A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 1, Bramber Rape (Southern Part). Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1980.
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The former parish of West Tarring, (fn. 1) now part of Worthing borough, lay between the South Downs and the sea; the prefix distinguishes it from Tarring Neville near Lewes. In 1881 it contained 1,192 a. In 1902 part was added to Worthing borough and the rest was split between Durrington and Goring. (fn. 2) The present article deals with the history of the parish up to c. 1900, though certain topics, including the history of institutions originating before that date, are treated here up to 1978.
The parish was 3 miles long at its longest point and 1½ mile wide at its widest, and included two tongues of land, one projecting westwards, perhaps to include meadow land near Ham farm in Durrington, and the other southwards, presumably to include rough pasture by the sea coast and to give access to the sea. Much of the parish boundary followed roads and tracks, for instance the road from West Tarring to Findon in the north-east part. Much of the western boundary was straight. (fn. 3) One point on the boundary between West Tarring and Broadwater, the site in 1978 of the Thomas a Becket public house, was known as Polltree or Polled tree in the 15th and 16th centuries, and as Poulter's corner in 1896. (fn. 4)
The north part of the parish lay on the chalk, rising to 300 ft. in the north-west corner, and the gently sloping south part on the later Coombe deposits and brickearth. (fn. 5) Findon Valley in the north-east corner is a typical chalkland dry valley. The south part of the parish was watered by the upper course of the Teville stream, which formed large ponds south-west of the church, and then flowed eastwards along the southern boundary. (fn. 6)
West Tarring village lay in the south part of the parish. There seems no reason to believe that the early medieval village centre was not on the present site, as has been suggested, (fn. 7) even though the church lies away from it. The village consists of three streets, called North, South, and West streets in the 17th and 18th centuries (fn. 8) and High Street, South Street, and Church Road in 1978; the junction between them was presumably the site of the marketplace recorded from 1499. (fn. 9) The buildings are chiefly of brick, flint, and cobbles, some being painted or rendered or hung with tiles; roofs are of tiles, slates, or Horsham stone slabs. Many buildings are of the 18th century or earlier, especially in High Street which is flanked almost entirely by old houses. The lack of gaps between the buildings and the absence of front gardens, both there and in the adjacent part of Church Road, give the village a quasi-urban character. Many of the older buildings were still used as dwellings in 1978.
There are two medieval buildings in the village besides the church. The Old Palace is described below. (fn. 10) At the south end of High Street nos. 4–10, part of what was called Parsonage Row in 1615, (fn. 11) comprise a small late-medieval timber-framed house with a central two-bay hall and cross-wings with elaborately carved gables giving a faôade of modified 'Wealden' type. (fn. 12) The hall and north cross-wing have exposed timber-framing and the hall has a two-storey oriel window; the south cross-wing is cased with brick and hung tiles. An upper floor was later inserted in the hall, probably in the 17th century, and an extension at the rear of the building is probably of the same date. (fn. 13) The building formerly belonged to Tarring rectory manor, (fn. 14) and it is possible that it was the original rectory house. (fn. 15) There were other buildings of the same style adjacent to the south, (fn. 16) one of which included a medieval shop-front; (fn. 17) the south end of the group was destroyed when Glebe Road was cut in the late 19th century, and the rest has been altered. The part described above was bought in 1927 by a local man and vested in the Sussex Archaeological Trust, (fn. 18) whose successor the Sussex Archaeological Society still owned it in 1978, when part of the building was used as a museum.
About 2/3 mile north of West Tarring village lay the hamlet of Salvington, presumably succeeding Iron Age and Roman settlement in the same area. (fn. 19) The hamlet is recorded from the mid 13th century, (fn. 20) and contained at least 9 adult males in 1539, (fn. 21) and over 100 inhabitants in 1841. (fn. 22) The buildings of Salvington include Cutler's Farmhouse, called in 1978 The Old House, a 17th-century timber-framed building, and Banks Farmhouse, called in 1978 Old Sussex House, an 18th-century building of flint rubble with brick dressings, which has been extended at both ends.
West Tarring village was said to have grown considerably in the years before 1792, (fn. 23) presumably as a result of the growth of Worthing. A retired lieutenant of Marines was recorded as living there in 1798. (fn. 24) In the decades 1802–11 and 1811–21 the number of houses in the parish increased by a quarter and a fifth respectively. (fn. 25) In the middle of the century, however, the population was said to be almost all poor, with no resident gentry. (fn. 26) During the second half of the century many new terraced, detached, and semi-detached houses were built in the village, both in the three old streets and in Glebe Road, laid out between 1875 and 1896. Meanwhile detached houses were built on its outskirts. (fn. 27) During the 1880s and 1890s, chiefly in response to the opening of West Worthing station, many houses were built between the village and the railway. Three streets, chiefly of terraced houses, had been built by 1893, (fn. 28) and others followed. (fn. 29) Between 1891 and 1901, the number of houses in the parish increased by three-quarters. (fn. 30) The north part however remained largely rural until the 20th century. In 1978 West Tarring village largely retained its pre-20th-century character, partly on account of the bypass road constructed to the east of it between 1931 and 1934. (fn. 31)
The 41 persons enumerated at Tarring manor in 1086 (fn. 32) presumably included some at Marlpost in Horsham, where the manor had outlying land. In 1327 there were 21 taxpayers, (fn. 33) and in 1524 65, more than half of whom were assessed at £1 a year on day wages. (fn. 34) There were 156 adult males in West Tarring, Durrington, and Heene together in 1642, (fn. 35) and 203 adults at West Tarring in 1676. (fn. 36) The population of West Tarring increased from 487 in 1801 to 650 in 1821, but thereafter remained fairly static for 50 years apart from a drop before 1841. In the last two decades of the century there was a rapid increase from 733 in 1881 to 1,035 in 1891 and 1,720 in 1901. (fn. 37)
Two important roads traversed the parish from east to west, both ignoring the sites of medieval settlement. The Chichester–Brighton road is apparently of Roman origin. (fn. 38) Further south the Broadwater–Littlehampton road, called the Broadwater–Goring road in 1768, (fn. 39) is presumably also old, since the cross-roads called Polltree, mentioned in 1418, (fn. 40) lay on it. Part of the road was called Poletree Lane in 1875 and Poulter's Lane in 1896. (fn. 41) The old road linking West Tarring to Worthing is represented by Tarring and Teville roads, and old paths linking West Tarring to Heene, Durrington, and Broadwater are followed by modern roads and footpaths. (fn. 42) Northward communication was provided by two roads, which originally gave access to Wealden pastures. One led from Salvington across the downs by way of Tolmare (in Findon) and Storrington. (fn. 43) The other, which led from West Tarring village by way of the wind-gap through Findon, was mentioned in the 15th century. (fn. 44) Its northern part was turnpiked under an Act of 1802 as part of the direct London-Worthing road, (fn. 45) and disturnpiked in 1878. (fn. 46)
A carter plied twice weekly between West Tarring, Steyning, and Southwick in 1798. In the same year a post was received three times a week, and collected six times a week. (fn. 47) The postmaster in 1794 was also the parish clerk. (fn. 48)
The Worthing–Arundel railway line was opened through the parish in 1846. A station called West Worthing in West Tarring parish was opened in 1889, at the instigation of those interested in the development of West Worthing township. (fn. 49)
One inhabitant of West Tarring was licensed to sell wine retail in 1597. (fn. 50) A house called the White Horse in the early 17th century (fn. 51) was presumably the same as the White Horse inn in the marketplace recorded between 1715 and 1770. (fn. 52) Four alehouse-keepers, an innkeeper, and a tavernkeeper were recorded in the 1630s. (fn. 53) A tenement, presumably an inn, called the Black Lion, formerly the Black Horse, was recorded in West Street in 1770. (fn. 54) From the late 18th century there were always at least two inns in the village. The George, recorded in 1798, (fn. 55) had become the George and Dragon by 1855, (fn. 56) and survived in 1978. The Castle, also recorded in 1798, (fn. 57) was closed in 1911, and its licence transferred to the Thomas a Becket hotel on the Broadwater–Littlehampton road north of the village. (fn. 58) The Vine existed in 1882, (fn. 59) and also survived in 1978. At Salvington the Half Moon flourished between c. 1839 (fn. 60) and 1896, (fn. 61) and the Spotted Cow, later the John Selden, was recorded in 1887 and survived in 1978. (fn. 62)
A reading room near the Old Palace in South Street was presented to the parish in 1891 for the use of the artisans and labourers of the district, and was still used for meetings in 1978. (fn. 63)
John Selden (1584–1654), jurist and miscellaneous writer, was born in Salvington. (fn. 64) The house later described as his birthplace seems more likely to have been built in 1601. (fn. 65) It was visited by sight-seers from at least 1853, (fn. 66) but was demolished in 1956. (fn. 67) The lintel of the entrance doorway, with an inscription said to have been written by the young Selden himself, (fn. 68) was preserved in 1978 in the museum in High Street. Edward Henty (1809–78), pioneer of Victoria, Australia, was also born at West Tarring. (fn. 69)
Gas was supplied from the Worthing gas-works after 1881. (fn. 70) After 1884 (fn. 71) water was supplied by the West Worthing Waterworks Co. to most houses in West Tarring village. By 1893 almost the whole parish was connected to the Worthing sewer. (fn. 72)
The new streets between West Tarring village and the railway suffered during the second outbreak of typhoid in Worthing in 1893, with 55 recorded cases and 9 deaths. The infant school and the reading room served as temporary hospitals. (fn. 73) There was a Volunteer rifle range in the south-west part of the parish in 1875. (fn. 74)
King Athelstan (d. 939) granted TARRING to the church of Christ Church, Canterbury, his brother King Edmund afterwards confirming the grant. (fn. 75) By 1086 the manor was part of the archbishop's share of the Canterbury endowments, (fn. 76) as it remained until the mid 16th century. Richard Waleys, (fn. 77) lord of Patching in the late 12th century, seems also to have held Tarring, since in 1209 his son Godfrey was confirmed in lands there formerly held by Richard's widow Denise. About 1212 Godfrey held two estates at Tarring as 1¼ and ¼ fee. (fn. 78) In 1233 he held the manor at an annual farm of £18 or its equivalent in entertainment if the archbishop should so prefer; archiepiscopal visits to Tarring are recorded for instance in 1215 and 1225 or 1226. (fn. 79) Shortly before 1237 Godfrey was deprived of the lands for making default in his rent, but they were restored to him in that year. Godfrey's son and namesake (d. c. 1266) was succeeded by his son Richard who forfeited Tarring in 1276 for underspending on the archbishop's entertainment and practising extortion on the tenants. (fn. 80) Thereafter until the 1420s (fn. 81) the manor was retained in demesne. Archbishops often visited it in the late 13th century, (fn. 82) and presumably continued to do so later. A rabbit warren was recorded there in 1499 (fn. 83) and 1535. (fn. 84)
In 1559 the Crown took possession of the manor by virtue of a recent Act of Parliament. (fn. 85) From at least the late 16th century the manor was often called Tarring with Marlpost or Tarring Marlpost in allusion to its Wealden outlier. (fn. 86) In 1581 Edmund Deering was lessee, (fn. 87) in succession to his brother John, (fn. 88) and in the early 17th century Tarring was held by Jane Deering. (fn. 89) In 1616 it was granted or confirmed in fee to Sir William Garraway, who had been dealing with it five years earlier, (fn. 90) and whose family had been recorded in the parish in the mid 16th century. (fn. 91) Sir William (d. c. 1626) was succeeded by his son Sir Henry (d. c. 1646), and Sir Henry's son William (fn. 92) (d. c. 1656) by John Garraway. (fn. 93) In 1674 John sold the manor to Thomas Garraway (fn. 94) (d. 1700), (fn. 95) whose widow Frances held it as dower until her death in 1710 or 1711. Edward and Richard Norris, sons of Thomas's sister and surviving coheir Catherine, sold the estate in 1715 to Sir Fisher Tench, who in 1720 sold it in trust for Humphrey Thayer, who in turn sold it in 1723 to Edward Barker. (fn. 96) After 1729 it descended with Sompting rectory until 1761 when Edward's son Edward settled it on Henry Barker, in whose name courts were held until 1774. Another Edward Barker was lord by 1779 (fn. 97) and at his death in 1835 Tarring passed with Sompting rectory to Henry John Peachey, Lord Selsey. (fn. 98) The demesne lands, comprising 281 a., had meanwhile been sold in 1796 to Thomas Henty, while the northern outlier Marlpost was sold in 1806 to the duke of Norfolk. (fn. 99) After Lord Selsey's death in 1838 (fn. 100) his executors sold Tarring in the same year (fn. 101) to James Cuddon, who still held it in 1846. Thereafter it descended in the Rastrick family, J. U. Rastrick being lord between 1848 and 1855, Henry Rastrick between 1857 and 1869, (fn. 102) and George Rastrick between 1878 and 1895. (fn. 103) Mrs. Rastrick was lady between 1914 and 1935. (fn. 104)
The Old Palace, the original manor-house, comprises the hall and solar blocks of a substantial house which was at one time larger. The two-storeyed solar is of 13th-century origin, but was remodelled in the 15th century with for instance new window tracery. (fn. 105) The open hall was probably built in the early 14th century, perhaps replacing an earlier one, and was partly reconstructed in the 15th. There is evidence that other buildings formerly existed west of the hall, (fn. 106) presumably for service purposes, and east of the solar. (fn. 107) A gatehouse mentioned in the early 16th century has also disappeared. (fn. 108) The surviving building has been altered or restored on several occasions, notably in the 17th, 19th, and 20th centuries. At some date between the early 16th century (fn. 109) and the 18th, it became attached to the rectory manor. In the mid 18th century the hall was divided into three rooms, but Jeremiah Milles, rector 1747–79, repaired the building and converted it into a charity school, (fn. 110) which it remained, though apparently not continuously, (fn. 111) until c. 1910. Part, however, was still used as cottages in 1805, and as a dairy in 1833. (fn. 112) After c. 1910 the building was used as a parish hall, (fn. 113) being bought by the parochial church council in 1958. (fn. 114) A square dovecot of cobbles, with a hipped and tiled roof, (fn. 115) survived in 1978.
Church Farm, south-east of the church, which had presumably become the manor-house by the late 18th century, (fn. 116) was a two- or three-storeyed building with dormer windows and originally a Horsham stone roof. (fn. 117) It was demolished shortly after 1931. (fn. 118) There was formerly a dovecot near by. (fn. 119)
TARRING RECTORY was a sinecure after 1287. In 1341 the estate included a house, garden, and demense land together worth £8 16s., besides several pasture worth 13s. 4d., and fixed rents worth £1 1s. 6d. (fn. 120) The site of the medieval rectory house is unknown, unless possibly the late medieval house called in 1978 nos. 4–10 High Street was originally the rectory. (fn. 121) In 1615 the rectory manor also comprised 10 a. in the town field, which may rightly have belonged to the vicarage, the great tithes of West Tarring and Heene, and a moiety of those of Durrington, (fn. 122) the other moiety, formerly the property of Sele priory, belonging to Magdalen College, Oxford. (fn. 123) There was also land at Heene. (fn. 124) The estate was regularly leased out, (fn. 125) the lessee in 1626 and sometimes later being the vicar. (fn. 126) About 1830 the net income was £576, the 10 a. in the town field having recently been sold to redeem the land tax. (fn. 127) The rectorial tithe barns were sold in 1840, having been made unnecessary by the commutation of tithes, (fn. 128) and in 1844 the estate was vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 129)
Tarring manor in 1086 comprised 14½ ploughlands; 3 teams worked the demesne, and 27 villani and 14 bordars had 10 teams. (fn. 130)
At the end of the 13th century the demesne farm had over 300 a. of arable land with 7 a. of several meadow. There were 29 free tenements which varied in size from ½ a. to 3 yardlands and most of which were held at rents of between 1s. 6d. and 16s. One free tenant owed a small reaping service or 1s. in lieu. Most of the 29 customary tenements comprised 1 yardland or ½ yardland. and were held at rents of 2s. 6d. a ½ yardland. Customary tenants owed heriots, entry fines, and labour services which included reaping and binding, malt-making, drawing out dung, and carrying wood from Marlpost. Neither they nor their children could marry without licence. There were also 10 cottagers, 9 of whom each held ½ yardland, paying as rent 7½d. and a hen, besides heriots and entry fines when applicable. Each cottager owed reaping and binding services at harvest, and 52½ works during the rest of the year except at the greater festivals, performing similar activities to those of the customers. Cottagers' children too could not marry without licence. In addition 3 oxherds and 7 cotmen each held 5 a. or less and owed labour services. A special custom was that of bishopsthresh, by which originally all tenants of yardlands had to thresh for 8 days before the archbishop's arrival when he came to stay at the manor; in the late 13th century, however, the service was being exacted annually by the farmer of the manor. (fn. 131)
Some labour services continued to be owed during the 14th and 15th centuries, but in 1348 there were paid servants on the demesne farm, including a foreman (magister), and at least 3 ploughmen. (fn. 132) In 1396 the fixed rents of free and bond tenants amounted to £14, and 75s. 8d. was received from various small farms. (fn. 133) By 1499 many labour services had been commuted for money payments. (fn. 134) The demesne estate contained 280 a. of arable land in 1396, with 10 a. of meadow and 30 a. of several pasture at Horsham; there were a flock of 159 sheep and 50 pigs. (fn. 135) It remained in hand in 1422, when 34s. was received from the sale of wool. (fn. 136) In 1426, however, the demesne was at farm, (fn. 137) as it remained later. (fn. 138)
Both West Tarring village and Salvington hamlet (fn. 139) were apparently ringed by common fields, those of West Tarring including Sea field, recorded from 1488, (fn. 140) and the east field or town field mentioned in the 17th century. (fn. 141) Crops recorded in the parish in the Middle Ages were wheat, barley, oats, vetch, peas and beans, flax, hemp, and apples. (fn. 142) There was both common downland pasture, and several pasture for sheep, cows, pigs, and geese at West Tarring in the 14th century. (fn. 143) In addition the manor had earlier had detached pasture land at Marlpost near Horsham, which may be represented by the woodland for 6 swine belonging to it in 1086. (fn. 144) About 1285 woodland there was commonable, except for goats, by all the tenants of the manor, and all the year round except at the time of 'danger', i.e. pannage. (fn. 145) Land at Marlpost continued to be held of Tarring manor in later centuries. (fn. 146)
Between the late 15th and early 20th centuries there were both free and copyhold tenants of the manor. Copyholds could be sub-let with the lord's approval; one was forfeit in 1488 because that approval had not been sought. They could also be mortgaged, and the custom of widow's bench obtained. (fn. 147) By the early 17th century copyholders formed the majority of the tenants. There were then 154 tenements, ranging in size from small estates of less than 1 a., through 'farlingates' of uncertain area, to 10 yardlands of between 26 a. and 83 a. (fn. 148) Many estates then and later (fn. 149) were composed of numerous separate parcels. In 1581 the demesne farm had 280 a., and there was another estate at West Tarring of 120 a., besides 8 others of between 25 a. and 60 a. (fn. 150) In 1792 the demesne farm formed a compact block of 281 a. lying west, north-west, and south-west of the village and including 5 closes over 20 a. in area. (fn. 151) At the same date what was apparently later Banks farm at Salvington had a flock of 248 sheep. (fn. 152)
The common downs were mentioned in 1503 (fn. 153) and remained commonable in the early 19th century, when despite some piecemeal inclosure of furlongs, for instance at Salvington, much of the arable land of the parish still lay in open fields. (fn. 154) Wheat, tares, barley, peas, beans, and hemp were mentioned in the 17th century, and turnips, clover, and apples in the 18th. (fn. 155) In 1801 there were at least 455 a. of wheat in the parish, 372 a. of barley, and 160 a. of oats, besides smaller acreages of peas and turnips or rape. (fn. 156)
In 1808 the open fields and downs of the parish, comprising 461 a., were inclosed under an Act of the same year. Twenty-one landowners received allotments, the largest being those of two farmers in Salvington who each received over 100 a. A chalkpit on the downs was reserved for public use, and the lord of the manor received 4½ a. in return for his rights in the soil. (fn. 157) About 1839 there were three large farms in the parish, all leased: the manor demesne farm, called Church farm, of 281 a., and Cutler's farm and Banks farm, Salvington, of 227 a. and 161 a. respectively. (fn. 158) About 930 a. were arable, and 228 a. meadow or pasture, the land generally being extremely fertile. (fn. 159) Wheat, oats, turnips, mangel-wurzels, and peas and beans were grown in 1874, when the proximity of Worthing also gave employment to a dairyman. (fn. 160) From the mid 19th century agricultural land began to be taken over for market-gardening and building, at first gradually, and later much more quickly. In 1855 there were still apparently 6 farmers, but only four by 1882. (fn. 161) There were still 3 farms in 1896. (fn. 162)
Figs are said to have been introduced to West Tarring by St. Richard of Chichester when he was living at the rectory in the mid 13th century; (fn. 163) another version of the story mentions St. Thomas Becket, (fn. 164) who, however, cannot be proved to have visited Tarring at all. (fn. 165) A fig orchard of ¾ a. south of the Old Palace was planted in 1745 with cuttings from the palace garden, and by 1830 contained 100 trees which produced 2,000 dozen figs annually. (fn. 166) It was laid out with walks, (fn. 167) and by 1874 was much visited from Worthing, teas being provided by 1895. (fn. 168) In 1953 there were still c. 200 trees fit to bear fruit, (fn. 169) and many survived in 1978.
In 1855 there was apparently one other market-gardener in the parish and in 1862 there were two. (fn. 170) A nursery at Salvington in 1869 included pleasure grounds, (fn. 171) and in 1875 there were two large market-gardens there. (fn. 172) By 1882 6 market-gardens, besides the fig orchard, were listed at West Tarring. (fn. 173) The West Tarring, Salvington, and Durrington Cottagers' and Gardeners' Horticultural Society held shows at Tarring in the 1890s. (fn. 174) Market-gardens and glass-houses continued to be a principal land use in West Tarring and Salvington well into the 20th century.
A windmill was recorded at Tarring manor c. 1285, (fn. 175) in 1396, (fn. 176) and in 1426, (fn. 177) but its site is unknown unless represented by either of the field-names Mill field and Millborough recorded west and north-west of the church. (fn. 178) There was a miller at West Tarring in 1772 (fn. 179) and 1822, (fn. 180) and two in 1798. (fn. 181) The site of the mill at Salvington mentioned in 1388 (fn. 182) may be represented by the field name Mill mead recorded there c. 1839; (fn. 183) the mill at High Salvington lay in Durrington parish.
Market And Fairs.
In 1314 the lord of Tarring manor received a grant of a yearly fair on the eve and feast day of St. Matthew (21 Sept.). (fn. 184) There was also a market for which no charter is recorded, but from which tolls were received in 1348. (fn. 185) In 1444, as a result of a petition in which the inhabitants alleged losses sustained by French raids while they were visiting neighbouring markets, a royal grant was made of a market to be held on Saturdays. (fn. 186) A market-place, presumably at the junction of the three streets of the village, is recorded from 1499. (fn. 187) The market flourished during the 16th century, being described as one of the chief corn markets of the county in 1568. (fn. 188) Wheat and barley were sold there in 1577, (fn. 189) and in the early 16th century at least one prospective purchaser had come from as far away as Rusper. (fn. 190) West Tarring was often described as a market town in the 17th and 18th centuries; (fn. 191) in the early 18th century there was a market-house belonging to the parish, (fn. 192) but the market was said to be disused in 1724. (fn. 193) At the end of the 18th century a corn market was again held every Saturday, and there were two pedlary fairs during the year. (fn. 194) In 1824 market business was being transacted at a public house, (fn. 195) since the market-house had been demolished more than 30 years before. (fn. 196) The two fairs survived in 1898. (fn. 197)
Trade And Industry.
Surnames recorded at the end of the 13th century which may represent descriptions of occupations include Seamstress, Merchant, and Carpenter. (fn. 198) A mason was mentioned in 1303. (fn. 199) In 1341 there were said to be three wealthy men in the parish but apparently no merchants. (fn. 200) Butchers, bakers, tanners, brewers, and retailers of ale, are recorded at West Tarring in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. (fn. 201) A cult of St. Blaise, patron saint of wool-combers, recorded at the parish church in 1523, may be evidence of clothworking; (fn. 202) later in the 16th century there were tailors, (fn. 203) a weaver, (fn. 204) a cloth-worker, (fn. 205) and a clothier who bought cloth in London, (fn. 206) and in 1602 a shearman of West Tarring leased a fulling-mill in Wiston. (fn. 207) Six aliens were listed in 1524–5, including 4 Dutchmen, a Gascon, and a Norman whose goods were assessed at £3. (fn. 208)
During the 17th and 18th centuries, besides the usual trades to be found in a large village, there were some less usual ones. A family of bell-founders called Tapsell flourished between 1599 and 1633. (fn. 209) There was a chandler in 1656, (fn. 210) and later often a mercer or shopkeeper. (fn. 211) Tradesmen recorded occasionally during the 18th century were tallow-chandlers, (fn. 212) coopers, a barber, a whitesmith, (fn. 213) and a milliner. (fn. 214) There may have been a physician in 1524, (fn. 215) and again in 1692; (fn. 216) by 1766 there was certainly an apothecary. (fn. 217) In 1798, among others, there were an ironmonger, a tallow-chandler and soap-boiler, a fishmonger, two maltsters and corn merchants, a horse-collar maker, a druggist, and a surgeon. (fn. 218)
In the early 19th century the proportion of tradesmen to those employed in agricultural occupations was higher than average. Forty-nine families were said to be supported by trade or manufacture in 1811, as against 35 supported by agriculture; in 1831 the corresponding figures were 38 and 66. (fn. 219) Most tradesmen lived in West Tarring village, but there was a flour merchant at Salvington between 1826 and c. 1839. (fn. 220) From the mid 19th century retail facilities and services expanded greatly, South Street becoming the chief shopping area. In 1882 there were, for instance, 4 bakers, a saddler, a millwright, 2 builders, a plumber and glazier, and a grocer and draper. By 1890 there was an umbrella-coverer, and by 1895 a solicitor and a piano-tuner. In 1900 there was a tea-garden and a dining-room. (fn. 221) During the 1890s the increase in building activity gave employment to two brickworks. (fn. 222)
Court rolls survive for Tarring with Marlpost manor for many years between 1426 and 1544, (fn. 223) and for the period 1630–1935. (fn. 224) Courts baron were held up to 3 times a year during the earlier period, and later roughly once a year. A view of frankpledge was held half-yearly in the 15th and 16th centuries, and apparently yearly in the 17th and 18th. Besides the constable and tithingman or headborough, there was an aletaster in 1426 and later, (fn. 225) who was also an inspector of weights and measures after 1746. (fn. 226) In the mid 17th century there were a leather-searcher and sealer (fn. 227) and a hayward. (fn. 228) The offices of constable, headborough, and inspector of weights and measures all survived in 1869. (fn. 229) In the 17th and 18th centuries there was sometimes one headborough for West Tarring and Salvington and another for Marlpost; (fn. 230) a separate constable for Marlpost (fn. 231) is also once recorded at that period. In the same way there had been separate aletasters for Salvington, West Tarring, and Marlpost in 1426, (fn. 232) and perhaps a separate bailiff for Salvington in 1288, (fn. 233) while the hayward mentioned in 1655 was apparently responsible for the Salvington fields only. (fn. 234)
In the 15th and 16th centuries, besides the usual business concerning agriculture, strays, the repair of houses, roads, and hedges, and breaches of the assize of bread and of ale, the view heard cases of assault and affray and pleas of debt and trespass. (fn. 235) Cases of assault were still heard in the 17th century. In 1640 a tenant was presented for not doing his statutory highway labour for the parish, (fn. 236) and in 1649 a rate was ordered to be levied to repair the gates of the open fields at Salvington. (fn. 237) Courts were regularly held until c. 1850, though in the 1670s separate courts for Marlpost were held at Horsham, and from the 18th century onwards some Marlpost business was treated out of court. After c. 1850 business concerning West Tarring was increasingly so treated too, the last court being held in 1869.
There are court rolls for Tarring rectory manor for the years 1670–5 and 1749–1908; (fn. 238) a single one for 1464 survived in 1923. (fn. 239) In the 1670s courts were held roughly yearly, and in the later period about every other year at first, and later less often. The court was held at Heene in 1464, but later it was presumably usually held at the Old Palace in West Tarring. A bailiff was mentioned in the 1670s and a beadle in the early 19th century. The only kind of business recorded is that relating to agricultural tenancies. The last court was held in 1859, but business had been increasingly dealt with out of court after 1843.
There were usually two churchwardens at West Tarring after 1515. (fn. 240) Collectors for, called later overseers of, the poor are recorded from 1564. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries West Tarring and Salvington sometimes had a separate churchwarden and overseer each. (fn. 241) The parish constable mentioned between 1568 and 1602 was perhaps strictly speaking a manor constable; in 1591 he was also churchwarden. (fn. 242) There were two surveyors of highways or waywardens in the 17th century, (fn. 243) whose jurisdiction presumably included Durrington and Heene, since no separate office of waywarden is recorded for those places at that date.
Rates were levied from at least 1574, (fn. 244) sometimes for an unspecified purpose, and sometimes specifically for church repair, poor relief, or the clerk's wages. (fn. 245) In 1634 a separate rate was said to have been levied for many years to maintain the church clock. (fn. 246) In 1851 at least the rate for church repair was levied on Durrington and Heene as well. (fn. 247) In addition, the parish was endowed by the 16th century with land and a house. (fn. 248) The house, perhaps the same as the market-house mentioned in the early 18th century, (fn. 249) is not heard of after that date, but the land, the income from which was still being applied to church repairs in 1884, (fn. 250) was not sold until 1927. (fn. 251)
During the 16th century expenditure on poor-relief was augmented from the poor men's box, some paupers at least being farmed out to parishioners. (fn. 252) In the early 18th century some apparently received weekly pay, while others worked on linen manufacture. (fn. 253) In 1597 a parish by-law was passed preventing the letting of houses without the consent of the constable and churchwardens. (fn. 254) A watchhouse was built on the coast in the early 18th century and maintained at the parish expense. (fn. 255)
In 1803 West Tarring was added to East Preston united parishes, later East Preston union. (fn. 256) Between 1894 and 1902, when the parish ceased to exist, it was in East Preston rural district.
There was a church at West Tarring in 1086. (fn. 257) During the Middle Ages and later the parish included Heene and Durrington for ecclesiastical purposes. A rector of West Tarring who also held Patching was mentioned shortly before 1200. (fn. 258) A vicarage was ordained in 1287, (fn. 259) the rectory thereafter being a sinecure. From 1844 to 1878 the rectory belonged to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners; in the latter year it was consolidated with the vicarage, later incumbents being called rectors. (fn. 260) The vicarage had been united to Patching rectory in 1767 (fn. 261) but severed from it in 1850. (fn. 262) Until 1845 West Tarring belonged to the peculiar jurisdiction of Canterbury. (fn. 263)
The patronage of West Tarring rectory always belonged to the archbishop. On various occasions during the Middle Ages and later the Crown presented during vacancy of the see. (fn. 264) The vicars of West Tarring were usually appointed by the rector between 1315 and 1557, (fn. 265) but after 1567 the archbishop collated. In 1655 and 1657 incumbents were presented by the Lord Protector. Since 1878 the patronage of the consolidated benefice has belonged to the archbishop. (fn. 266)
In 1291 the rectory was one of the richest benefices in the county, being apparently valued at £66 13s. 4d. (fn. 267) The vicarage had been endowed four years earlier with altarage, offerings and mortuaries, the lesser tithes from West Tarring and its chapelries, and a pension of £4 from the rector, and in 1291 was worth £8. (fn. 268) It was not separately valued in 1341, (fn. 269) but in 1535 was said to be worth £8 13s. 4d. (fn. 270) In 1615 it comprised the small tithes of West Tarring, Durrington, and Heene, (fn. 271) but two years later those of Durrington were commuted for a modus of £6 13s. 4d. which continued to be paid until at least 1898. (fn. 272) In 1626 the vicar had the lease of the rectory estate, besides receiving offerings and mortuaries and the £4 pension. (fn. 273) The vicarage house mentioned at that period was perhaps the Old Palace. (fn. 274) There was also apparently a house belonging to the vicarage at Durrington in 1636, (fn. 275) but the house in Heene called the former glebe house in 1814 (fn. 276) may not have been so, for in 1662 there was said to be no glebe house there. (fn. 277) There seems never to have been vicarial glebe land at any of the three places. (fn. 278)
In 1717 the vicar claimed that his living was worth considerably less than £60 a year, and the then rector may have intended to augment it; (fn. 279) in 1767 its value was said to be £60, (fn. 280) but 9 years later the vicar still received only £4 from the rectory. (fn. 281) About 1830 the vicarage together with Patching rectory was worth £274 less curates' stipends, the vicar again having the lease of the rectory estate. (fn. 282) Meanwhile, the rectory house had become a school, and a new vicarage house had been built south of the village by Richard Rycroft, vicar 1766–86, (fn. 283) using materials from the demolished rectory at Patching; (fn. 284) it was enlarged in 1819–20 with a loan from Queen Anne's Bounty. (fn. 285) After the acquisition of the rectory by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1844 the vicarage was augmented by them with £180 a year, increased to £380 in 1850 to compensate the vicar for resigning Patching. (fn. 286) The augmentation ceased to be paid after 1879 when the vicarage was endowed with the entire rectorial income of the parish. (fn. 287) The vicarage house was again enlarged in 1878, but was replaced in 1930 by a new building east of the Old Palace. (fn. 288)
A chantry of St. Mary existed in 1282. (fn. 289) In the 14th and 15th centuries its advowson apparently descended with the manors of Field and Knell in Goring, and it was sometimes called Knell chantry. At least two chantry priests at that date were also vicars of West Tarring. (fn. 290) From 1514 the advowson descended with Broadwater manor; (fn. 291) the chantry was dissolved apparently soon afterwards and c. 1548 Thomas Sandys, Lord Sandys, was said to be in possession of the 32 a. of land with which it was endowed. (fn. 292) Those lands were later known as Chantry farm. (fn. 293) A fraternity of St. Andrew was mentioned in 1372. A fraternity of St. Mary was apparently founded in 1528, partly in order to support an assistant priest; it survived 10 years later. A fraternity of the Holy Trinity existed in 1537. (fn. 294)
Simon of Tarring, rector between 1247 (fn. 295) and c. 1270, (fn. 296) was a friend of St. Richard of Chichester and gave him hospitality at the rectory house when he was barred from his episcopal revenues. (fn. 297) Simon's successor, a Crown presentee, (fn. 298) was the notorious pluralist Tedisius de Camilla. In a protest against his non-residence Archbishop Peckham attempted to sequestrate the benefice, but Camilla was confirmed in it by the pope in 1276 and still retained it ten years later. (fn. 299) The episode was evidently the cause of the ordination of the vicarage in 1287. Camilla was succeeded as rector by a close kinsman of the archbishop. (fn. 300) At least one other medieval rector was apparently an alien, (fn. 301) and in the 15th century rectors were generally archiepiscopal officials and administrators (fn. 302) who usually held other benefices, one for instance being treasurer of St. David's cathedral. (fn. 303)
Among fund-raising activities at the church during the early 16th century were the hiring of funeral torches to parishioners and the holding of church ales. (fn. 304) A church ale was held on Trinity Sunday in 1515, and the last reference found to one is as late as 1589. (fn. 305) The vicar was resident in 1563, (fn. 306) and curates are recorded at the same period. (fn. 307) William Tye, vicar 1612–21, (fn. 308) was resident in 1616 and 1619, (fn. 309) and his successor was a licensed preacher. (fn. 310) The next incumbent, William Stanley, served Heene and Durrington chapelries only fitfully, and in 1645 he was ejected, not indeed for laxity but because of his service in the royalist army in the Sussex campaign of 1643. In 1646 he was restored, but he left the parish two years later, a Mr. Bradford then serving the cure for £30 a year. (fn. 311)
Two Puritan ministers served between 1655 and 1662. (fn. 312) In 1663 and 1685 the vicar was resident; at the former date there was no curate, (fn. 313) but a curate was recorded between 1685 and 1696. (fn. 314) In the early 18th century the vicar also held Goring. David Capon, vicar 1722–51, (fn. 315) was presumably non-resident, for the vicar of Ferring as curate regularly officiated at that period. (fn. 316) The next vicar served himself, also holding Patching, but his successor Richard Rycroft served chiefly through curates. (fn. 317) An organ was in use at the church in 1762 and later, being afterwards replaced by an orchestra which was not appreciated by all who heard it. (fn. 318) Meanwhile the sinecure rectory had continued to be held by archiepiscopal protégés, of whom at least three, in the early 17th century, were prebendaries of Canterbury. (fn. 319) Its two most notable incumbents were the antiquaries John Strype (1711–37) and Jeremiah Milles (1747–79), of whom the latter was also dean of Exeter. (fn. 320)
Between 1787 and 1821 vicars evidently resided, (fn. 321) and in 1798 there was also a curate. (fn. 322) In 1811 West Tarring church was being attended by visitors to Worthing. (fn. 323) The rector of Clapham served as curate in the 1820s and 1830s, (fn. 324) and c. 1830 £163 was paid in curates' stipends. (fn. 325) After 1834, however, the vicar, J. W. Warter, a 'high and dry' churchman who published two books about the parish and its history, (fn. 326) served regularly himself. (fn. 327) By 1850 there were two full services each Sunday, Warter claiming that all his parishioners were churchgoers, the men attending in the morning and the women in the evening. Communion was then held monthly, instead of six times a year as in 1834. (fn. 328) After the restoration of the church c. 1853–4 a choir, at first singing in unison, replaced the orchestra. (fn. 329) In 1868 congregations averaged 310, (fn. 330) but by the time of Warter's death in 1878 the spiritual state of the parish was said by his successor to have deteriorated greatly. It was improved during the next 15 years. Communion was being celebrated twice a month in 1884, three times a month in 1887, and weekly in 1890. In 1887 there was a curate with a stipend of £100 and a paid scripture reader. A band of hope was in existence in 1881, and in 1890 the choir adopted surplices and cassocks. In 1893, however, the activity of nonconformists in the parish was said to be a problem. (fn. 331) In 1978 there were an assistant curate and an assistant priest; Sunday congregations averaged 350, not all being parishioners. (fn. 332)
The church of ST. ANDREW, the dedication of which is recorded from 1372, (fn. 333) is built of rubble with ashlar dressings, and has a chancel, aisled and clerestoried nave with north porch and south vestry, and west tower with wooden spire.
Extensive restoration in the 19th century replaced many of the original features, but the outline of the history of the building is still clear. The nave, which is of five bays, was rebuilt in the late 13th century, and both the clerestorey and the aisles have lancet windows. The tower is 14th-century and has a square stair turret at its south-east corner. The chancel appears to have been completely rebuilt in the early 15th century, and later in the century the west doorway and window were put into the tower. The spire is probably 16th-century. Altars were recorded in 1516 to St. Anne, St. Catherine, and the Holy Trinity. (fn. 334) The church was restored about 1853–4 through the vicar's exertions, an 18th-century west gallery being removed. (fn. 335)
Surviving medieval fittings are the low 15th century rood screen, the chancel stalls, of which six have misericords, and piscinae in the chancel and south aisle. Most other fittings are 19th century; they include Italian mosaic work in the nave carried out in the 1880s under the direction of William Butterfield, (fn. 336) and the west window erected to the memory of the poet Southey by his daughter, the wife of J. W. Warter. (fn. 337) The 19th century font replaces an octagonal medieval one the bowl of which was removed to Melbourne cathedral (Australia) by a member of the Henty family. (fn. 338) The plate, of the 18th and 19th centuries, includes three pieces given by rectors. (fn. 339) There were five bells in 1532. In 1853 four of them were recast as six new bells, the other, which was late medieval, being sold to a Roman Catholic chapel in Wales. (fn. 340) The registers begin in 1540. (fn. 341)
There were at least four popish recusants at West Tarring in 1663. (fn. 342)
Two protestant nonconformists were living there in 1676, (fn. 343) and in 1690 the area was described as greatly in need of a ministry. (fn. 344) Between 1811 and 1848 six different buildings, mostly private houses, were licensed for worship by dissenters; at least four congregations were offshoots of Worthing ones, but the denomination of only one is known, namely Wesleyan. (fn. 345)
In 1860 the Christian, later Plymouth, Brethren registered for worship a building in High Street (fn. 346) which was still used in 1978. In 1868 there was no resident minister, (fn. 347) but six years later there was a school. (fn. 348) In 1884 the Sunday morning service was said to be attended by c. 20 adults of the middle and lower classes; evening services, however, both then and later, were much better attended, especially since church services at that time were held in the afternoons. (fn. 349)
There was a preaching station or mission room of the Worthing Congregational church at Salvington between 1885 and 1890. (fn. 350)
St. Dunstan's hall in St. Dunstan's Road was registered for undenominational worship in 1891. (fn. 351) In 1896 the Worthing Baptist church began a mission there, and by 1900 there were two Sunday services. (fn. 352) In 1901 the hall was succeeded by a school chapel built in Canterbury Road, where a new church was built in 1938. The mission became an independent church in 1931. (fn. 353)
There was a school at West Tarring between 1713 and at least 1732, where 12 boys were taught at the rector's expense. (fn. 354) It may have been the school for whose use Jeremiah Milles, rector 1747–79, converted the Old Palace. (fn. 355) In the early 19th century the West Tarring school was called the school of industry or the free school, and was supported by payments from rectors of £5 or £10 a year. (fn. 356) In 1804 it was attended by 10 children, (fn. 357) in 1818 by 20 to 30 children, (fn. 358) and in 1833 by 18 boys. (fn. 359) As a result of its work the remarkable claim was made in 1818 that hardly any adult in the parish was unable to read. (fn. 360)
The boys' day school attended by 60 pupils in 1847 was probably the same school. At that date there was also a girls' day school with 40 pupils. Each school was financed by subscriptions and payments, and had a paid master or mistress. In addition, a dame school was then attended by 15 children of each sex. The educational wants of the parish were nevertheless said to be very great. (fn. 361) Meanwhile there were also private fee-paying schools. The highly praised academy mentioned in 1811 (fn. 362) was possibly identical with one that had existed in 1803. (fn. 363) In 1833 there were three such schools, two for girls and one for boys, with 55 pupils between them. (fn. 364) Various other private schools were recorded between 1852 and 1882. (fn. 365)
The parish school apparently lapsed before 1853, (fn. 366) but had c. 70 children on the roll in 1855. (fn. 367) Sixty-five attended on the return day in 1871, (fn. 368) and in the following year the Old Palace was conveyed on trust by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for use as a school. (fn. 369) A government grant was being received in 1873, when the school was called West Tarring Church of England school. Average attendance, including infants, was then only 34, and the building was also used for night school in winter. (fn. 370) A separate infant schoolroom was built near by in 1880. (fn. 371) In 1893 average attendance at both schools together was 147, and in 1899 207; (fn. 372) by 1906 it was 261. (fn. 373)
In 1909 the school was transferred to the local authority. The older children were moved then or earlier to the new council school at Durrington, while the buildings of the old church school, except for the Old Palace, became a new infant school called West Tarring council school. (fn. 374) An average of 46 children attended in 1914, 62 in 1932, and 84 in 1938. (fn. 375) The Thomas a Becket County Primary school was opened in 1964, the infants occupying the old buildings, and the juniors new premises north of the old village. In 1976 average attendance was 758. (fn. 376) The Old Palace was being used for some classes in 1978. (fn. 377)
The Christian Brethren had a school at West Tarring in the 1870s. (fn. 378)
CHARITIES FOR THE POOR.
Henry Hilton of Clapham by will proved 1641 left the sum of £24 annually for 99 years out of his lands in co. Durham, to be distributed among the 12 poorest inhabitants of the parish. (fn. 379) In 1687 part at least of the income was apparently being received. (fn. 380)
Richard Edmunds by will proved 1883 left £300, the income to be distributed to the poor of West Tarring in kind; in 1894 the income was £7 7s. and in 1964 between £5 and £10. Fanny Longman by will proved 1892 left a like sum for the general benefit of the poor of the parish; in 1894 the income of £7 13s. was distributed in money, and in 1964 the income was between £5 and £10. (fn. 381) The Misses Allan Christmas Charity derives from a bequest of 1937, the income from which was to be distributed to poor widows and orphans of the parish. (fn. 382)