A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 11, Downton Hundred; Elstub and Everleigh Hundred. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1980.
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Netheravon is mostly on the elevated and exposed eastern side of Salisbury Plain mid-way between Upavon and Amesbury. (fn. 1) The modern civil parish comprises a rectangular block of land which measures 6 km. from the western boundary across open downland to the Christchurch Avon and extends a little over 3 km. from north to south. (fn. 2) The ancient parish included West Chisenbury, a detached tithing 4 km. to the north separated from its parent by the western part of Enford, and had an overall area of 5,160 a. (2,088 ha.). (fn. 3) That area was reduced to 1,431 ha. (3,535 a.) when West Chisenbury, c. 1,624 a., was transferred to Enford in 1885. (fn. 4) West Chisenbury measured 6 km. from west to east and stretched from north to south for c. 1.5 km. Netheravon and West Chisenbury are topographically similar and in each case the Avon formed the only natural boundary, the remaining ones running over the chalk uplands. (fn. 5) The village of Netheravon and the hamlet of West Chisenbury both lie under the lee of the plain beside the river. From the 13th century until the 19th West Chisenbury, named from the gravel terrace on which it is situated, was known interchangeably as West Chisenbury and Chisenbury de la Folly, a suffix taken from its 13th- and 14th-century lords the de la Folyes, to distinguish it from the Chisenbury in Enford on the east bank of the Avon. (fn. 6)
East of West Chisenbury Farm and south-east of Netheravon village the alluvium west of the Avon is 100–200 m. broad. (fn. 7) It marks the extent of the flood plain, which lies below the 91 m. contour line. It still bears a covering of lush grass and is the site of the water-meadows which until the early 20th century were important to the economy of the area. River gravel succeeds the alluvium at both West Chisenbury and Netheravon. At Netheravon the gravel terrace extends westwards and northwards from the village along the floor of the shallow valley cut through the chalk of the plain by a now dry tributary of the Avon. Around that valley the Upper Chalk forms a wide U-shaped ridge over 122 m. high. At West Chisenbury the Lower Chalk outcrops west of the Upavon-Salisbury road and beyond it successive strata of Middle and Upper Chalk rise north-westwards to 163 m. on the northern boundary near Widdington Farm in Upavon. South-west of that point the Middle Chalk is exposed on the floor of the dry valley called Water Dean Bottom which lies below 107 m. Beyond that the Upper Chalk rises again to over 152 m. Until the earlier 20th century the area west of the Upavon-Salisbury road was occupied by large open arable fields which extended over the chalk for c. 2.5 km. in West Chisenbury and over 3 km. in Netheravon. The most westerly third of each tithing was rough downland for grazing. After the War Department bought Netheravon and West Chisenbury in 1898 farming on the downs, at least in Netheravon, probably continued much as before until 1922 when a machine gun school was established at Netheravon. (fn. 8) The land west of Wexland Farm has since been used as a firing range and is thus agriculturally of limited use. (fn. 9)
A long barrow, some bowl-barrows, a ditch, and two field systems of c. 65 ha. and 202 ha. severally provide evidence of prehistoric activity on Netheravon down. (fn. 10) A Roman villa stood on the south-eastern slope of an outcrop of chalk above the river valley where Netheravon House now stands. Its bath and a tessellated pavement, which may have overlain another of earlier date, were uncovered in 1907. Coins of Constantine I and Claudius Gothicus were found on the site. Another piece of pavement was revealed in 1936. (fn. 11)
In 1334 Netheravon contributed 70s. to the fifteenth, a medium total for Elstub hundred as then constituted. (fn. 12) Netheravon had 111 poll-tax payers in 1377, the highest number in the hundred. (fn. 13) 'Chisenbury' at both dates was assessed separately, but whether both East Chisenbury and West Chisenbury were included, or East Chisenbury alone, is unknown. (fn. 14) Taxation assessments of the 16th century show Netheravon, then including West Chisenbury, to have been the most highly rated parish, after Enford and its tithings, in the enlarged hundred of Elstub and Everleigh. (fn. 15) When the first official Census was undertaken in 1801, the population of Netheravon, including West Chisenbury, was 479. (fn. 16) It had fallen by 1811 to 403, of whom 365 lived in Netheravon and 38 in West Chisenbury. Thereafter the population of the parish rose steadily, with two small fluctuations in 1841 and 1861, until 1881 when there were 582 inhabitants. The population of West Chisenbury, which had been transferred to Enford in 1885, was 47 in 1891. (fn. 17) The population of Netheravon, 505 in 1891, fell to 440 in 1901. The establishment of a cavalry school in 1904 (fn. 18) accounted for the large increase in population to 741 by 1911. (fn. 19) The continued presence of the Army kept population figures over 700 until the 1930s. By 1951 numbers had risen to 1,032 and in 1971 1,107 People lived in the parish. (fn. 20)
At West Chisenbury an eastward loop of the Avon enclosed the hamlet on three sides. The river's course has determined the pattern of settlement in Netheravon and West Chisenbury and also the means of communication with the surrounding area. The road which runs the length of the Avon valley from Upavon through West Chisenbury and Netheravon to Amesbury probably originated in Saxon times. (fn. 21) Its route between two chalk masses made it one of the main thoroughfares linking the settlements of the Pewsey Vale with Salisbury. Its importance was increased after the closure of routes across the plain when the downland was acquired by the War Department in the late 19th century and later. (fn. 22) Both it and the high street at Netheravon, which branches east from it, were turnpiked in 1840. (fn. 23) The sharp V-shaped bend at West Chisenbury Farm was relegated to a double drive leading to the farm-house when the road was then rerouted on a more direct course to the west. (fn. 24)
West Chisenbury and Netheravon have been linked with the villages and hamlets east of the Avon by three bridges since at least the 18th century. (fn. 25) The footbridge between West and East Chisenbury was from 1848 to 1960 a suspension bridge. (fn. 26) At the north-eastern end of Netheravon High Street the road to Haxton in Fittleton is carried across the Avon by Haxton bridge, probably that known in the Middle Ages as 'little bridge'. (fn. 27) In 1773 a lane led south from High Street and ran south-east-wards round the church on a course marked in 1975 by the church drive and the footpath which continues from it through the grounds of Netheravon House towards the river, where there was a bridge. (fn. 28) By 1790 the lane had fallen into disuse and all that then remained was the stretch providing access to the church. (fn. 29) The lane was replaced in the 19th century by the road which in 1975 extended east from Kennel Row and ran across the Avon to Haxton. Of the roads which formerly led westwards over the plain, a few nearer the settlements were still used as farm tracks in 1975. The rest, however, were closed to the public after the War Department bought the land in the late 19th century.
The excellent sport, particularly coursing and hawking, to be had on the downs led the dukes of Beaufort to base a large sporting estate at Netheravon in the earlier 18th century. Under the management of the Hicks Beach family, the Beauforts' successors, the estate survived intact until the end of the 19th century. (fn. 30) The good trout fishing provided by the Avon, which north of Netheravon becomes a chalk stream, has, especially in the 20th century, also been exploited. (fn. 31) A friendly benefit society, popularly called the Top Hat club from the headgear worn by members, was founded at the Fox and Hounds inn in 1840. The rules stipulated that a feast should be held yearly on 29 May and imposed penalties for non-attendance. (fn. 32)
Evidence of 17th-century building is visible at either end of Netheravon village. Features of that date are apparent at its south-western corner in the cottage west of the Dog and Gun inn which housed the Sheppard family of blacksmiths in the 18th and 19th centuries. (fn. 33) Much building in and around the village took place in the 18th century. There was then settlement north of the church around a grid of lanes between the present church drive and the Upavon-Salisbury road. The lane to the chuch was then built up on either side with the prebendal house and the former Vicarage on the east. Then, as in 1975, settlement also extended west along Kennel Row, northwards along the winding high street, which was built up on either side, and into its northern extension Mill Road. (fn. 34) Building in that road, known in 1775 as Mill Row, was confined to the west side since the extensive buildings of Netheravon mill occupied the east side. (fn. 35)
Despite 19th- and 20th-century alterations and infilling, High Street retained much of its 18thcentury character in 1975. Although many of the cottages, particularly at its southern end, have been altered to form middle class residences, some with thatched roofs and built of brick, chalk, and flint still provide typical examples of the local building style of the Avon valley. The line of the street is broken at various points on either side by the intrusion of a few larger dwellings set back behind gardens. Ivy Cottage, at the south-western end of the street, was formerly attached to Newton farm, and is a small 18th-century house of chequered brick. North of it farm buildings behind a cob wall mark the site of another house attached to the farm. (fn. 36) Another house, of similar date but more stylish in design, stands opposite. In the later 18th century it was the home of the Staples family, small freeholders in Netheravon. (fn. 37) Court Farm, which stood at the north-western end of High Street until it was burnt down in 1971, was a substantial 18th-century thatched house with later additions. (fn. 38) Its site lay derelict in 1975. The sites of other houses were marked in 1975 by high tiled cob walls. Such walls were evidently always a feature of the village and were noticed by Cobbett in the early 19th century. (fn. 39)
Manor Farm, which stands partly enclosed by walls at the south-western end of the village, cannot certainly be associated with any of the manors in Netheravon. The house, built early in the 18th century on a U-shaped plan, had its open court on the west filled in soon afterwards. In the early 19th century the interior was extensively refitted and the staircase was moved to the centre of the south front. Then, or soon afterwards, a semi-octagonal bay was added to the centre of the east front at ground floor level and various service quarters, recently demolished in 1975, were built to the north. A large aisled 18th-century barn stands north-west of the house. Wexland Farm was built on the downs c. 800 m. north-west of Manor Farm after 1789. (fn. 40) Originally L-shaped, it was refronted in the earlier 19th century and service rooms were added later.
Netheravon House, which stands south of the church, was built after 1734 as a hunting-box by Henry Somerset (afterwards Scudamore), duke of Beaufort (d. 1745). (fn. 41) The commanding position of the chalk bluff overlooking the Avon valley, on which it stands, and the discovery of a Roman villa near by indicate a house site of some antiquity. The duke probably built on the site either of the manorhouse of Cormayles manor or of that of Netheravon with Haxton manor, but nothing is known of the building which the present house succeeded. The brick house had an asymmetrical double pile plan and a tiled roof with overhanging eaves. The three-storeyed entrance front, which faces southwards across the downs, extends across five bays and has a pedimented porch. The north elevation has an additional basement storey to accommodate the fall in the ground. The duke established a conifer plantation to the south of the house. (fn. 42) After 1791 an additional block, which housed a service staircase and one large room on each floor, was added in the centre of the north front from designs by Sir John Soane. (fn. 43) Possibly at the same time the overhanging eaves of the main house were replaced by a low parapet wall. The imposing symmetrical stable court, joined to the house by a roofed colonnade, was added to the north-west in the earlier 19th century. An 18th-century dovecot, still used as such in 1975, to the north of the stable range retains its original stone nesting-boxes. The house was often let as a gentleman's residence by the Hicks Beaches in the later 19th century. (fn. 44) Except for modern infilling in the north-west corner, it appeared little altered externally in 1975 but internally had been adapted for use as the Officers' Mess of the Support Weapons Wing of the School of Infantry at Netheravon.
The dampness of the marshy ground on which the houses between Kennel Row and the church stood may have led to their abandonment in the early 19th century, and, as in the case of the Vicarage which was rebuilt on the west side of High Street, their rebuilding elsewhere. In 1975 no trace of settlement remained near the church, which then stood solitary among the meadows across which it was approached through an avenue of elms. Cottages in Kennel Row, probably so called from the kennels of the dukes of Beaufort established there in the earlier 18th century, were replaced in the earlier 19th century by a terrace of brick cottages with sliding casements at first floor level. During the 19th century High Street took on the appearance it presented in 1975. Some cottages of earlier date, which retain their thatched roofs, were then cased in brick, and terraced cottages, larger tradesmen's houses, and a school were built.
The purchase of almost the entire parish of Netheravon by the War Department in 1898 has meant that 20th-century development has been mostly limited to housing for those associated with the various military establishments based at Netheravon House since 1904. Barracks and some associated houses, including a large red-brick villa for the Officer Commanding, have been built in its grounds, and some smaller villa-type residences for officers on the south side of Wexland Avenue. In the village development has been confined to the triangle of land between High Street and the Upavon-Salisbury road. A War Department estate was constructed there in the earlier 20th century and the Court Farm estate, on land formerly belonging to that farm, was built south of it. Cottages on the west side of Mill Road were replaced by council houses in the 1960s. Some new houses were being built in Kennel Row in 1975.
The growth of the parish in the earlier 20th century was accompanied by a corresponding increase in amenities. The village had a police station in 1903 and in 1923 a sub-branch of Lloyds Bank Ltd. (fn. 45) By 1926 the former mill buildings east of Mill Road had been converted to an electricity generating station. (fn. 46) The Netheravon sewage disposal works, and the cemetery opened c. 1952 by the Pewsey rural district council, are a little east of the parish boundary in Figheldean. (fn. 47)
In the late 18th century West Chisenbury was a hamlet straddling the Upavon-Salisbury road. West Chisenbury Farm stood on the east side of the road, a few cottages lay north of it, and one or two cottages were west of the road. (fn. 48) By 1975 the cottages on the west side had been replaced by West Chisenbury House. The only other dwellings in the hamlet in 1975 were terraced farm-workers' houses of 20th-century date which stood north of that house on the same side of the road.
Manors and other Estates.
Land at 'Nigravre', to be identified with the later manor of NETHERAVON, was held in 1066 by Harold and in 1086 by William I. Five burgesses of Wilton were tenants of the estate in 1086. (fn. 49) The estate was granted to the Beaumont earls of Leicester and was thenceforth considered part of the honor of Leicester. It was temporarily resumed by the Crown in 1174 after the defeat and forfeiture of Robert, earl of Leicester (d. 1190), who had joined the rebellion of the king's sons a year earlier. (fn. 50) Robert's son Robert died without issue in 1204 and his Netheravon estate was partitioned with the rest of the honor of Leicester in 1206–7 between Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester (d. 1218), and Saier de Quency, earl of Winchester, the son and husband respectively of Amice (d. 1215) and Margaret (d. 1235), the younger Robert's sisters and coheirs. (fn. 51)
The share of Margaret de Quency, countess of Winchester, passed on her death in 1235 to her son Roger (d. 1264). Roger's coheirs, his daughters Margaret or Margery de Ferrers, countess of Derby (d. c. 1281), Elizabeth or Isabel Comyn, countess of Buchan, and Helen or Ellen (d. c. 1296), wife of Sir Alan de la Zouche, in 1275 held a total of 3 knight's fees, 5 hides, and 1 virgate in Netheravon. (fn. 52) The lands were partitioned in 1277. (fn. 53) No further mention has been found of the Buchan and Zouche shares, but that allotted to Margaret or Margery, countess of Derby, passed to her grandson Sir John Ferrers, Lord Ferrers (d. 1312), who had livery of his lands in 1293. (fn. 54) His heir was his son John (d.s.p. c. 1324), a minor, whose lands at Netheravon were apparently in the keeping of the elder Hugh le Despenser. (fn. 55) It was presumably that estate which Despenser claimed had been plundered during his banishment in 1321. (fn. 56) Queen Isabel entered the lands after the Despensers' downfall in 1326 and in the following year she was granted the estate at Netheravon, then called a manor, for life. (fn. 57) After Isabel's defeat at Nottingham in 1330, Edward III granted the estate in the following year to Edward de Bohun. (fn. 58) At de Bohun's death in 1334 Netheravon passed to his widow Margaret (d. 1341) as dower. (fn. 59) Although in 1337 a grant of the reversion, repeated in 1340, was made to Hugh le Despenser (d.s.p. 1349), grandson of the elder Hugh, the estate, like the manor of Seend in Melksham, passed on Margaret's death to her husband's brother and heir Humphrey, earl of Hereford and Essex. (fn. 60) Humphrey died seised of the view of frankpledge of Netheravon in 1361 and was succeeded by his nephew Humphrey (d. 1373), who at his death held the view of frankpledge and the overlordship of a knight's fee in Netheravon. (fn. 61) That estate was assigned in 1384 to his younger daughter and coheir Mary, wife of Henry, earl of Derby (later Henry IV). (fn. 62) In 1414, with the rest of the Hereford inheritance, it was incorporated with the duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 63) Mary's purparty was detached from the duchy in 1421, however, and the lands reparti tioned. (fn. 64) The Netheravon estate was allotted to the king and again annexed to the duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 65)
The share allotted in 1206–7 to Amice, countess of Leicester, passed with the Leicester title until the death of her grandson Simon de Montfort at Evesham in 1265. Simon's lands were granted in that year by Henry III to his son Edmund (d. 1296), whom he created earl of Leicester and, shortly after, earl of Lancaster. The estate descended with the honor of Lancaster like Everleigh manor and passed to Henry, duke of Lancaster, who became king as Henry IV. (fn. 66)
By the mid 14th century the Hereford moiety had been subinfeudated. The estate so created was reckoned at a knight's fee worth £5 and was held in 1373 and 1384 by John Matham's heir. (fn. 67) The Leicester moiety may possibly be identified with the carucate held of that honor in 1324 and 1330 by Roger de Cormayles. (fn. 68) What is probably the same estate was held by another Roger de Cormayles in 1361 of Maud, elder daughter and coheir of Henry, duke of Lancaster (d. 1361). (fn. 69) No more is known of the mesne tenants of either estate until the early 16th century.
After the reunification of the moieties within the duchy of Lancaster the Crown apparently alienated the land while retaining certain franchisal and seignorial rights over it. (fn. 70) In 1505 Elizabeth Wallopp died seised of the land, then called Netheravon manor and reckoned at 300 a. Her estate apparently passed in turn to her three sisters and coheirs like the manor of Stoke Charity (Hants). (fn. 71) It came eventually to the youngest, Joan, wife of John Waller, and passed in the Waller family to Joan's greatgrandson William Waller, who was in possession in the early 1570s. (fn. 72) In 1575 Waller conveyed 5 virgates at Netheravon to John Barnard (d. c. 1587). (fn. 73) In 1576 Barnard sold to his nephew Richard Legg. (fn. 74) Members of the Legg family, all called Richard, held the estate until 1693 when Richard Legg of Grateley (Hants) agreed to sell to Joseph Legg of Netheravon. (fn. 75) On Joseph Legg's death c. 1716 the lands passed to his widow Jane for life. (fn. 76) She had died by 1736 when their son Richard was in possession. (fn. 77) Charles Noel Somerset, duke of Beaufort (d. 1756), evidently acquired the estate c. 1755 and thereafter it descended like the manor of Netheravon Cormayles. (fn. 78)
In 1255 John de Cormayles and his wife Lettice held an estate in Netheravon. (fn. 79) What were apparently the same lands were held of the coheirs of Roger, earl of Winchester (d. 1264), by Edmund de Cormayles in 1275. (fn. 80) In 1277 the overlordship of the estate, then tenanted by Lettice de Cormayles, was allotted to one of the coheirs, Elizabeth Comyn, countess of Buchan. (fn. 81) No later mention of the overlordship has been found.
The estate is identifiable with the later manor of CORMAYLES or WARDOUR'S. By the early 15th century it had been acquired by John Levesham who died seised in 1418. (fn. 82) In 1419 the lands were committed to a royal keeper because of the minority of Agnes, John's granddaughter and heir. (fn. 83) By 1428 Agnes had married Thomas Temse and in 1436–7 they settled Cormayles manor on themselves and their heirs. (fn. 84) Thomas (d. 1475) survived Agnes and was succeeded by his grandson William Temse, a minor. (fn. 85) William's heir at his death in 1502 was his sister Joan, wife of Nicholas Wardour. (fn. 86) She was succeeded at her death in 1531 by her grandson William Wardour, who in 1541 settled his Netheravon estate on himself, his future wife Mary Bamfield, and their heirs. (fn. 87) Mary Wardour held the lands from her husband's death in 1563 until 1586, when her son Chidiock Wardour (d. c. 1611) recovered the manor, which by 1592 was also known as Wardour's. (fn. 88) Chidiock was succeeded by his son Edward (later Sir Edward) Wardour (d. 1646), and his grandson Edward Wardour. (fn. 89) That Edward was apparently still owner at the end of the 17th century. (fn. 90) At his death the manor passed, in accordance with a settlement of 1667, to his only child Anne, in possession by 1705. In 1711 she and her husband Arthur Savage sold the manor to William Lewis Le Grand. (fn. 91) He was succeeded in 1734 by his son Edward who immediately sold the manor to Henry, duke of Beaufort. (fn. 92)
The manor passed with the Beaufort title until at least 1773 when it was settled by Act of Parliament upon trust for sale. (fn. 93) William Beach (d. 1790) had bought the estate by 1780. He was succeeded by his daughter Henrietta Maria (d. 1837) and her husband Michael Hicks (d. 1830), who assumed the additional surname Beach in 1790. Henrietta Maria Hicks Beach was succeeded by her grandson Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt. (d. 1854), and great- grandson Sir Michael Edward Hicks Beach, Bt. (later Earl St. Aldwyn, d. 1916). (fn. 94) In 1898 Sir Michael, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, sold the manor to the War Department and in 1974 it belonged to the Ministry of Defence. (fn. 95)
It was on either the Cormayles estate or the manor of Netheravon with Haxton, bought in 1739, that Henry, duke of Beaufort (d. 1745), built the mansion known as Netheravon House. (fn. 96)
Before 1265 Hugh of Manby held an estate at Netheravon of Simon, earl of Leicester. (fn. 97) The overlordship of the estate, later called ST. AMAND'S manor or, more often, NETHERAVON manor, afterwards passed like the Leicester moiety of the capital manor to the earls (later dukes) of Lancaster. It is last mentioned in 1491. (fn. 98)
In 1275 the estate, in Netheravon and Haxton, was held by Amaury de St. Amand. (fn. 99) At his death in 1285 Amaury was succeeded by his son Guy, a minor, whose Netheravon lands were in the keeping of William Monterville in 1286. (fn. 100) Guy, who was dead in 1287, was succeeded by his brother Amaury, then a minor. (fn. 101) Amaury's successor on his death in 1310 was his brother John (d. before 25 Jan. 1330), at the time of whose death the Netheravon estate was held by Edmund Ilsley. (fn. 102) John's son Amaury, to whom Ilsley conveyed his interest in 1330, died seised of the estate in 1381 and was succeeded by his son Amaury, who in 1402 settled the estate, then first called a manor, on himself and his wife Eleanor for life. (fn. 103) After Amaury's death in 1402 Eleanor held the estate until her own death in 1426. It then reverted to Amaury's heir, his greatgranddaughter by his first wife Ida, Elizabeth Braybroke, suo jure Baroness St. Amand (d. 1491), who married first William Beauchamp (d. 1457), and secondly Roger Tocotes (d. 1492). (fn. 104) On the attainder of Tocotes in 1484, the manor was granted by Richard III to William Miles. It was restored to Elizabeth and her husband a year later. (fn. 105) Elizabeth was succeeded by her son Richard Beauchamp, Lord St. Amand (d. 1508), who devised his lands to his wife Anne (d. 1511) with remainder to his illegitimate son Anthony St. Amand. (fn. 106) In 1524 Anthony and his wife Anne conveyed their Netheravon estate to Richard Lyster, (fn. 107) who sold to Sir John Brune in 1557. (fn. 108)
From Sir John (d. 1559), the estate passed to his son Henry (d. 1594), and grandson John (d. 1639). (fn. 109) Sir John Brune sold in 1626 to Sir Richard Grobham (d. 1629). (fn. 110) Sir Richard's eventual heir was apparently his sister Joan, wife of John Howe of Bishop's Lydeard (Som.). (fn. 111) The property passed from Joan to her son Sir John Howe, Bt., grandson Sir Richard Howe, Bt. (d. 1703), and greatgrandson, another Sir Richard (d.s.p. 1730). (fn. 112) The estate then passed to Sir Richard's cousin John Howe (cr. Baron Chedworth 1741, d. 1742), and thereafter descended with the Chedworth title until the death of John, Lord Chedworth, in 1804. (fn. 113) It was offered for sale in 1807. (fn. 114) The lands were acquired by the Hicks Beach family in the following year and afterwards formed part of their Netheravon estate, (fn. 115) which then comprised c. 673 a. in Netheravon and c. 410 a. in Haxton. (fn. 116)
In 1275 Amaury de St. Amand (d. 1285) held an estate in Netheravon of the coheirs of Roger, earl of Winchester (d. 1264), to be identified with the estate later called the manor of NETHERAVON or NETHERAVON with HAXTON. (fn. 117) The overlordship of Amaury's lands was allotted to the eldest coheir Margaret or Margery, countess of Derby, in 1277 and thereafter followed the descent of her share of the capital manor. (fn. 118) Last mentioned in 1381, the overlordship was then held by Thomas, earl of Buckingham, in right of his wife Eleanor, elder coheir of Humphrey, earl of Hereford and Essex (d. 1373). (fn. 119)
The estate passed like St. Amand's manor to Amaury de St. Amand (d. 1381). (fn. 120) Sir William Hankeford (d. 1423) seems to have acquired it by 1412, when it also included a small amount of land at Haxton. (fn. 121) Sir William was succeeded by his grandson Richard Hankeford (d. 1431), from whom the land passed to his relict Anne, with whom he had held jointly. (fn. 122) Anne married secondly Sir Lewis John (d. 1442) and thirdly John Holand, duke of Exeter (d. 1447). On her death in 1457 the estate reverted to her first husband's heir, his grandson Fulk Bourchier, later Lord FitzWarin (d. 1479). Fulk settled it on his wife Elizabeth Dinham for life in 1466. (fn. 123) In 1507 their son John, Lord FitzWarin, confirmed his mother's life estate. (fn. 124) On the death in 1516 of Elizabeth, who married secondly Sir John Sapcotes (d. 1501) and thirdly Sir Thomas Brandon (d. 1510), the estate reverted to John, Lord FitzWarin (created earl of Bath 1536, d. 1539). Thereafter it descended with the Bath title until the death of Henry, earl of Bath, in 1654. (fn. 125) Henry's widow Rachel (d. 1680) seems to have retained a life interest in some of the land, (fn. 126) but the estate itself passed to Henry's cousins and coheirs, the three daughters of Edward, earl of Bath (d. 1637). Those, each of whom inherited a third of the lands, were Elizabeth (d.s.p. 1670), later wife of Basil, earl of Denbigh, Dorothy, who married first Sir Thomas Grey, Lord Grey of Groby, and Anne (d. 1662), who married first James Cranfield, earl of Middlesex (d.s.p.m. 1651), and secondly Sir Chichester Wray (d. 1668). (fn. 127) Dorothy's heir, Thomas Grey, earl of Stamford (d. 1720), and Anne's heir, Sir Bourchier Wray, each held a moiety in 1677 and 1680 respectively. (fn. 128) Together they dealt by fine with the entire estate in 1685. (fn. 129) By 1698 Richard Kitson was owner and remained such in 1701. (fn. 130) John Gore was owner in 1710 and in 1722 Elizabeth and Mary Gore, presumably his daughters, seem to have held the estate jointly. (fn. 131) Mary afterwards married Henry Dawson and Elizabeth married John Toms; Dawson and Toms were described as lords in 1733. (fn. 132) In 1739 the estate, which then included two mills, (fn. 133) was held by Joseph Howe and his wife Elizabeth who in that year sold it to Henry, duke of Beaufort (d. 1745). (fn. 134) Thereafter it desended like Cormayles manor. (fn. 135)
In 1309 William de Burne conveyed land at Netheravon and the remainder of a rent of £10 12s. there to John de Angens for life. (fn. 136) Other members of the Angens family held land there in the mid 15th century. (fn. 137)
William de Angens in 1401–2 held a fee in Netheravon of the duchy of Lancaster, an overlordship last expressly mentioned in 1634. (fn. 138) The estate, later known as the manor of NETHERAVON LAMBERT, had apparently passed to Christine, wife of John Keynell, by 1482. (fn. 139) In that year Christine and John gave up the land to Edmund Lambert for a yearly rent out of it during Christine's life. (fn. 140) On Edmund's death in 1493 his son William succeeded. (fn. 141) When William died in 1504 the estate passed as dower to his widow Alice, on whose death it reverted to William's heir and nephew, another William Lambert. (fn. 142) In 1556 William and his wife Elizabeth conveyed the estate to Thomas Golding, who in 1570 sold to Thomas Bushell. (fn. 143)
Thomas Bushell was succeeded by his son Thomas in 1591. (fn. 144) At his death in 1634 the younger Thomas's property in Netheravon included a virgate called Newton and another known as 'Sawcers', from its 14th-century tenants, as well as the manor. Margery, Thomas's widow, held the estate in dower. (fn. 145) Thomas's heir, his grandson John Bushell, was in possession in 1635. (fn. 146) By 1685 Samuel (later Sir Samuel) Eyre (d. 1698) had acquired the estate. (fn. 147) It descended in the Eyre family and in 1750 his grandson Robert (d. 1752) sold to Charles Noel, duke of Beaufort. (fn. 148) The estate afterwards descended like the manor of Cormayles. (fn. 149)
Until the mid 18th century an estate called NEWTON farm formed part of the demesne of the manor of Netheravon Lambert. (fn. 150) Henry, duke of Beaufort (d. 1803), apparently sold it as a separate farm to William Pinniger, who in turn sold it to Richard Compton (d. 1779). (fn. 151) Richard devised the farm to his brothers Daniel and James. On his death in 1780 Daniel's moiety passed to his son Daniel, while that of James (d. 1799) came to his son James. Shortly after his father's death the younger James sold his share to his cousin Daniel (will pr. 1817). The whole farm, 316 a., came eventually to Daniel's son James Townsend Compton, who in 1840 sold to Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt. Newton farm was thereafter part of the Hicks Beach estate in the parish.
Robert, earl of Leicester (d. 1190), confirmed gifts made to Lire Abbey (Eure) by his father and other ancestors. (fn. 152) Among them was evidently land at Netheravon, described as a manor and worth 505. c. 1210. (fn. 153) The overlordship of the estate descended like the capital manor and was included in that moiety which passed to the coheirs of Roger, earl of Winchester (d. 1264). (fn. 154) It was allotted in 1277 to one of the coheirs, Elizabeth, countess of Buchan, and is not mentioned again. (fn. 155)
In 1275 the estate, reckoned at 3 virgates, was administered from Carisbrooke Priory (I.W.), a dependency of Lire. (fn. 156) Wareham Priory (Dors.), another dependency of Lire, was entitled to take the 50s. rent from Netheravon in 1325. (fn. 157) In 1414 Henry V gave most land in England belonging to Lire to the Carthusian house he had founded at Sheen (Surr.), (fn. 158) and property at Netheravon belonging to Sheen is mentioned in the later 15th century. (fn. 159) No more is known of the estate.
An unnamed thegn held an estate of 2½ hides at Netheravon in 1086. (fn. 160) The estate may be that held by Sir William Longespée (d. 1257) at 'Sethehavene'. In 1270 William de Wyghebergh, who in that year succeeded his father Richard in the estate, held of Sir William's daughter and heir Margaret, countess of Lincoln and suo jure countess of Salisbury from 1261. (fn. 161) Margaret's daughter and heir Alice de Lacy, who married Thomas, earl of Lancaster (d. 1322), had livery of her mother's lands in 1311. (fn. 162) She conveyed land at Netheravon to the younger Hugh le Despenser in 1325. (fn. 163) After the downfall of the Despensers in 1326 the land seems to have passed eventually to the Montagu earls of Salisbury like the manors of Lake, in Wilsford, and Alton Barnes. (fn. 164) William de Montagu, earl of Salisbury, died in 1397 seised of an estate in Netheravon. (fn. 165) His nephew and heir John (executed 1400) was succeeded by his son Thomas (d. 1428), who had livery of the Netheravon estate in 1409. (fn. 166) The estate has not been traced further.
An estate of 1½ hide at Netheravon held in 1066 by Edwin had passed to Harvey of Wilton by 1086. (fn. 167) Harvey afterwards gave the land to St. Pancras's Priory, Lewes (Suss.), when he became a monk there. In the earlier 12th century Roger, bishop of Salisbury (d. 1139), acquired the estate by exchanging it with St. Pancras for land elsewhere. (fn. 168) Thereafter it apparently became part of the prebendal estate at Netheravon. (fn. 169)
In the early 12th century the profits of Netheravon church were taken to endow a prebend in Salisbury cathedral. (fn. 170) The alienation of the three estates which had formed the church's original endowment meant that its revenues were then much depleted. In order to remedy that deficiency Bishop Roger acquired the estate held by Harvey of Wilton in 1086. A century later Parnel, countess of Leicester (d. 1212), assigned to the church the great tithes from her dower lands at Netheravon, and exhorted her son's tenants there to do likewise. (fn. 171) The prebendal estate, assessed for taxation in 1291 at £20, (fn. 172) in 1613 consisted of 102 a. of land, all tithes of corn except those from the prebendal glebe, most hay tithes, and tithes of wool and lambs from West Chisenbury manor with two-thirds of those from Cormayles and St. Amand's manors and two other estates in Netheravon. (fn. 173) When Netheravon was inclosed in 1790 the prebendary was allotted a cornrent to replace his tithes arising from Netheravon and 176 a. to replace his lands. (fn. 174) In 1796, when the open fields of West Chisenbury were inclosed, he was allotted a corn-rent to replace tithes. (fn. 175) The estate was held by the prebendaries until the mid 19th century, except for an interruption in the Interregnum after it was sold by the parliamentary trustees to Thomas Pile and Henry Dirdo in 1651. (fn. 176) Under the provisions of the Cathedrals and Ecclesiastical Commissioners Act of 1840, it passed to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and became vested in them in 1846. (fn. 177) The sale of the property was authorized in 1856. (fn. 178) In 1860 the commissioners conveyed their reversionary right in the land and in the corn-rent from West Chisenbury to the lessee, Sir Michael Edward Hicks Beach, Bt. Thenceforth the 176 a. formed part of the Hicks Beach estate at Netheravon. In return Sir Michael surrendered his leasehold interest in the corn-rent from Netheravon to the commissioners. (fn. 179) That rent was converted into a tithe rent-charge in 1864 and most of it was given to augment the vicarage. (fn. 180) The balance of £94 was transferred to Salisbury chapter from 1895. (fn. 181)
Lessees of the prebendal estate, traceable from the 16th century, included Henry Brouncker, who obtained a 41-year term in 1535, and William Symonds, the brother of a prebendary, who in 1548 was granted a 90-year term from the expiry of Brouncker's lease. (fn. 182) Later lessees included Thomas Bushell (d. 1591) and his son Thomas (d. 1634), owners of Netheravon Lambert manor, Gabriel Pile (1649), and William Reeves (c. 1725). (fn. 183) After 1790, when William Beach was tenant, (fn. 184) leases passed in the Hicks Beach family like the manor of Netheravon Cormayles until the freehold was bought in 1860. (fn. 185).
In the 1550s the house attached to the estate, especially its 'hall', was dilapidated. (fn. 186) Its 'banqueting house' and seven bedchambers were mentioned in 1649. (fn. 187) That house apparently stood north of the church and although still standing in 1838 had been demolished by the later 19th century. (fn. 188) Another house, which formerly stood on the west side of the Upavon-Salisbury road at its junction with the lane leading to Manor Farm, was also considered part of the prebendal estate. (fn. 189) It had been converted into three cottages by 1848. (fn. 190)
The hide of land at Netheravon, held in 1066 by Spirtes the priest and by Niel the physician in 1086, belonged to the church there. Durand of Gloucester was then Niel's tenant. (fn. 191) Niel is not mentioned again and the overlordship of the estate, to be identified with the later manor of WEST CHISENBURY or CHISENBURY DE LA FOLLY, descended like the capital manor of Chirton to Durand's heirs, the Bohun earls of Hereford and Essex. As part of the honor of Hereford it was annexed to the duchy of Lancaster in the early 15th century. (fn. 192) The overlordship is last expressly mentioned in 1524. (fn. 193)
Niel's estate had been subinfeudated by the 12th century. It was held by Roger de la Folye, whose grandson Roger de la Folye was in possession in 1201. (fn. 194) Richard de la Folye held the land in 1224. (fn. 195) It was perhaps the same Richard who held land at Chisenbury 'la Folye' in 1275. (fn. 196) Henry de la Folye tenanted 2 carucates and 6 a. of meadow and was entitled to a 40s. rent at West Chisenbury in 1313. (fn. 197) A Henry de la Folye, perhaps the same, in 1337 settled the estate on himself and his wife Isabel for lives with successive remainders to his son Adam and daughter Joan. (fn. 198) Adam apparently died without issue and the estate seems to have passed to Joan, probably to be identified with the first wife of John Breamore. (fn. 199) John, who had held jointly with Joan, died seised in 1361 and was succeeded by their daughter Avice. (fn. 200) From Avice the estate passed to her widower John Romsey who at his death in 1377 was succeeded by Avice's half-sister Joan Bayford, the daughter of John Breamore (d. 1361) and his second wife Margaret. (fn. 201) In 1392 Margaret, then wife of Philip Dauntsey, renounced her dower rights in the estate, then called a manor, in favour of her daughter. (fn. 202) Joan married secondly Thomas Chaplin and in 1401 they settled the property on themselves and on Joan's heirs. (fn. 203) Thus on Thomas's death in 1415 the manor was delivered to Joan's daughters by her first husband William Bayford, Joan, wife of Thomas Ringwood, and Clemence, wife of Richard Devereux. (fn. 204) It was apparently allotted to Clemence, whose second husband Robert Browning in 1428 held land formerly Henry de la Folye's. (fn. 205) The manor descended in the Browning family to Richard Browning (d. 1524). (fn. 206) He was succeeded in turn by his son Richard (d. 1573), grandson Richard Browning (d. 1612), and greatgrandson Anthony Browning (d. 1663). (fn. 207) From Anthony the estate passed to his younger son Edmund. Richard Browning, Edmund's son, was in possession in 1706 and in 1708 sold the estate to John Flower (will dated 1723). Flower's heir was apparently his nephew George Flower who was succeeded by his son George. William Beach bought the estate from the younger George Flower in 1776. (fn. 208) Thereafter it descended like the manor of Netheravon Cormayles to Sir Michael Edward Hicks Beach, Bt., who in 1861 sold the land, 1,011 a., to Welbore Ellis Agar, earl of Normanton. (fn. 209) The estate passed with the Normanton title until 1898 when Sidney, earl of Normanton, sold it to the War Department. (fn. 210) The land belonged to the Ministry of Defence in 1974. (fn. 211)
Before the Upavon-Salisbury road was diverted to the west in the earlier 19th century West Chisenbury Farm stood close beside it. The road's former course is marked by the farm drive. The house, which dates from the 18th century, was probably reduced in size in the mid 19th century when a large new farm-house, in 1975 known as West Chisenbury House, was built on the west side of the road. The old house, which is of two storeys with attics, includes work of several dates in the 18th and 19th centuries. Although mostly of brick and rubble construction, the building also incorporates earlier stonework.
In 1201 Roger de la Folye, mesne lord of the capital manor of West Chisenbury, conveyed to Peter Bacon an estate of 5½ virgates in 'Chisenbury'. (fn. 212) The land continued to be held of the lords of the capital manor. Thus the estate, then called the manor of CHISENBURY or CHISENBURY DE LA FOLLY, was held in free socage of the Browning family in the early 17th century. (fn. 213) It formed part of a larger estate which included land in Whiteparish, Upavon, and Rushall. (fn. 214)
Adam Bacon and his wife Maud settled the estate in 1312 on John Bacon and Ellen, daughter of Laurence of Upavon. (fn. 215) Bacon continued to hold the land and in the later 16th century Nicholas Bacon (will pr. 1599) was seised. (fn. 216) He was apparently succeeded by his daughter Joan, wife of William Noyes. (fn. 217) Joan's heir at her death in 1622 was her son William Noyes who in 1624 sold the land to William Rolfe. (fn. 218) Rolfe sold it in 1635 to John Merewether (will proved 1649). (fn. 219) In 1643 Merewether settled it on the marriage of his son John and Eleanor Adlam. (fn. 220) The younger John added another 81 a. in West Chisenbury to the estate in 1648. (fn. 221) Immediately after his death in 1680 his son John (will dated 1689) settled the enlarged estate on his marriage with Mary Bridges. (fn. 222) That John's son John sold the land to John Flower, owner of the capital manor of West Chisenbury, in 1720. (fn. 223)
Some time in the 13th century John de la Roches, probably a member of the Bromham family of that name, acquired a tenement in West Chisenbury and certain other rights there from Peter Lavington. (fn. 224) John had a son Gilbert who married Christine, one of the daughters and coheirs of John de la Folye. When John de la Folye's lands were partitioned in 1252, Gilbert and Christine were allotted ⅓ carucate and 2 virgates at Chisenbury, probably West Chisenbury, and at Coombe in Enford. (fn. 225) A sister of Christine, Margaret or Margery, wife of John Saucer, also held land in West Chisenbury since she conveyed 2 a. there to Gilbert. (fn. 226) In 1354 Isabel, daughter and coheir of John Saucer, and her husband Thomas de Gomeldon conveyed to John de la Roches of Bromham all the land in West Chisenbury which Isabel had inherited from her father. (fn. 227) In 1362 John de la Roches, perhaps the same, granted his West Chisenbury estate for 10 years to Adam Spenser. (fn. 228) Sir John de la Roches similarly granted the lands, for term of his life and 1 year after, to Richard Hendy of Haxton in 1379. (fn. 229) Sir John de la Roches and his wife William in 1399 settled the estate, then held for life by John Lupeyate and his wife Alice, on themselves and their heirs. (fn. 230) Although Sir John and William had a son Robert, their lands passed to their two daughters and coheirs. The West Chisenbury estate was allotted to Elizabeth, wife of Sir Walter Beauchamp, in 1411. (fn. 231) In 1439 Elizabeth, then a widow, granted the land to Thomas Forde and his wife Nichole for their lives. (fn. 232)
The estate passed like the manor of Roches in Bromham to Sir William Beauchamp (d. 1457), who married Elizabeth, suo jure Baroness St. Amand (d. 1491). After Sir William's death, Elizabeth held jointly with her second husband Sir Roger Tocotes (d. 1492). On Sir Roger's death the estate passed to Elizabeth's son Richard Beauchamp, Lord St. Amand, on those death without legitimate issue in 1508, it passed like Bromham Roches to his kinsman John Baynton. (fn. 233) The lands passed in the Baynton family to Andrew Baynton (d. 1563), who in 1555 conveyed them to Nicholas Snell. (fn. 234) In 1562 Nicholas (d. 1577) settled the estate on himself for life with remainder to his son Thomas (d. 1607) and Thomas's wife Elizabeth. (fn. 235) Thomas's heir was his son Richard (d. 1638), who was succeeded by his son John (d. 1658). (fn. 236) From John the estate passed to his son Charles Snell, who in 1683 conveyed it to Walter Ernie (d. 1721). (fn. 237) Walter's son, Sir Walter Ernie, Bt. (d. 1732), sold to John Flower in 1723 and the lands became merged in the capital manor of West Chisenbury. (fn. 238)
In 1227 the king confirmed the grant of a small estate in 'Chisenbury' by Richard de la Folye, mesne lord of the capital manor of West Chisenbury, to Maiden Bradley Priory. (fn. 239) The confirmation was repeated in 1270. (fn. 240) The house retained the land until its dissolution in 1536. (fn. 241)
A small amount of land at West Chisenbury belonged to the preceptory of Ansty, a house of the Knights Hospitallers, during the Middle Ages. (fn. 242)
In 1612 Matthew and William Browning conveyed an estate of 5½ yardlands in West Chisenbury to Giles Tooker. (fn. 243) On Tooker's death in 1623 the land seems to have passed under his will to his younger son William in tail male. (fn. 244) William's nephew, Sir Giles Tooker, Bt. (d.s.p. 1675), was in possession in 1670 and apparently sold at about that date to Edward Mason. (fn. 245) By will dated 1671 Mason devised the estate to his wife. (fn. 246) In 1683 his widow Edith held it, and on her death it passed, under the terms of a settlement of 1683, to her nephew William Jay. (fn. 247) In 1710 William conveyed the lands to his son William who immediately sold them to John Flower, owner of the capital manor of West Chisenbury. (fn. 248)
In 1612 Giles Spicer and his wife Alice held a small estate in West Chisenbury inherited by Alice from her paternal grandfather Thomas Jarvis. (fn. 249) Giles, then a widower, sold it in 1640 to Richard Adams (d. 1643) of Enford, who was succeeded by his brother Gabriel (will pr. 1661). (fn. 250) Another Gabriel Adams, presumably the elder Gabriel's son, sold in 1690 to William Sainsbury of Market Lavington. (fn. 251) William (will pr. 1691) was succeeded by Samuel Sainsbury, who in 1696 sold to Stephen Rutt. (fn. 252) Rutt in 1700 sold the lands, then called Adams's, to Walter Ernie (d. 1721). (fn. 253) The estate apparently merged with the other owned by Ernie in West Chisenbury and afterwards became part of the capital manor.
In the later 11th century Netheravon contained, besides the capital manor, two smaller estates attached to it. One, of 1½ hide, later formed the prebendal glebe. (fn. 254) In 1086 that estate had on it 1 plough, contained 4 a. of pasture, and was worth 30s. The second was held by a thegn in 1086, and, reckoned at 2½ hides, also had on it 1 plough. (fn. 255) The estate of 1 hide, which then belonged to Netheravon church, was in West Chisenbury. (fn. 256)
The capital manor of Netheravon was reckoned in 1086 at 20 hides, although the two estates then attached to it may have been included in that total. Two of those hides were worked in demesne by 46 serfs and 8 coliberts and had on them 6 ploughs. Elsewhere on the estate there were 16 ploughs, 30 villeins, and 40 bordars. There were 70 a. of meadow land and pasture 3 leagues by ½ league. The value of the manor increased from £40 in 1066 to £57 in 1086. (fn. 257)
By the earlier 13 th century subinfeudation had resulted in the creation of at least seven lesser estates. (fn. 258) The few facts known about medieval agricultural practice both within them and on the capital manor itself indicate the usual sheep-andcorn husbandry. In 1212 the main manor was worth £6, of which £2 10s. represented the value of the stock. It supported 8 oxen and 150 sheep. (fn. 259) Lire Abbey's estate was farmed at 50s. yearly c. 1210. (fn. 260) Before 1265 an estate, probably to be identified as St. Amand's manor, was worth £2 16s. 7d. At least 28 a. of arable land were worth 6d. the acre; 1 a. of meadow land was worth 1s. An additional pasture was rented from Nicholas Trenchefoil, tenant of the mill estate, at 10s. 6d. yearly. (fn. 261)
In the earlier 18th century the dukes of Beaufort built up a compact sporting and agricultural estate in Netheravon, a process which began in 1734 with the purchase of Cormayles manor and ended c. 1755 with the acquisition of the capital manor. In 1768 the estate contained 21 rack-rent holdings which yielded a yearly rent of £709. The 895 a. which they occupied included 50 a. of meadow land, the remainder being arable. Together they supported 2,450 sheep and there were 95 cow leazes. Among the holdings there were three substantial farms: the largest, 508 a., the 'great farm', was tenanted by John Miles; another of 142 a. was occupied by William Sutton, who held another 30 a. at rack-rent; and one of 102 a. was farmed by Joseph Legg. Another 49 estates, all under 100 a., were held upon leases for lives. They occupied 413 a., of which 6 a. were meadow, and supported 924 sheep, and there were 38 cow leazes. (fn. 262) There was apparently no significant rearrangement of the existing farming pattern by the Beauforts, who seem chiefly to have been interested in the sport the estate afforded.
The Hicks Beach family, successors of the Beauforts, maintained and exploited the game on the estate, and in the later 19th century often let the sporting rights. (fn. 263) The number of hares south-east of Netheravon House in an area later called the Hare field was remarked upon by Cobbett in the earlier 19th century. (fn. 264) A meeting of the National Coursing Club was held at Netheravon in 1841. (fn. 265) Fishing rights in the Avon, then known where it flowed through the tithing as Netheravon water, belonged in the 16th century to the sovereign as duke of Lancaster and lord of the capital manor. (fn. 266) In 1698 it was customary for the tenants of Netheravon with Haxton manor to fish as 'bankers' along a specified stretch of the river at certain times. (fn. 267) The fishing rights were acquired by the War Department in 1898. In the early 20th century the fishing was leased to the Officers' Fishing Association and in 1975 to the Services Dry Fly Fishing Association. (fn. 268) The fishery, which extended over some 10 km., stretched northwards to Coombe in Enford and southwards to a point a little north of Amesbury. The use of powdered chalk to cleanse the river bed and to combat pollution and to promote natural regeneration of stock by encouraging spawning on the gravel shallows was pioneered successfully at the fishery by Frank Sawyer, river-keeper for some 50 years. The process was afterwards adopted elsewhere in Great Britain and abroad. Despite its success, the popularity of the fishery, which is confined to grayling and trout, has necessitated some artificial rearing of stock and for that purpose five artificial lakes, stews, nursery ponds, and a hatchery have been constructed in the Avon between Netheravon and Fittleton. (fn. 269)
The area between the village and the downland track from Tilshead to Larkhill, in Durrington, was divided into two arable fields. (fn. 270) The westerly was known in the earlier 17th century as the Summer field and that nearest the village as the Home field. By that time subdivision had already occurred and both then contained South, North, and Middle fields. (fn. 271) Further divisions were afterwards made and in the later 18th century the Summer field also contained Outland South and Inland North fields, and the Home field the Inland South field. (fn. 272) The common meadows between the village and the river were named in 1790 as Broad, Landshare, Church, and Picked meads. Another, Corfe mead, lay separate from the rest north-west of High Street. The downland in the most westerly third of the tithing was divided into Outland down to the north and Inland down to the south.
By 1790 it seems that little or no arable or meadow land had been inclosed. In that year 3,300 a. were apportioned. William Beach, who then owned the main manor and the manors of Cormayles or Wardour's, Lambert, and Netheravon with Haxton, was allotted 2,144 a. for his demesne lands. It is impossible to distinguish the farms which were included in that total. For St. Amand's manor, Lord Chedworth, under whom William Beach was lessee, received an allotment of 673 a. For the prebendal estate the prebendary of Netheravon was allotted 176 a., and Daniel and James Compton were allotted 165 a. and 160 a. respectively for their lands. (fn. 273)
About 1790 the arable, c. 1,252 a., amounted to less than the down pasture, c. 1,624 a. Meadow land totalled 214 a., much of which was presumably floated. The importance of the water meadows in providing early bite for sheep and pasture for cattle after mowing led the inclosure commissioners to make provision for the annual election of a waterman in 1790. That officer was to be chosen yearly at Michaelmas and paid by the owners of watermeadows to distribute the water fairly. (fn. 274) Such meadows were still a distinctive feature of both the village's economy and topography in 1826, when they were noticed by Cobbett, and in 1855, when they covered 50 a. (fn. 275)
What little woodland there was in Netheravon in the 18th and 19th centuries seems to have been planted for sporting purposes. By 1790 some 3 a., including Black Ball and Robin Hood's plantations, had been established as coverts west of the village. (fn. 276) More planting was carried out in 1973 on downland attached to Manor farm by the Department of the Environment, which then administered the defence lands of the plain. (fn. 277)
The Hicks Beaches, owners of Netheravon by 1780, altered the pattern of land tenure. The process apparently began before parliamentary inclosure in 1790 since New (later Wexland) farm, 886 a., was in existence in 1789. (fn. 278) The creation of new farms and the consolidation of existing ones accelerated after parliamentary inclosure and the process was probably complete in 1838. It was facilitated because in the early 19th century the Hicks Beach family held, chiefly as freeholders, but in a few cases as lessees, nearly all the land in the tithing. In 1838 there were, besides eleven small freeholds, five substantial farms in Netheravon. Of those, four stretched from east to west to include meadow, arable, and down pasture. The largest, the 'great farm', was estimated at 1,188 a., and included the estate bought from the Chedworth trustees in 1808. It occupied most land south of the downland track called Warminster way and was worked from the house later called Manor Farm. The second largest, Wexland farm, was worked with land belonging to Court farm. Estimated at 912 a., the lands lay across the tithing north of Warminster way. The prebendal glebe, in the same area and reckoned at 176 a., was also worked from Wexland Farm. Court farm, 228 a., and Newton farm, 317 a., both lay in the north part of the tithing. The fifth farm, Newfoundland, 408 a., comprised Outland down in the north-west corner of Netheravon. (fn. 279) When the same farms were surveyed in 1855 the area of 'old' arable which they contained jointly was similar to that in the late 18th century. Additionally in 1855 there were 622 a. of down arable. Of the 50 a. of water-meadows 30 a. belonged to the 'great farm'. Another 77 a. of dry meadows lay near the village. Newton and Court farms, whose lands were around the village, then had no down arable, but Newfoundland farm was made up solely of arable and pasture on the downs. (fn. 280)
Of the usual rural trades which flourished at Netheravon in the 19th century, the blacksmith's business carried on by the Sheppard family prospered from at least 1779 until the early 20th century. The house from which the Sheppards worked may be identified as that opposite the Dog and Gun inn. A decayed blacksmith's forge could still be seen behind the house in 1974. (fn. 281) The Buckland family made edge-tools in the village from at least 1848 until the end of the 19th century. (fn. 282) There was a brewhouse attached to the Fox and Hounds inn c. 1852. (fn. 283) By 1880 Thomas W. Hussey (d. 1910) had established a brewing and malting business there which was continued by his son A. E. Hussey for a few years. (fn. 284)
The hide held by Niel the physician and attached to the church of Netheravon in 1086 is to be identified with the manor of West Chisenbury. There was then land enough for 1 plough. The 3 bordars on the estate had between them ½ plough. Meadow land amounted to 6 a. and the pasture measured 4 by 2 furlongs. Its value in 1066 and 1086 was £3. (fn. 285)
By the 13th century the size of the capital manor had been reduced by the creation of at least three other estates. (fn. 286) It was worth overall £5 3s. 4d. in 1361. It was then extended at 3 carucates, each of which contained 80 a. worth 3d. the acre. There were in addition 12 a. of meadow land worth 2s. the acre. On the common pastures 6 working cattle, 20 oxen, and 400 sheep could graze. (fn. 287) During the 18th century all the estates in West Chisenbury were reunited with the capital manor, and also became part of the Beach estate at Netheravon. In 1782 West Chisenbury was worked as a single farm by James Gibbs. (fn. 288) About 1805 Gibbs was succeeded by Henry Jenner, members of whose family were farmers at West Chisenbury until at least the later 19th century. (fn. 289)
The tithing had c. 1,012 a. in 1796, of which a total of 966 a. was allotted at parliamentary inclosure in that year to Michael Hicks Beach as lord. Of that total, 518 a. represented the former open arable and 447 a. the downland. There were two downs, West Chisenbury down, 347 a., and, occupying the most westerly triangle of land in the tithing, Lavington Way down, 100 a. (fn. 290) The estate, then known as Chisenbury farm, 1,053 a., was arranged in much the same way in 1861. There was then a water-meadow of c. 5 a. by the Avon northeast of the hamlet. (fn. 291)
The expansion of the Hicks Beach estate in Netheravon was arrested by the agricultural depression of the later 19th century. Rents on the estate fell 40 per cent from the mid 1870s to the 1890s. (fn. 292) The decline in arable and sheep farming at that time resulted in large tracts of rough pasture on Salisbury Plain falling out of use. It was decided to turn the plain over to military use and estates around its perimeter were bought up. Among the first acquired by the War Department were the Netheravon estate, bought from Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt., then Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the West Chisenbury estate, bought from the earl of Normanton. (fn. 293) The extremely favourable price obtained by Sir Michael at a time of diminishing returns on land gave rise to much adverse comment both locally and nationally. (fn. 294) Since then both Netheravon and West Chisenbury have been entirely in state ownership, and the arable and rough pasture occupying the western half of each have been used for military training since at least the 1920s. The lands were administered in 1975 by the Department of the Environment.
In 1904 the War Department set up a cavalry training centre with indoor riding-school and stabling in the grounds of Netheravon House, which itself was used as the officers' mess. (fn. 295) During the First World War the school closed and the house was occupied by convalescent Canadian troops. Although the cavalry school re-opened in 1919, it closed in 1922 and was amalgamated with the Royal Artillery Riding Establishment at Weedon (Northants.). In 1922 the Machine Gun School moved to Netheravon from Seaford (Suss.), and occupied the outbuildings of the cavalry school as instructional rooms and Netheravon House as an officers' mess. In 1974 the school, then called Support Weapons Wing and operated as a branch of the School of Infantry at Warminster, taught instructors to use various weapons and other defensive equipment. There was a permanent instructional and administrative staff of c. 100 at Netheravon in 1974, mostly accommodated on an army estate south of Netheravon House.
The growth of the village after the establishment of an army camp in the early 20th century was reflected in the numerous small businesses in High Street in 1975. They included butcher's, grocer's, clock repairer's, and hairdresser's shops. The former brewery buildings on the east side of the street were then occupied by a firm of electrical contractors, E. J. Wordsell & Son, and those of the former mill were in industrial use. (fn. 296) In 1975, however, despite the presence of the Army, the parish's economy was still predominantly agricultural. The incorporation of the downland west of the village in the firing ranges of Salisbury Plain severely limited its use for practical farming purposes, but much was still leased to local farmers in 1975 and used for grazing. The two largest farms in Netheravon were then devoted to mixed farming. Wexland farm, leased to Bennett Bros., contained some 1,000 a. which could be farmed subject to certain restrictions. (fn. 297) Manor farm comprised some 200 a. of unrestricted land in the south-west part of Netheravon and was tenanted by A. S. Burgess. (fn. 298) In 1975 West Chisenbury farm was held by A. M. Baxter and given over to mixed farming. It contained much land which could be used only for grazing. (fn. 299)
In 1086 three mills on the royal estate at Netheravon were worth together 30s. (fn. 300) By 1185 one had been granted to the Templars, probably by Robert, earl of Leicester (d. 1190), lord of the capital manor. It was attached to their estate at Inglewood, in Kintbury (Berks.), and leased to a clerical tenant for ½ mark. (fn. 301) No more is known of it.
A second mill was apparently allotted to Amice, countess of Leicester, in 1206–7 and c. 1265 was held of Amice's grandson Simon, earl of Leicester, by Hugh of Manby. It was then worth only 12d. because it was in bad repair. (fn. 302) It is not mentioned again.
The third mill apparently passed with that moiety of the capital manor allotted in 1206–7 to Saier, earl of Winchester, and his wife Margaret. (fn. 303) In the 13th century William Trenchefoil held the mill of an earl of Winchester, either Saier (d. 1219), or his son Roger (d. 1264). (fn. 304) Although no mill was then expressly mentioned, what was clearly the same estate was held by Nicholas Trenchefoil of the coheirs of Roger, earl of Winchester, in 1277. It was then worth yearly £10. (fn. 305) A water-mill and 100 a. of land at Netheravon were held by John Trenchefoil in 1384. (fn. 306) In 1393 Felice, John's widow, conveyed the mill, 6 a. of land, and some meadow to William Hankeford. Thereafter the mill estate descended like the manor of Netheravon with Haxton, passed with it into the Hicks Beach estate at Netheravon in the later 18th century, and in 1898 became War Department property. (fn. 307) It belonged to the Ministry of Defence in 1975.
The mill and its buildings were always leased out and were tenanted for most of the 19th century by the Bray family. (fn. 308) The mill stood on the west bank of the Avon north-west of Haxton bridge. (fn. 309) From at least the later 16th century the building was described as containing two water-mills. (fn. 310) Milling continued in 1911 but seems to have ceased soon after. (fn. 311) An electricity generating station had been set up in the former mill buildings by 1926. (fn. 312) In 1975 the large building, a red-brick structure of 19th-century date, was occupied by a plastics firm, C.D.M. of Durrington. (fn. 313) The former mill-house, which stands south-west of it, is principally of earlier-19th-century date but retains part of an early-18th-century building at its eastern end.
In 1275 Edmund, earl of Lancaster, who held a moiety of the capital manor of Netheravon, claimed to have gallows there and to hold assizes of bread and of ale. (fn. 314) No mention was then made of franchisal jurisdiction attached to the moiety held by the coheirs of Roger, earl of Winchester. In the later 14th century and the earlier 15th, however, whoever held that moiety was entitled to hold view of frankpledge, worth 6s. 8d. yearly. (fn. 315) After the reunification of the moieties within the duchy of Lancaster in the earlier 15th century, the duchy alienated the estate but retained both franchisal and seignorial jurisdiction. Records of courts, designated views of frankpledge, survive for 1542, 1543, 1545, and 1548. At the courts tithingmen and constables were elected and the presentments of the tithing jury and of the manorial homage received. (fn. 316) In 1597 the Crown granted Netheravon all liberties and franchises to which duchy tenants were entitled. (fn. 317) In 1652 the court there, then called a court leet, could try all actions under 405. between duchy tenants. (fn. 318)
In the 17th century courts baron for the manors of Netheravon Lambert and Netheravon with Haxton were also held, sometimes twice, but more often once, yearly. Records of courts for Lambert manor survive for 1635–6, 1644, and 1740, while those for Netheravon with Haxton cover 1698–1701, 1710, 1722, and 1733. Both courts met chiefly to deal with copyhold business. Sometimes manorial customs were recited, as at the court for Netheravon with Haxton manor held in 1698. Particular nuisances were also dealt with, as in 1740 when Henry, duke of Beaufort, was presented by the homage of Netheravon Lambert for illegally building a kennel within the manor. (fn. 319) There seems to have been a brief attempt by Michael Hicks Beach to revive the Netheravon courts in the 1820s. A joint court baron for Lambert and Cormayles manors was held in 1821. (fn. 320) Perhaps in an attempt to revive the franchisal jurisdiction to which the lords of the capital manor had earlier been entitled, views of frankpledge and courts baron were held for the manor of Netheravon with Haxton in 1821, 1827, and 1829. (fn. 321) Tithingmen were appointed at the views and manorial officials at the courts baron, but little other business was transacted. (fn. 322) No record of courts for the West Chisenbury manors is known to exist.
Minutes of meetings between 1846 and 1922 show the vestry dealing with the usual business. In 1848 it was concerned to assist certain parishioners to emigrate to Australia. (fn. 323) Netheravon and West Chisenbury became part of Pewsey poor-law union in 1835. (fn. 324)
The church at Netheravon was held in 1066 by Spirtes the priest and in 1086 by Niel the physician. (fn. 325) Its endowments then comprised three substantial estates identifiable with the later manors of East Chisenbury in Enford, West Chisenbury, and Stratton St. Margaret. (fn. 326) The size and the value, £32, of the endowment suggest the existence at Netheravon of a religious community, either regular or secular, before the reign of Edward the Confessor. The community, however, was presumably no longer there in 1066. (fn. 327) Probably in the later nth century the three estates became lay fees. (fn. 328) The church apparently reverted to the king and in the early 12th century Henry I granted it to Salisbury chapter. (fn. 329) Thenceforth its profits were appropriated to endow a prebend in the cathedral. The peculiar jurisdiction exercised by the prebendaries enabled them to hold visitations and to deal with all ecclesiastical matters, administrative and judicial, within the parish until such powers were abolished in 1846. (fn. 330) The prebendaries presented vicars to serve the cure until the 19th century. A vicarage had been ordained by 1316, when a vicar is first mentioned. So far as is known, the prebendaries delegated their right of patronage only twice, in 1568 when John Linch presented, and in 1587 when Hugh Powell did so. (fn. 331) The advowson was transferred to the bishop of Salisbury under an Act of 1840. (fn. 332) From 1931 the vicarage was held in plurality with the rectory of Fittleton. (fn. 333) Vicarage and rectory, which from 1947 was also in the gift of the bishop, were united in 1953. (fn. 334) The vicarage of Enford was added in 1973 and the united benefice of Netheravon with Fittleton and Enford was created. The first turn of presentation was then allotted to Christ's Hospital, Horsham (Suss.), patron of Enford, and the second and third turns to the bishop. (fn. 335)
In 1535 the vicarage was worth £13 6s. 8d. (fn. 336) No more is known of its value until the earlier 19th century when, from 1829 to 1831, it was worth yearly an average of £101 net. (fn. 337) That sum represented the value of the tithes and a yearly payment of £20 by the prebendaries of Netheravon, later continued by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 338) Augmentations of £400 and £100, given as one benefaction by the then vicar of Netheravon and the trustees of a Mrs. Pyncombe respectively, and another of £200 from Queen Anne's Bounty, were made in 1838. (fn. 339) The Ecclesiastical Commissioners granted £30 yearly in 1848. (fn. 340) That sum and the payments of £20 were withdrawn in 1865 when the Ecclesiastical Commissioners transferred to the vicar the yearly sum of £268, which represented most of the prebendal tithe rent-charge due to them from Netheravon. (fn. 341)
The vicar took all tithes from the prebendal glebe and all tithes of wool, lambs, and hay in the parish except those to which the prebendary was entitled. (fn. 342) In the early 17th century the vicar of Upavon took a third of the wool tithes from a farm in West Chisenbury but no further mention of the payment is made. (fn. 343) In 1790 the vicar was allotted a corn-rent of £66 to replace his tithes from Netheravon and in 1796 one of £15 in place of those from West Chisenbury. (fn. 344)
A small close of meadow by the Avon constituted the vicarial glebe. (fn. 345) In 1846 it was exchanged with Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt., for 1 a. called Oram's near the Vicarage. (fn. 346) The vicar in 1861 acquired another 3 a. west of the Vicarage which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners had bought from Sir Michael Edward Hicks Beach, Bt., a year earlier. (fn. 347)
The vicarage-house, first mentioned in 1613, was burned down c. 1694. Until the late 18th century the Vicarage stood some distance north of the church. (fn. 348) In 1793, because of its unfit state, it was exchanged for a newly rebuilt house on the west side of High Street. (fn. 349) A new Vicarage was built on the same site c. 1838. (fn. 350)
A chapel of ease at West Chisenbury is mentioned in 1405. It was dedicated to St. John the Baptist and among its possessions were a silver chalice and a bell It was no longer standing c. 1535. (fn. 351)
John Ring, vicar 1610–61, subscribed to the Concurrent Testimony of 1648 and in 1650 was reported to preach every Sunday. (fn. 352) The fact that Richard Lewis, vicar 1685–1725, celebrated Holy Communion in the chancel, and not in the nave, and that he excluded certain parishioners from receiving it, led some people in Netheravon to complain to the dean of Salisbury in 1688. The parishioners also objected to the unreasonable and aggressive manner in which he collected his tithes. (fn. 353) Curates assisted the vicars in the later 17th century and in the 18th century, in the period 1829–31, and in 1864. (fn. 354) Among them was Sydney Smith (d. 1845), curate in the later 1790s. (fn. 355) During his short stay he attempted to improve the condition of the poor and established a Sunday school which still flourished in the earlier 19th century. (fn. 356) He had little contact with the parish, the dullness of which he loathed, after Michael Hicks Beach (d. 1830), lord of the manor, appointed him travelling tutor to his eldest son. Later one of the founders of the Edinburgh Review, Smith afterwards moved to London, where he acquired a reputation as a man of letters.
The distance of some 4 km. between West Chisenbury and the parish church led to the infrequent attendance of those living in that hamlet. A suggestion of c. 1650 that the tithing should be annexed to Enford for ecclesiastical purposes came to nothing. (fn. 357) During 1850–1 an average congregation of 150 people attended morning services and 200 those on Sunday afternoons. (fn. 358) Services with either the celebration of Holy Communion or a sermon were held on Sunday mornings in 1864. Afternoon services always included a sermon. Weekday services were said to be poorly attended. About 80 people in the parish were said to be regular communicants. (fn. 359)
The church of ALL SAINTS stands at the southern end of the village. It has a chancel with north vestry and south porch, aisled and clerestoried nave, and west tower.
A church stood at Netheravon on the site of the present church in the earlier 11th century. (fn. 360) It was cruciform and comprised a small chancel or apse where the present nave stands, porticus to the north and south of the central tower, and nave to the west. The positions of the porticus are indicated by fragments of masonry on the west wall of the tower and by blocked round-headed doorways in its north and south walls. A doorway surviving in the middle stage of the north wall of the tower shows that there was a room above that porticus. That building was ruinous in 1086 and the roof in danger of collapse. (fn. 361) Part of it may have remained in use until the 13th century when a new aisled and clerestoried nave, of four bays, and a chancel were built to the east of the old tower. That tower and its western arch, with roughly sculpted beasts depicted on the capitals, were retained, a new upper stage added, and an arch inserted in the east wall. The church thus attained its present size and shape. A two-light window was inserted at the west end of the south aisle in the 14th century. The corresponding window in the north aisle is a modern copy. With the exception of their west walls, the nave aisles were rebuilt in the 15th century. Each was entered by a door sheltered by a porch with tiled roof in the second bay from the west. (fn. 362) From the mid 16th century both nave and chancel were frequently reported out of repair. (fn. 363) Simon Symonds, prebendary 1534–51, was accused of allowing his brother William, to whom he had leased the prebendal estate, to remove the lead from the chancel roof. (fn. 364) The chancel may then have been reroofed with the tiles which covered it in 1803. (fn. 365) About 1600 the lead of the nave roof and tiles of the aisle porches apparently needed renewing. (fn. 366) Cresting and pinnacles were added to the tower in 1626. (fn. 367) Repair of the south aisle, at least during the 17th century, was the responsibility of the owners of Cormayles or Wardour's manor, or of their lessees. (fn. 368) It was perhaps during the restoration of the church undertaken in 1839, or shortly afterwards, that the aisle porches were removed and the doorways replaced by copies of the other aisle windows. (fn. 369) The south aisle may then have been extended eastwards and its porch re-sited at the eastern end to provide separate access to the chancel from near-by Netheravon House. The low ceiled leaden roof of the nave, so depicted in 1803, was replaced in 1888 during C. E. Ponting's restoration by a tiled one of steeper pitch. The 13th-century chancel arch was then replaced by a new one of freestone. (fn. 370)
In 1833 William Gill and John Herne were reported to have conveyed 4 a. of arable in the open fields of Netheravon to trustees in 1668, for the use of the parish church. (fn. 371) At inclosure in 1790 the churchwardens were allotted some 7 a. called the Landshare allotment in the north part of Netheravon. (fn. 372) The income of £6 13s. 4d. was used to pay for church repairs in 1833. The War Department bought the land in 1900 and some £338 was invested by the Official Trustee of Charitable Funds. The following year the income was still used for church purposes. It was afterwards incorporated in the general church account and in 1974 was still used to pay for repairs. (fn. 373)
In 1553 the king's commissioners left a chalice weighing 10 oz. Elizabeth (d. 1799), widow of Charles Noel, duke of Beaufort, in 1759 gave the church a chalice, paten, flagon, and alms-dish made by Magdalene Feline. A small chalice and paten dated 1923 were given by A. E. Hussey. The parish retained those pieces in 1974. (fn. 374) Netheravon had three bells and a sanctus bell in 1553. There was a ring of six in 1974. The fourth, cast by John Wallis, is dated 1585. Wallis also made the treble (ii in 1974) dated 1609 and the tenor dated 1588. A. E. Hussey had both recast in 1911 by Taylor of Loughborough (Leics.) in memory of his father T. W. Hussey. A new treble made by the same firm was then added, also in memory of T. W. Hussey, and the whole peal rehung. The third and fifth bells are of 17thcentury date. (fn. 375)
Registrations of baptisms begin in 1582 but are lacking from 1594 to 1611. Records of baptisms resume, and those of marriages and burials begin, in 1611 and thereafter are complete. (fn. 376)
The Browning family, established at West Chisenbury from the 15th century, seems consistently to have resisted the religious changes of the 16th century. (fn. 377) Thomas Browning and his wife were presented for not receiving the Sacrament at the parish church in 1597. (fn. 378) Anthony Browning, lord of West Chisenbury manor from 1612 until his death in 1663, maintained the family's recusant tradition. (fn. 379) The Roman Catholic church in Figheldean was set up partly to serve Netheravon. (fn. 380)
Thomas Bushell (d. 1634), lord of the manor of Netheravon Lambert, apparently held conventicles at his house in the 1590s which were attended by John Davies and two others. (fn. 381) In 1597 a Mr. Lapthorne expounded the scriptures there. He also claimed from the pulpit in Netheravon church that salvation was possible only through prayer and preaching. Thomas Bushell himself asserted that the then vicar's unwillingness to preach made him an unsuitable minister. (fn. 382) Dissent appears to have continued and in 1672 presbyterians were licensed to worship at Richard Hearne's house in Netheravon. (fn. 383)
A Baptist cause seems to have been established at Netheravon in the early 19th century. (fn. 384) The group probably occupied a house certified for worship in 1816. (fn. 385) A chapel for the same congregation, then called Particular Baptists, was built at Netheravon in 1820. Stephen Offer was pastor there from 1824 until his death in 1854. (fn. 386) On Census Sunday in 1851 the Old Chapel, as it was then called, was attended by congregations of 80, 113, and 33 in the morning, afternoon, and evening respectively. (fn. 387) The chapel, which was approached by a passage at the north-east end of High Street, was burnt down in 1946. A vestry was rebuilt and services held there. (fn. 388) The graveyard was all that remained to mark the site in 1974.
A building at Netheravon was certified for Methodist worship in 1820. (fn. 389) Primitive Methodists had a chapel there in 1839. (fn. 390) They built a new one in 1847 south-west of the Particular Baptist chapel. (fn. 391) On Census Sunday in 1851 21 people attended morning, 39 afternoon, and 65 evening service there. (fn. 392) Services were held in the chapel on Sunday evenings in 1974. (fn. 393)
Katharine and Margaret Greene were reported to keep a school at Netheravon without licence in 1632. (fn. 394) An old woman taught a few children in the parish in 1808. (fn. 395) About 1818 the inhabitants were said to be prepared to have their children taught provided that schooling did not interrupt their daily work. (fn. 396) By 1833 eight boys and ten girls, paid for by their parents, were taught in a school at Netheravon. Another recently established school, supported by Mrs. Hicks Beach (d. 1837), was then attended by six boys and twenty girls. (fn. 397)
A new school, with one classroom, was built c. 1846 on the east side of High Street. Although it was largely supported by subscriptions, children who attended made small weekly payments in 1848. (fn. 398) A mistress taught the 30 boys and girls and 40–50 infants who attended in 1858. (fn. 399) On return day in 1871 18 boys and 31 girls were present at the school, by that time affiliated to the National Society. (fn. 400) An average of 79 children attended in 1906, (fn. 401) and in 1911 90 children and infants attended during the year. Numbers dropped slightly during the First World War but rose again afterwards. The school was reorganized in 1926 as a senior mixed school, and in the following year an average of 119 children attended. The average attendance figure was 124 in 1938. (fn. 402)
A further reorganization took place in 1964 when the school was amalgamated with that at Fittleton 800 m. away. (fn. 403) All the juniors from both parishes thenceforth attended the Fittleton school. All the infants, including those from the army camp at Netheravon, attended that in Netheravon High Street and were taught by two full-time teachers helped occasionally by staff from Fittleton. (fn. 404)
Charities for the Poor.