terraced ho.

St. Paul C.E. Primary, Elsworthy Rd., Primrose Hill. St. Paul's Parochial schs. opened in ho. in King's Coll. Rd. Mews, Adelaide Rd., with 40 B on ground floor from 1870, 20 G and 30 I on first floor from 1871. Financed by collections, subscriptions, sch. pence. Recognized as pub. elem. sch. 1872, as new bldg. planned, and received parl. grants. Site in Winchester Rd. leased to V. by Eton Coll. 1873, where sch. built for 104 B, 84 G, 55 I in 3 rooms and 2 classrooms. 1880 a.a. 167. 1899 a.a. 255. 1908 accn. after improvements 201. Reorg. between 1927 and 1932 for 181 M & I. Roll 1940: 137 M, 46 I. Became vol. aided C.E. primary 1951. Bldg. condemned 1913 (fn. 64) but not replaced until 1972 by sch. in Elsworthy Rd., with 6 classrooms in bungalow style in landscaped grounds; bldg. completed 1976. Roll 1976: 206 JM & I; 1986: 200 JM & I.

St. Saviour I, Fleet Mews, Upper Park Rd., Haverstock Hill. Opened 1871 in rented ho. with 2 rooms for mistress and 2 rooms for 100 I of poor and constantly changing neighbourhood; renewal of 7year lease depended on success. 1871 a.a. 35, when premises adequate but sch. not recognized. V. tried unsuccessfully to establish perm. ch. sch. opposite site of new Fleet Rd. bd. sch. 1878. (fn. 65)

St. Stephen Elem. Day. (fn. 66)

M & I sch. started 1870 in 2 rooms in crypt of St. Steph.'s, Rosslyn Hill; financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence, offertories, Nat. Soc. grant. Roll 1871: 44 B and 61 G all ages under 1 mistress, a.a. 72; evg. sch. for 30 B aged 8-16. Premises unsuitable but instruction efficient, and new site nearby obtained 1871. Succeeded St. John's chapel sch. at no. 14A Downshire Hill 1874-5; a.a. 195. Site in Worsley Rd. (later nos. 40-44 Pilgrim's Lane) conveyed to V. 1877, where bldg. for B Nat. opened. 1880 accn. 554, a.a. 201. I in iron bldg. at South End Green from c. 1886. Financial difficulties led to closure of B sch. 1897, when B sent mainly to Fleet Rd. Permission from Char. Com. to sell premises and build new I sch. near iron sch. 1898 but G & I schs. transferred to S.B.L. 1899. 1900 accn. 130 G & I in Downshire Hill temp. sch. S.B.L. hired former Worsley Rd. sch. for 159 M 1902, retaining 51 I in Downshire Hill. 1905 accn. 159 M, 262 I. Iron bldg. at South End Green became St. Steph.'s Sun. sch. M & I schs. closed 1906, when pupils transferred to New End.

Samuel Hoare's British, New End. Opened by 1811 in bldg. paid for by Hoare, who also paid master's salary and other expenses. Roll 1811: 112 B. (fn. 67) After Parochial sch. was united with Nat. Soc. but without religious test, Hoare closed sch. and offered bldg. for Parochial B. (fn. 68)

Trinity Nat., see Holy Trinity.

West End Nat., see Emmanuel.

Special schools. Alexandra Priory, Ainsworth Way, Boundary Rd. Opened between 1967 and 1974 in Sans Walk, Clerkenwell, and moved to Ainsworth Way by 1978. For primary and sec. educationally subnormal M, with special care unit. Roll 1986: 53 M.

Frank Barnes Primary, Harley Rd., Swiss Cottage. (fn. 69) Opened 1978 as primary sch. for 80 M from sch. in Clerkenwell. Designed by G.L.C.'s dept. of architecture to incorporate latest techniques for teaching profoundly deaf, on site allotted 20 years before, where noise and vibration which would have affected hearing aids led to bldg. of special defences on N. side; S. side, adjoining sites of John Keats and Franklin Delano Roosevelt schs., all glazed. Group rooms, polygonal to reduce echoes, for 2 junior groups, 2 I and nursery groups, and group of multiple-handicapped aged 5 to 7. Roll 1986: 38 M.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Avenue Rd., Swiss Cottage. Opened 1901 for physically handicapped in Essendine Rd., Paddington, and moved to Hampstead 1957. Roll 1986: 66 M.

Iverson Rd., Kilburn. Opened by 1899, when a.a. 29, as bd. sch. for 40 defective children. Probably replaced by dept. for mentally defective opened at Kingsgate Rd. bd. sch. 1903. Nothing further known.

John Keats, Adelaide Rd., Swiss Cottage. Opened 1958 for delicate M all ages on site shared with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Roll 1986: 97 M.

Private schools. In 1609 James Hill was licensed to teach in the parish church. (fn. 70) Robert Bramwick was presented in 1618 for keeping a school without a licence. (fn. 71) George Turner of Kilburn in Hampstead was a schoolmaster whose bequests of books in 1651 indicated a strong interest in the classics. (fn. 72) Licensed schoolmasters included Jacob Baileman in 1661, teaching grammar, John Frederick Wagner in 1662, teaching literature, and Theophilus Wragge in 1674, teaching grammar. (fn. 73) Lancelot Johnson in 1684 was permitted to plant trees on part of the waste 'for the ease and defence' of the boys in his school. (fn. 74) Lewis Vaslet is said to have opened his 'French school' in Hampstead in 1713, moving to Fulham in 1716, (fn. 75) but in 1702 a Mr. Vallett, possibly the same man, rented the new vestry room for his scholars. (fn. 76) Similar random references to 18th-century schools give little idea of their number or duration; only from the late 19th century can histories be traced. (fn. 77)

In 1828 nine boarding schools for young ladies, mainly finishing schools, included one at Kilburn, and eight for boys included two at Kilburn. (fn. 78) In 1833 there were eight private day schools, three of them with a total of 22 boys and 29 girls, one with 14 girls and five with 90 boys; 15 boarding schools, nine of them with 144 girls, six with 193 boys; and two day and boarding schools, one with 26 boys and girls, the other with 21 boys. (fn. 79) By 1851 there were 39 private day schools for a total of 428 girls and 292 boys, 46 per cent of all day pupils in Hampstead, but with an average roll of only 18, whereas the National Society and other public schools had an average of 71. (fn. 80) Fifteen endowed and private schools for boys were listed in 1872, mainly preparing for the Public schools, and some 45 private girls' schools in 1884. (fn. 81) Roman Catholics were also well represented, with both boys' preparatory schools and convent boarding schools for girls. (fn. 82) H. G. Wells and A. A. Milne recalled Henley House, (fn. 83) which was probably fairly typical of the small private schools of the 1880s, when they differed in their strengths according to the proprietor but were similar in their weaknesses: a lack of space and equipment, and an emphasis on career success at the expense of other values. Wells thought that Alfred Harmsworth, a pupil at Henley House, was an example of the failure of such schools to impart moral values. (fn. 84) By the late 19th century social decline in districts such as Kilburn was causing closures: J. V. Milne sold Henley House, which provided secondary education, c. 1892, in the belief that only preparatory schools would continue to have any chance of success. (fn. 85)

Private schools in Hampstead recorded under the Education Act, 1918, included 24 with 1,270 boys and girls, 5 with 337 girls, and 4 with 165 boys. About 32 other schools applied for inspection and recognition. (fn. 86) The system of recognition probably helped to reduce the number of schools, as did removals and the financial depression of the 1930s. (fn. 87) Most schools were evacuated in 1939; although a few returned in 1940, others remained away throughout the war and many never returned, their premises having been damaged and the demand much reduced.

After the Second World War, 7 of Hampstead's independent schools were recognized as efficient in 1951. Twenty-two were listed in 1960, of which 10 were recognized, and 14 in 1984, almost all recognized. (fn. 88) Although by the 1980s boarders were no longer taken, independent day schools remained relatively numerous for London. Some of the schools, both past and present, are described in alphabetical order below. (fn. 89)

Sara and Rita Allen-Olney set up a school for general and higher education of girls in 1886 in St. John's Wood at the Elms, with some pupils from South Hampstead High where Rita had been headmistress. (fn. 90) By 1889 they had moved to no. 41 Belsize Park Gardens and in 1891 they moved to the Hall, a new house in Crossfield Road. They took boarding and day girls from the age of 6. In 1905 their school was sold to the Revd. D. H. Marshall, who moved his Belsize preparatory school there, renaming it the Hall school, and carried on the girls' school at no. 18 Buckland Crescent. In 1919, under Mrs. Rosa Money Dawes, the roll was 50-60. The Allen-Olney school prepared day girls and boarders for university entrance and school examinations in 1927 but apparently had closed by 1934.

Burgess Hill school, for day boys and girls aged 5 to 14, was started in Hampstead in 1936 as a modern co-educational primary school. Within two years it had 120 pupils. Weekly meetings involved pupils in many decisions regarding the school. It moved to Cranleigh (Surr.) as a boarding and day school in 1939 and returned to nos. 11, 12, and 13 Oak Hill Park c. 1948, (fn. 91) where it remained until c. 1960.

Frognal school, under Miss E. J. Campbell, had 100 girls in 1919, when it was at no. 84 Fitzjohn's Avenue. By 1931 it had moved to no. 104, with an annexe at no. 14 Prince Arthur Road, and management was by a limited company with Miss Campbell continuing as head. (fn. 92) It was recognized and took day girls aged 6 to 19; roll in 1929: 189; in 1931: 212. Education was on Public school lines, without too much pressure. A domestic science department was opened at no. 106 Fitzjohn's Avenue for students over 18, with preparation for national certificates. The school closed in 1938, when a member of the staff opened Settrington school (q.v.), with many staff and pupils from Frognal.

Haberdashers' Aske's School for Boys originated as a day school run by the Haberdashers' Aske's charity foundation at Hoxton (Shoreditch) from 1690 until 1898, when it moved temporarily to Cricklewood. In 1903 it moved to a new building in Westbere Road and was recognized. In 1906 the school was thought to be of value in a rapidly expanding neighbourhood but was cramped, with 412 boys in accommodation suitable for 200-300. In 1907 an additional block was proposed for 240, including 50 juniors. The roll was 503 in 1911, of whom about one third came from Hampstead. Teaching so improved between 1906 and 1911 that inspectors foresaw a most efficient and advanced school. It received a direct grant and in 1961 moved to Aldenham (Herts.), (fn. 93) when the buildings were taken over by Hampstead school. (fn. 94)

The Hall school (fn. 95) originated as Belsize school, founded in 1889 by the Revd. Francis John Wrottesley, who with his wife had taken fee-paying pupils at their home, no. 18 Buckland Crescent, since 1881. The Wrottesleys sold their school in 1898 to the Revd. D. H. Marshall, who took over an adjoining house in 1903, when there were 58 boys, including 10 boarders. In 1905 Marshall bought the AllenOlney girls' school, (fn. 96) which his wife continued at Buckland Crescent. Marshall moved the boys to Crossfield Road and renamed the school the Hall. The roll was over 100 in 1909, when he sold the school to G. H. Montauban. It prepared boys aged 5 to 13 for Public schools and won many scholarships. Montauban bought Woodcote, no. 69 Belsize Park, at the corner of Buckland Crescent, in 1916 and opened it in 1917 for boys under 8. (fn. 97) The school was recognized from 1919, when Montauban sold the Hall to R. T. Gladstone, retaining the junior school until 1923. In the 1920s the roll increased from 60 to 270. In 1935 ownership passed to a private company. The main building was extended in 1935 and the junior school in 1938. The roll fell to 45 in 1940 but under a new company rose to 170 in 1942. The junior school, evacuated in 1939, reopened in 1942 with 35 boys. The school became a charitable trust in 1952. In 1951 there were 302 boys aged 5 to 15, including 30 boarders, but boarding ceased between 1960 and 1974. In 1983 the school prepared up to 320 boys for Public schools.

Heath Mount school, at the corner of Heath Street and the Grove, was variously said to have been founded in 1795 and 1817. (fn. 98) In 1872 it prepared boarders and day boys for the Civil Service, the armed services, and Public schools. (fn. 99) It was taken over by J. S. Granville Grenfell in 1895 and had 56 pupils aged 8 to 14 in 1903. In 1921 there were 24 boarders and 65 day boys, mostly from Hampstead. After an adverse inspection had prevented recognition, a dismissed master sought the help of Arthur Waugh, whose son Evelyn he had taught there, to approach the Minister of Education. (fn. 100) The school had closed by 1934 and moved to Hertford. (fn. 101)

Henley House school, nos. 6 & 7 Mortimer Road (later Crescent), Kilburn, had been unsuccessful before 1878 when John Vine Milne, father of the writer A. A. Milne, bought the goodwill. Numbers rose from c. 6 to 50 boys, aged 8 to 18, including 15 boarders. Milne's family lived in one semi-detached house, the other being adapted for classrooms. H. G. Wells taught English, science, and drawing 1889-90 and admired Milne, although equipment was sparse and the school fell short of its intentions; the honour system for discipline was in advance of its time, and a new approach to mathematics proved successful for university entrance. Alfred Harmsworth was encouraged to start the school magazine in 1878, printed from 1881. Milne moved his school c. 1892 to Westgate-on-Sea (Kent); Henley House continued as a school until c. 1910 under various proprietors. (fn. 102)

King Alfred school was opened in 1898 at no. 24 Ellerdale Road by the new King Alfred School Society, to practise modern theories of education. Day boys and girls aged c. 8 to 18 were taught together to at least the age of 14. The school had no religious or political affiliations; discipline depended mainly on the pupils' co-operation and competition was discouraged, although there was preparation for entrance examinations to further education. In 1903 there were 20 girls and 15 boys in classes smaller than at most maintained schools and under a staff better qualified than at most private schools. By 1913 there were 85 pupils and more space was needed, despite the addition of no. 22 Ellerdale Road. The school also needed capital and more older boys. It moved to Hendon in 1919. (fn. 103)

Lyndhurst House preparatory school, no. 24 Lyndhurst Gardens, was opened for 150 day boys aged 7 to 13 c. 1950 by Davies Tutors and renamed Lyndhurst House school by 1960. Recognized from 1957, it successfully prepared boys for Public schools in 1983. (fn. 104)

North Bridge House school, no. 8 Netherhall Gardens, a mixed preparatory school, was formerly at nos. 23-4 St. John's Wood Park and had 120 pupils by 1960. In 1983 it prepared 320 pupils aged 3 to 13 for Public schools, with juniors at Netherhall Gardens and seniors at Gloucester Gate (St. Pancras).

Peterborough Lodge school, no. 143 Finchley Road, started c. 1898 as a school belonging to A. H. Linford and later occupied a block added to a private house in 1901, standing in 2 a. It was a preparatory school for c. 100 boys aged 5 to 15, including 5 to 10 boarders, and in 1921 had 92 boys, mainly from Hampstead. The school was highly successful in preparation for the Royal Navy and Public schools and was recognized from 1921. Linford also ran Downsend school, Leatherhead (Surr.), which he had opened during the First World War for the boarders from Peterborough Lodge. A branch was opened in 1931 at no. 17 Maresfield Gardens to take c. 90 juniors, aged 5 to 9. In 1937 the lease of the main school expired and the school moved to no. 6 Netherhall Gardens, whose garden adjoined that of the junior school. (fn. 105) The whole school amalgamated with Downsend in 1940 and apparently did not return to Hampstead.

Purcell school, no. 13 Lyndhurst Terrace, formerly the Central Tutorial School for Young Musicians, was recognized from 1972. It had 65 day girls and boys aged 8 to 18 in 1974. It left Hampstead c. 1978.

Queen's House school, no. 69 Fitzjohn's Avenue, opened in 1947 for day girls aged 9 to 18, with education up to university entrance. It was recognized from 1950 and had 83 girls in 1951. It closed c. 1964.

The Royal Soldiers' Daughters' Home, no. 65 Rosslyn Hill, was founded at Rosslyn House in 1855 to relieve the families of soldiers in the Crimea. The trustees bought Vane House and rebuilt it in 1858 to designs by William Munt, incorporating part of the 17th-century house; the grounds of c. 4 a. included part of those of Rosslyn House. The home had been enlarged by 1876, when it had 163 girls with accommodation for 200. Originally intended for destitute war orphans, it later took the daughters of serving or retired soldiers; they were admitted from infancy to 13 and left at 16, able ones being trained to become teachers. From 1924 the school was maintained by the L.C.C., with a roll of c. 110 until the Second World War. Accommodation was reduced from 200 to 145 in 1924. In view of the small numbers in a wide age range, inspectors recommended limiting the school to juniors or sending the girls out to school. The L.C.C. ceased maintenance from 1945, when the governors decided to run an independent all-age boarding school. By 1973, however, and possibly as early as 1951 when they sold the school building to the L.C.C., all the girls were sent to local maintained schools, while the home provided extras such as dancing, drama, music, and riding. A new building was opened in 1970 behind the old, which was replaced by Vane Mews, Vane Close, and Mulberry Close. (fn. 106)

The Royal Sailors' Orphan Girls' School and Home was said to have been established in 1829 as a home, (fn. 107) which opened in Hampstead in 1862 at Frognal House. In 1869 it moved to a new building at nos. 96-116 Fitzjohn's Avenue, designed by Edward Ellis. In 1871 two rooms for 78 served as a school, attended by 60 girls of all ages, whose subjects included domestic ones. It was recognized as a public elementary school from 1879 and received a parliamentary grant from 1882, when the roll was c. 116, but ceased to receive grants between 1903 and 1908, and in 1919 again became independent. The Home closed in 1957 and was demolished to make way for council flats. (fn. 108)

St. Anthony's preparatory school, no. 90 Fitzjohn's Avenue, opened c. 1953 as a Roman Catholic day school for boys aged 6 to 14, preparing them for Public schools. It was recognized from 1956. The roll was 200 in 1960, 275 in 1974, and 280 in 1983. No. 1 Arkwright Road was added to the school c. 1965. (fn. 109)

St. Christopher's school was thought to have been founded in 1883. A small Froebel class held by 1889, probably by Mrs. Roberts, soon developed into a preparatory school, Hampstead kindergarten and school at no. 13 Carlingford Road, under Miss Amy Pridham, who was later joined by Miss E. G. Wells; the school embodied the ideas of Pestalozzi and Froebel. It moved in 1898 to no. 16 Hampstead Hill Gardens and had c. 35 junior girls and boys c. 1905. After another move, to no. 20 Hampstead Hill Gardens, the school was carried on from 1912 by Miss Violet H. Wright, who in 1919 moved to no. 32 Belsize Lane, formerly a nursery training college, having taken over Tremarth and Ruskin House schools. Thereafter she took girls up to 18. The school had 112 girls and boys in 1919 and was recognized from 1924. Miss Wright also opened a school of domestic science at the Lodge, no. 2 Rosslyn Hill, in 1924, with accommodation for 8-9 boarders. In the 1930s the lower school took girls and boys aged 4 to 10, and senior girls were prepared for London Matriculation and Oxford School Certificate. In 1937 the juniors moved to no. 20 Lyndhurst Gardens. The school, which was evacuated during the Second World War, was bought by Miss Rosemary Manning and Miss Bell in 1950. It had 19 pupils under 5, 122 aged 5 to 10, and 7 aged 11 to 15 in 1951, and later had c. 180 until the early 1970s. Principally a girls' preparatory school, taking a few small boys, it encouraged parents to send children on to local day schools rather than to boarding schools. The arts, especially music, were emphasized. When Miss Manning decided to retire in 1972, a parent, Dr. David Cohen, bought the property through his family trust and leased it to a board of governors. A new block was opened in 1983, containing 3 classrooms and 2 music rooms. In 1974 the school had 164 girls aged 4 to 12 and in 1984 it took up to 215 day girls aged 5 to 11. (fn. 110)

St. Margaret's school, no. 18 Kidderpore Gardens, was started by Miss Elizabeth Tulloch in West Hampstead in 1884 and moved to a pair of semidetached houses at Oak Hill Park in 1898. Originally a day and boarding school for girls aged 11 and upwards, by 1904 it included a small preparatory class. In 1904 there were 57 girls, prepared for examinations up to university entrance. The school was recognized in 1920, when it had 85 day girls and 11 boarders aged 5 to 18, mostly from Hampstead. It incorporated Threave House school (q.v.) from 1932. After the Second World War the school reopened in Kidderpore Gardens c. 1948 with 72 day girls. From 1954 management was by a company, registered as a charitable trust. By 1974 the roll was 151 girls, aged 7 to 16, and in 1983 it was 145. (fn. 111)

St. Mary's convent school was opened by the Dames Anglaises of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary in England's Lane by 1880. (fn. 112) In 1919 it had 97 girls. The convent moved to no. 47 Fitzjohn's Avenue c. 1927, where it ran a boarding and day school for girls with a kindergarten and mixed preparatory school in 1949. (fn. 113) The school was recognized from 1951. By 1960 it was a Roman Catholic girls' preparatory day school, with a few small boys. In 1974 there were 156 girls aged 4 to 11, and 40 boys aged 4 to 8; in 1983 the maximum roll was 200.

St. Mary's Town and Country school started in 1937 when a small school called St. Mary's was taken over in co-operation with Mrs. Ena Curry, of Dartington Hall, as a progressive educational day school. It continued to be built up at Hereford during the Second World War and the day school reopened in 1945 at no. 38 Eton Avenue, while the boarding school was at Stanford Park near Rugby. Pupils were interchanged between town and country, and from 1951 often used a weekend and summer school at the 16-a. Hedgerley Wood (Bucks.). (fn. 114) In 1951 there were 144 girls and boys of all ages including 17 boarders. In 1969 it was proposed to adapt a house in Glenloch Road, formerly used for boarders, for teachers' accommodation and as a laboratory. (fn. 115) The school was recognized by 1960; in 1974 it had 186 girls and boys aged 4 to 16. It closed c. 1983.

Sarum Hall school, no. 51 Eton Avenue, started in 1929 when a management company was incorporated. It prepared day girls aged 5 to 14 for Public schools (fn. 116) and was recognized from 1934. There were 95 girls aged 5 to 15 in 1951 and 120 in 1984. The school closed in 1986. (fn. 117)

Settrington school, no. 24 Lyndhurst Gardens, was started in 1938 by Miss Hilda M. Johnson, a teacher at the former Frognal school, with support from parents there. Numbers were limited to 60 girls, nearly all of them at first from Frognal. Day girls aged 10 to 18 were prepared up to university entrance. The school was recognized in 1939. It closed c. 1950, when the premises were taken over by Davies Tutors as Lyndhurst House. (fn. 118)

South Hampstead High school (fn. 119) was founded as St. John's Wood High by the Girls' Public Day School Trust in 1876 in a house in Winchester Road. Numbers had reached 197 by 1878 and 302 by 1882, when the school moved to a new building in Maresfield Gardens. Two laboratories, two classrooms, and a fives court were added in 1889. In 1908 the school had 244 girls of all ages and was recognized. (fn. 120) In 1921 it acquired no. 1 Maresfield Gardens, formerly the home of Sir Ernest Waterlow, which became a junior school, the studio later being used by the seniors. Extensions including a gymnasium, library, laboratory, and classrooms marked the school's jubilee. In 1927 girls were prepared for examinations up to university entrance. (fn. 121) A direct grant was received after 1944, but the junior school remained wholly fee-paying. In 1957, when the total roll was over 500, the juniors moved to no. 12 Netherhall Gardens and the seniors took over Waterlow House. A site adjoining the playground was bought in 1968 and a science block opened there in 1972. In 1976 the school had 160 juniors, aged 5 to 11, and 466 seniors, aged 11 to 18, including a 6th form of 117; numbers were similar in 1984. Despite its restricted site, the school drew pupils from a wide area of north and west London, with strong support from the Jewish community. A large new building, on the site of Waterlow House, including a theatre and sports hall, was due for completion in 1987. (fn. 122)

Stepping Stone school, no. 33 Fitzjohn's Avenue, was opened as a nursery and mixed preparatory school c. 1964 (fn. 123) and recognized since 1970. It had 193 girls and boys aged 3 to 9 in 1974 and up to 220 in 1983.

Threave House school, no. 7 Heath Drive, was founded in 1886 by the Misses McMillan as a day school for girls aged 7 to 19. In 1903 it occupied a large detached house and was particularly strong in Mathematics, French, German, and Latin, while the life drawing, taught by the head of Sydenham School of Art, was the best which the inspector had seen in a girls' school. In 1903 there were 80 girls. Compulsory religious instruction in 1906 caused the withdrawal of perhaps a third of the pupils, who were Jewish or Roman Catholic. It was recognized in 1919, when the roll was 69 and it could accommodate 75, although in 1930 the inspectors wanted less emphasis on examinations and the introduction of science. The surviving Miss McMillan retired in 1932, whereupon the school was amalgamated with St. Margaret's (q.v.). (fn. 124)

University College school (fn. 125) was founded in 1830 in Gower Street as part of University College, London. When the college became part of London University in 1907, (fn. 126) the school became a separate corporation and moved with c. 200 boys to Hampstead, where the preparatory school was already established. (fn. 127) It occupied a neo-Georgian building of brick with stone dressings, designed by Arnold Bidlake Mitchell (fn. 128) as three linked blocks accommodating 500. The school was recognized from 1907 but suffered as other schools adopted its nonconformist and liberal traditions. It applied for a direct grant in 1919, providing 25 per cent of the places free, and also received an annual grant from the L.C.C. from 1920 to 1924. The roll, only c. 300 in 1917, had increased to 525 by 1931. Academic standards were affected by the reliance on fee-payers but the curriculum was extended in the period between the World Wars. After the mortgages were paid off the school dispensed with the direct grant and in 1944 became completely independent again, while continuing to offer 25 per cent of the places to boys from primary schools, often those refused assistance by L.C.C. but accepted by Middlesex C.C. After the Second World War, competition for places increased, although the number was kept down to 500 boys, aged 13 to 18; the 6th form was built up and the school became strong in classics. A new laboratory, music room, library, and headmaster's house were paid for through a jubilee appeal in 1957. A brick and glass 6th-form centre, designed by Michael Foster of T.F.P. Architects, (fn. 129) was opened in 1974. The main building was damaged by fire in 1978, the restored hall being reopened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1980, on the school's sesquicentenary.

University College preparatory school was opened in 1891 at Holly Hill House (no. 11 Holly Hill). It had c. 80 boys by 1900, over 100 by 1907, and 250 at its peak in 1921, necessitating the housing of the top forms in the senior school at Frognal. The house was rebuilt for 200 boys in 1926-8 to a design by Sir John Simpson, incorporating woodwork from the old house. James Elroy Flecker, poet, was a master there. (fn. 130) In 1984 there were c. 250 boys aged 7 to 13.

Warwick House school, founded in 1883, was at no. 145 King Henry's Road in 1919 with 30 boys (fn. 131) and moved to no. 30 Lymington Road c. 1939. (fn. 132) It took both boarders and day boys, preparing seniors for examinations up to university entrance and juniors for Public schools. Special provision was made for Jews, Moslems, and Roman Catholics. The school closed c. 1969. (fn. 133)

Wykeham House school was established in 1895, probably by a Miss Budd. Miss Ada Wright, a member of staff, took over in 1898 and may have moved to no. 147 Abbey Road, Kilburn, by 1908, and certainly by 1919. The school was recognized in 1920, when it prepared day boys and 5 boarders aged 5 to 13 for Public schools. It closed in 1933. (fn. 134)


  • 1. Endowed Chars. Lond. III, H.C. 252, p. 88 (1900), lxi.
  • 2. Below, charities.
  • 3. Below, pub. schs. (Hampstead Parochial).
  • 4. Educ. Enq. Abstract, 1833, H.C. 62 (1835), xlii. 93.
  • 5. Nat. Soc. Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx. 6-7.
  • 6. Census, 1851.
  • 7. For individual schs., below.
  • 8. G.L.R.O., SBL 1518.
  • 9. The Times, 6 Nov. 1900, 7f; 24 July 1901, 9f.
  • 10. F. Nagy, 'Development of Elem. Sch. Provision and Use of Schs. as Welfare Institutions in Hampstead between 1902 and 1914' (diss. for Teacher's Cert. Exam. 1977, in S.C.L.), 20-3.
  • 11. Nat. Soc. files, Christ Ch. sch.
  • 12. Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 27-8.
  • 13. Ibid. 32-6.
  • 14. Ibid. 41, 43.
  • 15. Nat. Soc. files, Christ Ch.
  • 16. Below.
  • 17. Nat. Soc. files, Christ Ch.
  • 18. Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 60, 63.
  • 19. L.C.C. Sch. Plan (1947).
  • 20. Nat. Soc. files, Hampstead Parochial.
  • 21. Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 80.
  • 22. J. S. Maclure, One Hundred Years of Lond. Educ. (1970), 121.
  • 23. L.C.C. Sch. Plan (1947), 60.
  • 24. H. J. K. Usher, C. D. Black-Hawkins, G. J. Carrick, Angel Without Wings: Hist. of Univ. Coll. Sch. 1830-1980 (1981), 74.
  • 25. Ann. Abstract of Gtr. Lond. Statistics (1967).
  • 26. Private schs. are treated separately below.
  • 27. P.R.O., C 54/17340, no. 34.
  • 28. A. R. Colville, Lond. Northern Reaches (1951), 87.
  • 29. Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 19.
  • 30. Nat. Soc. files, Hampstead Par.
  • 31. P.R.O., C 54/14857, no. 14.
  • 32. Endowed Chars. Lond. III, H.C. 252, pp. 132-3 (1900), lxi.
  • 33. P.R.O., C 54/13176, nos. 5, 6; C 54/13185, no. 15.
  • 34. Additional inf. from T. S. Jennings, 'Sch. in Mill Lane'-Acct. of Emmanuel Primary Sch. 1845-1972 [n.d.].
  • 35. Hampstead News, 27 Dec. 1968, 17 July 1970; H.H.E. 24 Oct. 1969, 13 Apr. 1973; J. Tucker, Emmanuel Ch., West End, Hampstead (1981), 83.
  • 36. Images of Hampstead, 113; Wade, Streets of Hampstead, 69; below, priv. schs.
  • 37. Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 15.
  • 38. Thompson, Hampstead, 416; Baines, Rec. Hampstead, 324-5; Maclure, One Hundred Yrs. of Lond. Educ. 57.
  • 39. Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 19, 81.
  • 40. I.L.E.A. Changing Schs. at Eleven: Sec. Schs. in City of Westm., Camden (1983), 14.
  • 41. Additional inf. from Endowed Chars. Lond. III, 128-32; E. V. Knox, Adventures of a Sch. [1969].
  • 42. P.R.O., C 54/16005, no. 7.
  • 43. G.L.R.O., P81/JN1/15, mins. of guardians, 1 Mar. 1824, 6 Mar. 1826.
  • 44. P.R.O., C 54/14904, no. 19; 54/15018, no. 11.
  • 45. Ibid. C 54/16417, nos. 12, 13.
  • 46. Ibid. C 54/19201, no. 9.
  • 47. Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 19.
  • 48. Below, Paddington, educ.
  • 49. Additional inf. from Buffard, Heath Street Bapt. Ch. 9, 13-14, 16, 19; P.R.O., ED 21/11581.
  • 50. P.R.O., C 54/17632, no. 40.
  • 51. Stanford, Libr. Map of Lond. (1891 edn.), sheet 5.
  • 52. Additional inf. from Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 77, 79.
  • 53. Additional inf. from S.C.L., cuttings file 49.41 Mazenod.
  • 54. P. Fleming, 'Educational Provision in par. of St. John, Hampstead, 1850-70' (Sidney Webb coll. thesis, 1972, in S.C.L.), 34; H.H.E. 18 May 1907; Nat. Soc. Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx. 6-7.
  • 55. Additional inf. from Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 56, 59.
  • 56. Additional inf. from H.H.E. 18 May 1907; L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. (1905), 163.
  • 57. V.C.H. Mdx. vii. 251.
  • 58. Above, Rom. Cathm.
  • 59. P.R.O., ED 21/57009.
  • 60. Additional inf. from Rosslyn Hill Chapel 1692-1973, 41, 53.
  • 61. Wade, Streets of Hampstead, 53.
  • 62. Additional inf. from P.R.O., C 54/17169, no. 4; S.C.L., cuttings file 49.42 St. Mary's; P.R.O., ED 21/ 11583.
  • 63. Additional inf. from Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 32, 35; Fleming, 'Educ. Provision', 36; P.R.O., ED 21/371.
  • 64. Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 21.
  • 65. Fleming, 'Educ. Provision', 75.
  • 66. Additional inf. from P.R.O., ED 21/11579; Nagy, 'Elem. Sch. Provision', 23; Endowed Chars. Lond. III, 135.
  • 67. Royal Lancasterian Institution for Educ. of Poor, Rep. of Finance Cttee. and Trustees for 1811 (1812), 22.
  • 68. Above, Hampstead Parochial.
  • 69. Para. based on Architects' Jnl. 15 Nov. 1978, 929-42.
  • 70. G.L.R.O., DL/C/339, f. 85v.
  • 71. Mdx. Sess. Rec. iv. 337.
  • 72. P.R.O., PROB 11/218 (P.C.C. 198 Grey).
  • 73. G.L.R.O., index of licensed schoolmasters 1627-85.
  • 74. Ibid. E/MW/H/I/2304.
  • 75. V.C.H. Mdx. i. 244.
  • 76. G.L.R.O., P81/JN1/1A, 7 Apr. 1702.
  • 77. Below.
  • 78. Boarding Schs. Dir. (1828).
  • 79. Educ. Enq. Abstract, 93.
  • 80. Census, 1851: Educ., p. 54.
  • 81. F. S. de Carteret-Bisson, Our Schs. and Colls. (1872), 273; (1884), 437, 536, 538-42, 658.
  • 82. For examples, see below.
  • 83. Below.
  • 84. H. G. Wells, Experiment in Autobiog. (1934), i. 328-9.
  • 85. A. A. Milne, It's Too Late Now (1939), 84.
  • 86. P.R.O., ED 15/23.
  • 87. Rest of para. based on histories of individual schs.
  • 88. Min. of Educ. List 70 (1951 and later edns. H.M.S.O.); Truman & Knightley, Schools (1960, 1983/4).
  • 89. Gen. inf. for these schs. is taken from List 70 (1951 and later edns.); Truman & Knightley, Schs. (1960 and later edns.); Guide to Schs. in Camden (Mar. 1983), pp. 28-30; Public and Prep. Schs. Yearbk. 1984.
  • 90. Para. based on P. R. Bodington, The Kindling and the Flame: Cent. Review of S. Hampstead High [c. 1976], 12; P. G. Drury-Lowe, Hall Sch. Hampstead 1889-1964 (1964), 5-7, 9; Dir. of Women Teachers (1927), 64; P.R.O., ED 15/23; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1934).
  • 91. P.R.O., ED 35/5270; P.O. Dir. Lond.
  • 92. P.R.O., ED 35/5271.
  • 93. V.C.H. Mdx. i. 297; P.R.O., ED 35/1689; Public and Prep. Schs. Yearbk. 1984, 145.
  • 94. Above, pub. schs.
  • 95. Para. based on Drury-Lowe, Hall Sch.; P.R.O., ED 35/1690.
  • 96. Above.
  • 97. A painting of the ho. by Robt. Bevan, 1917, is in Lond. Mus.
  • 98. P.R.O., ED 35/1691; Wade, Streets of Hampstead, 60.
  • 99. Bisson, Schs. and Colls. (1872), 273.
  • 100. P.R.O., ED 35/1691. Grenfell is said to be the model for the head in Waugh's Decline and Fall: Wade, Streets of Hampstead, 60.
  • 101. Wade, Streets of Hampstead, 60; Truman & Knightley, Schs. (1960).
  • 102. Para. based on Milne, It's Too Late Now, 4-5, 10, 24, 26, 49-50, 55, 84; Wells, Experiment in Autobiog. i. 317-29; P.O. Dir. Lond.
  • 103. P.R.O., ED 35/1692; V.C.H. Mdx. v. 48.
  • 104. S.C.L., 49.42 Lyndhurst, cutting.
  • 105. P.R.O., ED 35/1694, 5276, 5277; P.O. Dir. Lond.
  • 106. Char. Com. files; P.R.O., ED 21/34812, 57007; C 54/ 15954, no. 13; Thorne, Environs, 287-8; Wade, Streets of Hampstead, 68-9.
  • 107. P.R.O., ED 7/81.
  • 108. Rest of para. based on P.R.O., ED 3/19; Nat. Soc. files; Images of Hampstead, 113; Wade, Streets of Hampstead, 17.
  • 109. P.O. Dir. Lond.
  • 110. S.C.L., 49.42/St. Chris. Sch. Mag. Cent. Edn. 1883- 1983; cutting 1983.
  • 111. P.R.O., ED 35/1693; Char. Com. files.
  • 112. Cath. Dir. (1880), 354.
  • 113. P.O. Dir. Lond.; Anson, Rel. Orders, 320.
  • 114. H. A. T. Child (ed.), The Independent Progressive Sch. (1962), 136; P.O. Dir. Lond.
  • 115. S.C.L., 49.42/Town and Country sch., cutting.
  • 116. P.R.O., ED 35/5278.
  • 117. Inf. from Camden local hist. librarian.
  • 118. P.R.O., ED 35/5279.
  • 119. Para. based on Girls' Public Day Sch. Trust 1872-1972 (1972), 90-1; Bodington, Kindling and Flame.
  • 120. List of Sec. Schs. in Eng. Recognised as Efficient [Cd. 4374], p. 40, H.C. (1908), lxxxiii.
  • 121. Dir. of Women Teachers (1927), 63.
  • 122. Girls' Sch. Yearbk. 1984, 1986.
  • 123. S.C.L., 49.42/Stepping Stone Sch., cutting; P.O. Dir. Lond.
  • 124. Para. based on P.R.O., ED 35/1696, 5282.
  • 125. Following 2 paras, based on H. H. Bellot, Univ. Coll. Lond. 1826-1926 (1929), 170, 402; Univ. Coll. Sch.: Register 1860-1931, with Short Hist., 13, 16-21; Usher, Black-Hawkins, Carrick, Angels Without Wings: Hist. of Univ. Coll. Sch.
  • 126. V.C.H. Mdx. i. 358.
  • 127. Below.
  • 128. Gray, Edwardian Archit. 262.
  • 129. Building Design, 26 Oct. 1979, 20-1.
  • 130. Wade, Streets of Hampstead, 25.
  • 131. P.R.O., ED 15/23.
  • 132. P.O. Dir. Lond.
  • 133. Ibid.
  • 134. P.R.O., ED 15/23; ED 35/1700, 5285; P.O. Dir. Lond.