A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 16, Kinwardstone Hundred. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1999.
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Collingbourne Kingston (fn. 1) is a large parish on the eastern edge of Salisbury Plain and c. 14 km. SSE. of Marlborough. It contained four small villages, Collingbourne Kingston, Aughton, Brunton, and Sunton, and part of Cadley hamlet. In 1934 the parish was reduced from 7,401 a. (2,995 ha.) to 2,915 ha. when Sunton and the part of Cadley were transferred to Collingbourne Ducis, (fn. 2) and in 1987 it was reduced to 2,018 ha. when its south-east and south-west parts were also transferred to Collingbourne Ducis. (fn. 3)
The parish lies mainly in the upper Bourne valley, and the name Collingbourne, referring to the Bourne as the stream of Cola's people, suggests that it was an area of early settlement. (fn. 4) Each of the four villages stands beside the river, bears a Saxon name, and had a strip of land extending from the river to downland. To distinguish the two villages called Collingbourne suffixes were added to the name, and until the 14th century Collingbourne Kingston was called Collingbourne Abbot's: the earlier suffix refers to Hyde abbey, Winchester, the owner of the principal manor, and the later was possibly adopted under the misapprehension that the Collingbourne referred to in Domesday Book as the king's was not Collingbourne Ducis. Aughton took its name from Aeffe, the owner of it in the mid 10th century. The name Sunton, formerly Southampton, apparently refers to where the village stood on the abbey's estate called Collingbourne. (fn. 5)
In several places the parish boundary follows ridges and dry valleys, and on the south it is marked by a road. The north-west part had been defined by c. 933, when points on it included Oldhat barrow, a stone which gave its name to Falstone pond, and a prehistoric earthwork now called Godsbury. (fn. 6) Falstone pond had been dug on the boundary by 1773; (fn. 7) a new pond replaced it in the earlier 20th century. (fn. 8) Prehistoric ditches mark the boundary on the north-east and south-west.
The whole parish lies on chalk. The Bourne, which frequently dries out, flows from north to south across the middle of it and has deposited gravel, and there is also gravel in two long tributary valleys, now dry, which reach the Bourne from east and west at Sunton. Claywith-flints overlies the chalk on high ground in the east half of the parish. (fn. 9) The downland is highest, at over 200 m., in the north-east and north-west corners of the parish. The Bourne leaves the parish at c. 130 m. and there is land at a similar height in the south-east corner, which drains south-eastwards, and the southwest corner. The relief is sharper in the east half of the parish. Each of the villages had meadow land beside the river, and to the east and west there were large areas of open fields and downland pastures for sheep. Much of the clay was wooded. (fn. 10) Horses were trained on the eastern downs in the 20th century, (fn. 11) and much of Snail down in the south-west, and downland along the western boundary of the parish, were used for military training from c. 1937. (fn. 12)
The parish had 164 poll-tax payers in 1377 (fn. 13) and was highly assessed for taxation in the 16th century and earlier 17th; 93 inhabitants contributed to a subsidy in 1642, the highest number for any parish in the hundred except Great Bedwyn. (fn. 14) The population was 731 in 1801 and reached its peak of 933 in 1841, when Collingbourne Kingston village had 239 inhabitants, Aughton 166, Brunton 234, and Sunton 291. It had fallen to 696 by 1881, increased to 748 by 1911, and fallen to 585 by 1931. It was 440 in 1951, c. 166 inhabitants of Sunton and Cadley having been transferred to Collingbourne Ducis in 1934. (fn. 15) Collingbourne Kingston parish had 397 inhabitants in 1961, 441 in 1981, and, after the boundary changes of 1987, 454 in 1991. (fn. 16)
A Marlborough-Winchester road via Ludgershall and Andover (Hants) was important in the earlier Middle Ages (fn. 17) and presumably followed the Bourne through Collingbourne Kingston parish. Two other main roads crossed the parish, one between Oxford and Salisbury via Hungerford (Berks.) across the eastern downs, and one between Chipping Campden (Glos.) and Salisbury via Marlborough across the western: both were important in the later 17th century. (fn. 18) The Marlborough-Andover road branched southwards from the Marlborough-Salisbury road a little north of Collingbourne Kingston parish, and a little south of the parish a road linking the villages of the Bourne valley to Salisbury diverged from the Marlborough-Andover road. (fn. 19) In 1762 the north part of the MarlboroughSalisbury road, including the section through Collingbourne Kingston parish, was turnpiked, in 1772 the Hungerford road was turnpiked, and in 1835 the Bourne valley road was turnpiked from the junction north of the parish to complete Swindon-Salisbury and Swindon-Andover turnpike roads. The Hungerford road was disturnpiked in 1866, the other two in 1876. (fn. 20) The Salisbury road across Collingbourne Kingston's western downs may have declined in use after 1835 and was closed south of the parish c. 1900. (fn. 21) In the 20th century the Bourne valley route through the parish remained the main road from Swindon to Salisbury and Andover, and in 1995 the old Salisbury road (called the old Marlborough road) and the Hungerford road were still in use across the parish's downland. Of the east-west tracks linking them to the villages in the parish only Chick's Lane along the southern boundary has been tarmacadamed as a public road.
The Swindon, Marlborough & Andover Railway, from 1884 part of the Midland & South Western Junction Railway, was built beside the Bourne and opened in 1882. Cadley station in Collingbourne Ducis parish stood a little south of Sunton village. A halt immediately north-east of Collingbourne Kingston church was opened in 1932. (fn. 22) The line was closed in 1961. (fn. 23)
The parish provides much evidence of prehistoric activity. There is a long barrow east of Brunton village, and there are several barrows on the western downs including two, Oldhat barrow and another, on the parish boundary. A group of barrows forms a cemetery on Snail down. (fn. 24) The parish boundary crosses field systems of c. 100 a. on the east and of 200 a. or more on the north-east, and there are smaller field systems east of Sunton village, on the western downs, and on Snail down. (fn. 25) Several prehistoric ditches on Snail down are part of a system converging on an Iron-Age fort on Sidbury Hill in North Tidworth and may have been associated with cattle ranching. (fn. 26) Godsbury, on the boundary with Burbage, is an Iron-Age enclosure of 1½ a.; an enclosure of similar date and size lies on Aughton down and one of similar size on Fairmile down. A 10-a. enclosure lies on Snail down, and a possibly Romano-British one of 3½ a. lies c. 1 km. west of Aughton village. (fn. 27) A Pagan-Saxon cemetery east of Sunton village contained 33 inhumations. (fn. 28)
The whole parish was in Chute forest until 1330. (fn. 29)
Collingbourne Kingston is a nucleated village bisected by the Marlborough-Andover road, with the church, the vicarage house, and Manor Farm standing close to each other. West of the road the house called Manor Farm forms the north side of a large square farmyard. It comprises two parallel east-west ranges: the northern range, partly timber-framed, was built in the 17th century and extended eastwards in brick in the 18th, and the southern was built of yellow brick in the 19th century. On the west side of the farmyard a north-south barn was built in the later 16th century and extended northwards in the later 17th or the 18th. An 18th-century cart shed forms part of the south side of the farmyard. South of the church Parsonage Farm incorporates at its north-east corner fragments of a 17th-century house of flint with stone quoins. It was refaced and extended southwards in the early 18th century, and extended westwards in two stages in the 19th. Also south of the church the Old House was built in the mid 18th century with a principal north front of five bays and was extended westwards in the later 18th century. After a fire in 1976 a singlestoreyed lean-to on the south side was raised to two storeys and new panelling in 18th-century style was fitted in the house. (fn. 30)
Most of the older cottages and small houses to survive in the village are timber-framed with daub and plaster infilling and have thatched roofs. Some are of one storey, some of one storey and attics. On the east side of the road Norrie Cottage, with heavy timber and evidence of substantial bracing, may be medieval. Some 18th-century cottages have walls of chalk block and brick arranged in horizontal bands. There are a few 19th-century cottages in the village, which in 1974 was designated a conservation area. (fn. 31)
The Falcon inn, which stood in Collingbourne Kingston village in the early 18th century, had been renamed the Chequers by 1722. (fn. 32) The Chequers remained open in 1773. (fn. 33) On the west side of the main road an inn was built of red brick in the early 19th century. It was called the Cleaver in 1822, 1843, (fn. 34) 1899- 1911, and in the later 20th century, and was open under that name in 1995. It was called the Collingbourne Kingston inn from the 1840s to the 1890s and the Kingston hotel in the earlier 20th century. On the east side of the road the Windmill was open from the 1850s (fn. 35) to the later 20th century.
In the 19th century a new vicarage house and a school were built at the north end of the village, respectively east and west of the main road, and at the south end a nonconformist chapel was built east of the road. (fn. 36) In the 20th century the village was extended further south by new detached houses built mainly on the west side of the road. On the downs west of the village Croft barn was built in the mid 19th century and other farm buildings, including Summerdown Farm near the old Marlborough road, in the mid and later 20th century. (fn. 37)
The old part of the village stands at a staggered crossroads: the north-south element, from which lanes led east to the river and west to Aughton's open fields and downland, may be an old course of the Marlborough- Andover road, which was apparently diverted to higher ground to the west. Several timberframed and thatched houses of the 17th and 18th centuries survive at the crossroads. Aughton House, in the north-east angle, was built in the 17th century as a small timber-framed house of one storey and attics; its southern part was replaced by a two-storeyed red-brick range in the 19th century.
A short distance north of the village Aughton Farm was built in the mid 18th century on the north-east side of what may then have been the main road. Of red brick with a thatched roof, it had a main north-south range with principal rooms north and south of a stair hall, in which early 17th-century panelling has been reset, and a single-storeyed lean-to on the east. An extension, possibly also of one storey, was built at the south end. The extension was rebuilt with, or raised to, two storeys in 1829, (fn. 38) and the house was reroofed with tiles in the 20th century. (fn. 39) On the waste beside the present main road a few cottages were standing near Aughton Farm in 1843: (fn. 40) none survived in 1995. Alborough House and a pair of cottages were built in the mid 20th century on the west side of the road.
At the southern edge of the village council houses and bungalows, a total of 38, were built as Ham Close and Cuckoo Pen Close in the 1930s and 1960s. (fn. 41)
Settlement at B run ton was in a village street, which was designated a conservation area in 1994. (fn. 42) From the north-east end of the street a lane led west to Aughton via a ford in the Bourne, (fn. 43) and from the south-west end a lane led south, with the Bourne flowing along it, and west to Collingbourne Kingston village. (fn. 44) To link Brunton and Collingbourne Kingston a three-arched red-brick bridge and a new northeast and south-west section of lane were built in 1810. (fn. 45) Buildings stood on both sides of the Aughton lane in 1773, (fn. 46) fewer buildings later. A small group of cottages north of the junction of the street and the Aughton lane was called Townsend in 1798. (fn. 47) In 1843 there were four farmsteads at Brunton, one in the Aughton lane and three in the street; (fn. 48) later they were all superseded by farmsteads built outside the village. (fn. 49) On a steep slope north-east of Townsend strip lynchets, apparently made between 1817 and 1843 for allotments, (fn. 50) survived in 1995.
In the Aughton lane only a much altered house called Waglands Farm survived in 1995, and at Townsend only a timber-framed and thatched cottage. Cottages to survive in the street included a few, timber-framed and thatched, of the 17th century and a few built in each of the following centuries. Six council houses were built in the street in the 1920s and 1930s, (fn. 51) and a few private houses were built in the later 20th century. At the south-west end of the street Brunton House on the south-east side was built in 1692 for William Vince (d. 1697). (fn. 52) It has a regular west front of seven bays, chiefly of brick and with a central Tuscan porch, and has other elevations of banded brick and flint with alterations in brick. It was rectangular, with a central hall and staircase and a room at each corner on each of its two floors: the original staircase survived in 1995. About 1840 the east half of the south front was extended southwards and a new chimney stack was built against the east wall. East of the kitchen, which was in the north-east corner of the house, additional service rooms were built mostly in the 19th century. Terraced gardens were made east of the house, and from the upper terrace an avenue of yew trees led across a small park which had been made south of the house by c. 1773: (fn. 53) traces of the terraces survived in 1995. At the farmstead north of Brunton House a red-brick farmhouse was built in the earlier 19th century.
In the mid 19th century two new farmsteads, each incorporating cottages, were built outside the village, New Buildings, later Spicey Buildings, north of Waglands Farm, and Tinkerbarn to the east: both were standing in 1995. Hill barn, standing east of the village in 1843, and Johnson's barn, built north-east of the village in the mid 19th century, were demolished in the 20th century. (fn. 54)
Settlement at Sunton was on both sides of a north-south street which was part of the Marlborough-Andover road and along the middle of which the Bourne flowed; in 1773 there were more buildings on the east side than the west. (fn. 55) The main road curved to east and west, and in 1835 a new straight section was built to cut across the curves and to bypass Sunton village, which lies to the east of the new section. (fn. 56) In 1995 the east side of the street was lined by c. 15 timber-framed and thatched cottages of the 18th century or earlier, and a few such buildings survived between the Bourne and the new road; a ford remained at the north end of the street. At the south end West Farm was built, apparently as a timber-framed house on a three-roomed plan, in the later 18th century. About 1800 it was encased in brick and enlarged to the west by two gabled wings which were linked by a passage; in the 19th century a gabled extension was built on the north side. West of that house the King's Arms was open in 1773 (fn. 57) and 1855: (fn. 58) unsuccessful attempts to enforce its closure as a house of ill repute were made in 1815. (fn. 59) The village is part of a conservation area designated in 1974. (fn. 60)
A short distance north of Sunton village a farmhouse may have been built in the early 17th century. Sunton Farm was built there in the mid 18th century and incorporates a fireplace and a chimney stack which may have been those of such a predecessor. Sunton Farm was built as an L-shaped house with a stair turret in the north-east angle. The east-west range has a principal south front of seven bays with a central doorway; in 1995 it was a garden front. Original panelling survives in the rooms on both floors at the east end of that range. Reset early 17thcentury panelling in the ground-floor room at its west end, like the fireplace and chimney stack, which that room shares with the north service wing, may survive from an earlier house, the plan of which may have influenced the irregular arrangement of the windows on the south front of Sunton Farm. Between Sunton Farm and the village Corderoy's (later Cawdrey's) Farm is an 18th-century farmhouse of flint with red-brick dressings: in 1835 the new section of the main road east of it replaced the old section west of it. (fn. 61) East of Cawdrey's Farm and of the new section of road stand two thatched cottages apparently of the 17th century or early 18th, each partly timber-framed and partly of flint and brick.
A large house called Highfield Lodge was built on the west side of the new section of road between 1843 and c. 1880, (fn. 62) and from the 1950s private houses were built on that side between Cawdrey's Farm and Highfield Lodge. South of Highfield Lodge an estate of c. 17 private houses was built as Bourne Rise in the angle of the main road and Chick's Lane in the early 1970s.
Cadley, so called in the later 18th century, was a small group of cottages standing on the waste at a road junction on the parish boundary 500 m. east of Sunton village. (fn. 63) The cottages on the north side of the east-west road stood in Collingbourne Kingston parish. Several apparently of the late 18th century or early 19th (fn. 64) survived in 1995; several were burned down c. 1914. (fn. 65) On the north side of the road between Cadley and Sunton two pairs of estate cottages were built in the mid 19th century (fn. 66) and private houses and an estate of 22 council houses were built in the mid and later 20th.
West of Sunton village Oldlands barn was standing in 1773. (fn. 67) Extensive farm buildings were erected a short distance south-east of its site in the 20th century. East of the village Herridge Farm was built between 1843 and 1878: (fn. 68) it was used for racing stables in the 20th century. (fn. 69) Collingbourne Lodge was standing in Coldridge wood in the south-east corner of the parish in 1773. (fn. 70) It was used by a gamekeeper in 1843 (fn. 71) and was demolished in the late 19th century. (fn. 72)
MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
In 1066 St. Peter's abbey, Winchester, otherwise called the New minster and from 1109 called Hyde abbey, held a 50-hide estate called Collingbourne, which almost certainly included Aughton, Brunton, and Sunton but excluded Collingbourne Ducis. Most of it was the later manor of COLLINGBOURNE KINGSTON or COLLINGBOURNE ABBOT'S. The abbey, founded in 901, (fn. 73) claimed to have held the estate from 903 (fn. 74) and held the manor until the Dissolution. (fn. 75)
In 1544 the Crown granted Collingbourne Kingston manor to Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (fn. 76) (cr. duke of Somerset 1547), and in 1552 took it back when Somerset was executed and attainted. In 1553 the manor was assigned by Act to Seymour's son Sir Edward (cr. earl of Hertford 1559), (fn. 77) and from then to c. 1929 it descended in the Seymour, Bruce, Brudenell, and Brudenell-Bruce families with Tottenham Lodge and Tottenham House in Great Bedwyn. (fn. 78) In 1843 the manor included 1,692 a. in the Collingbourne Kingston part of the parish. (fn. 79) About 1929 George Brudenell-Bruce, marquess of Ailesbury, sold Manor farm, 1,117 a., to Alfred May. (fn. 80) In 1982 the farm, until then owned by A. May & Sons, was divided between R. J. May, who in 1995 owned c. 550 a. as Manor farm, and R. G. May & Sons, a partnership which in 1995 owned c. 550 a. as Summerdown farm. (fn. 81) About 1929 Lord Ailesbury sold the remaining Collingbourne Kingston land of the manor as part of Parsonage farm, 900 a., to J. S. Ruttle, who sold it in 1930 to I. C. Crook (d. 1969). The farm passed to Crook's grandson, Mr. J. R. Crook, who with members of his family owned it in 1995. (fn. 82)
Between 1532 and 1544 Margaret Chadderton held land in Collingbourne Kingston. CHADDERTON'S farm descended to her son Edmund Chadderton (d. 1545), (fn. 83) whose son William probably sold it, as he did Manton manor in Preshute, to Thomas Michelborne (d. 1582) in 1571. Chadderton's passed in turn to Thomas's sons Edward, Laurence (d. 1611), who held it in 1595, and Thomas, (fn. 84) who sold it in 1623 to James Jennings. (fn. 85) It passed to James Jennings (d. 1684) and to Robert Jennings (d. 1738). Robert demised the farm to his brother William (d. 1740), and it passed to William's son James (d. 1746 or 1747) and to James's son Robert. (fn. 86) In 1765 that Robert's brother James Jennings sold the farm, 164 a. and pasture rights, to Thomas Brudenell, Lord Bruce. (fn. 87) The estate was thereafter merged with Collingbourne Kingston manor.
The thegn Wulfgar was granted 10 cassati at AUGHTON, probably by King Athelstan c. 933. Between 933 and 948 Wulfgar devised the estate to his wife Aeffe for life with remainder to the New minster (later Hyde abbey) at Winchester. (fn. 88) After Aeffe's death the estate was merged with Collingbourne Kingston manor, and it remained part of it until the earlier 20th century. (fn. 89) About 1929 George, marquess of Ailesbury, sold c. 400 a. to Alfred May (fn. 90) with Manor farm, Collingbourne Kingston: in 1995 part of that land was in Manor farm, part in Summerdown farm. (fn. 91) Also c. 1929 Lord Ailesbury sold most of the land of Aughton House farm, c. 200 a., apparently to A. J. Hosier (fn. 92) with Brunton farm, of which farm the land was part in 1995. (fn. 93)
By will proved 1670 Edward Pile gave PILE'S farm at Aughton to his nephew Robert Pile and grandnephew Edward Pile as joint tenants. (fn. 94) In 1763 Thomas Gilbert (d. 1771) owned the farm, which may earlier have belonged to John Gilbert. The farm, 305 a., descended from Thomas in the direct line to Thomas (d. 1807) and Thomas Gilbert (d. 1840), (fn. 95) whose devisees sold it in 1841 to Charles Brudenell-Bruce, marquess of Ailesbury. (fn. 96) It descended with Tottenham House to George, marquess of Ailesbury, who in 1929 sold it as Aughton farm, c. 331 a., to J. S. Ruttle. (fn. 97) In 1932 Ruttle sold it to P. B. Darnell, (fn. 98) in 1939 Darnell sold it to P. W. B. Roberts, and in 1947 Roberts sold it to R. I. J. Crook (d. 1982), whose son Mr. G. I. Crook owned it in 1995. (fn. 99)
An estate assessed at 10 hides and ½ yardland, part of the 50-hide estate held by St. Peter's abbey, Winchester, in 1066, had became heritable by 1086. It was held of the abbey and consisted of what became COLLINGBOURNE VALENCE manor, which comprised land east of the Bourne and in the 19th century lay in farms based at Brunton, and of what became Chute manor. Croc the huntsman held it in 1086, (fn. 100) it presumably descended in the Croke family, (fn. 101) and in 1201 Ellis Croke (d. 1215) held the manor later called Collingbourne Valence. (fn. 102) That manor descended to Ellis's daughter Avice, the wife of Michael de Columbers (d. 1235), (fn. 103) who sold it in 1245 to Henry III. (fn. 104) The king granted it in 1253 to his half-brother William de Valence, (fn. 105) to whom in 1256 he granted free warren in its demesne. (fn. 106) The manor passed from William, styled earl of Pembroke (d. 1296), to his son Aymer, who assigned it as dower to his mother Joan (d. 1307). From Aymer, from 1307 earl of Pembroke (d. s.p. 1324), (fn. 107) it descended to his nieces Elizabeth and Joan Comyn. In 1325 the manor was allotted to Elizabeth, (fn. 108) and she and her husband Richard Talbot held it in 1327. (fn. 109) In 1332 it was reallotted to Joan's son David of Strathbogie, earl of Atholl (d. 1335), (fn. 110) who immediately sold it to Sir Edmund Cornwall (d. s.p. 1373) and his wife Isabel. In 1373 it reverted to David's heirs. (fn. 111) In 1376 it was allotted to his granddaughter Elizabeth of Strathbogie, who married Sir Thomas Percy, and in 1388 she sold it to her sister Philippe (d. 1395) and Philippe's husband John Halsham (d. 1415). Philippe's son Sir Hugh Halsham (d. s.p. 1442) (fn. 112) in 1438 settled the manor for life on Anne, the relict of his brother Richard and the wife of John Thornbury. From Anne (d. 1460) it passed to Richard's daughter Joan (d. 1495), the wife of John Lewknor (d. 1471). (fn. 113) The Lewknors settled the manor on themselves for life with remainder to Thomas Rogers (d. by 1479) and his son William. (fn. 114) It was later owned in turn by Thomas's son George (d. 1524), George's son Sir Edward, (fn. 115) Sir Edward's son Sir George (d. 1582), and Sir George's son Edward, (fn. 116) who sold it in portions.
The largest portion of Collingbourne Valence manor was sold by Edward Rogers to John Durrington in 1591. It apparently included manorial rights (fn. 117) and was the estate later called BRUNTON manor. Durrington (d. 1619) devised it in thirds, presumably undivided, to his daughters Anne, wife of Adrian Bower, Cecily, wife of William Bower, and Joan (d. 1637), wife of William Vince. Joan's share descended to her son William Vince (fn. 118) (d. 1657) and to William's son William (d. 1697). (fn. 119) Cecily's share passed to her son William Bower, and in 1673 William's relict Mary and son William sold it to William Vince. (fn. 120) The share of Anne (d. 1625) apparently passed to her son Adrian Bower (fl. 1638); (fn. 121) it has not been traced further and was probably acquired by the younger William Vince. Brunton manor passed from that William to his son William, whose administrators sold it in 1714 to Joseph Macham (d. 1752). It descended to Macham's son William, at whose death in 1789 (fn. 122) it passed to his kinsman and heir-at-law John Delmé. In 1794 Delmé sold the manor to William Ludlow. (fn. 123) In 1803 Ludlow sold three fifths of it to William Stagg, (fn. 124) and in 1808 his assigns sold two fifths to Charles Tylee. (fn. 125) Charles Brudenell-Bruce, marquess of Ailesbury, bought Stagg's lands in 1824, (fn. 126) Tylee's in 1825, (fn. 127) and added them to land in Brunton which he already owned. (fn. 128)
A small part of Collingbourne Valence manor was sold by Edward Rogers to Thomas Smith, John Andrews, John Dean, and Salathiel Dean in 1612. It was divided into four small farms, (fn. 129) the lands of most of which apparently belonged to Charles, marquess of Ailesbury, in 1843. (fn. 130)
An estate in Brunton descended from Roger Bacon to his daughter Christine, who sold it in 1350 to Sir Edmund Cornwall (d. 1373). (fn. 131) Cornwall's feoffees conveyed it in 1380 to John Blanchard. (fn. 132) John's son Thomas sold it c. 1426 to William Darell, (fn. 133) who conveyed it in 1426 to Richard Halsham. (fn. 134) In 1485 Constantine Darell (will proved 1508) held what was later called DORMER manor, probably the same estate, and in 1528 his son Constantine sold it to (Sir) Michael Dormer (fn. 135) (d. 1545). The manor was sold by Sir Michael's son Geoffrey to Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset, in 1547, (fn. 136) thereafter descended with Collingbourne Kingston manor and with Tottenham Lodge and Tottenham House, (fn. 137) and in 1843 belonged to Charles, marquess of Ailesbury. (fn. 138)
Nearly all the land of Brunton belonged to Lord Ailesbury in 1843. (fn. 139) It descended with Tottenham House to George Brudenell-Bruce, marquess of Ailesbury, (fn. 140) who in 1929 sold Brunton farm, 1,476 a., to A. J. Hosier (d. 1963) and his brother Joshua. (fn. 141) Mr. N. H. Hosier owned the farm in 1995. (fn. 142)
Much of Sunton's land was held customarily as part of Collingbourne Kingston manor. (fn. 143)
An estate of 1 hide and ½ yardland conveyed by William son of Edmund to Gervase and his wife Maud in 1199 (fn. 144) was presumably that of 6½ yardlands held freely of Hyde abbey by Thomas Gervase in 1232. The 6½ yardlands became one of two manors called SUNTON and was held after 1232 by Hugh Chaucy. (fn. 145) The manor descended in the Chaucy family. Thomas Chaucy conveyed it in 1444 to John Benger, (fn. 146) who in 1447 settled it on another John Benger and that John's wife Anne. (fn. 147) Later the manor passed from John Benger, possibly Anne's husband, to his brother George. In 1511 George Benger sold it to William Chaucy (fn. 148) (d. 1523), (fn. 149) from whom it passed to his daughter Joan, the wife of William Thornhill, and in 1548 William sold it to Edward, duke of Somerset. (fn. 150) Thereafter it descended with Collingbourne Kingston manor and with Tottenham Lodge and Tottenham House. (fn. 151) Presumably including land in Sunton which had been part of Collingbourne Kingston manor, it was sold in 1930 as West farm, 654 a., by George, marquess of Ailesbury, to Marjorie Wroth (d. 1981), who added Corderoy's farm to it. In 1937 Marjorie and her husband, Leslie Wroth (d. 1965), sold the west part of West farm, c. 390 a. including most of Snail down, to the War Department, and the Ministry of Defence owned that land in 1994. (fn. 152) The rest of West farm, c. 380 a., was sold by the Wroths to W. E. & D. T. Cave in 1948 and bought in 1983 by Mr. R. D. Hendry, the owner in 1995. (fn. 153)
A freehold in Sunton was held by Henry of Bridport in the earlier 13th century. He conveyed it to Hyde abbey, from which Thorold held it in 1232 as ½ knight's fee. (fn. 154) As the second SUNTON manor Hugh Thorold held it in 1394, (fn. 155) and Hugh Thorold, presumably another, held it in 1448. (fn. 156) The manor may have been held by a member of the Hyde family in the mid and later 17th century, (fn. 157) had been acquired by Thomas Bruce, earl of Ailesbury, by 1780, (fn. 158) and thereafter descended with Tottenham House. (fn. 159) As Sunton farm and Herridge farm, each presumably including land in Sunton which had been part of Collingbourne Kingston manor, it was sold c. 1929 by George, marquess of Ailesbury. Sunton farm, 347 a., was bought by C. G. Fribbance; (fn. 160) later the farm was divided, and its land was held c. 1994 by Mr. D. Leigh, Mr. I. Leigh, and Mr. P. Walker. (fn. 161) Herridge farm, c. 435 a., was bought by A. G. Bendir; (fn. 162) in 1995 the farm, c. 200 a., was owned by Mr. Richard Hannon. (fn. 163)
Francis Corderoy (d. 1716) devised CORDEROY'S farm, 124 a. in 1809, to his nephew Edward Corderoy, (fn. 164) who in 1745 sold it to Charles Earle. On Charles's death c. 1758 the farm may have passed to his brother John, and it passed to his sister Elizabeth Earle (d. unmarried 1780), who settled it in turn on Edward Poore (d. 1780 after her) and his daughter Charlotte Poore. (fn. 165) In 1814 Charlotte sold the farm to Charles Brudenell-Bruce, earl of Ailesbury. (fn. 166) It thereafter descended with Tottenham House to George, marquess of Ailesbury, who in 1930 sold the farm, c. 112 a., to Marjorie Wroth. (fn. 167) It was thereafter part of West farm. (fn. 168)
Woodland presumably in the south-east part of the parish was divided between the lords of Collingbourne Kingston and Collingbourne Valence manors in 1241, (fn. 169) and the extensive woodland east of Sunton (fn. 170) thereafter belonged to the lord of Collingbourne Kingston manor. (fn. 171) In 1935 George, marquess of Ailesbury, sold Collingbourne and Coldridge woods, c. 850 a., to the Forestry Commission, the owner of both in 1995. (fn. 172)
In 1448 Hyde abbey appropriated Collingbourne Kingston church and until the Dissolution held the RECTORY estate, which consisted of most of the great tithes of the parish and, at Collingbourne Kingston, of a house, some cottages, and 89 a. (fn. 173) The Crown granted the estate in 1541 to the dean and chapter of Winchester. (fn. 174) In 1843 the tithes were valued at £1,230 and commuted. In 1865 the dean and chapter sold Parsonage farm, 105 a., to the trustees of Matilda Assheton-Smith. (fn. 175) By 1910 the farm had been acquired by Henry BrudenellBruce, marquess of Ailesbury, (fn. 176) whose son George, marquess of Ailesbury, sold it c. 1929 as part of a much enlarged farm. (fn. 177)
In 1086 the 50-hide estate called Collingbourne, which almost certainly included Aughton, Brunton, and Sunton, may not have been fully cultivated. There were 27 ploughteams on land for 32. Excluding the later Collingbourne Valence manor, there were in demesne 10 hides on which there were 4 teams and 13 servi, and 40 villani and 13 coscets had 15 teams. There was 2 a. of meadow, and both pasture and woodland measured 1 by ½ league. (fn. 178)
The village's land, c. 2,140 a., lay mostly west of the Bourne. (fn. 179) In the 16th century open fields called West (later Middle), North, and South lay west of the river, and one called East field lay east of it. To the west lay extensive rough pasture for sheep; east of East field Cow down was used in common for cattle. (fn. 180)
There was a flock of 818 sheep on the demesne of Collingbourne Kingston manor in 1210. (fn. 181) At Collingbourne Kingston there were 9 yardlanders and 13 ½-yardlanders on the manor. Labour services owed by the yardlanders included ploughing, harrowing, washing and shearing the lord's sheep, and carting wool to Winchester. Each yardlander provided a man to weed on the demesne for half a day, each mowed and carted hay, and at the harvest each owed various services, to perform some of which two men were provided for a day. The ½-yardlanders owed half the services of the yardlanders, and 3 coscets worked on the demesne from 1 August to 29 September. Customary tenants at Sunton may also have worked on the demesne at Collingbourne Kingston. (fn. 182)
In 1552 the demesne farm included 500 a. of arable, all in the open fields, 10 a. of inclosed meadow, and a several down of 60 a.; the farmer could keep 1,500 sheep and presumably had rights to feed them on other downland. Five copyholders had 221 a. of arable and pasture rights for 600 sheep and 31 cattle, all in common. (fn. 183) About 1600 all the arable remained open, but more of the downland was several. The demesne, later Manor farm, then had 427 a. in the open fields, 11 a. of inclosed meadow, and 320 a. of several downland pasture for sheep: 6 a. of the downland was used as additional meadow land. Parsonage farm included 90 a. in the open fields and a several meadow of 3 a. on the downs. Manor farm, Parsonage farm, and the copyholds shared 642 a. of downland pasture including Cow down, 300 a., Winter down, 160 a., Summer down, 30 a., and Thornhill down, 60 a. (fn. 184) Cow down, then 250 a., was divided and allotted under a private agreement of 1693. In that year Manor farm included 596 a. of arable, of which 360 a. was sown each year, mostly with barley, and a flock of 1,300 sheep. (fn. 185) About 1765 Chadderton's farm, based at a farmstead south of the church, had 101 a. in Collingbourne Kingston and 53 a. in Brunton with pasture rights in both places. (fn. 186)
By the early 19th century most of Collingbourne Kingston's lands and pasture rights had been concentrated in two large farms, Manor, 1,074 a., and a farm of 678 a. (fn. 187) In 1824 the four open fields, then 356 a., and the common pastures west of them, then 337 a., were inclosed by Act. (fn. 188) In 1843 Manor farm, 961 a., lay entirely west of the Bourne. Parsonage farm, in 1843 consisting of 104 a. east of the Bourne, (fn. 189) and the 678-a. farm were worked together from the later 18th century to the later 19th by members of the Mackrell family. (fn. 190) In 1843 the composite farm, 834 a., lay on both sides of the Bourne, being south of Manor farm on the west side; (fn. 191) it was afterwards known as Parsonage farm. In the earlier 20th century Manor, c. 1,074 a., and Parsonage, c. 883 a., were the only farms based in Collingbourne Kingston village. (fn. 192) There was a dairy on Manor farm in 1929, when the farm included c. 500 a. of arable and c. 600 a. of grassland. (fn. 193) From 1929 c. 400 a. of Aughton's land was part of Manor farm, which was divided in 1982 to create Manor and Summerdown farms, each of c. 750 a. Both were arable farms in 1995, when Manor was still worked from the farmstead in the village and Summerdown was worked from new buildings near the old Marlborough road. (fn. 194) In 1995 Parsonage farm, c. 900 a., was worked in conjunction with Aughton farm and was devoted to dairying, arable, and beef; its farmstead in the village was little used, the farm being run instead from new buildings to the south-west. (fn. 195)
The only woodland on Collingbourne Kingston's land in 1773 was Hogdown copse west of the old Marlborough road. (fn. 196) It measured 16 a. in 1809. (fn. 197) In 1843 it and c. 20 a. of other plantations west of the road were among woods associated with a manor house at Everleigh. (fn. 198) They were standing in 1995, when they were within a military training area. (fn. 199)
A mill was standing on Collingbourne Kingston manor in 1232. (fn. 200) A windmill mentioned in 1341 (fn. 201) may have been the predecessor of the tower mill which stood south-west of the village in 1773. (fn. 202) The mill was demolished in the later 19th century. (fn. 203)
The open fields and common pastures of Aughton, c. 1,030 a. all west of the Bourne, were shared from the 16th century to the 18th between the demesne farm of Collingbourne Kingston manor, three freeholds of which the largest came to be called Pile's farm, and copyholders of Collingbourne Kingston manor with holdings based at Aughton. (fn. 204) In 1552 there were 6 copyholds, 1 of 3 yardlands, 2 of 2 yardlands, and 3 of 1 yardland. They included c. 318 a. of arable and rights to feed a total of c. 660 sheep. Several tenants were allowed to pasture more than the usual 60 sheep for a yardland. (fn. 205) About 1600 c. 136 a. of the open fields and feeding rights on the downs were in the demesne farm of Collingbourne Kingston (later Manor farm). (fn. 206)
In 1763 three of Aughton's four open fields, North, South, and Low, c. 720 a., were inclosed by private agreement. Brakeham field remained open and Aughton down remained in common use. The largest farm was apparently Gilbert's, later Aughton, for which 238 a. of arable was allotted; 84 a. was allotted for Manor farm, and 89 a. for a copyhold, and there were several smaller farms. (fn. 207) In 1809 Aughton farm covered 305 a., and farms of 258 a., 187 a., 154 a., and 27 a. were also based at Aughton. (fn. 208) All presumably included pasture rights on the downland. Common husbandry ceased in 1824 when Brakeham field and Aughton down were inclosed by Act. (fn. 209) In 1843 Aughton farm was 412 a. and farms of 303 a. and 202 a. were based in the village. They included c. 613 a. of arable, 22 a. of meadow, and 252 a. of downland pasture. (fn. 210) Two of the three farms were badly managed c. 1867. (fn. 211) The three had changed little in size by 1929. (fn. 212) Later, Aughton farm, 336 a., was worked with Parsonage farm, Collingbourne Kingston, as it was in 1995, when it was devoted to dairying, arable, and beef. A farm of c. 400 a. was added to Manor farm and in 1982 divided between Manor and Summerdown farms; in 1995 that land was mainly arable. (fn. 213) The 202-a. farm of 1843 became Aughton House farm and was added to Brunton farm, a mixed farm in 1995. (fn. 214)
There was a malthouse at Aughton in 1843. (fn. 215)
In 1086 there were 8 or perhaps 10 ploughteams at Brunton. (fn. 216) Of Brunton's land, c. 1,620 a., much was imparked in the 13th century. The lord of Collingbourne Valence manor probably held woodland east of Brunton in severalty from 1241, (fn. 217) and William de Valence, lord of the manor, imparked woodland c. 1253. (fn. 218) In 1254 the king gave him 5 bucks and 15 does to stock the park. (fn. 219) By 1256 a pale had been made, and a hedge planted, as boundaries, and a deer leap had been constructed; a ditch forming part of the boundary may have been the prehistoric one on the parish boundary east of Brunton. (fn. 220) William de Valence acquired c. 10 a. by exchange in 1257 and apparently used the land to extend the park southwards. (fn. 221) Later the park reverted to agriculture: it was probably the easternmost 400 a. of Brunton, which in 1843 lay inclosed as arable fields of 10-15 a. and bore c. 140 a. of woodland. (fn. 222)
West and north-west of the park Brunton had c. 250 a. of common downland pasture, in the 20th century called Fairmile down, and west of that c. 600 a. in open fields. In the 18th century there were four open fields, called Slough, Har ley, Coombe, and Stonehill. (fn. 223) All that land was shared by Collingbourne Valence (later Brunton), Dormer, and Collingbourne Kingston manors and Chadderton's farm. Neither Collingbourne Valence nor Dormer is known to have had customary tenants; in 1232 Collingbourne Kingston manor's land was in four customary holdings, each of 1 yardland, (fn. 224) in 1552 in two holdings totalling 3 yardlands. (fn. 225) About 1765 Chadderton's farm, based in Collingbourne Kingston village, included in Brunton a close of 15 a., 38 a. in the open fields, and the right to downland pasture for 100 sheep. (fn. 226) Five main farms were based in Brunton in the later 18th century. In 1773 Dormer was 244 a. and the copyhold land of Collingbourne Kingston manor was a farm of c. 75 a.; (fn. 227) in 1794 Brunton manor included three farms, Brunton, 277 a., Heath, 106 a., and Brunton House, 270 a. In the former parkland, where it had a barn, Heath farm was apparently several, (fn. 228) but all the other farms included pasture rights on the downland.
The open fields and common pastures were inclosed under a private agreement of 1799. In 1843 there were four farms based in the village, Brunton, 774 a., Brunton House, 166 a., Ivy House, 347 a., and Waglands, 154 a. Between 1799 and 1843 a new farmstead in the village and Hill barn on former open-field land were built for Brunton farm, which included 111 a. of Collingbourne Kingston's Cow down. Heath farm, 91 a., was worked from outside the parish in 1843. The farms then had a total of c. 1,170 a. of arable. (fn. 229) Two more farmsteads were built outside the village in the mid 19th century. (fn. 230) In the early 20th century most of the farmland was in Brunton farm, c. 1,422 a., which with c. 200 a. in Aughton was worked by S. W. Farmer and W. B. Gauntlett, pioneers of intensive arable and dairy farming. (fn. 231) In the mid 20th century Brunton farm was worked in conjunction with Wexcombe farm in Grafton parish by A. J. Hosier and members of his family, who also farmed by new methods. (fn. 232) In 1995 Brunton farm, 1,650 a., was an arable, dairy, and beef farm. (fn. 233)
Of the woodland imparked c. 1253 (fn. 234) and of c. 140 a. of woodland standing in 1843 (fn. 235) only Brokenway copse, 19 a., and Heath copse, 10 a., were standing c. 1880. (fn. 236) Of woodland on Collingbourne Kingston manor c. 1600, c. 44 a. was said to stand in Brunton (fn. 237) and may have been part of the woodland in 1843 considered to be in Sunton. (fn. 238)
There were three mills on Collingbourne Valence manor in 1324, (fn. 239) but the site of none at Brunton is known.
Before inclosure Sunton had, east of the Bourne, East field and, further from the village, the Heath, a total of c. 815 a.; west of the Bourne it had West field and Snail down, a total of 785 a.; the rest of its roughly 2,520 a. was woodland to the east. (fn. 240) The agricultural land was shared by customary tenants of Collingbourne Kingston manor with holdings based in Sunton and by the two manors called Sunton, each of which may have consisted of a single farm, the later West and Sunton farms. (fn. 241)
In 1232 Collingbourne Kingston manor had 10 yardlanders at Sunton. Their labour services were the same as those of yardlanders holding at Collingbourne Kingston and may have been performed at Collingbourne Kingston. (fn. 242) In the late 16th century the 10 copyholds included 157 a. in East field, 226 a. in West field, and rights to feed 1,200 sheep and 120 cattle and horses on the Heath, Snail down, and a cow down. The largest holding included 74 a. of arable and feeding for 200 sheep and 20 cattle and horses, the smallest 22 a. of arable and feeding for 8 cattle and horses. (fn. 243)
In 1703 West farm measured 308 a. and included 180 a. of arable. (fn. 244) It had 370 a. in Sunton and 66 a. in Collingbourne Kingston in 1730, by when former copyhold land at Sunton may already have been added to it. (fn. 245) In the later 18th century there was 716 a. in the open fields shared among 11 holdings, which all had land on both sides of the Bourne. Sunton farm had 232 a. in the fields, West farm 190 a., the largest farm consisting of copyholds or former copyholds 159 a., and Corderoy's farm 25 a. There was already inclosed land called Herridge and Pransley. The Heath then measured c. 330 a., Snail down 271 a. (fn. 246) Common husbandry was eliminated and farms were enlarged as copyholds fell in hand and Sunton's land came into single ownership. In 1809 pasture rights were still part of Corderoy's farm, 124 a., and of one or more copyhold, (fn. 247) but in 1814 Corderoy's farm was bought by the owner of almost all the other land of Sunton, (fn. 248) and in 1815 the arable and pasture were worked in severalty. Sunton farm then measured 945 a. and lay mainly east of the Bourne, West farm had 608 a. mainly west of it. Each included a barn at the edge, respectively east and west, of the former open fields. (fn. 249) In 1843 Sunton farm, 925 a., included c. 600 a. of arable, and West farm, 659 a., included c. 379 a. of arable. (fn. 250)
Between 1843 and 1878 the east part of Sunton farm apparently became a new farm, Herridge, worked from a farmstead at the north edge of the Heath. (fn. 251) Racehorses were trained on Herridge farm, 380 a., in the earlier 20th century. (fn. 252) In 1995, then c. 200 a., the farm was associated with stables in Everleigh and still used for training racehorses. (fn. 253) In 1910 Sunton, 334 a., and Corderoy's, 107 a., were separate farms held by a single tenant. (fn. 254) In 1973 Sunton farm was divided among other farms. (fn. 255) West farm, 622 a. in 1910, (fn. 256) was greatly reduced after 1937 when much of Snail down was taken for military training. (fn. 257) The farmstead in the village was given up, Oldlands piggery at the north-east edge of Snail down was built, and in 1995 the land was used as an arable and pig farm. (fn. 258)
In 1544 Collingbourne wood east of the Heath, c. 300 a., was managed by the lessee of the demesne of Collingbourne Kingston manor as woodward and stood divided into 14 coppices. (fn. 259) About 1600 c. 237 a. of woodland stood in 13 coppices and there were deer and a lodge, (fn. 260) and in the 18th century c. 407 a. stood in 14 coppices. (fn. 261) Collingbourne wood and Coldridge wood south-east of it measured 860 a. in 1843. (fn. 262) They belonged to the Forestry Commission from 1935, and from 1937 were replanted, mainly with beech trees. In 1994 there was a herd of roe deer, and the woodland was used for commercial forestry and leisure activities such as riding and pheasant shooting. (fn. 263)
A weaver lived at Sunton in 1751. (fn. 266)
For the period 1522-1819 some records of the Collingbourne Kingston manor court survive. The court was attended by the lord of the manor's tenants at Aughton, Brunton, and Sunton in addition to those at Collingbourne Kingston; freeholders at Chute also attended it until the mid 17th century. Records of a few meetings of a separate court for the Sunton tenants survive for the period 1559-1819. In the 16th century the Collingbourne Kingston and Sunton courts were both held twice a year, more often when copyhold business required it. Common husbandry at Sunton was regulated in 1577 and at Collingbourne Kingston in 1579, buildings in need of repair were noted, and the death of customary tenants was recorded. In 1578 it was presented that fruit trees were illegally grubbed up at Collingbourne Kingston, and in 1579 a Collingbourne Kingston tenant was presented for coursing illegally. From the 17th century the business of each court was concerned chiefly with copyholds and common husbandry, and in the 18th century each was apparently held once a year. A single set of presentments was normally made at Collingbourne Kingston court for the whole manor, but in 1727 separate presentments were made there for Brunton and Sunton. (fn. 267)
In 1775-6 £353 was spent on the poor, in the three years ending at Easter 1785 an average of £450. In 1802-3, when the poor rate was above the average for Kinwardstone hundred, £650 was spent on regular outdoor relief for 42 adults and 60 children and occasional relief for 30 people, in all nearly a fifth of the inhabitants. (fn. 268) A few paupers were housed in the vicarage house in 1812. (fn. 269) Relief was apparently more generous in 1812-13, when £1,747 was spent and 94 were relieved regularly and 12 occasionally, than in 1814-15, when £801 was spent and 71 were relieved regularly and 14 occasionally. (fn. 270) Only £422 was spent in 1816, but the cost of relief again increased, and £1,411 was spent in 1832. (fn. 271) The parish was included in Pewsey poor-law union in 1835 (fn. 272) and in Kennet district in 1974. (fn. 273)
Collingbourne Kingston church was standing in the 12th century. (fn. 274) It was held by rectors until Hyde abbey appropriated it in 1448. A vicarage was ordained in 1246 and confirmed in 1448. (fn. 275) A proposal of 1650 to transfer the inhabitants of Sunton, except those of Sunton Farm, to Collingbourne Ducis parish (fn. 276) was void, but it foreshadowed the transfer of Sunton to Collingbourne Ducis in 1934. (fn. 277) The vicarage was united with Collingbourne Ducis rectory in 1963, Everleigh rectory was added in 1975, (fn. 278) and the united benefice became part of Wexcombe benefice in 1979. (fn. 279)
The abbot of Hyde presented all the known rectors. An unsuccessful challenge to his right to present was apparently made by the king in 1344. The rectors presented vicars from 1246 to 1448, except in 1333 when a nominee of the bishop of Salisbury presented, and the abbot of Hyde presented them from 1448 to the Dissolution. In 1541 the advowson of the vicarage was granted with the Rectory estate to the dean and chapter of Winchester and, except in 1573 when Roger Earth and his wife Elizabeth, relict of Thomas Pile, presented by grant of a turn, the dean and chapter thereafter presented vicars. (fn. 280) From 1963 the dean and chapter were entitled to present alternately, and from 1975 twice in every five turns. From 1979 they sat on the board of patronage for Wexcombe benefice. (fn. 281)
In 1291 the rectory was valued at £20, the vicarage at £4 13s. 4d. (fn. 282) The vicarage was worth £16 in 1535. (fn. 283) In 1655 it was augmented with £30 a year, (fn. 284) but later the augmentation from the dean and chapter of Winchester, the owners of the Rectory estate, was of £20. (fn. 285) The vicarage was worth £261 c. 1830. (fn. 286) The rector presumably took all tithes from the whole parish until 1246, when the great tithes from the glebe and small tithes from the whole parish were assigned to the vicar, (fn. 287) and took all tithes other than the vicar's until 1448. By then the vicar was receiving most of the wool tithes from the parish in addition to the tithes assigned in 1246, (fn. 288) and by the 17th century most of the lamb tithes. (fn. 289) In 1843 his tithes were valued at £320 and commuted. (fn. 290) The rector had 1 carucate and a meadow in 1341, (fn. 291) 89 a., a house, and some cottages in 1448. (fn. 292) The vicar had no glebe but a house, one having been assigned by the rector in 1246, (fn. 293) until 7 a. east of the church was bought in 1871. (fn. 294) That land was still held in 1994. (fn. 295) In 1783 the house was of stone, timber, and brick and contained a partly wainscotted parlour. (fn. 296) It was presumably the house southeast of the church extended northwards by the addition of a brick range of two storeys and attics c. 1812 (fn. 297) and eastwards in 1860. (fn. 298) A large new red-brick house was built north-east of the church c. 1880 and the old house was demolished. (fn. 299) The new house was sold in 1964. (fn. 300)
Robert de Cardeville, treasurer of Salisbury cathedral, in 1254 gave up Collingbourne Kingston rectory to a Roman provided by the pope. (fn. 301) Robert of Worcester, rector 1296-1324, was in 1300-1 and 1304 licensed to study and in 1308 licensed to accompany the abbot of Hyde abroad. (fn. 302) The rectors from 1348 to 1382, and perhaps most rectors after 1246, were pluralists and probably non-resident. (fn. 303) From the 16th century most vicars were also pluralists, several incumbencies were long, and curates were often employed. The vicar 1538-73 employed a curate, (fn. 304) as did Bartholomew Parsons, vicar 1611-42, whose son Edmund was curate in 1630. Bartholomew was a local pluralist and published sermons including that preached at Sir Francis Pile's funeral in Collingbourne Kingston church in 1635. (fn. 305) Leonard Alexander, vicar from c. 1642 to 1661, was ejected in 1647 and John Norris was intruded. (fn. 306) In 1674 the vicar, Richard Boardman, a presbyterian, attempted to dismiss the churchwardens for refusing to buy the Book of Homilies, the Book of Common Prayer, and a Bible. (fn. 307) Several later vicars were minor canons of Winchester. They included Nicholas Westcombe, vicar 1770-1813, (fn. 308) who lived at Winchester. In 1783 his curate, who was the vicar of Milton Lilbourne, held a Sunday service alternately morning and afternoon, held services on Good Friday and Christmas day, and administered the sacrament to c. 30 communicants at Christmas, Easter, Whitsun, and Michaelmas. (fn. 309) The curate in 1812 lived at Burbage. (fn. 310) The vicar 1814-33 employed a curate who in 1832 lived in the vicarage house and held a Sunday service alternately morning and evening. (fn. 311) In 1850-1 c. 320 people attended each service. (fn. 312) C. H. Poore, vicar 1839-79, (fn. 313) employed no curate and apparently resided. In 1864 he held, and preached at, two services each Sunday. Weekday services were held on Christmas day, Wednesdays and Fridays in Lent, and every day in Holy Week; in Lent and Holy Week the congregation numbered c. 20. Poore administered the sacrament on Christmas day, Easter Sunday, and Trinity Sunday to 40-5 communicants and once every seven weeks to c. 30. (fn. 314)
The rent from 1 a. at Sunton and ½ a. at Aughton had been given to the church by the early 18th century, that from the 1 a. evidently by c. 1600. (fn. 315) The rent, £1 15s. in 1935-6 and £26 in 1994, was used for general church expenses. (fn. 316)
The church, called St. John the Baptist's in 1344 (fn. 317) but ST. MARY'S by 1763, (fn. 318) is built of rubble with freestone dressings and consists of a chancel, an aisled and clerestoried nave with south porch, and a west tower. (fn. 319) The present nave survives from the late 12th century, when the arcades were cut through it and the aisles were built. The chancel was rebuilt in the 13th century, the date of the surviving chancel arch, and again in the earlier 14th; in the mid 14th century a new window was made in its south wall. The clerestory was built presumably in the late 12th century, when the aisles were built, or in the 13th century, when the chancel was rebuilt. In the earlier 14th century the east bay of the north aisle was rebuilt, probably to provide for a chapel. In the 15th century the tower and the porch were built and, except the west window of the north one, all the windows of both aisles were renewed. In the earlier 18th century the windows of the clerestory were replaced, the roof of the nave was reconstructed, and a west gallery was erected. (fn. 320) At a restoration of the nave in 1861-2 under the direction of John Colson the gallery was removed, the chancel arch was repaired, and the clerestory windows were altered. (fn. 321)
Constantine Darell (will proved 1508) and his wife Joan (d. 1495) (fn. 322) were commemorated by a brass in the chancel. In the south-east corner of the chancel a large canopied monument of painted stone incorporates effigies of Thomas Pile (d. 1561), his son Sir Gabriel (d. 1626), and their wives. (fn. 323)
In 1553 the king's commissioners took 24 oz. of plate and left a 9-oz. chalice. In 1891 and 1994 a chalice and paten, both hallmarked for 1687, were held for the church. (fn. 324) There were four bells in 1553. They were replaced by four cast in 1614 by John Wallis, and the ring was increased to five by a tenor cast by Samuel Knight in 1695. The tenor was recast by John Taylor & Company of Loughborough (Leics.) in 1896, when the ring was increased to six by a treble cast at the same foundry. (fn. 325)
Registrations of baptisms and burials exist from 1653, of marriages from 1654. Those of baptisms and burials are lacking for 1744-5 and 1747-54, those of marriages for 1744-5 and 1747-53. (fn. 326)
Daniel Burgess, ejected from Collingbourne Ducis rectory for presbyterianism, (fn. 327) in 1669 preached at a conventicle held in a house in Collingbourne Kingston parish. (fn. 328) There was no dissenter in the parish in 1676. (fn. 329) A meeting house at Sunton was certified in 1697, and in 1815 and 1818 houses at Collingbourne Kingston were certified by Methodists. (fn. 330) In 1819 a chapel for Methodists was built at Collingbourne Kingston. It was attended by 143 in the morning, 274 in the afternoon, and 240 in the evening on Census Sunday in 1851. (fn. 331) In 1914 a new medium-sized red-brick chapel was built on the south side of the old, (fn. 332) which was later demolished. The chapel was closed in 1985. (fn. 333)
A total of 83 children attended several small schools in the parish in 1818. (fn. 334) In 1833 there was a school for 15 girls and another for 40 children. (fn. 335) A new school was built in 1845. It was attended in 1846-7 by c. 90 children, (fn. 336) in 1858 by 80-90, including some from Collingbourne Ducis. (fn. 337) On return day in 1871 it was attended by 84. (fn. 338) Average attendance was 130 in 1913-14, 65 in 1926-7, and 135 in the years 1932-8. (fn. 339) The school was closed in 1978, when the 28 children on the roll were transferred to Collingbourne Ducis school. (fn. 340)
CHARITIES FOR THE POOR.
When Collingbourne Kingston church was appropriated in 1448 the bishop of Salisbury required that 8s. a year from the Rectory estate should be given to the poor of the parish: (fn. 341) there is no evidence that it ever was.
By will proved 1878 Anne Clarke gave the income from £1,600, and by will proved 1890 Elizabeth Piper gave that from £1,000, to buy blankets and coal for old paupers. In 1904 the joint income, c. £74, was spent on blankets, coal, and small money doles for 81 people. (fn. 342) In 1922-3 coal was given to 22 and money to 21, in 1934-5 coal to 28 and money to 29. (fn. 343) In 1994 the income was c. £100 and 7 people each received £10. (fn. 344)
In 1895 John Mackrell gave the income from £200 to insure and maintain his family's memorial windows in Collingbourne Kingston church and to buy coal and other gifts for old and sick paupers. The income for the poor, c. £4, was usually given to a clothing club. (fn. 345) In 1994 £3 was given to a general fund for the church. (fn. 346)