Romano-British Somerset: Index

Pages 357-370

A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 1. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1906.

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Ashton.—See Long Ashton.

Axbridge [near].—Ten coins (9 Constantine, 1 Magnentius) [Soc. Antiq. Minutes, 23 June 1748]. The importance attached to the place by Horsley (pp. 464–5) seems mistaken.

Bagborough Hill.—Coin [Som. Proc. i. (2) 43 ; xlvi. (2) 132].

Banwell.—Buildings at Winthill: see p. 307. Burial at Wolvershill, 1½ miles north of Banwell church : skeleton, coin of Maximian and enamelled brooch, red, blue, and yellow (fig. 99). Similar brooches have been found at Castor and Irchester in Northamptonshire (V. C. H. i. 176, 183) and another at Leicester, Archaeol. Journ. xxv. 53. [Information from the Rev. C. S. Taylor and Mr. C. H. Read.] The small earthwork with cruciform mound inside, on Banwell Hill, has often been called Roman and explained as a botontinus or boundary mark either of some estate or of the Mendip mining area : so R. C. Hoare, Ancient Wilts, Roman Aera, p. 43 (but doubting its purpose) ; Phelps, p. 108 ; Coote, Romans in Britain, p. 101; Scarth, Som. Proc. xxxi. (2) 15; A. T. Martin, Clifton Antiq. Club, iv. 199 (with good plan). But no Roman remains have ever been found in or near the earthwork, despite excavation ; and the thing itself seems to belong to a large class of non-Roman earthworks of which J. R. Mortimer, British and Saxon Burial Mounds in East Yorkshire (1905), p. 394, cites examples. I may add that the Roman land-surveying system is a very difficult subject, and theories connected with botontini are best left alone : see Mommsen, Bonner Jahrbücher, xcvi. 288.

Fig. 99. Brooch from Wolvershill, 1/1;. Fig. 100. Brooch from Irchester.

Barton St. David.—Mr. Franklin of Taunton has five small Constantinian copper from here, and coins are vaguely noted [Proc. Som. xl. (1) 46].

Bath.—Hot springs, spa, etc.: see pp. 219–225.

Bathampton.—Potsherds, cinders, etc., explained as kiln or smithy, near the church, but on the opposite side of the canal [Som. Proc. xxii. (1) 51].
-, Effigy in external east wall of church, often called Roman [Som. Proc. xxii. (1) 50; Brit. Arch. Assoc. Journ. xiii. 149; xxxiv. 119], but medieval.

Batheaston.—Coins of Lower Empire, dug up about 1600 a.d. in earthwork a mile west of the church [Collinson, iii. 23 ; hence Gough, Adds. to Camden, i. 96; O.S.].

Bathford.—Villa, etc.: see p. 300.

Bawdrip.—Doubtful villa : see pp. 329, 352 note.

Bayford.—Doubtful villa : see p. 320.

Beacon on Mendip.—Potsherds and coins vaguely mentioned by Phelps, p. 106, and Scarth, Som. Proc. xxiv. (1) 74; possibly from Skinner. I have seen pre-Roman potsherds from this site.

Bicknoller.—Collinson, iii. 501, mentions coins as found near. These are probably the Stogumber hoard : see p. 364, Lydeard St. Lawrence.

Bishop's Hull.— See Taunton.

Blackford.—See Wedmore.

Blagdon.—Lead pig: see p. 341, No. 5.

Bratton.—Building : see p. 320.

Brean Down.—Scarth [Som. Proc. xxxi. (2) 13] says that 'all the surface of the down is marked with traces of Roman habitation.' This seems much exaggerated, but F. Warre mentions 'many Roman coins' from here [Som. Proc. xii. (1) 66].

Brent Knoll.—Silver and copper coins in the earthwork on the knoll, and potsherds, including Samian, on it and at its base [Collinson, i. 196; Skinner in Add. MS. 33719, p. 99]. Barrett, Hist. of Bristol, p. 10, mentions coins of Trajan, Severus, and others in an urn on the knoll : hence Seyer i. 86. The alleged road found in the marsh, 6 feet below the surface, may be of any age [Som. Proc. iv. (2) 104].

Bridgwater.—Potteries on the Bridgwater levels, 300 yards from Basin Bridge [H. de la Beche, Geological Report on Devon, Cornwall and Somerset, p. 422]. Probably the same finds as some noted under Highbridge.

Brislington.—Villa : see p. 303. Hoard of 23 or more late copper coins, found in a 'metallic urn' with potsherds, on Dr. Fox's Brislington estate about 1829 [W. R. Barker, Acct. of Brislington Villa , p. 6].

Bristol.—Leland (Comment. in Cygneam Cantionem, under Avona and Venta), H. Lhuyd, Andrew Hooke (Bristollia, 1748) and others, call Bristol Venta Belgarum. Seyer and others point to streets crossing at right angles in Roman fashion as evidence of a Roman town. But this is all fiction. The remains actually found are : coins at various spots (near the cathedral, the floating harbour, etc.), two lead pigs near the old course of the river Frome (p. 342), a lead coffin, etc., at Mina Road Brick Works, and a road and building outside the town on the Downs. These remains do not show that any part of the area of the modern city was inhabited in town-fashion in Roman times. See further, Seyer, i. 207 ; J. F. Nicholls, Bristol Past and Present, i. 24, 64; Clifton Antiq. Club, ii. 82, 160; iii. 125 ; v. 46; Brit. Arch. Assoc. Journ. xxxi. 63.

Bristol [near].—Hoard of 347 copper coins (in two sizes, but all smaller than folles) found about 1885 : the exact find-spot is not recorded. The coins were#—1 Gallienus, 3 Probus, 1 Diocletian, 1 Carausius, 9 Maximin, 4 Licinius, 1 Licinius II, 279 Constantine I, 5 Crispus, 6 Constantine II. The hoard was deposited about a.d. 322. Quite half the coins bear the London mint-mark [John Evans, Num. Chron. 1885, p. 118].
-, —[near].—Hoard found in 1839 in making the G. W. railway from Bath to Bristol: the exact site was concealed. It contained some 250 denarii: 150 examined belonged to Valens, Gratian, and Magnus equally : the mint-marks were mostly of Trier [Num. Chron. ii. (1840) 144.
-, — [near].—For the hoard recorded by J. F. Nicholls, Arch. Journ. xxvii. 65, as found 'near Bristol,' see under Whitchurch (Philwood hoard).

Brockley.—See Chelvey.

Broomfield.—Scarth, Som. Proc. xxiv. (2) 10, says coins and querns have been found in Ruborough Camp in this parish. But he misquotes Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xiii. 295, which really refers to Elm. See Som. Proc. xlix. (2) 173.

Bruton.—Lead pig: see p. 342, No. 13. Villa at Discove (since 1846 in this parish) : see p. 320.

Burnham.—Samian and other potsherds, bones, Kimmeridge clay objects found in clay pits [Som. Proc. xv. (1) 43: Taunton and Exeter Museums]. Compare Highbridge.

Burnett.—Building, p. 303, and compare Corston.

Burrington.—Scarth [Bath Field Club, iv. 7 ; Som. Proc. xxiv. (2) 18 and xxxiii. (2) 5] says coins have been found in a cave in Burrington Combe. But the older writers mention no certainly Roman remains in these caves [Buckland, Reliq. Antediluv.; Rutter, p. 117; Boyd Dawkins, Som. Proc. xii. (2) 169]. There is no reason to call Burrington Camp Roman.

Burtles [near Edington].—See pp. 352–3, 356.

Butleigh Wootton [near].—Villa : see Street, p. 322.

Cadbury.—This name occurs three times in Somerset, as noted below. It also occurs no less than three times on its borders, at Bitton [Bath Field Club, vii. 205], between Crediton and Tiverton, and near Chumleigh in Devon:—
-, (1) Near Clevedon : see Tickenham and Clapton.
-, (2) Near Yatton : see Yatton.
-, (3) Near Sparkford. Here is a large earthen camp, 18 acres in extent, defended by stupendous fosses. It was once popularly connected with King Arthur and called Camalet, perhaps because of the Camel close by. Roman remains appear to have been found in it, but our accounts are rather rhetorical and misty. Leland mentions 'foundations and rudera of walles' (not necessarily Roman), and also 'much gold, sylver and coper of the Romaine coynes and many other Antique Thinges.' Selden repeats this. Stukeley mentions vast numbers of coins of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, worked stone, pavements, buildings, etc., and identifies the spot with the Colomeas (sic) of the Ravenna lists. But excavations made in the nineteenth century revealed, amid abundant pre-Roman matter, only one bit of Samian, one possibly Roman brick, and various coins, chiefly towards the east side of the hill [Leland, Assertio Arturii, p. 29, and Itinerary (ed. Hearne), ii. 47 ; Camden, i. 78 ; Selden, note to Drayton's Polyolbion (ed. 1612), p. 54; Stukeley, Itin. Cur . (ed. 2), p. 150. Hence Musgrave, Antiq. Brit. Belg. i. 172 ; Gough, Adds. to Camden, i. 192 ; Collinson, ii. 71 ; etc. For excavations and recent researches see Som. Proc. vii. 58, xvi. (1) 18, and especially xxix. 110 (plan by Dymond), xxxvi. (2) 12; Bath Field Club , i. (3) 100, vii. 83].

Camerton.—Village : see p. 289.

Carhampton : see Dunster Park.

Castle Cary.—Coin of Pius found 1852 in South Cary Lane [Som. Proc. xxxvi. (1) 61]. For the Ditcheat villa, see p. 320.

Castle Neroche.—F. Warre [Som. Proc. v. (2) 29] argued for a late British fortification, slightly occupied in Roman times. But he could not cite any definitely Roman objects, and excavations made in 1903 revealed nothing Roman, but pointed mostly to a medieval occupation [Gray, Som. Proc. xlix. (ii.) 23–54]. The site, therefore, is not Roman.

Catcott.—See Edington, p, 352 foll.

Chard.—Villas (1) at South Chard and (2) on the Crewkerne Road : see p. 332. Lesser finds in the neighbourhood are (1) a silver coin of Claudius picked up on Foxmore Hill about 1850, (2) a hoard of some 300 Third Brass Constantinian coins, found about 1836 at Court Pits field, Chard Farm, (3) Coins and a small vase at West Ford [G. P. R. Pulman, Book of the Axe , p. 460 : Hull Collection in Chard Town Hall].
-, Lewis (Topogr. Dict.) records an urn with many gold coins of Claudius, as found at Leigh House in May 1831. This is too good to be true. The metal may have been the bright brass (orichalcum) which is often mistaken by labourers for gold.

Charlcombe (Bath).—At Cherry Wells, 2 bronze armlets and 2 ring-brooches [Scarth, Aquæ, p. 85].

Charlton.—(1) Near Shepton : see p. 318. (2) Mackrell, p. 323.

Charterhouse-on-Mendip.—Lead mines : see p. 334.

Cheddar.—Hoard of about 100 Third Brass Gallienus#—Maximian and Diocletian ( PAX AVGGG issued by Carausius), found in ploughing [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. ii. 271].
-, A number of Roman coins, some Constantinian, were found about 1840, at Tanner's papermills, in the bed of the river [Num. Chron. ii. (1840) p. 206].
-, Potsherds, second brass coin of Domitian in churchyard, found 1886; Samain, coins of all dates found in churchyard and adjoining fields [Axbridge Branch of Som. Arch. Soc. i. (1898), p. 11]. The vicarage garden has yielded a denarius of Hadrian, 1 Victorinus, and about 10 fourth century coins, down to Valens, and Parsonage Pen 1 Pius and 5 fourth century coins to Valens [Preb. Coleman].
-, Near the cave mouth of the 'Roman Cave,' coins, fibulae, bones, potsherds found by Mr. Gough [information from E. A. Baker, 1903].
-, In the 'Long Hole' cave Mr. Gough found in 1887–8 some bronze objects (armillae, tweezers, pins) and (if I understand aright) also some 10 or 12 coins#—of Valens, Valentinian, Gratian and Constantius II#—so far as legible. [Information from Preb. Coleman, kindly sent through Mr. H. E. Balch.] Possibly the same as the preceding.

Chedzoy.—Coins found sporadically, amongst them a washed silver issue of Orbiana Augusta; urns and fibulae found in 1701 near the church; key (? Roman) in Taunton Museum [Collinson, iii. 94, hence Gough, Adds. to Camden, i. 98 ; Som. Proc. i. (2) 59 ; xlviii. (1) 84; Stradling, Chilton Polden Mus. (Bridgwater, 1839), pp. 13, 15, mentions 'a large Roman bead' and 'an elegantly engraved key.' He also says (Preface, p. ii.) that he dug in Slapeland, a 'common field' of Chedzoy, and found a nearly perfect hypocaust, of large Ham Hill stones, potsherds, scoriae of iron, and ashes. Close by, he found medieval masonry and architectural fragments probably belonging to a known chapel. Possibly the other remains may also be medieval. Stradling was somewhat enthusiastic. See p. 352 note.

Chelvey (Brockley parish).—Hoard of 274 silver coins found Jan. 1808, 4 feet below the surface, in digging foundations for a new school. They were in a stone bottle and were said to be of 'Iulius Caesar': near was a large black urn full of human bones and ashes [ Gent. Mag . 1808, i. 360; unfortunately an uncritical notice].

Chesterblade.—Buildings: see p. 319. The neighbouring 'camp' on Smalldown is pre-Roman.

Chew Magna.—Coins are vaguely alleged [Clifton Antiq. Club, ii. 163].

Chew Stoke.—Villa, see p. 309. Twenty-nine silver coins [Proc. Som. xxviii. (1) 78].

Chewton.—Skinner alleges potsherds near the church and coins [Add. MSS. 33659 and 33663, p. 123].

Chidley Mount.—Aubrey mentions coins and ruins of Roman age a mile and a half from Bridgwater, at 'Chiefe Chidley Mount.' This is identified in Som. Proc. xxiii. (1) 36, with a mound called by the Ordnance Survey (l. NE.) Downend, a quarter of a mile from Dunball railway station [Aubrey MS. 15, fol. 122, in the Bodleian Library : thence, briefly, Gibson, Gough, Reynolds]. Skinner mentions potsherds, including Samian, and late Imperial coins as found just at this point (Add. MS. 33716, fol. 105).

Chilcompton.—Coin of Marcus [Collinson, ii. 127, hence Gough, Adds. to Camden, i. 105. But it is not clear that Collinson meant to assign the coin to this place].

Chillington.—Coins found in 1866; lead coffin found 1848–50. [Norris, Som. Proc. xxxvii. (1) 26; O.S.; the Hull collection at Chard contains a bit of the coffin.] A small bronze of Osiris, picked up here out of a lot of old metal in a blacksmith's forge, may be a waif from anywhere [Proc. Soc. Antiq. xi. 88; Som. Proc. xxxii. (1) 80].

Chilton on Polden.—Coin moulds : see p. 352 foll.

Chilton Trinity.—Silver coin of Empire [Jarman, Hist. of Bridgwater, p. 5].

Chinnock.—A large hoard was found in 1805 in Barrow Field, halfway between Middle and East Chinnock and on the north of the Yeovil and Crewkerne high road. It lay under human bones and rude potsherds, and was contained in two small pots of rude black ware. The coins, about 4,000, were apparently debased silver, Antoniniani and Third Brass of a.d. 253–282; only 300 were examined [Gent. Mag. 1805 (ii.) 1111].

Chiselborough.—Here Ward and Horsley inclined to put Iscalis. No Roman remains have been found here.

Churchill.—See Dolebury (? coins) and Langford (villa).

Clapton-in-Gordano.—On Tickenham hill, near the border of Tickenham parish, 600 yards west of Cadbury Camp, 35 Third Brass of a.d. 253–305 (including Diocletian and Maximian PAX AVGGG, issued by Carausius), found about 1891. A few Third Brass (1 Valerian, 1 Tetricus, 1 Constans) and I silver Honorius had been found earlier, and also some querns and potsherds now in Taunton Museum [Som. Proc. xxvi. (1) 85; xxvii. (1) 76; Clifton Antiq. Club, iii. 117; Pritchard, Numism. Chron. 1896, p. 238]. For another and larger hoard found not far off, see Tickenham.

Fig. 101. Roman Finds at Clevedon.

Clevedon.—(1) Potsherds and coins were found near Christ Church in 1876 [Ordnance Map].
-, (2) On the east side of Hangstone Hill (south of modern town) quarrymen found in 1879 some coins#—1 Vespasian, 1 Hadrian, 2 Tetricus, etc.—fibulae, a sword with wooden handle, rude potsherds, and human bones#—perhaps burials, but date not clear [ Clevedon Mercury and Courier , 13 Sept. 1879, hence Arch. Journ. xxxvi. 334, etc.]. The remains were taken to Cleveland Court and afterwards perished in a fire there.
-, (3) Samian and other potsherds, an illegible coin, animals' bones, were found in 1882 near the junction of Lower Linden Road and Sunnyside Road, when a new Wesleyan (Methodist) chapel was built [Clevedon Mercury, 19 Aug. 1882; hence Antiquary, 1882 (Oct.), p. 178].
-, (4) Potsherds, coins, and skeletons were found 180 feet north of Coleridge road and 300 feet east of Victoria Road in 1883 [Clevedon Mercury, 17 Feb. 1883; Ordnance Map].
-, (5) In Linden Road, 210 feet south of Constitutional Club, in making a tennis lawn, the workmen discovered 8 Constantinian coins, fragments of Upchurch ware and animals' bones [Bristol Mercury, 26 March, 1903; Som. Proc. xlix. (ii.) 185; Ordnance Survey].
-, The site of Clevedon was inhabited in Roman times, but probably not to any great extent. The inhabitation seems to have been confined to the ridge of high ground which runs west from Dial Hill, between the sea and the Land Yeo stream. Unfortunately, the finds have not been well recorded, and the very careful inquiries kindly made for me by Mr. J. E. Pritchard, F.S.A., show that the details are now locally forgotten. It is therefore rash to speculate on the character of Roman Clevedon#—whether a little hamlet, or a villa, or farmhouse.

Cockmill.—Large vessel containing a peck of coins of Aurelian, Probus, Tacitus, Gallienus, etc. [Phelps, p. 179, etc.].

Coker, East and West.—Villas: see pp. 329, 331.

Combe Down (Bath).—Villa and inscribed slab : see p. 309.

Combe Hay.—Alleged villa on the hill above the village, very doubtful. Skinner, who alone mentions it, is not certain: Add. MS. 28795, fol. 7; 33663, fol. 127.

Combe St. Nicholas.—Villa at Wadeford, coins elsewhere in parish, p. 333.

Compton Dando.—Sculptured stone walled into a buttress of the church. The stone is 48 inches high and about 16 inches square ; the two sides not now visible are said to be plain; the two visible sides bear reliefs much damaged and weathered. One represents Apollo partly draped, standing facing sideways, his left leg raised, and above it his lyre held in his left hand while his right hand holds the plectrum close to it : face and shoulders lost. The other, a full-face relief, has been said to be Hercules, but is not identifiable in its present condition. The stone somewhat resembles a stone found at Bath in 1790 (p. 241) and carved on two sides with figures of two gods. Whence it came to Compton is unknown. It was first seen there in 1819 by John Skinner, who states that the other two sides were plain [Skinner, Addit. MS. 33663, p. 108; Gent. Mag. 1846 (i.) 78; Arch. Journ . ii. 272; Scarth, Aquae, p. 41, with fair illustration. I have examined the stone myself].

Compton Dundon.—Mr. Franklin has 2 coins of Magnentius and 1 of (?) Augustus found here.

Congresbury.—Supposed villa at Woodlands : p. 307.
-, Coins at Honey Hall, 1½ miles southwards, towards Churchill [Scarth, Som. Proc. xxiv. (1) 74; Arch. Journ. xxxvi. 335].

Conkwell.—Potsherds and coins of Valens and Constantine [Skinner, Addit. MS. 33656, p. 150].

Conquest Farm.—See Lydeard St. Lawrence.

Copley.—See Kingweston.

Corston.—Villa (probably that at Burnett) : see p. 303.
-, Oolite coffin with skeleton, nails (? of boots) near the feet, found in Lower Botmore field [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 186].

Corton Denham.—Urn containing 2 quarts of coins of Valerian, Gallienus, Tacitus, Probus, Florian, Aurelian, found Jan. 1722–3 [Stukeley, Itin. Curiosum (ed. 2), p. 149 : hence Collinson, ii. 361 ; Gough, Adds, to Camden, i. 100; Reynolds, p. 435, etc.; Scarth, Som. Proc . xxiv. (2) 19 ; Arch. Journ. xxxvi. 334 records only urns. The date of the find is sometimes given as 1772, but Stukeley's MS. note in his copy of Itin. Cur. (ed. 1), p. 141 (now in the Bodleian) gives 1722, and so his printed text in the second edition. He took the information from the 'public papers'].

Cossington.—See Huntspill, Highbridge.

Cothelston.—Vague references to coins in Som. Proc. i. (2) 43; xviii. (1) 45, etc.; Arch. Journ. xxxvi. (1)74, all perhaps relating to the Lydeard St. Lawrence or other neighbouring hoard. W. H. Greswell, Land of Quantock, p. 26, mentions coins found in an old alder bed, but he has mixed up two sentences of Som. Proc. i. (2) 43. Probably nothing has really been found in this parish.

Cranmore (West).—Villa : see p. 319.

Crewkerne.—Coins of Trajan, etc., found at Crewkerne [Thos. Gerard, Descr. of Somerset (1633) in Somerset Record Soc., xv. 65]. Coins of Pius, Gallienus, Constantine II, 1 each [Pulman, Book of the Axe, p. 235].
-, Hoard of about 130 Third Brass, Constantine I, Licinius, Crispus, found in 1872, just north of Combe Farm [Pulman, p. 72; Proc. Som. xvii. 124; Archaeol. Cambrensis, 1872, p. 272; Ordnance Survey].

Curry (North).—Hoard of late fourth century silver coins, p. 356.

Curry Rivel.—See Drayton, Stanchester.

Dinnington.—See Seavington.

Discove.—Villa : p. 320.

Ditcheat.—Villa : p. 320.

Dolebury (Churchill parish).—Large camp, not Roman. Roman coins are said to have been discovered in it, but there is no proper record of them [Collinson, iii. 579 ; hence Gough, Adds. to Camden, i. 122 ; Skinner in Addit. MS. 28974, p. 128, and 33663, p. 118 ; hence Phelps, p. 100 and (I think) Rutter, p. 115. See also Som. Proc. xxix. (2) 110; Bath Field Club , iii. 145].

Drayton.—Villa : p. 328.

Dulverton.—Four Third Brass (3rd and 4th cent.), found in recent breccia [Bristol Mus.].

Dunkerton.—'A few coins and mouldering urns,' [Collinson, iii. 337].

Dunster Park (Carhampton parish).—Small copper coins of Maximian and Constantine, found about 1863, concealed under a stone in a gully in the Park, near the old Carhampton road : now in possession of Mr. Luttrell [Som. Proc. xxxv. (1) 47 ; J. Ll. W. Page, Exploration of Exmoor, p. 201 ; note from Sir Henry Maxwell Lyte].
-, There is no reason to consider either of the earthworks here to be Roman : Scarth has confused them [Savage, Hist. of Carhampton, p. 289].

Edington.—Villa or building (doubtful), coin-moulds : see pp. 352–3, 356.

Elm.—Hoard of coins, chiefly of Constantine Junior, found in an urn in 1691 in Tedbury Camp or some adjacent earthwork [Stukeley, Itin. Cur. (ed. 2), p. 149, hence Collinson, ii. 206, Gough, Adds. to Camden, i. 112, etc].
-, A vague reference to querns and coins found at Tedbury occurs Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc . xiii. 295.

Emborrow.—Silver coins ploughed up near the church [Collinson, ii. 135].

English Combe.—Copper coin of Pius found in 1786 below English Combe Hill [Collinson, iii. 339].
-, Coins and potsherds in Farnham or Vernham Wood on Odd Down beside the Fosse [Skinner, Addit. MS. 28795, p. 261 ; hence, I think, Phelps, p. 146]. Two stone coffins found near Burnthouse Turnpike in 1822 [Scarth, Som. Proc. v. (2) 53].

Evercreech.—See Chesterblade.

Exmoor.—Urns with coins found in 1831 near the sources of the Exe [Scarth, Som. Proc. xxiv. (2) 19; but perhaps a misquotation of Reynolds, p. 439].

Failand.—See Long Ashton.

Farley Hungerford.—Villas : see p. 300. Skinner and a local guide (Bath, 1829) record a First Brass coin found in the Castle garden [Addit. MS. 33656, p. 239], but there is no reason to suppose that a villa stood on its site.

Farmborough.—At Hobbs Wall, large stone coffin containing a lead coffin, inside which was a skeleton: found 1886 [Proc. Soc. Antiq. xi. 313; Clifton Antiq. Club, i. 109]. Not necessarily but not improbably Roman.

Farnham Wood.—See English Combe.

Filwood.—See Whitchurch.

Foscote (near Radstock).—Skinner reports potsherds.

Freshford.—Bronze key, once in possession of Martin Tupper, accepted as Roman by A. W. Franks [Letter from Tupper in Bath Institution Library. This may be the key reported in Brit. Arch. Assoc. Journ. x. 113 as from Fairford].
-, Rude potsherds in Bristol Museum.

Glastonbury.—The grey ware found on Wearyall Hill, now in Glastonbury Museum, does not seem to me Roman. The pile-dwellings in the moor near Glastonbury appear to be wholly of pre-Roman Celtic date. But Warner, Hist. of Glastonbury (1826), p. 153, note, states that 'many Roman coins had turned up either in the Abbey enclosure or at the foot of Tor Hill.' From the latter spot came a fine Vespasian, and Warner himself had a Hadrian from some part of Glastonbury. Still, he is doubtless right in thinking this was not a Roman site.

Haddon Hill (King's Brompton parish).—At the west end some coins dug up [Collinson, iii. 502; hence Lewis, Topogr. Dict. etc.].

Hallatrow.—Skinner notes stone coffins in Cheshills field [Add. MS. 33659].

Ham (High).—Villa: see p. 328.

Ham Hill or Hamdon Hill.—Many Late Celtic and Roman finds: see p. 295.

Harptree (East).—Hoard of late fourth century silver coins, p. 355.

Henstridge Bowden.—Bit of Samian and coarser potsherds found 1892 : shown me by Mr. G. Sweetman of Wincanton; now in Taunton Museum [Som. Proc. 1. (1) 62].

Highbridge.—Potsherds, tiles such as are used for pottery in kilns, coin moulds, etc. See pp. 352–3. Probably much the same as noted under Bridgwater, Burnham and Cossington.

Hinton Charterhouse.—Skinner alludes to foundations, coins and potsherds in Shepherd's Mead and coins at the Bulwarks [Add. MS. 28795, p. 261, and 33659 ; hence Phelps, p. 147]. The Roman tesserae mentioned as found in Hinton Abbey [Gent. Mag. 1830 (ii.) 578] must be medieval.

Holford.—Coin of Constantine found above Alfoxton : another (illegible) coin found in Holford [W. H. Greswell, Land of Quantock (Taunton, 1903), p. 25].

Holway.—Hoard of late fourth century silver found in 1821 near 2 skeletons. About 15 more coins of same period and metal found, with charred bones, etc., in another part of Holway, in 1870. A few copper coins (1 Domitian, 1 Trajan, 1 Pius, 1 Constantine and 8 more late silver coins, found sporadically since 1870 [Proc. Som. v. (1) 14; x. (1) 35; xxiv. (ii.) 105; xxvii. (2) 52; xlix. (i.) 61; Proc. Numismatic Soc. 23 Nov. 1843; Pring, Briton and Roman on site of Taunton, p. 105; coins in Taunton Museum and in collection of Mr. H. Franklin. The hoard is sometimes, by a miswriting, attributed to 'Holwell']. See further under Taunton and p. 356.

Huish Champflower.—Alleged botontinus: see my note under Banwell [ Som. and Dorset N. and Q . Sept. 1903].

Huish Episcopi.—See Langport.

Huntspill.—Pottery mounds, etc., in the marshes: see pp. 352–3.

Hurcot (near Somerton).—Villa : see p. 322.

Iford.—See Farley Hungerford (villa) : p. 300.

Ilchester.—Village : see p. 294.

Ilminster.—Third Brass coin of Constantine I found in Ditton Street. Coin found at Dunpole [Som. Proc. xviii. (1) 71].

Isle Abbots.—Potsherds at Walrond Park [Proc. Som. xxiii. (1) 83; Taunton Museum]

Isle Brewers.—Coins vaguely noted [Som. Proc. xxiv. (1), 74].

Kelston.—Copper coins of Constantine I and Valentinian I in grounds of John Harington [Guidott (1676), p. 68]. Tiles under church [Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. viii. 45].

Ken Moor.—Coins: see Nailsea.

Kewstoke.—At St. Kew's Steps, fibula. Dymond, Worlebury, plate x. 17]. Cameos of Claudius, Nero and Vitellius are mentioned Som. Proc. ii (1) 13 as found here. But they may be modern.

Kilmersdon.—See Radstock.

Kilton, Kilve.—Collinson (i. 261) states that about the year 1700, many coins 'of Diocletian, Gallienus, Maximus, and some of the Thirty Tyrants' were dug up at Putsham, a hamlet of Kilve. He also states (iii. 351) that about the year 1700 many coins of Antoninus, Alex. Severus, Gordian, Gallienus, Postumus, Faustina and Julia Mammaea were found near Kilton, and adds (iii. 532) that Roman coins have often been dug up at Putsham. Kilton and Kilve are adjacent parishes, and perhaps Collinson has given two different accounts of one and the same hoard. Scarth mentions coins at 'Putcombe' (Som. Proc. xxiv. (2) 10) #—apparently an error for Putsham.

King's Sedgemoor.—Building, bone inscribed ΛPRILIS: see p. 325.

Kingsdon.—Two villas: p. 325.

Kingston Seymour.—Hoard found in 1884 of 800 Third Brass#—Gallienus, Salonina, Postumus, Tetricus, Cl. Gothicus, Victorinus [Proc. Soc. Antiq. xi. 31; Som. Proc. xxxi.; (2) 7; the coins are now in the possession of Mr. Smyth Pigott of Brockley Court]. See Yatton.

Kingweston.—Villa and coins, p. 322. The villa is sometimes assigned to Charlton Mackrell.

Knowle (or Knoll) Hill.—Alleged villa : pp. 329, 352 note.

Langford (Lower).—Villa : p. 308. In or near Churchill parish.

Langport.—Supposed villa on west bank of river Parrett, in Huish Episcopi parish. See p. 328

Langridge.—Supposed building : p. 301.

Laverton.—For Peart Wood, see Woolverton.

Leigh Down (Long Ashton parish).—Hoard of coins: see Long Ashton (2).

Littleton.—Villas : p. 323.

Locksbrook.—See Bath, p. 266.

Long Ashton.—(1) Villas or buildings at Cambridge Batch (see p. 305) and Failand (p. 305).
-, (2) A noteworthy hoard was found in 1817 on Leigh Down in Long Ashton parish –500 or perhaps 1,000 denarii and (it is said) 1 copper coin. It was at once dispersed, but Seyer saw 242, all apparently silver, which had been purchased by various persons. Of these he gives a full list. Besides 3 dubious, they are (Seyer, i. 163–174):—
-, 9 Late Republic.
-, 1 Tiberius.
-, 2 Nero.
-, 1 Otho.
-, 13 Vespasian.
-, 3 Domitian.
-, 1 Nerva.
-, 8 Trajan.
-, 3 Hadrian.
-, 10 Pius.
-, 2 Faustina, sen.
-, 6 Marcus.
-, 7 Faustina, jun.
-, 1 Verus.
-, 2 Lucilla.
-, 10 Commodus.
-, 1 Pertinax.
-, 2 Albinus.
-, 80 Sept. Severus.
-, 23 Julia Domna.
-, 18 Caracalla.
-, 5 Plautilla.
-, 7 Geta.
-, 5 Elagabalus.
-, 1 Jul. Soaemias.
-, 5 Severus Alexander.
-, 1 Jul. Mammaea.
-, 2 Maximin.
-, 1 Pupienus.
-, 5 Gordian.
-, 2 Philip.
-, 1 Salonina.
-, 1 Constantius II.
-, The occurrence of the last coin, that of Constantius II (Cohen, 343), dating from a.d. 337–361, is puzzling. Not only is it 100 years later than the next latest coin, but it has also no proper place in a hoard of first, second, and early third century silver. Many hoards are known which contain a few Republican issues and Imperial silver extending down to the beginning or middle of the third century (Archæologia, liv. 492). But the addition of fourth century silver is unknown. Probably, therefore, the coin of Constantius may have been included erroneously by one of the purchasers of the coins actually found on Leigh Down.
-, (3) Hoard found in 1815 near Old Fort, in demolishing a 'tumulus': potsherds and over 150 (perhaps 300) copper coins of Lower Empire. A local farmer said there were also one or two gold coins, including a Crispus VOTXX (probably misread for VOT XV FEL XX ) but these must have been merely bright copper. The vota coins of Crispus are all copper [Seyer, Bristol, i. 81, 160; Phelps, p. 177].
-, (4) Potsherds on the bank sloping down from Stokeleigh Camp to the Avon [ Som. Proc . xlvii. 227; Clifton Antiq. Club, ii. 178].

Lopen.—Coins vaguely mentioned Gent. Mag. 1862 (1) 298; Pulman, Book of the Axe, p. 70; Mr. Franklin at Taunton has a bronze Hadrian and a bronze Valerian from this parish. But the Seavington villa (p. 332) is close by, and the coins may all be waifs from it.

Luxborough.—Iron pickaxe, wooden spade, etc., found in shaft of old iron mine, supposed to be vestiges of Roman ironworkings : coins are also alleged to have been found here [ Som. Proc . viii. 18 : Bath Field Club, iii. 420, vi. 144]. The tools are in Taunton Museum : I do not think it is possible to be certain of their age but see no reason to think them Roman. The district above Dunster contains much Brown Haematite ore. But there is no good evidence that it was mined in Romano-British times.

Lydeard St. Lawrence.—Large hoard of late third century coins, ill-recorded. A sixteenth century local antiquary, printed by Hearne, Peter Langtoft, states that in 1666 two large earthen pitchers were dug up, one in Lydeard St. Lawrence parish, and the other at Capton in Stogumber parish. Each, he says, weighed 80 lb. (? 10,000 Third Brass). He does not distinguish the hoards and entirely misunderstands them. But from his account it is clear that they consisted chiefly or wholly of Antoniniani and Third Brass of circa 250–275 a.d.#—Gallienus, Postumus, Victorinus, Tetricus, Claudius Gothicus, Quintillus, Aurelian, and perhaps also Septimius Severus and Trajan Decius. It is a little odd that two very large hoards of the same size and character should have been dug up in the same neighbourhood at the same date. See further my article in Arch. Journ. lix. 342. The hoards are often put down, as one find, to Conquest Farm in Bishop's Lydeard, but this is an error.

Lytes Cary.—Villas: see p. 326.

Maesbury.—Urn containing coins of Vespasian, Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian, Faustina, found on the line of Fosse [Som. Proc. xii. (1) 60].

Maesknoll.—I see no reason for calling Maesknoll 'tump' a botontinus, as Nicholls does. For finds hereabouts, see Whitchurch.

Marston Bigot.—The so-called 'Roman earthwork,' of which a plan is given in Add. MS. 6214, pp. 29–30, seems much later.

Mells.—Coin of (?) Hadrian [Gent. Mag. 1794 (ii.) 703].

Mendip.—Two hoards have been found on Mendip, about six miles from Frome, of which the exact locality has been concealed. One had 230 coins, dates not known. The other had 452 copper and was deposited about a.d. 335 (1 Tetricus, 16 Helena, 209 Constantine I, 11 Fausta, 4 Constantinian, 68 Crispus, 88 Constantine II, 15 Constantius II, 4 Licinius) [John Evans, Num. Chron. vi. (1866) 157].

Midford.—Skinner mentions casual coins found opposite the castle, and on the hill above the village and in the village [Addit. MS. 28795, p. 261]. O.S. xiv. SW.

Midsomer Norton.—Skinner mentions coins and potsherds near the church [Add. MS. 33659].

Milverton.—Hoard of late fourth century silver coins: p. 356.

Montacute.—For Hamdon (or Ham) Hill, see p. 295.

Moorlinch.—Large fibula, Stradling, Priory of Chilton Polden (1839), p. 12.

Nailsea.—Three urns full of coins (some Constantinian), dug up near Nailsea Wall which divides Nailsea moor from Ken moor [Barrett, p. 19; Seyer, i. 163; from Barrett, Gough, Adds. to Camden, i. 123, etc.].

Newton St. Loe.—Villa, p. 302.

North Stoke.—Villa or building : p. 302.

Northover.—Suburb of Ilchester : p. 294.

Norton Fitzwarren.—Potsherds, perhaps from a kiln, found in 1861–2 in making the Watchet railway [Som. Proc. xi. (1) 33, 56; xviii. (1) 44; xlvii. (1) 86; Taunton Museum; Ordnance Survey lxx. NW]. Hearne, Peter Langtoft, p. 452, gives a curious tradition of burials, which apparently has no archaeological value.

Norton Malreward.—See Whitchurch.

Nunney.—(1) Whatley villa, p. 317.
-, (2) Remarkable hoard found about 1860 on West Down Farm, between Holwell and Leighton, in an earthen jug. At least 250 coins were found, 10 British gold, 232 British silver, 4 Roman denarii of republican date (Aemilia, Julia, Junia, Servilia), and 1 imperial of Caligula, and 5 Second Brass, 1 Agrippa, 2 Antonia, 2 Claudius [J. Evans, Numismatic Chronicle , 1861, pp. 8, 133]. This hoard is plainly one of those which were buried during and on account of the Roman conquest (cf. Num. Chron. 1897, p. 293).

Nynehead.—Hoard in urn, details not preserved [Arch. Journ. xxxvii. 107 ; Som. Proc. xi. (1) 52.

Ochie Hole.—See Wookey Hole.

Orchard Wyndham.—'Mother Shipton's Tomb' in Blackdown Wood, close to Orchard Wyndham House, near Williton. This is a slab of stone 7 feet high by 3½ feet broad, with a Roman inscription and relief. It is not, however, ancient, but a modern copy of a genuine Roman tombstone found before a.d. 1600 at Maryport, in Cumberland, and now at Nether Hall, where I have seen it. The copy is declared a copy by the existence of the original and by the shapes of the letters and by two errors in the text. It was apparently made from an engraving in Alex. Gordon's Itin. Septentrionale (1726), plate xlv., with a wreath added from another plate. As it is not mentioned by Collinson, but is noticed by Phelps, it was probably put up between 1790 and 1836. The reason for its erection can be conjectured. The Earls of Egremont, from 1751 till 1837 owned both Orchard Wyndham and property near Maryport, and the third Earl, George (1763–1837), was a prominent antiquary and collector [Phelps, p. 174; Wm. George in the West Somerset Free Press, June and July, 1879, reprinted in a pamphlet On an inscribed stone at Orchard Wyndham (Bristol, 1879); Soc. Ant. Scrapbook; Proc. Soc. Antiq. vi. 512. The history of the stone was first traced by Mr. George : the case against its genuineness is, however, even stronger than he states].

Paulton.—Villa, between Paulton and Camerton, p. 315.

Penpits, Penselwood.—The remains here are in general neither Roman nor in any way connected with the Roman period. But earlier diggings for quernstones may have continued during that time. Querns of Penselwood stone are said to have been found in a Roman villa at Bradford Abbas, in Dorset, while the remains excavated at Penselwood in and about 1879, and now stored at Taunton Museum, contain one or two bits of tile and pottery which may be Roman. [For the excavations see Som. Proc. xxiv., xxv., xxx.; Bath Field Club, iv. 304; Report by Pitt-Rivers (London, 1884); Arch. Journ. xl. 288; Somerset and Dorset N. and Q. ii. 82; Report of Wells Archaeol. Soc. 1896, p. 12]. In any case the theories of the late Mr. Kerslake are to be rejected.

Perrott (North).—Potsherds, including Samian (ATILIA✝O), triangular bricks (? for kilns) 2 First Brass of Vespasian and Domitian [Proc. Som. xxvi. (1) 86; Taunton Museum].

Petherton (South).—Foundations at Wigborough, Watergore, Southharp: possibly villas: see p. 331.
-, Hoard, 6 pecks of coins in a pot, dug up about 1720 at Petherton Bridge, where the Fosse crosses the Parrett [Stukeley, Itin. Cur. (ed. 2), p. 156: hence Collinson, iii. 106, Reynolds, p. 458, etc.].
-, Many coins, mostly of a.d. 250–350, found sporadically in the fields round South Petherton: some in collections of Mr. H. Norris and of Mr. Franklin. [Information from Mr. Norris.] A British uninscribed silver coin has also been found here [Taunton Museum].

Preston Plucknett.—Four urns found 1901–3, near Roman road from Ilchester to Dorchester [Taunton Museum; Som. Proc. xlix. (1), 57].

Philwood.—See Whitchurch.

Pitney.—Two villas: p. 326.

Portbury.—Doubtful villa: p. 305.

Portishead.—The idea of a Trajectus hence to Caerwent (Isca Silurum) seems untenable.

Priddy.—Potsherds, traces of mining. See Charterhouse, p. 335 note.

Putsham.—See Kilve.

Pylle.—See Cockmill.

Radstock.—Villa or building, 600 yards south of St. Nicholas Church, on west side of the road to Kilmersdon: see p. 316.

Saltford.—Coffin of Bath stone, child's bones, nails, found 1901 [Proc. Soc. Ant. xx. 247].

Seavington.—Villa: p. 332.

Selworthy.—A few coins at Brandish or Brandy Street [F. Hancock, Hist. of Selworthy (Taunton, 1897), p. 4]. A Roman road has been traced past Selworthy, but on inadequate evidence. The whole neighbourhood contains very few early remains of any date [C. Chadwyck-Healey, West Somerset (London, 1901), introd.]. The name Stratford in the parish (Proc. Som. xlvi. (1) 15) is, of itself, no proof.

Shapwick.—Coins found in the peat, p. 353.

Shepton Mallet.—Villa or building at Charlton, kiln on west side of town: p. 317.

Shipham.—Building near the Star Inn: p. 308.

Shutshelve.—Hearthstone and metal, ashes, lead, fibulae, bones, 2 skeletons, urns#—found towards Winscombe [Arch. Journ. xxxvi. 335].

Somerton.—Villas: see p. 320.

Sparkford Hill.—Skeleton, fibula, coin, found 1845 [Som. Proc. li. (i) 73; Taunton Mus.].

Stanchester.—(1) In Curry Rivel parish, near Drayton, p. 328.
-, (2) In Stoke sub Hamdon, north of the village. Here stones burnt by fire have been noted, but no other remains of any age on the actual spot [H. Norris, Som. Proc. iv. (2) 88]. See p. 371.

Stanton Prior.—Coins, 1 Maximian, 1 Gallienus, and perhaps others [Bath Field Club, ii. 144; Skinner, Add. MS. 28795, p. 261]. Perhaps waifs from the Corston villa, p. 303.

Staple Fitzpaine.—The forge, horseshoes, scoriae of iron, etc., accepted by Scarth as Roman [see Som. Proc. v. (1) 17, (2) 47; xxiv. (2) 10], are probably not Roman. The notion that Staple is Stabula seems the only reason why they were ever called so. Some of the horseshoes are in Taunton Museum.

Stert Point.—No reason exists for calling this Uxella, as Camden, Musgrave and others do.

Stogumber.—Hoard found at Capton in 1666: see under Lydeard St. Lawrence.

Stogursey (Stoke Courcey).—Copper coin of Constantine, found at Burton [Som. Proc. xxxviii. (1) 76].

Stoke Leigh.—See Long Ashton.

Stoke, North.—See North Stoke (villa, p. 302).

Stoke St. Michael (Stoke Lane).—A worn Second Brass of Faustina and 4 small copper coins of Constantine, found in 1865 [Hull Collection, Chard].

Stoke sub Hamdon.—See Stanchester.

Stoke Trister.—See Bayford (alleged villa, p. 320).

Street [near Glastonbury].—Roadway in the marsh near the churchyard: p. 350.
-, Potsherds (Samian and other) found in and near the churchyard [Som. Proc. xxvii. (2) 43; Glastonbury Museum; information from Mr. Jos. Clark of Street]. For the villa near Marshall's Elm, see p. 322: it is often put down to Butleigh Wootton.

Street [near Chard].—See Winsham.

Sutton (or Suddon).—See Wincanton.

Sutton (Long).—Coins of about a.d. 250–300, Samian and other potsherds, burial urns and burnt bones, 2 skeletons, bevelled piece of 'Lydite,' pair of iron shears#—all found in a field on the south side of the road from Sutton to Ilchester and Somerton [Som. Proc. xl. (2) 272].

Sutton Mallet.—On north edge of King's Sedgemoor, silver coin of b.c. 69 (m. plaetorivs) ploughed up [Gent. Mag. 1810, ii. 609].

Swainswick.—Stone coffin with 3 glass vessels, two double-handled and one ampulla#—the latter now at Alnwick#—found 1840 [Scarth, Aquae, p. 96; Bruce and Way, Catal. of the Antiq. at Alnwick Castle (Newcastle, 1880), No. 546, p. 96#—both with illustrations].

Taunton.—The Roman remains found here seem to be (1) coins and 'divers other antiquities' found near the castle about 1643; (2) denarius of Vespasian found about 1750 in St. James' parish; (3) potsherds found in the Bishop's Hull cemetery in 1858 and now in the Museum, rude and perhaps not Roman; (4) potsherds found in Fore Street in 1861; (5) coin of Magnentius found on the south side of the town, now in possession of Mr. Franklin; (6) coins and burials at Holway, south-east of the town (see Holway, in this list); (7) potsherds at Norton Fitzwarren, farther away to the north-west (see Norton). (8) gold coin of Valens found in garden of J. Champante [Gent. Mag. 1825, ii. 261].
-, Other alleged remains are unauthentic. That Bathpool lane on the north-east of the town and Hoveland lane and Ramshorn bridge on the south-west [Ordnance Survey, lxx. SE.] are in any sense Roman is a baseless assertion, nor is there the least reason for calling Silver Street Roman [as is done, Som. Proc. xxiv. (2) 101]. The idea that Taunton had a Roman name, Thonodunum, is equally unfounded. That name is quite modern, appearing first in Collinson, and is simply a latinization of Camden's 'Thonton.'
-, On the whole, we conclude that Taunton was not a Romano-British site, though there may have been a village at Holway, connected with the burials. See Toulmin's Hist. of Taunton (ed. 1, 1791), p. 4; re-edited by C. G. Webb (Taunton, 1874), p. 7; Scarth, Som. Proc. viii. (1) 11; J. H. Pring, Briton and Roman on the site of Taunton (Taunton, 1880) and Som. Proc. xxiv. (2) 101; xxvii. (2) 52. Pring was an enthusiastic believer in a Roman Taunton, but his arguments are largely worthless.

Taunton [near].—Gold coin of Constantius II., VOT XXX, found near Taunton [ Soc. Ant. Minutes , 7 Dec. 1780]. First Bronze of Maximian, found 1886 [Mr. Franklin].

Temple Cloud.—Alleged building on Cloud Hill, copper and silver coins, a potful of copper coins under the hedge bounding the earthwork on the west. So Skinner, as quoted by Phelps, p. 150. Skinner held Temple Cloud to be Templum Claudii, corresponding to his Camalodunum around Camerton (p. 289), and this impossible idea may have led his enthusiastic glance to exaggerate the finds at Temple Cloud.

Theale.—See under Wedmore.

Tickenham.—Hoard, found in 1821, on the hill near Limebrock lane (? Lime Ridge) half a mile from Cadbury Camp. The coins were small copper, a few washed over with white metal; Seyer saw 168, which included coins of Gallienus#—Diocletian and Maximian a.d. 253–286. Coins seem to have also been found in the same spot 40 or 50 years earlier. Seyer adds that foundations of old buildings existed there, but nothing is recorded as to their age [Barrett, p. 19; hence Seyer, i. 162, Rutter, p. 234, Phelps, p. 177, etc.]. For another hoard found near Cadbury Camp, see above, under Clapton.
-, —Querns, coins, potsherds [Som. Proc. xxvii. (1) 76].

Tintinhull.—Some bits of a leaden coffin, now in the Walter Collection at Taunton, are said to have been found in the north of this parish, at Beerly or Berely Farm, two miles west of Ilchester, between the Yeo and the Fosse Way. Mr. Walter (as I learn) thought there were remains of a Roman villa at this spot, and obtained tesserae thence. But these do not seem to have been preserved, and the spot is not otherwise known as Roman. (Gray, Guide to Walter Collection, p. 33, putting Berely at Stoke-under-Ham instead of at Tintinhull; information from Mr. Gray, in correction.)

Twerton.—Stone coffin#—containing earth and large-headed short iron nails: outside it, a skeleton and close by a bit of stone pillar and potsherds, found in 1872 near the Temperance Hall. Other stone coffins were found in 1865, but their age is less certain [ Bath Field Club , iii. 477].
-, The Roman villa sometimes ascribed to Twerton belongs to Newton (p. 302).

Uphill.—The supposed harbour and village Ad Axium near the mouth of the Axe seem to lack evidence. F. Warre [Som. Proc. xii. (1) 66] says that foundations were plainly visible and many Roman relics had been found, but he gives no details, and the only actual discoveries seem to have been made at the cavern. This yielded a coin of Julian and potsherds, found about 1826, either in it or just outside its mouth, and over 129 copper and silver coins, chiefly Valentinian and Gratian, and potsherds, found about 1846 when earth inside the cave was cleared out [Phelps, Modern, i. 25; Rutter, p. 78; Gent. Mag. 1846, ii. 633]. The names Cold Harbour and Borough Walls, which attracted Sir R. C. Hoare, and which are indeed his only evidences for Roman occupation, except one bit of Samian, [Roman Aera, p. 43] do not prove very much. The bronze signet, inscribed OR, said to have been found about 1820 in a tumulus 'near' Uphill, with 4 bronze studs and 14 red glass beads [F. A. Knight, Seaboard of Mendip (1902), p. 25] seems to me certainly postRoman. For the road supposed to come down to the coast at Uphill see the section on the Mendip road (p. 350).
-, The name Ad Axium was invented by Leman and accepted by Hoare as a convenient appellation. It has not any ancient authority and no one connected with it ever claimed that it had. Nor is there any reason to put Iscalis (see p. 295) at Uphill, as some do.

Upton.—Coins (1 denarius of Trajan and 7 bronze, including 1 Trajan) found in 1847 on the boundary of Upton and Withiel parishes [Somerset Co. Gazette, 9 Sept. 1882, cited by J. Ll. W. Page, Exploration of Dartmoor, p. 215].

Wadeford.—See Combe St. Nicholas (villa: p. 333).

Warley.—See Bathford.

Watergore.—See South Petherton (alleged villa: p. 331).

Weare.—Coin, found 1870 [Som. Proc. xxiv. (2) 18]. This is probably the Second Brass of Pius from Weare, now in Captain Long's collection at Congresbury.

Wedmore.—Large brass coin of Augustus, found at Blackford [Som. Proc. xxiv. (2) 18]. Glastonbury Museum has a similar coin from Northload, Theale, or the same, differently located.
-, Two or three coins (1 Probus) and perhaps potsherds, found at Heath House [Wedmore Chronicle, pp. 121, 138, 204, 363, 378]. Captain Long has a Third Brass of the fourth century from Wedmore.
-, The remains found at Mudgley are not Roman [Proc. Soc. Antiq. viii. 170; Bath Field Club , iv. 283; Wedmore Chron. p. 26; Glast. Museum].

Wellington.—F. T. Elworthy [Notes on Wellington, 1892] cites the names Ford Street, Silver Street as proofs of Roman origin. But they prove nothing: no Roman remains seem ever to have been found in the town. Mr. Franklin has a First Brass of Trajan found somewhere 'near' it.

Wellow.—Villas: p. 312.

Wells [near].—Coin of Postumus [Proc. Soc. Antiq. (ser. 1) iv. 303]. The pavements noted in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 4452, p. 34, belong to Wello(w), not to Wells.

Wemberham.—See Yatton (villa: p. 306).

Weston [near Bath].—Alleged villa, imperfectly recorded [Bath Field Club, i. (1) 83]. Two bronze statuettes, found 1825 [Bath Institution]. The Late Celtic spoons found here (Bath Field Club, ii. 113, etc.) are presumably pre-Roman.

Whatley.—Villa: p. 317.

Whitchurch.—Two stone coffins, found in 1886, south of the village between Lion's Court Farm and Maes Knoll. Near them have been found sporadically some coins (2 Faustina, 2 Lucilla, 11 Commodus, 1 Crispina, 1 Sept. Severus, 1 Postumus, 1 Maximin, 1 Constantine II) and some 'Second Brass' coin moulds#—fragmentary, illegible and not certainly Second Brass#—potsherds (including Samian) and bones [F. Ellis, Clifton Antiq. Club, i. 165; ii. 161; iii. 21]. Three skeletons found in 1869 in the railway cutting below Maes Knoll may be connected with these finds [Bath Field Club, i. (1) 6].

Hoard found in 1869 at Philwood or Filwood farm, 2 miles north of the village—urn containing (1) many First Brass of Claudius and his successors to Maximian (a.d. 43–300); Trajan, Hadrian, Pius, Faustina, Gallienus, are named as represented and Hadrian's coins are said to have been commonest, and (2) some thousands of 'minims,' 1/8; to 3/8 inch in diameter. Nicholls saw some 200 First Brass and 800 minims [J. F. Nicholls, Arch. Journ. xxvii. (1870) 69 and Bristol Past and Present, i. 25; Scarth, Som. Proc. xxxi. (2) 7, from Nicholls; Clifton Antiq. Club, i. 165]. The combination of such early and late coins is rare and leads one to think that perhaps the earlier coins belonged to an early hoard discovered later and then reburied with the later coins. The 4 minims and late Third Brass deposited in the Baths Museum at Bath by J. P. E. Falconer, probably come from this hoard.

Fig. 102. Winsford (Exmoor).

Whitestaunton.—Villa: p. 334.

Wigborough.—Villa: p. 331.

Wiltown.—Coins: see Curry Rivel, p. 329.

Wincanton.—Urn full of coins, found 1720 [Stukeley, Itin. Cur. (ed. 2) p. 150; hence Collinson, ii. 33, etc.]. Another urn, with half a peck of coins (incl. Tetricus) found a little above Sutton or Suddon towards Beacon Ash, with potsherds, knife, etc. [ibid.].
-, Rude tessellated floor, stone column, slab with dog-tooth pattern, potsherds, found at Old Barn, a mile west of Wincanton [Som. Proc. xvi. (1) 5, 14, Plate; Wincanton Field Club, Report, 1901, p. 15; information from Mr. George Sweetman]. I incline to think the column and slab certainly medieval, and the floor and potsherds probably of that date.
-, Alleged villa at Bayford Lodge (east of Wincanton), see p. 320.

Winsford Hill.—Inscribed pillar, locally called the 'Longstone,' on Winsford Hill, 2 miles west of the village. The letters are Carataci nepus (fig. 102), where nepus stands for nepos, and is apparently the Goidelic formula denoting membership of a family. As Rhys conjectures, the stone may have been set up by one of the Goidels who invaded South Wales and Devon about the fifth century and left Ogams there [Rhys, Academy, Aug. 1890 and Archaeol. Cambrensis, ser. 5, viii. (1891) 29; Page, Expl. of Exmoor (London, 1890), p. 91, and Proc. Som. xxxvi. (2) 82; Somerset and Dorset N. and Q. i. 263; ii. 164]. The n of nepus was found after the cut was made from which my fig. is reproduced.

Winsham.—Coins found between the village and Street hamlet, near the probable course of the Fosse, in 1684 and later [Collinson, ii. 479; Pulman, Book of the Axe, p. 363].

Wiveliscombe.—Coins, chiefly Trajan, Pius, Tacitus, Gallienus, found in 1711 in an earthwork called the Castle, a mile east of the town [Collinson, ii. 488].
-, Hoard of 1,600 large brass ('size of a half-penny') found in an urn near Wiveliscombe. They belonged to Diocletian, Maximian, Constantius I, Maximin, Fl. Val. Severus, Constantine I, and are said all to have borne the figure of Mars and the legend Genio Populi Romani [Musgrave, Antiq. Brit. Belg. i. 20; Gibson's Camden (1772) i. 74, confusing the two hoards; Collinson, ii. 488; Gough, Adds. to Camden, i. 95–6, following Gibson].
-, Leaden coffin found Aug. 1870, in making the Devon and Som. Railway, a mile from Wiveliscombe, 8 feet deep: the lead was much corroded and there were traces of a wooden coffin inside it: the head lay to the north [Gray, Som. and Dorset N. and Q. ix. (1904) lxv.; Taunton Museum].

Wookey Hole.—Lead pig: p. 340, No. 4.
-, Hoard of late silver and copper coins found about 1862: see p. 356.
-, Rude Romano-British potsherds, Samian and late coins found recently.

Woolavington.—The ruins of a Roman villa are said by Mr. Stradling to have been found at Coombe, three quarters of a mile south-east of Woolavington and almost in Cossington parish. A 'fibula or buckle' was picked up at the same time. Nothing, however, has since been noticed to confirm the statement; and here, as at Chedzoy, Mr. Stradling may have 'seen too much' [W. Stradling, Priory of Chilton Polden (1839), p. 12].

Woolverton.—Coins at Peart Wood [Arch. Journ. xxxvi. 335]. In Laverton parish.

Worlebury.—The camp is pre-Roman, as excavations in 1851 and since have abundantly shown. But in 1833 11 coins were found among the débris on the south-west side of Worlebury, Second Brass of Tiberius, Nero, Vespasian, Domitian, Hadrian and Marcus, First Brass of Marcus, Mammaea, Maximin, and two Large Brass of Constantius II, while a few rude potsherds of Roman date, some other trifles, and some 200 or 250 Third Brass of the third and fourth centuries were found in 1852 and show that part of the site was, at least temporarily, occupied in the later Roman times by peasants or others, till as late as Valens. [For the Roman remains see Som. Proc. iv. (2) 125; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxxi. 266; Clifton, Antiq. Club, iii. 243; Dymond's Worlebury (ed. 2), pp. 81, 115; Taunton Museum.]

Wraxall.—Coins found in 1815 on hill overlooking the rectory, lying in a patch of black earth 300 yards across. They were copper: Seyer saw 1 Pius, 4 Cl. Gothicus, 18 Constantinian. Whether a hoard, is not clear [Seyer, i. 161, hence Phelps, p. 177; Rutter, p. 226, etc.].

Wrigleton.—Guidott (1676), p. 66, says: a silver coin of Trajan was found 5 miles from Bath at Wrigleton. This may be Writhlington, near Radstock.

Wrington.—Villas or buildings at Lye hole (p. 308) and Havyatt's Green (p. 308). Coin of Postumus found in the village; also coin of Diocletian found 1881 [Scarth, Som. Proc. xxxiii. (2) 15]. The Diocletian, if genuine, seems to be a variety of Cohen (ed. 2), No. 458, 459: it is said to have been inscribed IMP C DIOCLESIANVS PI FE AVG and SPES PVBLICA S P (letter from Mr. Scarth).

Writhlington.—Skinner here found potsherds and a coin of Vespasian [Add. MS. 33659].
-, See also Wrigleton above.

Yanley.—Villa alleged in Long Ashton parish, p. 305 note.

Yatton.—Villa at Wemberham: p. 306.
-, Burials and buildings near Cadbury. Before 1849 a small cemetery, skeletons, a hoard of Second and Third Brass of later Empire, including one of Orbiana (circa a.d. 225), in a large urn were found at the foot of Cadbury Hill [Som. Proc. i. (2) 59]. In June, 1877, on the north side of the top of Cadbury Hill was found a rude stone cist, skeleton, bits of Samian, Caistor, etc., roof tiles, etc. [Som. Proc. xxiii. (2) 8].

Yeovil.—The finds reported by Collinson, iii. 204 (villa); Gough, British Topogr. ii. 226 (mosaic) and Proc. Soc. Antiq. ser. 2, ii. 203 (fibula, etc.) belong to Coker (p. 329).

Uncertain Locality.—See under Bristol and Mendip.