A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 2, Bramber Rape (North-Western Part) Including Horsham. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1986.
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LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC SERVICES.
Borough. Horsham is recorded as a borough in 1235 (fn. 1) and was separately represented by twelve jurors at the eyre of 1248. (fn. 2) In 1292, and perhaps from the beginning, there were 52 burgages each paying 1s. rent. (fn. 3)
Horsham was originally a manorial borough under the lord's jurisdiction. One bailiff is recorded in 1288, (fn. 4) and two in 1350 and later. (fn. 5) Three constables were recorded in 1401, (fn. 6) but later there were two. (fn. 7) In 1279 William, Lord Braose (d. 1290), as lord successfully claimed the assize of bread and of ale in the borough, (fn. 8) and a view of frankpledge was held from the 14th century, biannually at first (fn. 9) and later annually in autumn. A court baron is recorded from 1493 and was often held with the view, though by c. 1700 it was held less often than once a year. Court rolls for the two courts together survive from the years 1493, 1519, 1538, and 1572, for the court baron alone from the years 1650-1768 and 1791-2, and for the view alone from the years 1700 and 1733-88. (fn. 10) The lord's view elected the bailiffs; in 1611 and later two names were chosen by the steward from four submitted by the burgesses. (fn. 11) In 1493 and 1572 the lord's view also elected the two constables. In addition at that period it held the assize of bread and of ale, and had jurisdiction over stray beasts and the goods of felons, (fn. 12) while later it oversaw nuisances and the repair of streets. It also in the later 15th and 16th centuries heard cases of assault. Both the view and the court baron dealt with encroachments on the common. A town crier was mentioned in the 1570s and 1580s. (fn. 13)
From the late 14th century onwards, however, possibly because the lord no longer resided in Sussex, the borough had begun to develop some independence. By 1368 apparently, (fn. 14) and certainly by 1399, (fn. 15) the bailiffs and burgesses, described collectively as the community of the vill, were leasing the tolls of the markets and fairs from the lord at two marks a year, as they continued to do in later centuries. (fn. 16) Between the earlier 17th and earlier 19th centuries they were often referred to as the corporation, (fn. 17) though they never seem to have had full corporate status. At some stage, because the bailiffs accounted to the lord for the 52s. of burgage rent, (fn. 18) the corporation came to be considered the mesne lord of the borough, (fn. 19) though in reality the burgages continued to be held directly of the lord. (fn. 20) A common seal existed between 1595 and 1659, (fn. 21) and was mentioned again in the early 19th century, (fn. 22) but references to the corporation as holding property are vague and uncertain. (fn. 23)
By the early 17th century the corporation was holding two courts of its own, a view of frankpledge and a three-weekly 'portmoot'. Neither is recorded before 1611, though they were then claimed to have been held immemorially, and though both the name and the frequency of holding of the portmoot would suggest that it was the successor to a medieval quasimanorial court. (fn. 24)
Court rolls of the burgesses' view survive for the years 1622-34, 1713, and 1736-70. (fn. 25) Its suitors apparently included not only all burgesses but also all non-burgesses residing within the borough. (fn. 26) In the earlier 17th century it was held annually in October and sometimes in the spring as well, but in the 18th century only annually, in October, November, or December; in the earlier 17th century at least it followed the holding of the lord's view. (fn. 27) The business it dealt with had clearly been hived off from the lord's view, and included the holding of the assize of bread and of ale, the election of the minor officers of the borough, and the upkeep of ditches, pavements and the like. (fn. 28) The minor officers of the borough, besides the constables, then comprised two aletasters, who also regulated weights and measures, two or sometimes three leather-searchers and sealers, and five headboroughs, one for each of the four main streets and another for Carfax. (fn. 29) In addition a town crier continued to serve during the 17th and 18th centuries. (fn. 30) In the early 17th century the burgesses' view also heard cases of affray, and tried on one occasion to prevent forestalling the market. Bylaws made by the view were referred to in 1623 and 1627.
Court rolls of the portmoot survive for the years 1622-34, 1712-17, and 1736-55. (fn. 31) Its business was to hear cases of debt or trespass of less than 40s. in value. (fn. 32) In the 1620s c. 12 or 13 cases were held at each court, but by the following decade the number had dropped. In the 18th century the court was held less frequently than a century earlier, and at some courts in the 1710s there was no business at all; similarly no business was done at the five courts held in 1755. The court nevertheless continued to exist in the early 19th century, when it still heard cases concerning small debts. (fn. 33)
By the mid 18th century the borough courts had lost much of their original function. The lord's court baron was only very irregularly held after c. 1738, and not at all between 1774 and 1787, so that by the latter date many burgesses had not been formally admitted, the Ingrams apparently paying the annual 52s. burgage rent in a lump sum to the dukes of Norfolk. (fn. 34) The lord's court leet meanwhile often had very little business apart from the election of the bailiffs, (fn. 35) which because they were also the returning officers in parliamentary elections was subject to corruption. (fn. 36) The burgesses' courts also saw a decline in business; the view is not heard of after 1770, (fn. 37) and its functions were evidently resumed by the lord's view, which from 1794 appointed all the borough officers. (fn. 38)
The decay of the town's government in the 18th century is shown by the fact that it was prominent tradesmen, individually or as a group, who attempted at that time to improve the working of the markets, (fn. 39) rather than the borough authorities, which had done so in the early 17th century. (fn. 40) In 1787, however, as part of the duke of Norfolk's attempt to regain political control of the borough, the lord's court baron was revived and its control wrested from the Ingram faction. (fn. 41) At the same time a more serious attempt was made than previously to stop encroachments on the common, (fn. 42) a salaried reeve being appointed for the purpose. (fn. 43) From then until 1832, however, the borough courts had little more function than that connected with parliamentary elections, (fn. 44) although in 1795 the bailiffs made an unsuccessful attempt to regulate the sale and manufacture of bread at a time of scarcity. (fn. 45) In 1800 or soon after, similarly, they were vigorously promoting the Horsham-Guildford turnpike. (fn. 46) After 1832 the borough was effectively defunct. (fn. 47)
The duke of Norfolk's steward, T. C. Medwin, was described in 1789 and later as town clerk, (fn. 48) and was succeeded in that title before 1820 by another local lawyer. (fn. 49) A salaried clerk of the market is recorded in the 1790s (fn. 50) and in 1806; the reeve too still served in 1806. (fn. 51) After the demise of the borough in 1835 the town crier or beadle continued to collect the fair tolls, but kept them for himself. (fn. 52)
Urban government sincen 1835.
In 1835 (fn. 53) the Lighting and Watching Act, 1833, was adopted for the urban area of the parish, in order to replace the defunct borough administration. An elective board of inspectors was set up; in 1844, when there were nine of them, they met monthly. In that year the clerk was the town postmaster; other officers were a treasurer by 1838 and a salaried secretary by 1841. The work of the inspectors was financed by a rate which produced £200 a year c. 1840, most of it then being spent on gas street lighting. In 1861 rate income totalled £270. (fn. 54) Four watchmen were appointed in 1835. The inspectors also managed the town fire engine, and from 1839 appointed policemen. (fn. 55) There was a medical officer of health in 1874. (fn. 56)
Since the inspectors had no powers to improve sanitation, various unsuccessful attempts were made in the town after 1859 to adopt the Local Government Act of 1858. R. H. Hurst of Horsham Park was one of the prime movers, a sanitary committee being formed as a pressure group c. 1862. (fn. 57) An alternative idea, to revive the borough corporation, was mooted between 1865 and 1874. (fn. 58) The Act of 1858 was not finally adopted until 1875, when a local board of health of 15 members was formed with R. H. Hurst as chairman. (fn. 59) In 1888 members retired in rotation over three years but could be re-elected. (fn. 60) The board had the power to make bylaws. (fn. 61) In 1894 it was succeeded by an urban district council. (fn. 62) Despite successive enlargements of the area of jurisdiction first of the local board and later of the urban district council, (fn. 63) the number of members remained 15 until 1947 when it was raised to 18, the urban district then being divided into three wards. (fn. 64) On three occasions before 1944 the idea of applying for a new borough charter was broached without result. (fn. 65) In 1974 Horsham urban district, together with Horsham Rural civil parish, became part of Horsham district.
In 1878, besides a clerk and presumably a treasurer to the local board, there were a surveyor who was also inspector of nuisances, and a medical officer. (fn. 66) The board's first chief project was to lay main drainage, a scheme being completed by 1879. (fn. 67) In 1877 the board acquired the duke of Norfolk's interest in the July borough fair, and from 1883 it owned the markets; (fn. 68) meanwhile it had also bought out the Horsham Waterworks Co. (fn. 69) The largest item of expenditure in 1878, however, was on highways, responsibility for which, within its area, the board had taken over from the parish highways board. (fn. 70) The surveyor to the urban district council was also the waterworks engineer in 1909. After the council began to supply electricity to the town in 1902, it employed an electrical engineer. (fn. 71) In 1905 there were a depot and stabling in New Street. (fn. 72) By 1909 the council employed a farm manager to manage Broadbridge farm, and later Hills farm too, both bought in connection with sewage disposal. (fn. 73) During the 1930s the council provided a museum, library, and reading room at Horsham Park house, together with sports facilities in the grounds. By c. 1955 it managed several recreation grounds, and had also bought the Capitol theatre. (fn. 74) From 1938 or earlier it provided allotments at various sites around the town. (fn. 75) The council was also very active in building houses. Before the Second World War 582 were built on the Brighton Road and Roffey estates, another 181 being added at the former estate between 1946 and c. 1955. Meanwhile other estates had been begun at Spencer's farm and Needles farm to provide accommodation for nearly 450 families. (fn. 76) There was a housing manager by 1957. (fn. 77)
The offices of the local board were in London Road in 1882, but by 1887 at the town hall. In 1903 the urban district council also had offices in Market Square. (fn. 78) After the council bought Horsham Park house in 1928 it was used as offices, (fn. 79) further office accommodation later being provided in the grounds. In 1981 Horsham district council had offices in various buildings around the town. New civic offices in North Street near Horsham Park house were opened in 1982. (fn. 80)
No town hall is mentioned at Horsham in the Middle Ages, but the 'market house' whose loft was used as an arms store at the time of the 1648 insurrection (fn. 81) was presumably also the town hall. A new building, variously called town hall, market house, (fn. 82) court house, (fn. 83) sessions house, (fn. 84) and on one occasion shire hall, (fn. 85) was begun shortly before 1721 when Charles Eversfield of Denne and Arthur Ingram, Lord Irwin, agreed with various tradesmen to complete it. (fn. 86) The two-storeyed building (fn. 87) was of Portland stone, with a three-bayed entrance faôade on the north and side faôades of five bays. The ground floor formed an open arcade, used as a butter and poultry market, (fn. 88) while above a modillion cornice the hipped roof carried a central clock turret. (fn. 89)
The building was used for meetings of the borough courts in 1723 and later, though in 1723 the courts also sometimes met in inns. (fn. 90) In addition the town hall was used for holding quarter sessions and assizes; in the later 18th century room was provided for the assizes by temporarily enclosing the ground floor with rough boarding. (fn. 91) Public meetings of various kinds were held there too in the mid 18th century and later. (fn. 92) Parliamentary elections for the borough were held outside the building until the introduction of the secret ballot in 1872, after which they were held inside. (fn. 93)
In the earlier 19th century the lack of accommodation and poor structural condition of the town hall was causing concern to the justices and assize judges, and the building of a new county hall at Lewes in 1808 seemed likely to lead to the removal of both the quarter sessions and the spring assizes from Horsham. After an abortive proposal of 1808 to rebuild on a new site, (fn. 94) the town hall was enlarged c. 1812 at the expense of the duke of Norfolk, (fn. 95) with the addition of a new north faôade in Norman style, battlemented and turreted, and decorated with carved coats of arms. (fn. 96) A new staircase was also built at the south end, (fn. 97) and the open ground floor was enclosed permanently as a lower court room. (fn. 98) In 1820 the duke's successor gave a clock to crown the north ôade. (fn. 99)
By 1830, however, the building had again become dangerous. In the following year grandiose plans were made for a new court house which would also be used as a town hall, to be built in Carfax on the site of the modern bandstand. When the project proved abortive, the assizes left Horsham for good, (fn. 100) but the old town hall continued to be used for holding quarter sessions, county courts, meetings of the lighting and watching inspectors, and public meetings generally. (fn. 101) The town fire engine was also kept there, while three cells underneath the building, which survived in 1978, served as the town lock-up until the first police station was built in 1846. (fn. 102)
By the earlier 19th century it had ceased to be clear to whom the town hall belonged, (fn. 103) reparis to it or to its clock having been carried out at different times by the Ingram family (fn. 104) and the dukes of Norfolk, (fn. 105) while the county justices evidently also felt a responsibility. (fn. 106) After the demise of the borough in 1835, however, and no doubt partly because the duke of Norfolk had financed the reconstruction of c. 1812, the building came to be thought of as ducal property. Through continued lack of maintenance the upper floor had become so dangerous by 1866 that quarter sessions too temporarily abandoned the town; (fn. 107) as a result, the duke's trustees in 1867 leased the building for 99 years to three trustees chosen by the town ratepayers, who undertook to maintain it, a subscription being raised for its repair. (fn. 108) The lease was taken over in 1876 by the local board of health, which later bought the building in 1888. (fn. 109) It afterwards passed to the board's successor the urban district council, (fn. 110) and in 1982 belonged to Horsham district council.
The town hall was completely rebuilt by the local board in 1888, the only part of the old building to be kept being the Norman north faôade, which was heightened. (fn. 111) Thereafter the building was regularly used for meetings of the board, (fn. 112) of the urban district council, (fn. 113) and later of the district council. (fn. 114) From 1890 it was also used for meetings of the West Sussex county council and its committees. (fn. 115) It continued to serve for the holding of quarter sessions until 1939, (fn. 116) and was still used as a law court until 1974. (fn. 117)
The pillory mentioned in 1627 and later (fn. 118) apparently stood on the east side of Carfax, but had gone by 1866. The stocks which stood nearby were replaced shortly before that date (fn. 119) by new ones at the south end of the town hall. (fn. 120) Before 1899 those stocks had been placed at the north-west corner of Carfax, (fn. 121) and in the 1940s they were removed to the museum. (fn. 122) Replicas of the stocks and whipping post were erected in Carfax in 1981. (fn. 123) The borough pound also originally stood in Carfax; (fn. 124) in 1792 and later, however, it was in London Road, south-east of the junction with the modern Springfield Road. (fn. 125)
Nine manors in Horsham besides the borough are known to have had courts.
A court was held for Chesworth manor possibly jointly with Sedgewick in Nuthurst c. 1502. (fn. 126) Leet jurisdiction was claimed at the manor in 1551 and 1602; (fn. 127) the court referred to as held twice a year in 1570 was presumably a court leet. (fn. 128) In 1608 there were said to be both a court leet and a court baron. (fn. 129) No courts were held after 1623, (fn. 130) John Caryll, the lessee of the Chesworth demesne, collecting the tenants' rents for the Crown in 1628 and later. The place of holding the court was Chesworth House. (fn. 131)
Court rolls for Denne manor for the years 1651- 1771 were mentioned in the later 18th century, (fn. 132) but the only ones to survive in 1982 were for the years 1650 and 1743-1807. In 1650 a presentment was made about rights of way, but otherwise the court dealt only with tenancies. A bailiff occurs in 1743 and 1771, and a beadle in 1793 and 1807, the office perhaps being the same. (fn. 133)
Court rolls of Roffey manor for the period 1527-60 survived at the end of the 18th century. (fn. 134) In 1979 court rolls survived for 20 courts between 1700 and 1914. In 1783 (fn. 135) and 1804 the court was held at Roffey Place, and in 1807 at the Norfolk Arms in Crawley Road. (fn. 136) In the 18th century the court was much concerned with common encroachments, including some on Horsham common. A reeve was mentioned in 1787, (fn. 137) in 1811, (fn. 138) and between 1882 and 1914. (fn. 139) The reeve of 1811, who was salaried, held the same office for Horsham borough too. The pound of Roffey manor lay in Beeding parish, i.e. the modern Lower Beeding, in 1646. (fn. 140)
Court rolls of Hawksbourne manor for the years 1653-1779 survived c. 1950, but had disappeared by 1979. (fn. 141)
A three-weekly court was mentioned at Nutham in 1349. (fn. 142) Court rolls of 1578 and 1615 survived at the end of the 18th century, (fn. 143) and court rolls of the period 1735-64 survived c. 1950, but were later lost. (fn. 144) The court was still held in 1910. In 1853 it met at the Dun Horse inn at Mannings Heath in Nuthurst, and in 1910 at Great Ventors Farm in the same parish. (fn. 145)
The courts held for Tarring with Marlpost manor before its division in 1806 are described elsewhere. (fn. 146) On three occasions in the 16th century courts for Marlpost alone are recorded as being held in Horsham parish, (fn. 147) as they were often later, (fn. 148) but even in the 18th century they were sometimes still held at West Tarring near Worthing. (fn. 149) The Horsham courts were held at the Green Dragon inn in Bishopric in 1769, (fn. 150) as they may also have been c. 1800, when the licensee of that inn was the manor gamekeeper. (fn. 151) After 1733, however, much business was treated out of court. (fn. 152) Separate court rolls for Marlpost manor for the years 1813-1910 survived c. 1950 but had been lost by 1979; (fn. 153) there are draft court rolls for the years 1839-53. (fn. 154) In 1853 and 1900 courts were advertised to be held at the Fox and Hounds inn in Worthing Road. (fn. 155)
In 1592 the beadle or rent gatherer of Tarring with Marlpost manor received annually five loads of wood in Marlpost wood, and 8d. for 'spur money' or else his dinner, and also had the right to pasture two animals on the demesne, apparently at Marlpost, during the summer. (fn. 156) About 1285, however, there had been a beadle for Marlpost separately, (fn. 157) and in the 15th century there were a separate tithingman or headborough and a separate aletaster. (fn. 158) Separate officers continued to be appointed for Marlpost between the 17th century and the earlier 19th. (fn. 159)
Court rolls of Charlton-Ashurst manor including Shortsfield or of Shortsfield manor survive for the years 1437, 1473-1509, and 1566-70; (fn. 160) rolls for the years 1569-1910 survived c. 1950, but had disappeared by 1979. (fn. 161) There were both a court baron and a view of frankpledge. Two views a year were held in 1443-4, (fn. 162) and at least three courts baron were held in 1474. (fn. 163) In 1482-3 Charlton near Steyning is mentioned as the place of holding the courts, (fn. 164) and in 1503 Ashurst nearby. (fn. 165) In 1853 and 1910 courts for Shortsfield were advertised to be held at the Dun Horse inn at Mannings Heath in Nuthurst. (fn. 166) A beadle was mentioned in 1484; (fn. 167) the bailiffs mentioned in 1566 (fn. 168) and in the 1820s (fn. 169) may have been his successors. There was an aletaster in 1485. (fn. 170) A headborough was mentioned in the later 15th (fn. 171) and later 18th centuries. (fn. 172) The court dealt in the later 15th century with the repair of ditches and houses, (fn. 173) and in 1635 enjoined the repair of Golding's Bridge in Nuthurst on Nuthurst parish. (fn. 174) In 1570 the court was dealing with stray animals; (fn. 175) a manor pound was mentioned in 1566. (fn. 176)
Rusper priory held a separate court for its tenants in Horsham in 1375. (fn. 177) In 1608 Hewells manor, which evidently represented part of the priory estate, claimed a court leet and a court baron; (fn. 178) the court baron was still held in 1769. (fn. 179)
The office of parish clerk was recorded from 1423, (fn. 180) and by 1574 was salaried. (fn. 181) In the 17th and 18th centuries at least the clerk also had a house ex officio on the west side of Causeway. (fn. 182) One clerk in the 19th century served for over 60 years. (fn. 183) Churchwardens are recorded from 1533. (fn. 184) For the most part, especially after 1662, there were three: (fn. 185) one for the town, and one each for the rural areas to north and south. (fn. 186) From the mid 18th century they commonly served for several years. (fn. 187) Residents in the part of the parish which was an archbishop's peculiar (fn. 188) may have been barred from serving as churchwarden; one holder of the office was claimed as an impostor for that reason in 1629. (fn. 189) Three or four overseers are recorded from 1642; (fn. 190) one or two served for the town, and the other two for the rural north and south of the parish respectively. (fn. 191) Surveyors of highways are recorded from 1610, and were between two and four in number. (fn. 192) A beadle served in 1737, when he was allowed a livery, hat, and coat by the parish. (fn. 193) In the 1830s there were parish constables, who appointed an official known as a beggar-pooker to chase out beggars. (fn. 194)
A church rate was mentioned in 1611, and other rate income from 1612. (fn. 195) The clerk's wages in 1640 were defrayed by 6d. levied on each householder in the parish. (fn. 196) In the later 18th century the church and poor rates were separate. (fn. 197) Money was not always used for the purpose for which it had been collected, however; payments to the poor are found in the 17th- and 18th-century churchwardens' accounts, (fn. 198) and in 1730 it was agreed that expenditure on the roads should be paid from the poor rates. (fn. 199) The parish also received income from other sources. Houses and land in Normandy and elsewhere were rented out in the 17th and earlier 18th centuries. (fn. 200) In the earlier 17th century and later fees were charged for digging graves. (fn. 201) Both then and later, too, fines were levied for drunkenness, for swearing, and for absence from church, the income being applied directly to poor relief. (fn. 202) Between the earlier 17th century and the mid 19th, pews in the church were sold or leased by the churchwardens. (fn. 203) The parish officers also in the 17th and 18th centuries used the income of the endowed charities of the parish indiscriminately; in the 1780s it may have produced a sixth of their total income. (fn. 204)
Methods of poor relief recorded in the 17th century were the payment of weekly doles (fn. 205) and the boarding out of pauper children. (fn. 206) In 1665 paupers on out-relief were badged and new applicants for relief were to be accepted only by a monthly parish meeting. In the later 17th century one deceased pauper's goods were sold by the parish to defray his children's upkeep. (fn. 207) Between the 1720s and the earlier 19th century, (fn. 208) besides boarding out and paying weekly doles, the parish helped to pay paupers' rents and provided fuel, food, clothing, and medical care. (fn. 209) The payment of weekly doles seems to have been the chief method used by the later 18th century. (fn. 210) At that period parishioners often paid £10 or more to be relieved from taking an apprentice. Parish work, in weaving and spinning, was evidently also provided.
Since the 17th century the parish had been responsible, with the county justices, for the house of correction in Carfax, which served some of the functions of a parish workhouse. (fn. 211) The 'poor houses' which the parish was repairing in 1618 (fn. 212) seem to have been identical with the almshouses in Normandy mentioned between 1624 and 1642: (fn. 213) since no endowment for them is known they were presumably a parish poorhouse or workhouse. In 1727 the parish officers borrowed £300 from the vicar to build a workhouse or to convert an existing building for the purpose; the goods of all the paupers were then to be brought into it. (fn. 214) The building used was the almshouses already mentioned in Normandy. (fn. 215) In 1734 it had at least 25 rooms, the hall containing five spinning wheels for the paupers' use. (fn. 216) At that date Richard Lintott was farming the poor for £300 a year; (fn. 217) in 1735 he was succeeded by two others who received the same sum, the parish agreeing to maintain any smallpox victims over ten in number. (fn. 218) In the mid 18th century the parish apparently managed the workhouse itself, (fn. 219) but by 1773 it was again being farmed. (fn. 220) There were 37 pauper inmates in 1804 (fn. 221) and 26 in 1811, paying 4s. a head a week. (fn. 222) In the early 1830s on one occasion there were 49. At that period there were a salaried governor, and a medical man who received £70 a year. The paupers then worked on the roads or on land rented by the parish, raising potatoes and other crops. Paupers living outside the workhouse shared in the work, and could also receive 1s. a week towards their rents, while the aged, the infirm, and widows had weekly doles of 2s. 6d. to 3s. (fn. 223)
The parish authorities, not those of the borough, carried out repairs in the mid 17th century to Tanbridge clapper bridge, (fn. 224) and both then and later to Causeway. (fn. 225) In the 1840s and 1850s, after the demise of the borough, the parish alone was responsible for repairing roads in the town. (fn. 226) In 1646 the parish officers also repaired the Normandy well, (fn. 227) and in the previous year, unusually, they met the costs of indicting those responsible for encroachments on the common at the Lewes quarter sessions. (fn. 228) Between 1541 and 1889 the parish also managed Collyer's school jointly with the Mercers' Company, from the later 16th century electing annually two officials, called overseers, surveyors, or schoolwardens. (fn. 229) School business was discussed at a parish meeting in 1677 and perhaps at other dates. (fn. 230) In the later 18th century the post of usher at the school was often held by the parish clerk. (fn. 231)
In 1835 Horsham parish became part of Horsham poor-law union. The parish workhouse continued to be used for able-bodied paupers until the new union workhouse was built in Crawley Road on an 'open and healthy' site in 1838-9. (fn. 232)
In 1894, when the urban area of Horsham became a civil parish by itself, the rest of the former parish became the parish of Horsham Rural. (fn. 233) At first there were two wards, but from 1913 there were three. Fifteen councillors served in 1944. (fn. 234) From 1910 until at least 1955 the parish managed allotments at Broadbridge Heath, (fn. 235) and in 1944 it was also responsible for the Broadbridge Heath recreation ground. (fn. 236)
Water was always abundant in the parish, and there were many mineral springs, including a limestone encrusting spring at Tower Hill south-west of the town. (fn. 237) In the earlier 17th century the town had two public wells: Comewell in North Street, and the Normandy well on the south side of Normandy. The former was apparently the responsibility of the borough, but repairs to the latter were paid for in 1646 by the parish authorities. (fn. 238) In 1868 the Normandy well was said never to fail, though it was only c. 4 ft. deep. (fn. 239) A pump was attached to it in the 1880s, but the well is not heard of after 1889; (fn. 240) though considered an antiquity c. 1875, (fn. 241) it was apparently destroyed in the earlier 20th century. (fn. 242) A third public supply, evidently not for drinking, is said to have been provided c. 1735 from the river Arun, water being pumped by means of a water wheel at the town mill and conveyed in wooden pipes to a reservoir in North Street. (fn. 243) In 1745 the 'proprietors' of the system contracted to supply water to the gaol. (fn. 244) In 1835 the town was said to be well supplied with water, (fn. 245) but a plan made in the following year for a piped supply to individual premises (fn. 246) was apparently not carried out. About 1862 the supply was said to come chiefly from shallow wells tapping strata contaminated by sewage. (fn. 247) Some private wells continued to be used in the 1870s. (fn. 248)
A Horsham Waterworks Co., formed in 1865, sank a well west of New Street; originally 75 ft. deep, it was deepened in 1871. (fn. 249) In 1878 the company was bought out by the local board. (fn. 250) The original reservoir was on the same site as the well, (fn. 251) but was replaced in 1883 by a new one near the workhouse in Crawley Road. (fn. 252) New boreholes were sunk in 1893 and 1903. (fn. 253) The waterworks ceased to function in 1954. (fn. 254)
A new pumping station with two boreholes was opened at White's Bridge south-east of the town in 1933, a reservoir holding 1 million gallons being constructed in Lower Beeding 3½ miles (5.6 km.) to the north-east. (fn. 255) The urban district council was supplying water to Roffey, and the rural district council to Southwater, by 1938. (fn. 256) A supply for Broadbridge Heath was proposed in 1932. (fn. 257) Already by c. 1945 it was necessary to supplement the urban district council's supply with water brought from the South Downs, (fn. 258) and after 1950 the North West Sussex Joint Water Board, the successor to the urban district council's water undertaking, pumped water from Hardham near Pulborough to four reservoirs north-east of the town. (fn. 259)
A sewer is said to have been laid in 1744 across Carfax between the gaol and the Crown inn on the corner of West Street. (fn. 260) In 1861 a resident complained to the General Board of Health that sewage ran close to, even under, houses in various parts of the town. (fn. 261) The arrival of main drainage had to await the setting up of the local board in 1875, though before 1874 a sewer is said to have been laid unofficially in West Street by the parish highways board. (fn. 262) A site for a sewage works at Broadbridge Farm west of the town was bought in 1878, and the works opened in 1879. (fn. 263) It was enlarged in 1896, when the urban district council bought Broadbridge farm itself, afterwards managing it by a bailiff and using the sewage on the land. (fn. 264) A drainage system for Roffey was installed in 1909, a pumping station at Littlehaven transferring sewage to the main sewers of the town. (fn. 265) A new sewage works was opened nearer Horsham on Hills farm in 1933, (fn. 266) new sewers being laid in the town at the same time. (fn. 267) In 1964 the urban district council built a new ring sewer system, (fn. 268) and in 1978 a new sewage works was opened alongside the town's western bypass. (fn. 269) A sewerage scheme for Broadbridge Heath was carried out by the rural district council in 1911; (fn. 270) a new system there was planned in 1981. (fn. 271) Main drainage was installed at Southwater c. 1951. (fn. 272)
In 1622 and later the borough authorities oversaw the repair of 'causeways', i.e. pavements, in the main streets of the town. (fn. 273) The road called Causeway leading to the church was, however, the responsibility of the parish, which paid for repairs to it in the 17th and 18th centuries. (fn. 274) In the 19th century many pavements in the town were of Horsham stone slabs. (fn. 275) The paving was described as 'neat' in 1836, (fn. 276) but in 1868 was said to be very uneven in surface. (fn. 277) At some time before 1874 the parish highways board spent c. £1,000 in repaving the town. (fn. 278) Some Horsham stone slabs survived in Causeway in 1982.
A few watchmen are said to have been employed before 1835, (fn. 279) though whether by the borough or the parish is uncertain. After the adoption of the Lighting and Watching Act, 1833, in that year, four watchmen were at first employed, though in 1838-9 there were two. (fn. 280) In 1868 a curfew was still rung at eight o'clock every winter evening. (fn. 281)
A fire engine was presented to the parish before 1724, (fn. 282) and another, presumably to replace it, was given to the town by Lady Irwin in 1780. (fn. 283) After 1835 the lighting and watching inspectors maintained the engine and paid the rent of the engine house, receiving a subvention from the parish. (fn. 284) A voluntary fire brigade was started c. 1840, (fn. 285) which in 1862 had 548 subscribers and 60 volunteers. A second engine was bought in that year (fn. 286) and by 1874 the engine house, which had been at the town hall, (fn. 287) was moved to the north-west corner of Carfax. (fn. 288) New premises were acquired in North Street in 1882, (fn. 289) and a few years later the service was renamed the Horsham and district voluntary fire brigade. (fn. 290) About 1911 it was taken over by the urban district council. (fn. 291) A new fire station was built next to Horsham Park house in 1929, but became council offices after the modern fire station in Hurst Road was opened in 1968. (fn. 292) Between 1932 and 1939 Horsham Rural parish council paid an annual sum for the brigade's services within the parish. (fn. 293)
A thrice-weekly post to Horsham is mentioned in 1678, but the first record of a post office and postmaster is of 1769. By 1794 there was an almost daily post to and from London. (fn. 294) The post office occupied various sites in the town before settling on the north side of Carfax by 1909. (fn. 295) A letter box dated 1830 survived in Market Square in 1982.
Before 1835 the town was only very partially lit, with dingy and fitful oil lamps, some of which were attached to private houses. (fn. 296) The Horsham Gas and Coke Co. was formed in 1835, (fn. 297) and built a gasworks behind Albion Terrace north-west of Carfax. In the following year the streets were said to be well lit; (fn. 298) two years later the lighting and watching inspectors maintained 40 public lamps. (fn. 299) The gasworks was enlarged at various dates after 1865. (fn. 300) In 1894 there were 232 public lamps and 560 consumers. (fn. 301) By 1912 mains had been extended all over the town, and also to Roffey, Warnham, and Broadbridge Heath. (fn. 302) After nationalization in 1948 the gasworks was demolished c. 1960, a new gasholder for storage only being built north-east of the town. (fn. 303)
The urban district council was empowered in 1899 to supply electricity throughout its area. (fn. 304) An electricity works was built in 1902 north of the waterworks off New Street. (fn. 305) By 1913 there was electric lighting throughout the town except at Roffey, (fn. 306) where gas lighting was said in 1922 to be very inadequate. (fn. 307) In 1930 the area of supply was extended to those areas added to the urban district in 1901 and 1927, including Roffey, and also to other parishes around the town. (fn. 308) By 1933 a supply had been laid on to Southwater, Broadbridge Heath, and elsewhere. (fn. 309)
The first paid constable was appointed by the lighting and watching inspectors in 1839, (fn. 310) and by 1842 there were two. (fn. 311) A police station was built in Queen Street in 1846, (fn. 312) and a subsidiary one in Crawley Road by 1874. (fn. 313) In 1879 there were a superintendent and two policemen. (fn. 314) A new police station was built in Barttelot Road in 1894 (fn. 315) and replaced in 1973 by another new one in Hurst Road. (fn. 316)
Land was purchased by the vestry c. 1851 for a cemetery to supplement the churchyard, and the Denne Road cemetery was consecrated in 1852; the contemporary lychgate, the design apparently of a curate, was an early revival of the genre. (fn. 317) The cemetery was enlarged in 1885. (fn. 318) A burial board for Roffey was formed in 1879 and opened a cemetery of c. 1 a. (fn. 319) opposite the church in 1880, (fn. 320) which was enlarged apparently in 1926. (fn. 321) Hills cemetery west of the town was established in 1900 as the town's main cemetery and extended in 1923 and 1956. (fn. 322)
There was a parish pest house by 1725, (fn. 323) possibly the same building which stood in Pest House Lane, the modern New Street, in 1831. (fn. 324) An infirmary with 65 beds was built at the union workhouse shortly before 1868. (fn. 325) A nurse's fund was set up c. 1879, with finance from subscriptions and donations. (fn. 326) There was no public hospital in Horsham until 1892 (fn. 327) when a cottage hospital, to serve both the town and its surroundings, was opened in Hurst Road on land given by R. H. Hurst. Built in vernacular, 'cottage', style, (fn. 328) the building originally had only eight beds; it was enlarged in 1907, but on Census day in 1921 had only 10 inmates. (fn. 329) A new brick building was opened in 1923, the old one being acquired by Collyer's school as a hostel, (fn. 330) and extensions followed, including a children's ward in 1930, and a maternity unit in 1944. (fn. 331) In 1957 there were 49 public beds and 8 private wards. (fn. 332) A large onestoreyed eastern extension for geriatric patients was opened c. 1980. (fn. 333)
After 1929 the infirmary of the former workhouse in Crawley Road became a public assistance institution, taking over the whole building. (fn. 334) It was used as a military hospital during the Second World War and much extended, (fn. 335) and in 1948 became Forest mental hospital, (fn. 336) as it remained in 1982. An isolation hospital was built by the urban district council south of Broadbridge Heath between 1896 and 1909. (fn. 337) After c. 1915 it was jointly managed by the urban and rural district councils. (fn. 338) By 1932 it had closed. (fn. 339) In 1957 there were health clinics at Hurst Road and at Leechpool Lane, Roffey. (fn. 340) The former was replaced by a new health centre built east of Worthing Road before 1979.
The seal of Horsham borough, of which the matrix was apparently in the duke of Norfolk's hands in 1866, (fn. 341) was round, and depicted the arms of de Braose, a lion rampant facing dexter, with the letter H below it; legend, Lombardic, HORSHAM BURGUS. (fn. 342) No reference to the seal before the late 16th century has been found. (fn. 343) The lion rampant facing dexter was used on its seal by the urban district council from 1944. (fn. 344)