A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1, the City of Kingston Upon Hull. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1969.
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THE PARISH CHURCHES (fn. 1)
The Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, Hull
The earliest mention of a church in what later became Kingston upon Hull is between 1197 and 1210. A chapel in Myton, in the parish of Hessle, then figured in a dispute between the canons of Guisborough, as rector of Hessle, and the monks of Meaux, as lord of Myton. (fn. 2) The chapel, which may have been on the site of Holy Trinity, was subsequently destroyed. (fn. 3) Holy Trinity chapel itself was perhaps established in 1285, when James Hellward is said to have been concerned in its foundation. (fn. 4) Certain parochial rights were attached to it as early as 1301 when the archbishop licensed the consecration of a churchyard, and this was enlarged in 1302. (fn. 5) It remained, nevertheless, a chapel of Hessle.
Up to the Dissolution the incumbents of Hessle were usually canons of Guisborough, and they were assisted by the chantry-priests at Hull. After the suppression of the chantries the staff of Holy Trinity appears to have been reduced to three: (fn. 6) the vicar, resident usually at Hessle, a curate, or 'reader', resident at Hull, (fn. 7) and the grammar-school master. (fn. 8) In 1556 the corporation was authorized to pay the curate £6 6s. 8½d. a year, (fn. 9) and in 1560 Trinity House offered £6 yearly towards his salary. (fn. 10) The fitness of the chapel to be a parish church was recognized in 1548, when it was apparently being used as such. (fn. 11) In 1651 an attempt was made to free it from its dependency on the mother-church, (fn. 12) and in 1661 an Act was passed which formally recognized what had long been the situation for most practical purposes. (fn. 13)
By this Act the vicarage was made 'distinct and separate' from Hessle. The patronage, which had been in the hands of the Crown since the Dissolution, was vested in Hull Corporation. The corporation retained it until municipal reform in 1835, when it was sold for £3,685 to John King, a leading local evangelical. (fn. 14) Thirteen trustees, four of whom were to be local incumbents, were constituted patrons. The nine lay patrons had to contribute at least £25 to a patrons' fund, and assent to the Thirty-nine Articles. (fn. 15) In 1908 the trustees formed themselves into a private company with a capital of fifty £1 shares. The number of patrons remained the same, but the clerical members could now be drawn from an area within 10 miles of Market Place, (fn. 16) a significant change since by 1908 some local churches, notably St. Mary's, Hull, had a High Church tradition. This was still the constitution of the patronage in 1966. Vacancies are filled by election, those nominated being required to subscribe £25 to the patrons' fund. (fn. 17) By the Act of 1661 the incumbent must be approved by the Crown.
The Act also allotted a stipend of £100 to the vicar, to be paid by the corporation out of a town rate. He was to be free of all out-payments to Hessle, but those to the archbishop were to be met equally by both incumbents. He was also to have the vicarage house in Hull, where the curate had formerly lived. The Vicar of Hessle already by 1347 held land in what was to become Vicar Lane, (fn. 18) and the vicarage house was probably situated there from the first. In 1716 the church property included the vicarage house, various buildings at the east end of the church, and a house. (fn. 19) By 1777 two houses had been added, together with a close of 5 acres in Myton Carr, (fn. 20) allotted at the inclosure in 1773. (fn. 21) The stipend comprised the statutory £100, £6 from old inclosures in Myton, and offerings of 4d. from every house and 2d. from every communicant. In 1777 these offerings yielded about £40 (fn. 22) and in 1825 up to £70. (fn. 23) The stipend in 1865 was £605. (fn. 24) In 1963 the corporation still paid £100 a year, as well as £108 rent for land surrounding the church, presumably taken from the churchyard and the property formerly at the east end. (fn. 25) The Vicarage was still in Vicar Lane in 1864, (fn. 26) but subsequently occupied a succession of sites in Prospect Street, Anlaby Road, and Pearson Park. (fn. 27)
There was a large number of chantries and obits supported in the church. By 1409 the chantries were served by twelve priests called 'priests of the table'. In the same year an endowment was made in memory of Robert Cross, a great benefactor, and at the same time the priests' duties were regulated. They were to attend daily services in the choir, and were 'not to wander more than necessary'; they were further to elect annually two of their number to have control of their common possessions, and all profits were to be divided equally between them. (fn. 28) The presence of these priests at requiem masses is frequently requested. (fn. 29) They lived in twelve houses, at the west end of the churchyard, given to them by John Gregg. (fn. 30) Many of the chantries were endowed for only short periods; those of a long-term or permanent character are listed below.
The earliest recorded chantry is that of John Rotenhering, who in 1309 endowed it with a rent of £4. (fn. 31) When he died nineteen years later, William de la Pole, his chief executor and residuary legatee, was licensed to continue this benefaction. (fn. 32) In 1328 Richard Gretford left property and an annual rent of £1 14s. to endow a chantry, (fn. 33) and five years earlier his wife had left a house to her son to provide a similar service. (fn. 34) A chantry founded by James Hellward about 1341 was endowed with a house and rent of £1. (fn. 35) When Sir Richard de la Pole died in 1345 he asked to be buried in the church and for a chaplain to celebrate there. He also left rents for a priest to celebrate in perpetuity in the church where he was buried. (fn. 36) His house was charged with the rent which provided the stipend for Rotenhering's chantry. (fn. 37) Hugh de Hanby in 1372 gave 6 houses to endow Geoffrey de Hanby's chantry. (fn. 38) In 1375 Richard Ravenser, Archdeacon of Lincoln, established a chantry and endowed it with lands worth £10 a year. The endowment was increased by the donor's brother in 1380 with a gift of 5 houses, 2 tofts, and 7½ acres of land. (fn. 39) In 1384 Adam de Tutbury and John de Denton founded a chantry, endowing it with 5 houses and £1 rent. (fn. 40) A house was left by Richard Barker in 1438 for a chaplain, whose stipend was to be £5. (fn. 41)
In 1438 Joan Gregg left property to provide a stipend of £5 6s. 8d. for a priest who was also to have a room at the west end of the church. The chantry, for Joan and her former husband John Gregg, was established in 1445. (fn. 42) In 1453 John Tutbury founded a chantry, endowed with property to provide a stipend of £6 6s. 8d. (fn. 43) John de Bedford's chantry, founded in 1455, was endowed with 10 houses providing a stipend of £5 6s. 8d. (fn. 44) In 1458 Marion Barnard left £1 to maintain a daily mass, (fn. 45) John Scales, in 1467, left 8 houses and other property to maintain a chantry, (fn. 46) and John Grene, in 1468, similarly left 2 houses. (fn. 47) In 1470 John Day left 5 houses and some land to maintain a chaplain for 20 years. (fn. 48) John Haynson's chantry was founded in 1476. (fn. 49)
In 1479 comes the important foundation of John Alcock, native of Hull and Bishop successively of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely. The income, from land in Lincolnshire and property in Hull, was £8 a year, (fn. 50) but it was increased by a further endowment in 1482 to £28. (fn. 51) The chaplain, who received £10 a year, also had to keep the Grammar School, already in existence. From the endowment he paid £2 a year to the parish clerk to teach the boys to sing. (fn. 52) Alcock also obtained papal indulgences for those who visited the chapel on the patronal festivals, the distribution of the alms being regulated by a deed of Archbishop Rotherham. (fn. 53)
In 1481 Margaret Darras left 2 houses for a service; (fn. 54) in 1483 Roger Bushell left £4 annual rent; (fn. 55) and probably in 1518 John Riplingham, of Beverley College, made provision for a priest. (fn. 56) Margaret Dubbings, in 1531, left £10 to the Carmelite Friars to celebrate for her. (fn. 57) In 1532 Thomas Wilkinson gave 4 houses for a yearly mass; after providing for the various participants, the remainder of the income was to go to the chaplain of Corpus Christi guild. (fn. 58) One of the last chantries to be founded was that of John Eland, who left a house worth 8s. 4d. a year in 1533. (fn. 59)
The chantry surveys list only eight chantries, (fn. 60) and others may have been united or lost, or their endowments spent. Some no doubt were concealed. (fn. 61) At the suppression of the chantries, chantry lands were purchased by Sir Michael Stanhope, Henry Thurscross, Alexander Stockdale, Walter Jobson, and John Oversal. (fn. 62) In 1676 the corporation still retained much chantry land and paid the profits from it to the Crown grantees. (fn. 63)
Several of the chantries were served in their own chapels. Two of the rooms on the south side of the chancel, now used as vestries, have, for example, been identified as the chantry chapels of Hanby, Haynson, and Ravenser. (fn. 64) On the south side of the nave were the Alcock chantry chapel (fn. 65) and the 'lowest', or mariners', chapel; (fn. 66) Eland's chantry chapel was near the east end of the south aisle of the chancel; (fn. 67) and Rotenhering's foundation was celebrated in a chapel on the east side of the south transept. (fn. 68) Many other chantries were established at existing altars. Among the altars whose dedications are recorded were those of St. Mary, (fn. 69) St. Anne, (fn. 70) St. James and St. John, (fn. 71) Corpus Christi, (fn. 72) St. James, (fn. 73) St. Mary and St. John the Evangelist, (fn. 74) St. John the Baptist, (fn. 75) St. Lawrence, (fn. 76) St. Eloy, (fn. 77) St. Katherine, (fn. 78) and St. Barbara. (fn. 79) There were also figures of St. Erasmus, St. Barbara, St. Ninian, (fn. 80) St. Michael, (fn. 81) and St. John the Baptist. (fn. 82) In the south choir aisle was a pietà, called 'Our Lady of Grace' by Antony Potter in 1505, (fn. 83) and 'Mother of Pity' by John Swan (d. 1476). (fn. 84) In the north choir aisle was a representation of the Holy Cross. (fn. 85) Gifts towards furnishing the altars were frequent, including several for 'tables of oversea work', which were probably pictures of Flemish origin. Two tables, for example, were given to the altars of St. John the Baptist and Corpus Christi by William Goodknape in 1501. He also made gifts to five other altars, including an altar-cloth and frontal for the Lady altar and a vestment for St. Katherine's. (fn. 86) Other pictures for the Corpus Christi and Lady altars are recorded in 1497, (fn. 87) and in 1520 the donor, Robert Harrison, specified that the subject of his picture should be the story of Corpus Christi. (fn. 88) 'Beds' left by Richard Peke, a priest, in 1481 (fn. 89) and by Thomas Wood, a draper, in 1490 provided coverlets for the catafalque at requiem masses; Wood stated that his bed was to be hung in the church 'among other worshipful beds' on St. George's Day. (fn. 90) There were also bequests to lights, (fn. 91) and others to the High Altar, (fn. 92) to the sacrament, (fn. 93) and for vestments. (fn. 94) In 1502 Thomas Goisman left £10 to make angels, which would ascend and descend at the elevation of the host, 'such as there are at Lynn'. (fn. 95)
The earliest parochial guild was that of the Blessed Virgin Mary, founded in 1351. (fn. 96) This guild, the account book of which survives, (fn. 97) held an annual mass on the Feast of the Assumption. (fn. 98) In 1369 the guild of the Holy Trinity was formed. After 1457 this was exclusively a shipmasters' guild, maintaining its own chantry; it survives as the Corporation of Trinity House. (fn. 99) There were also guilds of the Resurrection, St. John the Baptist, St. George, St. Anne, St. Gregory, St. Eloy, St. Katherine, and Corpus Christi. (fn. 100)
After 1661 the Vicar of Holy Trinity was assisted by a curate, who in the 18th century received £60 a year. (fn. 101) In 1865 there were five assistant curates, (fn. 102) and in 1963 there were three. (fn. 103) After 1573 there was also a 'preacher', or lecturer, (fn. 104) who usually combined this office with a local cure or with the mastership of either the Grammar School or the Charterhouse hospital. The corporation had the right to nominate the lecturer, and in 1835 this passed to the new board of patrons. The corporation had contributed towards the lecturer's stipend, and he was also paid as chaplain of Lister's Hospital. (fn. 105) In 1963 the offices of vicar and lecturer were combined. (fn. 106)
Between 1560 and the Restoration the clergy were frequently in trouble with the ecclesiastical authorities. (fn. 107) In 1561 Thomas Fugall, appointed vicar under Mary, was cited before the Archbishop's court; the charges suggest that he was a conservative who had not accepted the Elizabethan settlement. (fn. 108) His successor, Melchior Smith, an undoubted Puritan, was presented for not wearing a surplice and for irregularity in celebrating Holy Communion. (fn. 109) Griffith Briskin (lecturer 1573–98), Andrew Marvell, father of the poet (lecturer 1624–41), (fn. 110) and John Gouge (curate), Marvell's contemporary, all appeared at court. Gouge was concerned in a controversy over daily prayers, which had been suspended during the plague in 1637 and not resumed. (fn. 111) The vicars sometimes excused themselves on the grounds that they lived at Hessle, (fn. 112) leaving affairs in Hull in the hands of their assistants.
In the 17th century several of the ministers quarrelled among themselves. (fn. 113) William Styles, appointed vicar in 1642, was a Puritan who had been prosecuted for not using the sign of the cross in baptism. (fn. 114) His opponent was John Shawe, a contentious Puritan, who was appointed lecturer at Holy Trinity six months after he had intruded himself into the benefice of St. Mary's, some time in 1644. (fn. 115) In 1651 Styles was ejected for refusing the Engagement. (fn. 116) The corporation, with the permission of Parliament, chose Henry Hibbert to fill the vacancy. (fn. 117) His acceptance, however, was delayed, partly by Shawe's recalcitrance (fn. 118) and partly by the appointment of John Canne, a 'mongrel independent', as chaplain to the garrison. (fn. 119) Parliament further allowed the soldiers to use the chancel as a preaching-house. (fn. 120) After Styles's departure Shawe continued his quarrels with both Canne and Hibbert, until Canne was removed by order of Parliament in 1656, (fn. 121) Hibbert and Shawe himself ejected, and Styles restored. (fn. 122)
With the exception of Abraham de la Pryme, the first historian of Hull (fn. 123) (curate 1698–1701), the 18th century produced no outstanding figure until the advent of Joseph Milner. He is best known for his History of the Church of Christ. (fn. 124) Milner came to Hull as head of the Grammar School in 1767 and in 1768 was appointed lecturer at Holy Trinity. (fn. 125) Soon after his arrival he became a convinced evangelical (fn. 126) and his afternoon sermons were often at variance with those delivered by the vicar in the morning. This led to a charge of Methodism and 'enthusiasm'. (fn. 127) When a vacancy in the living occurred in 1797, however, he was elected by a handsome majority, but he survived his election by only a few weeks. (fn. 128) Partly through his influence a strong evangelical school was established both here and at St. Mary's, and its effect on church life was felt into the 19th century. (fn. 129) Thomas Dykes, a member of this school, was responsible for building St. John's, the first post-Reformation church in the town. (fn. 130) Milner's successor, J. H. Bromby, who was elected to the vacancy whilst in deacon's orders, held the living for close on seventy years. Of no stronglymarked school of churchmanship, Bromby appointed tractarian curates, and there is a tradition that officials of St. Mary's were told 'to keep an eye on Holy Trinity for High Church practices'.
An early provision for services in the church was a papal grant of 1454 that mass might be said before daybreak since townspeople had often 'to put to sea in great haste without hearing mass'. (fn. 131) Although services were curtailed after the suppression of the chantries, matins and evensong were said daily and some attempt to supply choral accompaniment was made. In 1555 John Gospell was appointed as a singer, at a salary of £3 a year; this proving inadequate, he resigned after a year and was given £1 'on account of his poverty'. (fn. 132) Daily services lapsed in 1638, (fn. 133) but were resumed at the Restoration. They continued throughout the 18th century, when there was also a sermon on Wednesdays. In the early part of the century there was a monthly communion, but numbers attending proving too great, a weekly celebration was begun in 1729 (fn. 134) and continued at least until 1764. (fn. 135)
In 1797 the corporation suggested that prayers on Wednesdays and Fridays should replace daily services. (fn. 136) In 1815 a grant was made, to be used at the 'sole direction' of the vicar, to improve the singing, (fn. 137) and a further grant was made in 1831. (fn. 138) The first service with a surpliced choir took place in 1845. (fn. 139) In 1865 there were daily services with a sermon on Wednesday evenings and saints' days; Holy Communion was celebrated twice a month. (fn. 140) John Scott, lecturer, had introduced evening lectures in 1821, providing candlesticks at his own expense. (fn. 141) The lectures lapsed but were revived by an assistant curate, Richard Athill, in 1846. (fn. 142)
From at least the late 17th century there was a library in the church. In 1665 Eleanor Crowle gave £5 to be spent on books, in 1666 £20, with which ten chained books were acquired, and in 1667 a further £5. (fn. 143) A keeper of the library was appointed in 1668, (fn. 144) and the borrowing of books, at first prohibited, was allowed by 1696. (fn. 145) In the 18th century £2 a year was spent on books, (fn. 146) and purchases were made until at least 1860. (fn. 147) In 1907, when it was transferred to Hull Museum, the library consisted of 800 volumes, mainly theological, many from the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 148) The books were transferred to the University Library in 1938. (fn. 149)
The church of HOLY TRINITY is cruciform, with a central tower. (fn. 150) There are aisles to both nave and chancel. The south transept has a vaulted porch, and there is also a porch, known as the vicar's porch, on the south of the nave.
The transepts are the earliest part of the building and were begun in the last decade of the 13th century, when a general scheme of rebuilding seems to have been undertaken, probably on the site of an earlier church. (fn. 151) Both transepts and chancel are of brick, worked in English bond, with stone dressings. This is some of the earliest medieval brickwork in the country, although much has been replaced. (fn. 152) The windows of the transepts have geometric tracery, which points to a date of c. 1315–20. (fn. 153) It was perhaps this part of the building which was referred to by William Skayll in 1327, when he asked to be buried in the 'new chapel of Holy Trinity'. (fn. 154) The piers of the arch between the north chancel aisle and the transept appear to be earlier in character, and may be part of an earlier building. (fn. 155)
The chancel was erected c. 1320–70. It has a graceful arcade of five bays. The label-stops to the mouldings are female figures, some playing musical instruments. The windows on the south have freeflowing curvilinear tracery, and appear to be earlier than those on the north. These are more stilted in character and give a hint of what was to follow, (fn. 156) whilst the straight lines of the upper lights of the east window show distinct traces of the coming change in fashion. In 1361–2 the corporation collected £11 11s. by means of a duty on wool exports for the benefit of Holy Trinity Church; £5 of the money was handed over to Robert de Selby and Walter Box 'for the work of the church'. (fn. 157) This may refer to the building of the chancel.
Work on the nave began towards the end of the 14th century and was presumably well advanced by 1425, when a mandate for the consecration of the church was issued. (fn. 158) The nave arcade is of eight bays and, like that of the chancel, is of extreme lightness, dictated by the nature of Hull's subsoil. The capitals are mere bands of ornament; the carved hood-stops form an angel choir. The clerestory is continuous, and the aisle walls are really screens for windows. (fn. 159) A number of bequests help to date the work, including one made in 1389 and two in 1391. (fn. 160) The largest bequest was that of Robert de Cross in 1395: this was to pay for the two easternmost windows on either side. (fn. 161)
The tower, of three stages, has a pierced parapet. The rood-stair opening in the north-east pier is of the earlier 14th century. (fn. 162) After the completion of the first stage there was a break in building and this is visible on the exterior. The pause may have been due to settlement, or to the need to wait for the completion of nave and chancel to act as buttresses. Work was not resumed until well into the 15th century and was completed c. 1520–9. (fn. 163) There are two bequests for it in 1497, (fn. 164) two more in 1520, and another in 1523. (fn. 165)
The fabric of the church contains traces of several of the chantry chapels that formerly existed on the south side of the nave and chancel. Several of these chapels are now used as vestries. The vicar's porch contains a blocked doorway that led into the Alcock chantry chapel. (fn. 166) Between the south aisle of the nave and this chapel was an opening, sealed when the chantry was demolished. It was uncovered during the restoration of the nave in 1869, when a figure of a kneeling bishop and a representation of the Trinity came to light. (fn. 167) At the base of each jamb, and facing the aisle, is a roughly-incised late-15thcentury ship; here in this aisle was the 'lowest chapel', or mariners' chapel. (fn. 168) An altar-piece brought from Zeeland was placed here in 1521. (fn. 169) In the eastern corner of the south aisle of the chancel is a similar opening. This has a piscina, and there are arms on the eastern jamb; these identify it as the site of Eland's chantry. (fn. 170)
After the Reformation one of these chapels, on the south side of the chancel and towards the east end, was used by the corporation as a meeting-place until the mid-17th century. In 1666 the roof of the chapel was repaired and the room ceiled and painted. (fn. 171) This was presumably the 'council room' in which the church library was housed in 1668; shortly afterwards the books were removed to another of the former chantry chapel s adjoining the chancel. (fn. 172)
Various repairs were carried out and modifications made in the late 16th century. In 1578 two aldermen were appointed to survey and report on the fabric. (fn. 173) It was about this time that the east window was repaired, (fn. 174) following damage said to have been done by a mob. The 'schoolmaster's loft' for the grammar-school boys (fn. 175) was erected in 1580, followed by the east loft in 1596, and the north and south lofts in 1615. (fn. 176) After a visitation in 1633 the churchwardens were ordered to remove the medieval seats from the east end of the chancel, to rail off two bays there to form a sanctuary, and to place a new communion-table against the east wall. Existing lofts were to be rebuilt on a uniform plan, and the nave was to be refloored. (fn. 177) In 1639 the screens between the transepts and chancel were ordered to be removed. (fn. 178) Part of the ancient roodscreen, two parclose screens, and several bench-ends are all that remain of the medieval woodwork; the rood-screen doors were replaced in 1847. (fn. 179) When in 1651 the chancel was set aside by Parliament for the use of John Canne a wall was erected between the chancel and the transepts. (fn. 180) Access was gained through a window of the Pole family chapel, and so through the tomb arch into the south chancel aisle. (fn. 181) It is not known when the wall was removed.
Further alterations to the lofts were made in 1646 (fn. 182) and 1727, (fn. 183) and in 1815 two bays at the west end were screened off to form a narthex. This was used to house the 14th-century font of fossil marble. Two galleries were erected over this narthex, and the organ was placed in the lower one. The east gallery was also improved, after which there was a public auction of seats. (fn. 184) In 1734 the pulpit was moved to a new position over the middle aisle, (fn. 185) and in 1834 the organ was transferred to the east loft, probably for the musical festival of that year. (fn. 186)
Although the archbishop recommended a skilled organ-builder in 1622, (fn. 187) it is not until 1711 that an instrument is mentioned. (fn. 188) This is traditionally said to have been built for St. Paul's Cathedral and found to be too small. (fn. 189) In 1756 John Snetzler was called in to repair and beautify it, (fn. 190) and he paid periodic visits until 1783. (fn. 191) In 1845 a new organ by Forster and Andrews was erected. (fn. 192)
Until the 19th century the chancel was used only for Holy Communion. The communion procession, a modified form of which survived into the 1950s, took place after the reading of ante-communion. Medieval seats, ranged round the walls, were used by the communicants, but otherwise the chancel was unfurnished. Several bench-ends from these seats, carved with panelling, figures of St. George, and the supposed Tutbury arms and merchant's mark, (fn. 193) are now incorporated in the present stalls.
After the Restoration the communion-table was placed in the body of the chancel, possibly in almost the same position as it now occupies. (fn. 194) The east window at that time and throughout the 18th century was bricked-up to the spring of the arch: (fn. 195) this was presumably the repair work carried out in the late 16th century. In 1711 James Parmentier was paid £50 to paint a picture of The Last Supper, to cover up the space, and this together with panelling formed a reredos. (fn. 196) The mutilated remains of the picture are now in the north chancel aisle. In 1753 Elizabeth Plaxton gave four chandeliers to light the chancel. These were later fitted for gas. (fn. 197) A new altar-table and reredos, an example of English rococo, were bought in 1753; (fn. 198) both now stand behind the present reredos.
In 1830 the east window was opened out, the mullions restored, and glazing inserted. (fn. 199) Three panels of the cardinal virtues were from cartoons of the Reynolds windows at New College, Oxford. (fn. 200) This window was destroyed in the First World War.
The first of several restorations of the fabric during the last 120 years took place under the direction of H. F. Lockwood between 1841 and 1845. (fn. 201) The nave was cleared of galleries and pews, and was refurnished according to Cambridge Camdenian principles. New pews with poppy-heads were the work of George Peck; a pulpit of magnesian limestone was provided; and the rood-screen was renovated and placed under the south arch of the tower. (fn. 202) In 1847 a handsome brass lectern was given by John and George Parker. (fn. 203) At the thanksgiving, the 'cathedral service' was adopted, and surplices, the first used in Hull since the Reformation, were worn by the choir. (fn. 204)
An extensive restoration of the exterior, under Sir Gilbert Scott, took place between 1859 and 1872. The nave was restored first, followed by the transepts, and lastly by the chancel. An attempt was made to replace the brickwork by stone, but Scott resolutely refused to comply. (fn. 205) He drew up a plan for the rearrangement of the chancel so that it could be used 'like a cathedral'. (fn. 206) The altar was furnished with the 'legal ornaments' in 1863 by some of the communicants, who regretted its 'naked state'. (fn. 207) In 1882 the altar was moved from the east wall to its present position and a stone screen erected in memory of J. W. Pease. The screening of the choir was completed in 1897.
In 1906 the building was shored up, and the oak raft, upon which the medieval builders had daringly raised their tower, was replaced by one of concrete; the arcades were strengthened and some of the nave pillars rebuilt. The architect was F. S. Brodrick. (fn. 208) The chancel roof was renewed in 1953–4, the south aisle roof of the nave in 1956–7, the north aisle roof in 1958–9, and the roof of the Pole chapel in 1964. All this work was carried out under H. Andrews. (fn. 209)
Fragments of medieval glass remain in the vestry windows. There are several armorial shields, one of which displays Percy quartering Lucy. (fn. 210) One small roundel of 14th-century glass shows Noah, and another, dated 1609, has the judgement of Solomon. The rest of the coloured glass is of the late 19th and 20th centuries and is by Hardman, Sparrow, and Stammers. There is a window by Sparrow in the south transept. (fn. 211)
The numerous monuments include two medieval tombs, both in the south chancel aisle. That to the east, beneath a recessed canopy, has effigies of a merchant and his wife. They have been said to represent William de la Pole and his wife, (fn. 212) or his brother Richard; (fn. 213) the latter assertion is perhaps the more likely. (fn. 214) To the west is a more elaborate arch with a rich display of heraldry, in which the old Pole arms figure. This tomb, which looks into the Pole chapel, had much of the carving renewed when Isabella Broadley restored the chapel in 1863. (fn. 215) It is reputed to be the tomb of Sir William de la Pole, the younger (d. 1366), and much of the heraldry refers to his companions in arms in campaigns of 1346–7. (fn. 216) In the south transept is an effigy of a lady of c. 1300, which was discovered, buried in the wall, in 1821. (fn. 217) There is one medieval brass, with demifigures of Richard Bylt and his wife. (fn. 218)
On the south wall of the chancel, in a niche, is a painted bust of Thomas Whincop (lecturer 1599– 1624), and in the south transept a tablet to George Lambert (organist 1789–1838). The latter has a carved representation of the 18th-century organ. The floor of much of the east end is paved with a very fine series of ledger stones, many of which are armorial. (fn. 219) There are monuments signed by John Bacon, (fn. 220) William Behnes, (fn. 221) and Thomas Kinson, (fn. 222) and by the local sculptors Edward Foster, (fn. 223) John and Thomas Earle, (fn. 224) and William Day Keyworth. (fn. 225) Below the east and south-east windows are memorials to those who fell in the First World War, one for members of the choir school which was attached to the church from 1884 to 1915. (fn. 226)
In 1953 a nave altar in memory of Marjorie Krynauw, designed by F. F. Johnson, was placed beneath the tower. Johnson also designed the Royal Arms of Elizabeth II, carved by Clifford Longley, erected over the west porch in 1963 to commemorate the Queen's visit to Hull in 1957.
The eight bells were recast and two new ones added by John Taylor of Loughborough in 1899. (fn. 227) Two more were added in 1959, at the cost of the corporation, to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of William Wilberforce. (fn. 228) Each bell was then given a name.
The old plate consists of five cups, three patens, two alms-dishes, and four flagons. One cup, dated 1587, was made by James Carlill (fn. 229) and is the first known piece to bear the Hull assay mark. (fn. 230) Other cups are dated 1605 and 1612, and two were made by Robert Robinson between 1630 and 1640 (fn. 231) and also bear the Hull mark. The flagons are dated 1616, 1690, 1692, and 1694; the patens 1656, 1717, and 1733. One of the alms-dishes is dated 1664, the other is of the early 17th century. (fn. 232) There is a modern chalice and paten. (fn. 233)
The registers date from 1554 for burials and 1558 for baptisms and marriages; they are complete except for baptisms in 1579–80. Extracts have been printed. (fn. 234) Order books begin in 1654, and there are three minute books dealing with various restorations. (fn. 235)
The churchyard was closed in 1855. (fn. 236) A parish burial-ground, opened in Castle Street in 1783, (fn. 237) was closed in 1861, (fn. 238) and a new one, on Hessle Road, was opened in 1862. (fn. 239)
Modern Parishes formed from Holy Trinity
The church of St. John the Evangelist, in St. John Street (later Queen Victoria Square), was the first post-Reformation church in Hull. It was built as a chapel-of-ease to Holy Trinity through the zeal of Thomas Dykes, leader of the Hull evangelicals after the death of Joseph Milner. Dykes sank his fortune in the venture and was reimbursed by the sale of pews. There was some opposition from the corporation, as patrons of Holy Trinity. The church was consecrated in 1791 and opened in 1792. (fn. 240) A District Chapelry taken from the parishes of Holy Trinity and St. Stephen was assigned to it in 1868. (fn. 241) The church was closed in 1917, its parish united to that of Holy Trinity, and the fabric demolished. The parochial rights and endowments were transferred to a new parish formed out of Drypool. (fn. 242) Thomas Dykes occupied the position of perpetual curate for 56 years. (fn. 243) The original church was a rectangular Georgian preaching-house in red brick with stone dressings, and was built on part of the disused town ditch. (fn. 244) Difficulty was experienced with foundations and a considerable sum had to be spent on these in 1803, when a chancel and west tower were added. (fn. 245) The chancel was extended and remodelled by Cuthbert Brodrick in 1863, (fn. 246) and in 1874 Charles Wray produced an elaborate plan for converting the church into a High Renaissance building. (fn. 247) It is not known how much of this plan was carried out.
The church of St. James, in St. James's Square, designed to serve that part of Myton called the Potteries, was consecrated in 1831; services had been held in a school by Thomas Dykes since 1819. (fn. 248) The corporation subsidized the building but refused to give money towards a spire or to rent a pew. (fn. 249) A District Chapelry was formed from Holy Trinity parish in 1874. (fn. 250) The patron was the Vicar of Holy Trinity. The church, of white brick, had a rectangular nave with galleries on three sides, a west tower, a vaulted chancel, and a vestry. It was designed by J. A. Hansom and E. Welch. (fn. 251) The church was demolished and the parish re-united with Holy Trinity in 1957. (fn. 252)
The church of St. Stephen, in St. Stephen's Square, North Myton, was consecrated in 1845 (fn. 253) and a District Chapelry, taken from Holy Trinity, was assigned to it in 1859. (fn. 254) The patron was the Vicar of Holy Trinity. The church, designed by H. F. Lockwood, was in the Early English style and consisted of a nave with aisles, a chancel recess, and a west tower with spire. It was the most elaborate Victorian church in Hull. The nave and aisles were vaulted in plaster supported by iron ribs and had painted and gilded bosses. (fn. 255) The church was damaged by enemy action and was demolished in 1955. (fn. 256) Its parish was united with that of St. Jude. (fn. 257)
The church of St. Luke, in St. Luke Street, was consecrated in 1862 (fn. 258) and in 1864 a District Chapelry, taken from Holy Trinity, was assigned to it. (fn. 259) The patron was the Vicar of Holy Trinity. This church replaced a temporary one, which had been located in disused dissenting chapels—first in Nile Street and later in Porter Street. The site for the church was given by Miss Broadley. (fn. 260) The building, by R. Blessley of London, was of polychromatic brick and had a nave with aisles and chancel. (fn. 261) In 1878 a tower of red brick, by Smith and Brodrick, was added. (fn. 262) The church was badly damaged by enemy action and was later demolished. The site was acquired by the corporation (fn. 263) and the parish was re-united with Holy Trinity in 1957. (fn. 264)
The church of St. Matthew, at the corner of Anlaby Road and Boulevard, was consecrated in 1870 (fn. 265) and assigned a District Chapelry out of Holy Trinity in 1872. (fn. 266) The patron is the Vicar of Holy Trinity. A temporary church, dedicated to St. Michael, had been opened in Coltman Street by the Revd. G. Osborne Browne in 1866. The present church, by Adams and Kelly, is in the Decorated style, built of red and white brick in the polychromatic manner. There is a nave with aisles, an apsidal chancel, and a tower and broach spire at the north-east corner. (fn. 267)
The church of St. Barnabas, at the corner of Hessle Road and Boulevard, was consecrated in 1874 (fn. 268) and a District Chapelry assigned to it from Holy Trinity in the same year. (fn. 269) The patron is a board of trustees. (fn. 270) The site was given by H. Strickland Constable (fn. 271) and the church designed by Samuel Musgrave, of Hull. (fn. 272) It is of red brick in the style of the 12th century. There is a nave with aisles and an apsidal chancel. (fn. 273)
The church of St. Jude, in Spring Bank, was consecrated in 1874 (fn. 274) and a Consolidated Chapelry from Holy Trinity was assigned in that year. (fn. 275) It is a red-brick building, designed by Edward Simpson, of Bradford, (fn. 276) and has nave, with aisles, and chancel in the Early English style. The patron is the Archbishop of York. The parish was united with that of St. Stephen in 1957. (fn. 277)
A temporary church in Campbell Street, dedicated to St. Thomas, was opened in 1873; the permanent church was consecrated in 1882 (fn. 278) and a District Chapelry taken from Holy Trinity parish was assigned to it in that year. (fn. 279) The patron was the Vicar of Holy Trinity. The church was damaged in the First World War (fn. 280) and again in the Second. It has been demolished and its name perpetuated in a district church in the parish of the Ascension. The parish was re-united with that of Holy Trinity in 1957. (fn. 281) The church was cruciform, in red brick, and was designed by Edward Simpson, of Bradford. (fn. 282)
The church of The Holy Apostles, in Walker Street, is a chapel-of-ease to Holy Trinity church, dedicated in 1960. (fn. 283) It replaces and serves the former parishes of St. James, St. Luke, and St. Thomas. It contains a number of fittings and memorials from these churches. (fn. 284) It was partly financed by money deriving from the compulsory purchase of the site of St. Luke's and by compensation for the war damage to that church. (fn. 285) The architect was H. R. Spencer. (fn. 286) It is a dual-purpose building of red brick and has a detached bell-tower.
The Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Hull
The chapel of St. Mary, in Lowgate, is first mentioned in 1327. (fn. 287) Like Holy Trinity it was a chapelof-ease, the mother-church in this case being North Ferriby. In 1333 the mother-church was appropriated to North Ferriby Priory, and in the same year St. Mary's was made a parish church in almost everything but name. (fn. 288) The medieval chaplains seem to have been members of the priory, but after the Dissolution North Ferriby and St. Mary's were separately served and at least since 1682 have had different patrons. (fn. 289)
In 1651 the corporation petitioned Parliament to sever the chapel from its mother-church, (fn. 290) but at the Restoration, it is said, the minister of St. Mary's opposed the parishioners' wishes to apply to Parliament for an Act of separation. (fn. 291) It was not until 1868 that the church was officially styled a vicarage. (fn. 292)
For a time after the Dissolution presentations to St. Mary's may have been made by the patrons of North Ferriby. In 1682 Sir John Brooke sold the advowson to James Bradshaw, of Risby (in Rowley), whose son Ellerker sold it in 1737 to a Hull merchant, Hugh Blaydes. From Blaydes's grandson Benjamin Blaydes Thompson it was purchased in 1777 by Samuel Thornton, (fn. 293) from whom it passed to Abel Smith. (fn. 294) After the restoration of the fabric in 1865, Smith sold it to the vicar, John Scott (II). (fn. 295) In 1938 Scott's daughter-in-law presented the advowson to the Archbishop of York. (fn. 296)
In 1535 the curate received a salary of £4 13s. 4d. from North Ferriby Priory. (fn. 297) In 1685 the church property comprised a house in Chapel Lane, given by Alderman Dobson in 1666 and used as a parsonage, and a house in Lowgate given in 1679 by John Jefferson. The Crown made an annual payment of £4 13s. 4d., presumably out of the rectory, and 15s. was due from the tithes of West Ings, in Myton. (fn. 298) The corporation gave £10. (fn. 299) The value of the living c. 1700 was given as £60, the amount depending almost entirely on the parishioners' contributions. (fn. 300)
A third house, given in 1717 by Eleanor Scott, was included in the church property in 1777, when there was also an Easter levy of 2d. a head on parishioners over sixteen. (fn. 301) In 1792 the benefice was augmented by £200 out of Queen Anne's Bounty. In 1815 and 1816 the executors of Joseph Rennard made payments totalling £500. (fn. 302) This, together with £100 from the patron, went towards £1,700 laid out in 50 acres of tithe-free land at Great Cowden, (fn. 303) the remaining money coming from a parliamentary grant. (fn. 304) The value of the benefice in 1865 was £210. (fn. 305) It is not known when the income from the Myton tithes, or the corporation payment, ceased. The greater part of the endowment income in 1963 was derived from the Lowgate property. (fn. 306) A vicarage house, designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, was built at the east end of the church in 1867. (fn. 307) It was sold in 1954, and in 1964 the Vicarage was in Cottingham Road. (fn. 308)
A chantry was founded by Nicholas Putfra in 1337 and endowed with a house. (fn. 309) In 1448 John Aldwick founded a chantry, endowed with three houses which were to produce a stipend of £2 6s.; after the death of his son this was to be raised to £4 13s. 4d. The chaplain was to have a house in Marketgate. (fn. 310) In 1521 Geoffrey Thurscross founded a chantry and endowed it with £200 and some property. The stipend was to be £5 6s. 8d. (fn. 311) There were also several obits founded in the 15th century. (fn. 312)
There were altars of St. James, (fn. 313) St. Anne, (fn. 314) Our Lady, (fn. 315) St. John the Baptist, (fn. 316) and St. Saviour. (fn. 317) There were also figures of the Saviour (fn. 318) and St. Christopher, (fn. 319) but the chief one was that of 'Our Lady of Hull', so called by Elizabeth Kyrkby in 1487, when she left it a clasp of gold. (fn. 320) Other endowments were for lights. (fn. 321) In 1523 Joan Thurscross mentioned the Jesus guild and guilds of St. Helen and St. James. (fn. 322) There were also guilds of St. Mary (fn. 323) and St. Saviour. (fn. 324) Bequests of vestments occur in 1484 (fn. 325) and 1503. (fn. 326) In 1454 William Clyderhowe left a vestment chest. (fn. 327) The pyx is mentioned in 1525 (fn. 328) and 1540, (fn. 329) and hangings for the Easter Sepulchre in 1440. (fn. 330) The gifts of Joan Thurscross included silver candlesticks, a chalice, and a figured velvet pall. (fn. 331)
There were two ejections in the 17th century. Maurice Corney was turned out by Sir John Hotham in 1642, (fn. 332) and John Boatman, who was probably never legally instituted, left in 1651 after refusing the Engagement. (fn. 333) John Shawe became minister in 1644. (fn. 334) Francis Brokesby, vicar for a year in 1683, was later deprived as a non-juror. (fn. 335) In the 19th century the living was held by the Scotts for nearly 70 years: by John Scott (I) (1816–34), (II) (1834–65), and (III) (1865–83). (fn. 336)
Prayers were read daily and Holy Communion celebrated once every two months in 1743. (fn. 337) In 1865 there were two Sunday services and one mid-week, with Holy Communion twice monthly. (fn. 338) In 1867 John Scott (III) started a weekly celebration, followed by daily offices in 1868. In 1866 he introduced a surpliced choir, and following a parochial mission he formed various guilds. Daily celebrations of Holy Communion began in 1896 under E. J. Tyser and continued until 1953. Tyser also introduced Eucharistic vestments in 1895, and in 1897 he made a sung Eucharist the principal service on Sunday mornings. (fn. 339) The sacrament was first reserved in 1938. (fn. 340)
In 1682 John Bewley presented sixteen books to the church, and a Mr. Metcalf had given eleven more by 1684. (fn. 341) The books do not seem to have been greatly used, (fn. 342) and c. 1705 the efforts to establish a library were said to have 'fallen to nought'. (fn. 343) The library was renovated and the books rebound by John Scott (II), who also made a bequest of theological books. (fn. 344) The library was acquired by the University of Hull in 1966. (fn. 345)
The church of ST. MARY has six bays with aisles. (fn. 346) There is no structurally divided chancel, but one is formed by the three most easterly bays.
Melton's licence in 1333 speaks of the church as newly built (de novo constructa). A gradual rebuilding appears to have been undertaken during the late 14th or early 15th century. It began at the east end, which belongs to the first third of the 15th century, and culminated in the completion of the west tower in the first decade of the 16th century. (fn. 347)
There is reason to believe that the building was well-advanced by the 1430s. At the east end of the north arcade the respond has a shield bearing a merchant's mark. This, together with another shield charged with three axes erect, again appears on the north aisle roof and was formerly also in the east window of the south aisle. (fn. 348) These have been identified as the mark and arms of John Tutbury, (fn. 349) who died in 1433 leaving money for the fabric (fn. 350) and whose wife Agnes made a similar bequest in 1430. (fn. 351) The mark, however, might well be the rebus of Geoffrey Thurscross, carved in 1520, when he made a bequest to the 'making of the high altar'. (fn. 352)
There are other indications of building activity in the 15th and early 16th centuries. In 1423–4 it was recorded that 10,000 bricks had been bought from the town's tilery for use at St. Mary's; (fn. 353) in 1479 there was a bequest of paving tiles; (fn. 354) and in 1506 money was left to the work of 'the body' of the church. (fn. 355)
The nave arcades are later than those of the chancel. The piers at the junction have been designed to take two different types of arch, and there is a distinct break in the masonry up to the clerestory string. The clerestory itself is a continuous succession of twelve three-light windows. In their details, plan, and treatment of capitals, which are merely bands of ornament, the nave piers resemble the finer and loftier ones at Holy Trinity, (fn. 356) but the arches at St. Mary's are four-centred. Before the Victorian restoration there were two windows with fourcentred heads on the south side. (fn. 357)
In 1449 Robert Holme left money to the building of the tower, if begun within three years of his death. (fn. 358) The incidence of bequests in wills between that date and 1507 (fn. 359) suggests that there were two distinct pauses in this operation, probably due to signs of settlement. There are gifts to bells, for example, in 1477, (fn. 360) 1486, (fn. 361) 1504, (fn. 362) and 1506, (fn. 363) and one to the building of the tower in 1504. (fn. 364)
The tower and west end are said to have collapsed in 1518. (fn. 365) Their destruction, however, has also been ascribed to Henry VIII, during his visit to Hull in 1541, and the materials are said to have been used in the building of the fortifications on the east side of the River Hull. It is reputed that the present nave was all that the king left standing, and that in 1588 the parishioners built a small chancel at the east end. (fn. 366) The present chancel, however, is clearly older than the nave, and there is no evidence that Church Alley, at the east end, ever followed a different course. (fn. 367) No obvious Elizabethan work is visible, except perhaps the Classical head over the screen on the south side, but this could quite easily be of later date. There may, however, have been extensive restoration at that time, as is suggested by presentments of 1575 stating that the chancel was 'in decay' and 'unrepaired by the parson'. (fn. 368) There are also signs of hasty patching of the fabric. In 1633 the churchwardens were ordered to open and glaze two windows at the west end; the stoppingup of these may indicate repairs carried out after that end had fallen. (fn. 369)
In 1697 a new tower was built, (fn. 370) towards which the corporation contributed. (fn. 371) It is said that foundations of a much larger church were then found. (fn. 372) No such foundations were discovered, however, when the post office was built in Lowgate. (fn. 373) Nevertheless, at the west end is the spring of a fourth arch, and an engraving shows the jamb and part of the spring of a thirteenth clerestory window. (fn. 374) The church may, therefore, have had at least one further bay to the west.
During the 17th and 18th centuries alterations were concerned mainly with the furnishing of the interior. In 1613 a loft was built at the 'nether end' of the church. (fn. 375) In 1633 an order was made to place the communion-table against the east wall and rail it off. (fn. 376) In 1666 a brass chandelier was presented. (fn. 377) A rearrangement of pews took place in 1684, when some broken pieces of screen, presumably the roodscreen, were removed. (fn. 378) A new font was provided in 1717, (fn. 379) and a west gallery built in 1718, (fn. 380) followed by north and south galleries in 1745 and 1749 respectively. (fn. 381) In 1731 the Royal Arms were set up, (fn. 382) and in 1751 a new reredos erected (fn. 383) and an organ introduced. (fn. 384) After occupying several positions the pulpit was finally placed in the middle aisle in 1778; it was further altered in 1816. (fn. 385)
The exterior was twice extensively restored in the 19th century. In 1826 the battlements were removed, the tower and west end were Gothicized, and the former was encased in Roman cement. (fn. 386) A more drastic restoration was undertaken in 1861 by Sir Gilbert Scott, cousin of the vicar. The whole of the exterior was refaced in ashlar; the tower was heightened, provided with more Gothic embellishments, and pierced to let the footpath through; the south porch and parvise were destroyed; the whole of the interior woodwork was renewed; and a second south aisle was added to compensate for the loss of the galleries. Of the woodwork, only the Elizabethan communion-table survived, together with parts of the 'three-decker' pulpit, used to panel the new vestry added to the south. (fn. 387)
In 1908 a chapel of the Nativity was formed in the north aisle in memory of John Scott (III), the chancel was enlarged to include a third bay, and the arcades were provided with screens. A rood and rood-screen were added in 1912 in memory of Edward VII. A chapel of St. Michael was formed in the second south aisle in 1930 in memory of Canon Scott Ram, (fn. 388) and some local 16th-century wooden panels were incorporated in a new priest's vestry. Further restoration work took place in 1936–7. The pillars were provided with damp courses, the roofs re-leaded, and the bells rehung. (fn. 389)
There are four shields of medieval glass in the east window: Pole quartering Wingfield; Montacute and Monthermer quartering Nevile; France and England quarterly; and Kingston upon Hull. (fn. 390) All but one of the main windows are late-19th century by Clayton and Bell. (fn. 391) Two of the monuments are by local sculptors, John Earle (fn. 392) and James Loft. (fn. 393) There is a fine 17th-century monument to William Dobson (fn. 394) and a brass of 1525 to John Harrison. (fn. 395)
There are five bells dated 1727, and one dated 1843. (fn. 396) The plate includes four cups, three of which have covers: one dated 1620; two, with the Hull assay mark, made by Christopher Watson and dated 1638, and one dated 1640. There are also a beaten silver alms-dish of 1638; two flagons of 1695; two tazzas of 1635 and 1744; a plate of 1746; and a spoon. (fn. 397) The chalice, paten, and dish are modern.
In 1449 Robert Holme left £2 for land to extend the churchyard, (fn. 400) and this was done in 1454. (fn. 401) An additional burial ground in Trippett was consecrated in 1775; (fn. 402) both this and the churchyard were closed in 1855. (fn. 403)
If pictorial evidence may be credited, a church or chapel existed at Drypool in the 11th or early 12th century. (fn. 404) Certainly a church was there by 1226, when the advowson was granted to Swine Priory by Saer de Sutton. (fn. 405) Presumably the benefice had been appropriated already. At all events the church belonged to Swine in the next decade when prolonged litigation with Meaux Abbey took place over the right to collect tithe of young beasts from pasture in Drypool and Southcoates. The suit was eventually compromised after Swine had temporarily lost its title to the church. (fn. 406) The church appears to have been fully parochial in the Middle Ages; it possessed a graveyard by 1298. (fn. 407) No vicarage, however, was ordained despite an attempt made in 1308–9 to achieve that end. (fn. 408) In 1535 the cure was being served by a chaplain paid out of the revenues of Swine, an arrangement which was said, with palpable exaggeration, to date from the foundation of the priory. (fn. 409)
The tithes of sheaves and hay in Drypool were valued at £2 in 1535. The value at that time of any other tithes is not known, for a comprehensive figure for the whole parish of Swine is not analysed by chapelries or hamlets. (fn. 410) After the Dissolution the tithes of the 'rectory' or 'chapel' of Drypool, together with Swine rectory, were leased in 1541 to Sir Richard Gresham, (fn. 411) and in 1546 were granted to him in fee. (fn. 412) In 1549 he and his wife were dealing with the rectory (fn. 413) and in 1585 Ann Gresham, widow, was doing the like. (fn. 414) The Drypool tithes and 'chapel' are not mentioned in these transactions but may have been deemed to have been absorbed in Swine and therefore not to have required express conveyance. In 1650 the Drypool tithes, then valued at £30, were said to belong to the lords of Drypool and Southcoates manors. (fn. 415) This statement, however, is not very illuminating, since the manors were then much subdivided. (fn. 416) A little before this time one of the coparceners was a Bromflete and by 1681 the tithes seem to have been held by George Bromflete (d. 1703), (fn. 417) from whom they descended to his son Henry, the latter's uncle Samuel, and his aunts Consolation Lythe and Jane Ellerthorpe. Consolation sold her share in 1710 to Thomas Eyres. In 1717 both shares were purchased by Charles Pool. (fn. 418) They descended to his son Charles, who held them in 1748, when those arising from Summergangs pasture were commuted for £35. (fn. 419) In 1757 the tithes on Southcoates open fields were commuted for £24. (fn. 420) From Pool they eventually passed to R. C. Broadley (fn. 421) and by 1842 to H. Broadley. (fn. 422) The remaining tithes were commuted for £29 in 1843. (fn. 423)
Although by 1546 a vicarage had been established in Swine, (fn. 424) nothing similar was done in Drypool, which seems to have been annexed to Swine. In 1650 the lords of Drypool and Southcoates were expected to provide for a minister out of the tithes. (fn. 425) At that time the cure had been vacant for 4½ years, but no doubt in the preceding century a curate had normally been appointed and paid either by those lords or their predecessors in title. In 1637 (fn. 426) and 1662 (fn. 427) the impropriators were charged with the rectorial obligation of maintaining the chancel of the chapel.
The Commissioners of 1650 recommended that Drypool should be separated from Swine and so far as patronage was concerned this proposal was soon afterwards fulfilled. Separate patrons can be traced from 1688, when the Crown presented. (fn. 428) In 1690 Thomas Johnson, a Hull alderman, is said to have 'bought' the advowson. (fn. 429) Presumably he acquired from the impropriators the right to appoint. He left the advowson to his daughter Mary who married a Mr. Baynes, and he (or his descendant) was patron in 1745. (fn. 430) In 1754 it formed the subject of a final concord levied between Samuel and Elizabeth Low, alias Rogers, and Ralph Goforth. (fn. 431) Two years later it formed part of the marriage settlement of Robert Wilberforce. (fn. 432) He was said to be still patron in 1786. (fn. 433) In 1829 his son William, the philanthropist, was dealing with the advowson, (fn. 434) and in 1832 was co-patron with trustees. (fn. 435) Soon afterwards it passed to the Simeon Trustees, who presented in 1835 (fn. 436) and were still the patrons in 1963.
While, however, Drypool thus became presentative, nothing was done, not unexpectedly, by way of providing it with tithe revenue. By c. 1705 the 'minister' was allowed £10 yearly out of the tithes. (fn. 437) The benefice continued to be treated as a curacy not in charge, nominally valued at £11 10s. (fn. 438) In 1743 the minister, who held it in plurality with Hilston, called it a chapelry-of-ease or perpetual curacy and possessed no habitable dwelling house. (fn. 439) In 1767 it was for the first time augmented out of Queen Anne's Bounty and in 1786 and 1810 was again augmented, on each occasion by £200. (fn. 440) The income in 1786 comprised £6 13s. 4d. from Mickle Hill Close, Withernwick, purchased with Bounty money; £10 a year from the lay impropriator; and an Easter due of 1s. from each house. (fn. 441) In 1793 land at Beeford, bought with Bounty money, yielded £7, and 'about 200 seats' in the church were for the benefit of the minister. (fn. 442) In 1814 £1,000 was received from a parliamentary grant (fn. 443) and this was used to purchase property in Southcoates. (fn. 444) The income in 1818 was £100, in 1842 £189 (fn. 445) and in 1867 £300. (fn. 446) In 1903 the living was further augmented by £1,000, of which £500 came from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 447) In 1963 the glebe at Beeford, Withernwick, and Aldbrough still provided money towards the stipend. (fn. 448) From 1810 the incumbent was customarily called 'Vicar'. (fn. 449)
A vicarage house existed by 1662 but was then decayed. (fn. 450) In 1743 there was none. (fn. 451) It had been brought back into use by the early 19th century when it was in Dansom Lane. (fn. 452) It was said to be unfit for use c. 1842 (fn. 453) and was sold in 1860. A new Vicarage was then built in Holderness Road. In 1893 another Vicarage, designed by F. S. Brodrick, was built at the corner of Lee Street, (fn. 454) and it was used until replaced by a new Vicarage in Laburnum Avenue in 1966.
From the later 17th century the church was used by the garrison of Hull, (fn. 455) and in the 16th and early 17th centuries recusants who died while imprisoned in the blockhouses were buried in the churchyard, 'without the minister, and without the order of burial according to law'. (fn. 456) In 1585 there were only two sermons. (fn. 457) The arrangement of the chancel, adversely reported on in 1637, (fn. 458) suggests that at that time there was no attachment to Laudianism. In 1743 services were held once a month and Holy Communion celebrated four times a year. (fn. 459) In 1764 there were two celebrations a year. (fn. 460) In 1865, when there were two Sunday services and celebrations twice a month, the vicar attributed the disparity between the increased population and the size of the congregation to the Wesleyans and to the influx of artisans who had brought with them 'confirmed habits of heathenish indifference to religious duties'. (fn. 461)
Throughout the 16th and two succeeding centuries the incumbent was frequently non-resident, or held the living with another cure. (fn. 462) Robert Wilson (fn. 463) was ejected as a non-juror in 1690. (fn. 464) Since the early 19th century the parish has had an evangelical tradition, its most noteworthy incumbent being Henry Venn (1827–34), (fn. 465) during whose incumbency a religious society was formed. (fn. 466) Venn was later secretary of the Church Missionary Society (1841–73). (fn. 467) J. J. Beddow (1886–1914) was the last incumbent in Hull to preach in a Geneva gown. (fn. 468)
Pictures of 1822–3 show that the original church or chapel of ST. PETER, called St. Peter and St. Paul in 1428, (fn. 469) consisted, at demolition, of a chancel, nave of 3 bays, west tower, and lofty south porch. It then measured 54×21 ft. A round-headed recessed north doorway of 5 orders appears to have dated from the 11th or 12th century. The windows in the north wall of the nave and chancel and in the tower, all with elaborate tracery, were of the 14th century. In the south wall of the nave was a 15thcentury window of 3 lights. The roofs had originally been pitched but by 1822–3 the chancel roof had been flattened. The north, east, and south walls were buttressed. The tower, with a low-pitched gabled roof, seems to have been truncated. Earlier sketches suggest that it was lofty. (fn. 470) It was stated to be ruinous in 1428, when an indulgence was granted to those contributing to its repair, and to lack chalices, books, and ornaments. (fn. 471) Several bequests to the 'churchwork' about this time (fn. 472) support the view that the indulgence was justifiably sought. A crucifix then existed in the church and was an object of veneration, especially at the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. (fn. 473) It was perhaps the same as the rood before which a light burned in 1515 and 1520, (fn. 474) and was perhaps supported on the screen which the archdeacon ordered to be removed in 1720. (fn. 475) In 1637 orders were given to reseat the chancel 'chancelwise' and it was noted that there was no communion-table nor 'decent rails before it'. (fn. 476) In 1667 there was no font. (fn. 477)
In 1822 a faculty to rebuild was granted (fn. 478) and a brief obtained, (fn. 479) this being one of the last church briefs to be issued. (fn. 480) The work was executed, from designs by William Hutchinson, of Hull, and was in progress in 1823. (fn. 481) The church (75×45 ft.), in Great Union Street, consisted of a nave of 4 bays, chancel, and west tower of 4 stages, with a parapet and pinnacles. The whole was cement-rendered. (fn. 482) The chancel, a semi-hexagonal apse, was rebuilt in 1867 by D. Watson Aston. (fn. 483) There were galleries on three sides, that on the west displaying the Royal Arms. The vase-shaped font probably came, like most of the fittings, from the old church. An organ was installed in 1834. (fn. 484)
In 1878 a new church, dedicated to St. Andrew, was consecrated, and became the parish church in December of that year. (fn. 485) St. Peter's continued as a chapel-of-ease and in 1879 was assigned a District Chapelry out of Drypool; (fn. 486) the building was destroyed in 1941 by enemy action and has not been rebuilt. In 1951 the parish was reunited with that of St. Andrew. (fn. 487)
At least until the 17th century the churchyard appears to have been largely surrounded by an embattled wall. (fn. 488) A part of the churchyard was taken by the Dock Company for the construction of Victoria Dock, (fn. 489) and in 1848 it was agreed to purchase land on Hedon Road for a cemetery. (fn. 490) The churchyard was closed in 1855. (fn. 491) A sacristy was built at the cemetery in 1852 (fn. 492) and in 1877 was licensed for services under the title of St. Nathaniel, a name changed in 1885 to St. Bartholomew at the wish of the Archbishop of York. (fn. 493) It was demolished in 1929 when the cemetery was closed. (fn. 494) In 1959–60 both churchyard and cemetery were made into gardens by the corporation. (fn. 495)
The church of ST. ANDREW, in Holderness Road, was designed in the late-12th-century style by Adams and Kelly. (fn. 496) It is cruciform, with apsidal chancel and aisled nave, and is of brick. The Royal Arms of Victoria, dated 1878, are displayed. The building was still in use in 1966.
In 1961 the parochial rights were again transferred, to the church of ST. COLUMBA, (fn. 497) in Laburnum Avenue, consecrated in 1960. (fn. 498) A temporary church of St. Columba was dedicated in 1914, (fn. 499) and the first part of a permanent church in brick was dedicated in 1929. (fn. 500) The architects were E. E. Lofting and E. Priestley Cooper. (fn. 501) This church was destroyed by bombs in 1943. The present church, designed by R. B. Craze, incorporates parts of the walls and piers of the bombed building.
The church has a nave with aisles, a chancel, and a small spire to the north-east of the chancel. South of the chancel there is a baptistry, which houses the font from the old church of St. James, Hull. North of the chancel is a chapel of St. Peter, perpetuating the ancient dedication of the parish. It was furnished as a memorial to Canon E. A. Berry (vicar 1914–47). The east wall of the chancel has a mural by Robert Hendra and Geoffrey Harper. The west window and those of the chapel were also painted by them. (fn. 502)
In 1552 there was one bell in the tower of St. Peter's and also a sacring bell. (fn. 503) One 'old' bell existed in 1801. A tenor, presented by T. Thorpe, was added in 1802. (fn. 504) Nothing is known of the bells in the new church. The plate consisted in 1552 of 2 chalices, 1 of silver and 1 of tin, a brass chrismatory, 2 brass crosses, and 2 iron candlesticks. (fn. 505) New plate was ordered in 1720. (fn. 506) At the rebuilding 2 new Communion cups were bought and an old one surrendered. At present the only old piece is hallmarked 1814. (fn. 507) The registers date from 1574, but the first volume is fragmentary. (fn. 508) They are printed to 1812 (marriages to 1807). (fn. 509)
A 'free' chapel at Southcoates, dependent upon Drypool, belonged to Swine Priory in 1236 when the prioress confirmed the fee simple in it, with a chantry, to Saer de Sutton. (fn. 510) Shortly afterwards her successor gave him in tail all oblations arising in the chapel. (fn. 511) The chapel itself seems to have remained the property of the lords of Sutton but by 1535 to have come into the hands of Sutton College; (fn. 512) the chapel then owned lands valued at £2 6s. 8d. (fn. 513) The Crown was presenting in 1546. (fn. 514) The chapel was probably suppressed soon after, either because it was dedicated to 'superstitious' uses or because it was annexed to Sutton College, which had itself been suppressed about 1547. (fn. 515) In 1586, when it was described as 'once in decay', it was held by Thomas Dent and was granted, with the chantry house and lands, to Thomas Jones and Edward Brathericke. (fn. 516)
Modern parishes formed from Drypool
The assignment of a District Chapelry to the old parish church of St. Peter in 1879 has already been mentioned.
The church of St. John the Evangelist, in Rosemead Street, was consecrated in 1925. (fn. 517) The parochial rights and endowments had been transferred to Drypool in 1917 from St. John's, Hull, (fn. 518) when a new district had been assigned to the church. (fn. 519) The patron is the Vicar of Holy Trinity. In 1919 a temporary church was opened but this was destroyed by fire in 1923. (fn. 520) The permanent church was designed by Leslie Moore. It was partly destroyed in 1941 but was restored and reconsecrated in 1952. (fn. 521) It is a brick building in the style of the 14th century and has a nave with north aisle, a chancel, and a north chapel. The chapel was furnished by E. O. Dykes as a memorial to his grandfather, the founder and first incumbent of St. John's Church in Hull.
The church of St. Aidan, in Southcoates Avenue, was consecrated in 1955 (fn. 522) and a new district taken from the parishes of Drypool, Marfleet, and St. Michael's was assigned to it in 1954. (fn. 523) Services were begun at No. 77 College Grove in 1924, (fn. 524) and in 1925 a temporary church was opened. (fn. 525) In 1935 the first portion of a permanent church was dedicated, the architects being W. Milner and R. B. Craze. (fn. 526) This was completed in 1954–5. The patron is the Simeon Trustees. The church is a brick building consisting of nave and chancel. It contains an 18th-century font and cover the provenance of which is unknown.
The church is first mentioned c. 1217, when it was endowed with an acre of meadow land by Adam de Marfleet. (fn. 527) Anciently it was a chapelry of Paull, a church which was given in 1115 by Stephen, Earl of Aumale, along with other Holderness churches, to the abbey of St. Martin D'Auchy, Aumale (SeineInférieure). (fn. 528) This abbey founded a cell at Burstall, in Holderness, in 1219, (fn. 529) and it was to this cell that Marfleet belonged. In 1395 Marfleet, along with the other English possessions of St. Martin's, was granted to Kirkstall Abbey. (fn. 530) Marfleet remained a chapel-of-ease to Paull at least until 1650, when it was said to be 'fit to be made a parish'. (fn. 531) Although it was described as a parish church in 1706, (fn. 532) no instrument of separation has been traced.
The tithes of Marfleet, then worth £16 a year, were leased in 1381 by Robert de Selby for six years. (fn. 533) After the dissolution of Kirkstall Abbey they were granted in 1553 to John and William Dodington; (fn. 534) they were then in the tenure of Anne Matheison by virtue of a lease made in 1542, (fn. 535) and she had also held them under Kirkstall. (fn. 536) In 1558 'the whole tithe and state of inheritance of the rectory or parsonage' was devised by Sir William Knowles to his daughter Margaret. (fn. 537) In 1582 Lancelot Alford acquired the tithes from Brian Robson, (fn. 538) and in 1601 two members of the Gee family, both called William, bought them from the Alfords. (fn. 539) The tithes were apparently held by at least two 17th-century incumbents as tenants: George Osbourne seems to have enjoyed the tithes of hay under Mary Gee in 1636 (fn. 540) and Thomas Sedgewick had the great tithes in 1672. By his will proved in the latter year Robert Harpham, of Marfleet, left £50 to buy the tithes from William Gee, of Bishop Burton, so that they might be used for the minister's maintenance, (fn. 541) but this was apparently not done. In 1714 the tithes were acquired by Nicholas Hall and Henry Waterland, of Hedon, from William Gee and others. (fn. 542) At the inclosure in 1763 the rectory and all its tithes, with some small exceptions, were owned by Henry Waterland, and the tithes were commuted for £70. (fn. 543) The rectory was involved in two subsequent transactions: in 1811 5/12 of it was acquired by Samuel Hall from Thomas Burroughs; (fn. 544) and in 1812 a moiety was granted to Burroughs by William Carleil. (fn. 545)
Marfleet had patrons separate from those of Paull at least by 1639. The patronage seems to have descended with the rectory. In 1639, for example, Mary Gee presented and in 1650 William Gee. (fn. 546) Henry Waterland was patron in 1716; (fn. 547) he and Hugh Mason presented in 1726 and Waterland alone in 1740. Waterland's heirs (Mary Twig, James Mander, and Smithson Green) presented in 1789, and William Carleil in 1808. The advowson was involved with the rectory in the transactions of 1811 and 1812. William Grylls, of Hull, was patron in 1824, I. Hall in 1835, and George Burn in 1838. (fn. 548) By 1856 the patronage was in the hands of the incumbent, John Robinson, (fn. 549) and after his death it was held by Herbert Robinson. (fn. 550) Some time between 1879 and 1882 (fn. 551) it was acquired by the Simeon Trustees, who still held it in 1964.
The value of the living in 1706 was £5 a year, deriving from 'Easter reckonings' and Harpham's bequest; in 1707 it was £6 15s. (fn. 552) and in 1764 still not as much as £11. (fn. 553) The nature of the Easter dues in 1777 was 4d. for each cow with calf, 2d. for a cow without a calf, 1d. for a foal, 1d., called 'smoke money', from each house, and 2d. from each communicant. (fn. 554) Robert Harpham had wanted his £50 to be used to buy the tithes in order to maintain the incumbent; if this proved impossible he wanted land to be bought and the rent from it used to provide eight sermons a year. (fn. 555) It seems, however, that even the alternative intention was not fulfilled.
The income was augmented from Queen Anne's Bounty in 1740, 1776, 1786, and 1810, each time for £200. (fn. 556) This money was used to buy land: in 1768 6 a. at Hill Close, Cottingham; (fn. 557) in 1778 5 a. at North Carr, Cottingham; and in 1792 7 a. at Etherdwick, Aldbrough. Some time before 1792 John Young left £20 for a sermon on Easter Day, (fn. 558) and in 1809 this, together with Harpham's £50, was put out at interest. (fn. 559) Two years later £30 given by the incumbent, Thomas Watson, was added and this, together with £200 Bounty money, was used to purchase 5 a. at Burstwick, part of an ancient inclosure called South Twire. In 1817 the incumbent agreed with his contemporary at Sutton, whose glebe at Cottingham was contiguous with that of Marfleet, 'for the period of their joint incumbency' to exchange lots, and they recommended the exchange 'to the option of their successors'; thus Marfleet had both parcels of Hill Close and Sutton had those in North Carr. (fn. 560)
There was a further augmentation of £200 from Queen Anne's Bounty in 1827. (fn. 561) In 1825 glebe rents yielded £49 a year, (fn. 562) and this was the main source of income. By 1879 it had risen to £60. (fn. 563) The Ecclesiastical Commissioners added £46 to the endowment in 1910, (fn. 564) and in 1938 the benefice income was £402. The glebe was by then much reduced. That at Burstwick was sold in 1922, the North Carr, Cottingham, glebe in 1931, (fn. 565) and a further 2 a. in Cottingham in 1955. (fn. 566) The Aldbrough glebe and what was left at Cottingham still contributed to the income in 1964. (fn. 567)
A vicarage house is mentioned in 1650, (fn. 568) but there was none in 1743 (fn. 569) or 1764. (fn. 570) There was a cottage, with half an acre of land, belonging to the benefice in 1777, (fn. 571) but this was described as 'small, ancient, and mean' in 1818, (fn. 572) and does not appear ever to have been used as a vicarage house; (fn. 573) it was demolished in 1914. (fn. 574) A Vicarage, designed by Brodrick, Lowther, and Walker, was built in 1908. (fn. 575)
George Osbourne, the incumbent in 1636, was a Puritan (fn. 576) who was said to have fled to Hull during the Civil War. (fn. 577) Thomas Sedgewick, who was at Marfleet in 1650, (fn. 578) survived the Restoration. (fn. 579) Throughout the late 17th, the 18th, and the 19th centuries the vicar was non-resident, and the benefice was usually held in plurality with the neighbouring parishes of Sutton, Wawne, and Drypool. (fn. 580) The duty was performed by a curate who was also frequently non-resident. In 1575 there were no quarterly sermons, (fn. 581) and in 1720 the churchwardens were ordered to purchase a Bible and flagon. (fn. 582) In 1743 services were held once a month, with quarterly celebrations of Holy Communion, (fn. 583) as they still were in 1764. (fn. 584) In 1865 there were weekly services, at 10.30 a.m. and 3 p.m. on alternate Sundays, with six celebrations of Holy Communion each year. The congregation at that time showed 'a tendency to increase'. (fn. 585)
No representation of the medieval church has been found. In 1793 application was made to rebuild the church, (fn. 586) and work began at the parishioners' expense. (fn. 587) The new church, designed by George Pycock, of Hull, consisted of a nave with Gothic windows and a cupola over the west gable. (fn. 588) The reading-desk and pulpit were on the north side, the font was on the south, and there was an open space at the west end. (fn. 589) The church was in bad repair in 1865, and, although 'decent', was 'owing to the internal arrangements unfitted for the congregation'. (fn. 590)
The present church, reopened and re-dedicated in 1884, (fn. 591) is the third on the site. It was designed by J. T. Webster, of Hedon. (fn. 592) When application was made for a faculty, the Chancellor of York described the proposed building as 'the most flimsy and insignificant' that had ever been sent to him. (fn. 593) After certain modifications, however, Webster's plan was accepted. (fn. 594) Mrs. Fletcher, widow of the Vicar of Bilsdale (N.R. Yorks.), contributed largely to the cost. (fn. 595)
The church of ST. GILES, which is in the Geometric style, is 'hammer dressed'. It consists of a nave, with a portal at the west end carried up into a bell-turret, a chancel, and a vestry. The font, dated 1864 and erected as a memorial to the Revd. J. H. Robinson, and the wall monuments from the Georgian church were incorporated. Various new furnishings have been introduced in recent years. Ernest Pickering, who carved the litany-desk in 1924, was also responsible for the reredos, a memorial to those killed in the First World War, and the sanctuary panelling, erected in memory of Rosamond Brittan in 1930. The lectern, given in memory of Ada Rogers in 1947, and the choir stalls of 1947 and pulpit of 1953 were all carved by Clifford Longley; they were designed by W. Garner. (fn. 596)
The east window, dated 1905, is by C. E. Kempe. (fn. 597) There are some 19th-century monuments, four of which are signed by the Hull sculptor, John Earle, (fn. 598) and two by Matthew Skelton, of York. (fn. 599)
In 1552 there was one 'great' bell and a sacring bell. (fn. 600) The present bell is dated 1793. (fn. 601) In 1552 the plate included a silver chalice, and two candlesticks, a cross, and a chrismatory, all of latten. (fn. 602) The plate now consists of a cup and cover of 1668, bearing the Hull assay mark and made by Edward Mengie, (fn. 603) a plated flagon and paten, (fn. 604) and a chalice of 1898. (fn. 605) The registers begin in 1713 and are virtually complete; (fn. 606) Register II has been used as a commonplace book. (fn. 607)
The churchyard was extended in 1953 by the addition of a garden and the site of a cottage and schoolroom. (fn. 608)
Modern churches formed from Marfleet
There are three chapels-of-ease to the parish church. All are dual-purpose brick buildings with permanent sanctuaries.
The church of St. George, in Marfleet Lane, was dedicated in 1938. (fn. 609) The site was purchased in 1935, largely through the Hull Church Extension Scheme. (fn. 610) The building was extended by the addition of a tower and sanctuary designed by H. R. Spencer, the extensions being dedicated in 1955. (fn. 611)
The church of St. Philip, in Barham Road, Bilton Grange, was dedicated in 1952, (fn. 612) after the parish boundaries had been altered to include the whole of the Bilton Grange Estate. (fn. 613) The church was partly built with funds from the war-damaged church of St. Philip, Sculcoates, the dedication of which it assumed. (fn. 614) It was designed by H. R. Spencer, and it contains some of the furnishings and plate from the old St. Philip's. (fn. 615)
The church of St. Hilda, in Annandale Road, Greatfield Estate, was dedicated in 1960. It was designed by H. R. Spencer and was built partly from funds provided by the Humberside Appeal for Church Extension. (fn. 616)
A church at Sculcoates is first mentioned in 1232, when Robert de Grey was the patron. (fn. 617) The advowson apparently descended with the manor of Sculcoates. (fn. 618) Members of the Grey family continued to present to the living until 1379, (fn. 619) Sir John de Grey's widow Avice retaining the advowson for life after the manor passed to John de Neville in 1376. (fn. 620) Michael de la Pole acquired the advowson from Neville and granted it to the Carthusian Priory of Hull in 1379. (fn. 621) The church was appropriated in 1381 and a vicarage ordained. (fn. 622)
The descent of the advowson after the Dissolution is not clear. In 1558 it was granted by the Crown to the Archbishop of York, (fn. 623) but in 1668 it was included with the rectory in the grant by Anthony Lambert and William Skinner to John Dalton. (fn. 624) In the late 18th century the living was in the gift of the Crown, (fn. 625) and it has so remained. (fn. 626)
On the appropriation of the rectory in 1381 2s. was reserved by the Archbishop of York for himself and 1s. for the dean and chapter. (fn. 627) At the dissolution of the priory in 1539 Sculcoates rectory was worth £5. (fn. 628) The rectory and tithes—perhaps a lease of them—are said to have been sold by Edmund Frost and Francis Jackson, of London, to John Aldred in 1579–80. (fn. 629) In 1586 the rectory was granted by the Crown to Sir Christopher Hatton, who was to pay the 'curate's' stipend and the pensions due to the archbishop and the dean and chapter. (fn. 630) Some time before 1611 Hatton's interest passed to Henry Aldred, (fn. 631) and in 1607 Aldred and others granted tithes in Sculcoates to John Thornton. (fn. 632) A Crown grant of tithes is said to have been made to Francis Morrice and Francis Philips, of London, in 1609–10. (fn. 633) John Aldred held the tithes in 1633 when he granted them for life to John Spofford, so long as he remained preacher at Sculcoates, (fn. 634) presumably in respect of his stipend. Aldred still owned the rectory in 1649 when the tithes, then worth £30, were allowed to the vicar as before. (fn. 635) John Aldred subsequently sold part of the tithes to Thomas Aldred and others, and the rectory with its remaining tithes to Anthony Lambert and William Skinner. In 1668 Lambert and Skinner granted the rectory to John Dalton. (fn. 636) Tithes in Sculcoates were in 1775 acquired by the Dock Company from Thomas Knowlton; (fn. 637) these may have been the tithes from the company's own land in the parish.
The vicar's stipend was fixed at £5 6s. 8d. in 1381, (fn. 638) and this was its value in 1535. (fn. 639) The same sum was to be paid by Sir Christopher Hatton in 1586. Although the tithes sometimes provided the vicar with a larger income, the value of the vicarage was not permanently increased until it was augmented from Queen Anne's Bounty in 1741. (fn. 640)
By 1743 the income had increased to nearly £11. (fn. 641) The living was further augmented in 1771 and 1784, each time by £200. (fn. 642) The Bounty money was used to purchase land: £400 in 1773 for 5 a. in the Cow Closes (fn. 643) and £200 in 1785 for 2 a. of adjoining land. (fn. 644) In 1809 £186, obtained from 'cut and cover' of the glebe, for making the Barmston Drain, together with £14 from the incumbent, was used to purchase a field at Sutton. (fn. 645)
In 1842 the net value of the living was £295 (fn. 646) and in 1867 £300. (fn. 647) In 1849 the income comprised £1 1s. from Parsonage Croft, £4 16s. 6d. from the Crown, £38 from Queen Anne's Bounty, £73 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and Easter offerings of 2d. from everyone of 'sufficient age to receive the sacrament'. There were then 8½a. of glebe. (fn. 648) In 1868 part of the glebe was given for additions to the cemetery, and in 1878 one acre was sold for £1,209 to Hull Corporation. (fn. 649)
In 1381 the vicar was to have part of the site of the rectory house to live in. (fn. 650) There is no further reference to an early vicarage house. In 1868 a Vicarage, designed by G. E. Street, was built near All Saints' Church, in Margaret Street. It was no longer used in 1964, when there was no vicarage house. (fn. 651)
Torre states that there was a chantry, known as the Sutton chantry, but gives no details. (fn. 652) In 1530 John Peyrson left two ewes to find perpetual lights before the rood and before St. Christopher, 'at the north church door'. (fn. 653)
Richard Langdale was deprived, for marriage, in or before 1554 when he was restored to clerical functions. (fn. 654) The living was usually held with some other local cure, and from 1584 to 1633 Sculcoates and Drypool had the same incumbent. In 1575 and again in 1590 the churchwardens were presented because they had failed to provide quarterly sermons. (fn. 655) On the latter occasion they were dismissed on the supposed grounds that 'it is but a chapel'. In 1637 they lacked a carpet and fair linen cloth for the communion-table. (fn. 656)
John Spofford (vicar 1633–40) was an undoubted Puritan. (fn. 657) The parliamentary commissioners of 1650 recommended that Newland and Hull Bank (in the parish of Cottingham) should be joined with Sculcoates to form a new parish, served by a church to be built near Newland. (fn. 658) The minister at that time was Robert Luddington, an intruder, (fn. 659) who in 1643 assisted at the formation of an Independent congregation in Hull. (fn. 660) He was ejected from Sculcoates in 1662. (fn. 661)
John Clark, incumbent in 1742, was also lecturer at Holy Trinity and Master of the Charterhouse, where he resided. (fn. 662) His curate in 1764 had a stipend of £40 a year. Holy Communion was then administered three times a year. (fn. 663) Before 1749 other services had been monthly, and 'had not been oftener in the memory of any man'. (fn. 664) In that year the parishioners, by voluntary subscription, promoted a weekly service, which was then held on Sunday mornings. (fn. 665) No doubt the prime mover in this was Charles Delamotte, a Hull sugar merchant, who had been the companion of John Wesley on his mission to Georgia. (fn. 666)
Richard Patrick (vicar 1794–1815) was a regular contributor to the Classical Journal. (fn. 667) He erected a monument in the churchyard from fragments of medieval gravestones, relics of local religious houses, which had been used in the building of the Hull blockhouses. (fn. 668) Patrick's successor William Preston was a non-resident pluralist, who left the care of the parish to his curates. One of these, Thomas Scott Bonnin, became notorious for conducting clandestine marriages. There would seem to have been some local precedent for such marriages, (fn. 669) but matters came to a head when Bonnin performed an incestuous marriage. This led to his suspension and ultimate dismissal. (fn. 670) In his defence he produced two pamphlets in which he maintained that it was not his business to 'repel other peoples' ewes and rams'. (fn. 671)
Until the introduction of an organ in 1848 (fn. 672) music was provided by two bass viols, supported by a choir of four male and five female voices, all salaried. (fn. 673) In 1865 there were two Sunday services and monthly celebration of communion. (fn. 674) Charles Walsham, the first incumbent at All Saints' Church, introduced moderate ceremonial and always wore gloves in the pulpit. (fn. 675)
A drawing of c. 1725 shows the medieval church of ST. MARY to have consisted of a small nave, a chancel, and a turret for a bell. (fn. 676) The church was out of repair in 1743, (fn. 677) and in 1759 it was decided to rebuild it. A faculty was obtained, (fn. 678) and also a brief (fn. 679) to which the parish contributed £14 9s. (fn. 680) The church was built but remained unfurnished for three years. It was a sober version of rococo Gothic, but in its essentials the building was Classical, with Tuscan columns, rusticated quoins, and flat ceilings. Considerable alterations were made to this church between 1827 and 1830, and again in 1861–3 by William Botterill, of Hull. The altar of the Georgian church had a marble top, and in 1850 this was replaced by another of like material. (fn. 681)
In 1869 a new church of ALL SAINTS, in Margaret Street, was consecrated, (fn. 682) and this was substituted as the parish church of Sculcoates. (fn. 683) A District Chapelry was assigned to the old church in 1873 but the building was subsequently demolished. (fn. 684) For some years before this Scott Bonnin had conducted services in the chapel of the Kingston College almshouses. (fn. 685) The site for the new church was given by Canon Jarratt. (fn. 686) A competition for the design was won by R. G. Smith, of Hull, but the Archbishop refused to accept him on the ground that his design exhibited his 'general inexperience'. He recommended G. E. Street, whose design was duly carried out. (fn. 687) This was the first post-Reformation church in Hull to be entirely free. The church is a brick building in a version of the Early English style. The nave has aisles with a narthex at the west end, an apsidal chancel with vestries round the east end, and a chapel on the south. The tower was added in 1883 by Samuel Musgrave in memory of the Revd. Charles Walsham. (fn. 688)
The parish registers begin in 1576 for marriages, 1581 for baptisms, and 1584 for burials, but baptisms survive from 1538 and 1545. (fn. 689) They have been printed in part: baptisms and burials to 1772, and marriages to 1754. (fn. 690)
The churchyard of St. Mary's was enlarged in 1752, by the addition of the vicarage garth, and again in 1792. (fn. 691) A parish burial ground, authorized in 1817, (fn. 692) was acquired in Sculcoates Lane. It had a chapel or sacristy the covered ceiling of which was painted with clouds and cherubs by a Mr. Willis; (fn. 693) the chapel was demolished in 1964. (fn. 694) The cemetery was extended in 1868 by the addition of part of the parish glebe land. (fn. 695) The churchyard had been closed in 1855. (fn. 696)
Modern parishes formed from Sculcoates
The old parish church of St. Mary, closed in 1869, was reopened in 1873 when a District Chapelry was assigned to it. (fn. 697) The Vicar of Sculcoates is the patron. The old church was later demolished and a new one, in Sculcoates Lane, designed by T. L. Moore, (fn. 698) was consecrated in 1916. (fn. 699) This is a brick building consisting of a nave with aisles, a chancel, and a north chapel; the south aisle is incomplete. The chapel incorporates pillars and fittings from the old church, and there is a 16-branch chandelier from Topsham (Devon). (fn. 700) The church also houses monuments from the old church, including one to Jane Delamotte (d. 1761) which has an inscription in Byrom shorthand. (fn. 701) Three of the other monuments are signed by Thomas Earle, a local sculptor. This was the first church in Hull to introduce reservation of the sacrament in post-Reformation times. (fn. 702) The plate includes a communion cup of 1825 and a paten of 1739. (fn. 703)
Christ Church, in Worship Street, was the first chapel-of-ease to be built in Sculcoates. An Act for its construction was obtained in 1814, (fn. 704) and Charles Mountain, the younger, was paid £21 for a design. (fn. 705) In 1821, however, John King, who became the first incumbent, introduced William Hutchinson, whose design for the church was carried out. (fn. 706) It was a rectangular building of white brick, with galleries on three sides. A small recess at the east end housed the organ, and a west tower rose out of the nave. The church was consecrated in 1822. The patronage was vested in the original subscribers of £100, and their survivors until reduced to eight, together with the Vicar of Sculcoates. Vacancies were to be filled by election of the pew-holders. (fn. 707) A District Chapelry from Sculcoates was assigned to the church in 1886. (fn. 708) In 1863 a chancel and vestry to the south were added by William Kerby. (fn. 709) The church was badly damaged by bombing in 1941, and until 1952 services were held under the south gallery; the building was demolished in 1962. (fn. 710) The parish was united with that of St. Paul. (fn. 711)
The church of St. Paul, on the corner of St. Paul Street and Cannon Street, was built in 1846, (fn. 712) a District Chapelry from Sculcoates having been formed in 1844, (fn. 713) and the church was consecrated in 1847. (fn. 714) In 1866 the Crown and the Archbishop of York alternated as patron; this was still the position in 1885, but in the 20th century the patron has been the archbishop alone. (fn. 715) The church is a stone building in the Early English style, formerly consisting of nave with clerestory, aisles, chancel, and tower at the south-west corner. It was designed by W. H. Dykes. The site was given by George Liddell. (fn. 716) Alterations were made to the furnishings by Smith and Brodrick in 1877, (fn. 717) and since the Second World War the tower has been partially demolished and the church reduced in size by walling off the chancel and adding a false ceiling to the nave. (fn. 718)
A mission church of St. Clement in the parish of St. Paul was opened in 1879, and a new mission room given by W. Liddell was opened in 1881. (fn. 719) This was a wooden building and was demolished in 1937.
The church of St. Silas, Barmston Street, was consecrated in 1871, (fn. 720) and was assigned a District Chapelry out of St. Paul's parish in that year. (fn. 721) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The church was designed by R. G. Smith, of Hull, (fn. 722) and built in polychromatic brick. It consists of nave with aisles, semi-octagonal chancel, and south porch. (fn. 723)
The church of St. Philip, at the corner of Charlotte Street and Paradise Row, was consecrated in 1885. (fn. 724) In the same year a district was assigned from Sculcoates, the extra-parochial territory of the Charterhouse, and that portion of Holy Trinity parish called Trippett. (fn. 725) There had been a chapel in Trippett in 1454, when it was described as being in 'the parish of St. Mary'. (fn. 726) The patron of St. Philip's was a board of trustees. (fn. 727) The site of the church was given by R. Jackson, and the architect was Botterill, Son & Bilson. The church was a brick building and had a nave with an aisle, an apsidal chancel, and a small bell-turret at the north-east angle of the nave. (fn. 728) It was damaged in the Second World War and has been demolished. The parish was united with that of Christ Church in 1950, (fn. 729) but its title has been perpetuated in a church in the parish of Marfleet. (fn. 730)
A chapel at Sutton is first mentioned c. 1160. (fn. 731) William, Earl of Aumale, then confirmed the gift of his father, Stephen, in 1115, (fn. 732) of the church of Wawne to the French abbey of St. Martin D'Auchy, Aumale (Seine Inférieure): and William, for the first time, mentioned Wawne's dependent chapel of Sutton. Notwithstanding this confirmation, William had c. 1150 also granted the church to the abbey of Meaux. (fn. 733) It was perhaps on account of the two conflicting grants that the church was later in dispute. During the time of Thomas, Abbot of Meaux (1182–97), Aumale upheld its right to Wawne against Meaux's claim, and Meaux was obliged to offer the French abbey £6 13s. 4d. in order to enjoy the church and its chapel at Sutton; and even this compromise Meaux was unable to carry into effect. (fn. 734) In 1228 Aumale lost Wawne as the result of an exchange arranged by the Archbishop of York; he reserved the church to his own use and in 1230 annexed it to the chancellorship of York. (fn. 735)
The advowson of Wawne was claimed by Meaux in Abbot Thomas's time, (fn. 736) and this much it may have succeeded in securing from Aumale. (fn. 737) The living appears to have been in two medieties, one of which included, or perhaps consisted of, the chapel of Sutton. In the time of Abbot Alexander (1197–1210), Baldwin de Betoyn, husband of the Countess of Aumale, attempted to usurp Meaux's right of presentation. (fn. 738) In 1227, however, Meaux granted the advowson to the archbishop and in 1244 the Chancellor of York presented to the living. (fn. 739) The chancellor retained the patronage of Wawne, but the advowson of the chapel of Sutton was in 1246 granted by the archbishop to Saer de Sutton. (fn. 740) From at least this time Sutton had its own incumbent, usually a relative of the manorial patrons, and although it did not become formally independent of the mother church at Wawne it was nevertheless regarded as a rectory in 1291. (fn. 741)
In 1346 Sir John de Sutton was licensed to found a college at Sutton (fn. 742) and in the following year the chapel of Sutton was appropriated for the purpose and a constitution drawn up by the archbishop. The college was to consist of a master, appointed by the Sutton family, and five chaplains; they were to live in the rectory house and receive the tithes, and the master was to have charge of the inhabitants of Sutton and Stoneferry. Provision was made to respect the rights of the church of Wawne and of the Chancellor of York, who was to receive an annual pension of 13s. 4d. from the college, together with all mortuaries and oblations. In addition £1 was to be paid to the archbishop and 13s. 4d. to the dean and chapter. (fn. 743)
A new constitution was drawn up in 1380. The members of the college remained the same, with the addition of two clerks, one of whom was to receive the parochial alms. One of the chaplains was to have the cure of souls of the parishioners, with a stipend of £2 13s. 4d. Again the rights of the interested parties were safeguarded. (fn. 744) After a time the college began to infringe these rights by burying in the churchyard at Sutton. (fn. 745) This led to a series of disputes which, after giving rise to an inquiry in 1402, continued intermittently for fifty years. (fn. 746) Appeal was made to Rome, and in 1447 the Archbishop of York, acting as arbitrator, gave a decision. All mortuary rights were to belong to Wawne, the chapel and rectory house of Sutton were still to be regarded as in Wawne parish, and the parishioners of Sutton were bound to pay mortuaries and other dues and to contribute to the repair of Wawne church. They were also to pay £1 10s. 4d. to the chancellor as Rector of Wawne. (fn. 747) Even this did not settle the dispute and further arbitration was necessary between 1454 and 1464. The Rector of Wawne was now to receive 3s. 4d. a year and the vicar £1 in return for giving the college the right of burial at Sutton. Oblations were still to be paid to Wawne, and in addition to contributing to the repair of the mother-church, the parishioners of Sutton were to pay £4 as their share of the cost of recasting the bells. The Rector and Vicar of Wawne were also each entitled to demand 4d. a year as a sign of possession. (fn. 748)
The value of the church in 1291 was £13 6s. 8d. (fn. 749) In 1535 the net value of the college and its possessions in Sutton was £13 18s. 8d.; the income then comprised £18 3s. 4d. from tithes and offerings, and the site of the rectory house (domus mansionis) and land in Sutton were worth £1 10s. Outgoings included pensions to the archbishop, the dean and chapter, and the chancellor. (fn. 750) After the suppression of the college in 1547, the rectory of Sutton was granted to Sir Michael Stanhope, (fn. 751) and after his attainder and execution in 1552 the Crown in 1555 acquired his widow's jointure in exchange for other property. (fn. 752) During the reign of Elizabeth I the rectory was let to the Alfords of Meaux, (fn. 753) and in 1609 the rectory house was occupied by Edward Truslove, (fn. 754) who left his interest in it to his wife. (fn. 755) James I granted the rectory to Francis Morrice and Francis Philips, of London, in 1609–10, when its value was said to be £25 19s. 4d. with out-payments amounting to £11 16s. 8d. (fn. 756) Morrice and Philips later sold it to Dame Katherine Moore, from whom it descended through her grand-daughter Katherine Davy to Richard Brodrepp, Katherine's grandson. (fn. 757) In 1650, when Sutton was described as 'a parochial chapel in the parish of Wawne', the impropriator was Charles Broadrigg, or Brodrepp. The tithes were then worth £140, with a fee-farm rent of £25 19s. 4d. due to the Crown. (fn. 758)
In 1709 the rectory and tithes passed from the Brodrepps to Hugh Mason, of Hull. (fn. 759) A mortgage of 1727 states that Mason bought the property from Thomas Barker, who had bought it from Richard Brodrepp. (fn. 760) In 1736 Mason settled some land and tithes in trust on Charles Pool for the benefit of his son and daughter by his first marriage. This property was subject to payments of £1 19s. 4d. to Mary Barnardiston, 13s. 4d. to the archbishop, and 6s. 8d. to the dean and chapter, (fn. 761) as well as that of the curate's salary. On Mason's death in 1739 the rectory passed to his son, the Revd. William Mason; he died in 1753 leaving it first to his widow, and then to the Revd. William Mason, the poet, a son by a former marriage. (fn. 762) In 1799 it was sold to R. C. Broadley by the Revd. Henry Dixon and his wife, the poet's brother-in-law and stepsister. (fn. 763)
At the time of the inclosure Charles Pool was 'owner of all the tithes', and by the award of 1768 he received an allotment of 491 a. in lieu of great and small tithes. (fn. 764) In 1800 R. C. Broadley purchased the tithes of the 'ancient inclosed lands' from Pool's son, also Charles, for £544. (fn. 765) A further purchase by Broadley, in 1802, concerned tithes and tithe-rents of other lands in Sutton. (fn. 766) In 1843 there was a merger of tithes on 93 a. (fn. 767) and in 1852 Broadley was awarded a rent-charge of £33 on tithes which had not been commuted at the inclosure. (fn. 768)
The advowson seems to have descended with the rectory. Thus Richard Brodrepp held it in 1689 (fn. 769) and Hugh Mason in 1729. (fn. 770) From the Masons it passed to R. C. Broadley in 1799, (fn. 771) and it subsequently descended to J. B. Harrison-Broadley, whose administrators held it in 1964. (fn. 772)
The impropriators of the rectory also found the incumbent's salary. In 1609 the salary was £10. (fn. 773) It had risen to £16 by 1650, (fn. 774) but had fallen again to £10 by 1706. (fn. 775) This sum was still paid by the patron until 1942, when a lump sum was given in commutation. (fn. 776) In 1720 Ann Watson left money to provide £5 annually for a sermon on St. James's Day, (fn. 777) and in 1964 this still formed part of the stipend. (fn. 778) The medieval glebe was not extensive. In 1402 it was said to comprise 12 a. of arable and 12 a. or 14 a. of meadow land. (fn. 779) The glebe was valued at £26 a year in 1650. (fn. 780)
The living was augmented from Queen Anne's Bounty in 1742, 1772, and 1802, each time for £200. (fn. 781) The money was used to purchase land—5 a. at Cottingham in 1768, a further 5 a. there in 1778, (fn. 782) and 12 a. at Misson (Notts.) in 1806. (fn. 783) There were further augmentations by parliamentary grant of £400 in 1812, £200 in 1813, and £400 in 1820; (fn. 784) £800 of this was used to purchase 20 a. at Atwick in 1821. (fn. 785) In 1806 there were Easter dues of 2d. from each communicant and 1d., called 'smoke money', from each house. (fn. 786) In 1809, when the Curate of Sutton no longer also served Marfleet, the churchwardens agreed to pay him an extra two guineas a year for the additional duties he was able to perform at Sutton. (fn. 787)
In 1842 the benefice income was £98 (fn. 788) and in 1896 £100. (fn. 789) Part of the Cottingham glebe was sold in 1899 and the rest in 1931, and the Misson glebe was sold in 1938. (fn. 790) In 1940 an anonymous donor gave £100 and Miss F. A. Bishop left £400 towards the endowment of the benefice. (fn. 791) Glebe at Atwick still contributed to the income in 1964. (fn. 792)
There was no parsonage house in 1743 (fn. 793) or 1764, (fn. 794) and there is no mention of one in 1865, although the vicar of the time declared that he was resident. (fn. 795) A vicarage house was built c. 1880. (fn. 796) It was sold in 1960 and the present Vicarage, designed by A. M. Mennim, was built. (fn. 797)
Thomas White, the curate, was reported in Mary's reign for clerical marriage, but it is not known whether he was deprived. (fn. 798) John Spofford (curate 1626–33), a Puritan, was presented in 1633 for not wearing a surplice four times a year, (fn. 799) and in 1627 the churchwardens, who may have been in sympathy, had been presented for not reporting Spofford's failure to read prayers on holy days, Wednesdays, and Fridays. (fn. 800) His successor, Daykins Fletcher, survived both the Interregnum and the Restoration and held the living for 41 years. (fn. 801) John Catlyn (curate 1689–92) was deprived as a nonjuror. (fn. 802)
Throughout the 18th century the incumbent was non-resident, and during most of that time the living was held in plurality with neighbouring parishes. (fn. 803) The incumbent between 1740 and 1789 was Arthur Robinson, Vicar of Holy Trinity, Hull, who employed a curate to serve the cures at Wawne, Sutton, and Marfleet. In 1762 he paid the curate £45 a year, (fn. 804) a sum which Archbishop Drummond considered to be sufficient, although he wondered how services were performed under such conditions. (fn. 805) Robinson wished the curate, Joseph Dawson, to be resident, and although he considered that Sutton, 'in a line between Wawne and Marfleet', would be the best place for his residence, he was prepared to offer him Wawne Vicarage. (fn. 806) Dawson, however, protested that this was a 'wretched abode', let to two labourers who could offer him 'neither diet nor lodging'; nor could he find 'entertainment in the town'. He had, moreover, been given permission by Archbishop Herring to live in Hull, where he received a further £12 as chaplain of Trinity House. Dawson thought Robinson was less concerned about his residence than in getting him out of Hull. (fn. 807) His letter is endorsed by the archbishop 'Dawson was a dissenter', and this may be the clue, but there is no record of further action.
In addition to the Ann Watson sermon, an earlier foundation, by Arthur Harpur in 1631, provided 6s. 8d. to the preacher for a sermon to commemorate the Gunpowder Plot. (fn. 808) In 1575 there were no quarterly sermons, (fn. 809) and in 1720 a new Bible and flagon were ordered to be bought. (fn. 810) In 1743 services were held once every Sunday, omitting the eighth when the curate took duty at Marfleet. Holy Communion was celebrated quarterly, (fn. 811) as it still was in 1764. (fn. 812) In 1865 there were two Sunday services, with Holy Communion on the first Sunday in each month. (fn. 813)
The church of ST. JAMES THE GREAT consists of chancel, modern vestry, nave with aisles of four bays, engaged west tower, and south porch. (fn. 814) The aisles and tower are of 14th- and 15th-century brickwork, with stone dressings. The chancel of stone is disproportionately long, being almost the same length as the nave. All the windows, with the exception of the east and west windows, and the east windows of the aisles, have square heads, and some date from the 14th century. There were two two-light windows near the west end of the chancel which may have lit a small parochial chancel. (fn. 815) The nave pillars were formerly of brick. (fn. 816) The tower is later than the nave and its east piers are carved with panelling in the Perpendicular style. (fn. 817) It was presumably not completed when the church was consecrated in 1349, a date vouched for by a Sutton man in 1429. (fn. 818) Another local inhabitant recalled how he had heard 'his parents and elders' say that the nave was built by Sir John de Sutton and the chancel by the rector, Thomas Sampson, (fn. 819) whilst a third witness in 1429 said that fifteen years earlier, before the walls of the church were whitened, he had seen 'old crosses and characters' painted on them. (fn. 820)
From this evidence it would seem that the church was rebuilt after the foundation of the college in 1347, and thus needed to be reconsecrated. It has been suggested that the chancel was only 'modernized' by the insertion of new windows and the building of buttresses to prevent bulging. (fn. 821)
In 1427 Thomas Sutcotes, one of the chaplains, left £1 to make a window in the choir. (fn. 822) In 1720 the archdeacon ordered the church to be whitened, the screen removed, and the Royal Arms from the screen placed elsewhere. (fn. 823) The church was reroofed in slate by the impropriator in 1764. (fn. 824) A small loft was erected in the second bay from the east end of the south aisle in 1785, a west gallery in 1824, and a loft above the three eastern bays of the north aisle in 1841. The nave and half the chancel were seated with box pews, and an octagonal threedecker pulpit straddled the middle aisle. This had a tester, and the front bore a painting of St. James the Great, holding a scroll. (fn. 825) The painting, which is signed 'Parkin pinxit', was in 1964 in the north aisle. The disposition of galleries, pews, and pulpit is shown on a plan dated 1866. (fn. 826)
In 1793 Charles Pool gave pinnacles for the tower, and at the same time this and the south side of the nave were rough-cast. (fn. 827) The church was restored in 1866–7. The work, on 'ecclesiological' lines, was apparently supervised by Cuthbert Brodrick, of Hull. (fn. 828) The roofs and chancel arch were reconstructed, the nave pillars rebuilt, a vestry added north of the chancel, (fn. 829) and the whole church reseated. (fn. 830) In 1883 an organ chamber was added north of the chancel, necessitating the destruction of one of the two-light windows. The work was carried out under Smith and Brodrick. (fn. 831) About 1886 the roughcasting was removed from the tower and new battlements and pinnacles provided. (fn. 832) In 1955 the roughcasting was removed from the nave. (fn. 833) In 1965 the battlemented parapets of the clerestory and south aisle were rebuilt, and the aisle wall, which was moving, was strengthened. A lectern given in memory of George Liddell was acquired in 1889, the sanctuary was refloored in 1899, new choir stalls and reading-desk were provided in 1920, and the sanctuary walls were panelled in 1922. (fn. 834)
There is a late-12th-century tub font, which has a band of nail-head ornament round the top and stands on a modern base. After being by the south door, (fn. 835) and also under the tower, (fn. 836) it was placed in the north aisle in 1922 when a baptistry was formed there. (fn. 837) The screen to this baptistry, set beneath the north tower arch, is made of part of the 15th-century rood-screen. (fn. 838) It has five bays, the centre one forming a doorway; the easternmost bay has different tracery from the rest. The rood-screen was ordered to be removed in 1720, (fn. 839) and until the Victorian restoration part of the screen was incorporated in a pew. (fn. 840) In 1896 portions of the screen were in the vestry, but the main part must have been placed under the tower in that year. (fn. 841) About 1905 other sections of the screen were used for the present reredos. (fn. 842)
Several shields of medieval glass were to be seen in the chancel windows in 1700. (fn. 845) There are some quarries of early-19th-century glass here, but most of it dates from the late 19th century. The north-east window of the north aisle is by C. E. Kempe. (fn. 846)
On the south side of the choir is a table tomb with the effigy of a knight in armour. Until the Victorian restoration this was in the centre of the chancel. (fn. 847) The effigy wears plate armour, of the type worn at Crecy. (fn. 848) The base of the tomb bears the arms of the friends and associates of Sir John de Sutton, founder of the college, who fought at Crecy and died in 1357. (fn. 849) There are some wall monuments, one of which is signed by George Earle, of Hull. (fn. 850)
In 1552 there were two bells, presumably in the tower, and a sacring bell. (fn. 851) The three bells of 1795 were recast in 1890 and their number made up to six at the cost of Miss D. J. Liddell. (fn. 852) The plate includes two cups, one renovated in 1862, the second hallmarked 1724. In 1552 there was a silver chalice, a cross, and a latten chrismatory. (fn. 853) There is now a large plate of 1719, a small flagon of 1867, (fn. 854) and a modern chalice and paten. (fn. 855) The registers date from 1558 for marriages, 1574 for burials, and 1580 for baptisms; they are largely complete, except for the years 1605–14. Register III contains briefs and Register IV has a number of entries relating to Quakers. (fn. 856)
The churchyard was extended in 1788 by a gift of land from the Revd. W. Mason, in return for which the parishioners undertook his obligation to repair one-third of the chancel. (fn. 857) The churchyard was further extended in 1829, (fn. 858) 1877, (fn. 859) and 1936–7. (fn. 860)
Modern parishes formed from Sutton
The church of St. Mark, in St. Mark Street, was consecrated in 1844 (fn. 861) to serve that part of the parish of Sutton called the Groves. A District Chapelry taken from Sutton, together with the extra-parochial area of Garrison Side, was assigned to it in 1844. (fn. 862) The patronage was vested in the Crown and the archbishop alternately. (fn. 863) The church was a brick building with stone facings in the style of the 12th century. It was cruciform, with aisles and galleries to the nave, the transepts merely acting as entrances to the galleries. There was a vaulted apsidal chancel, and at the west end was a tower with lantern, surmounted by a spire. (fn. 864) The architect was H. F. Lockwood. (fn. 865) In 1881 the transepts were altered by Smith and Brodrick, (fn. 866) and later the spire was partially removed. (fn. 867) In 1938 the lantern was rebuilt. (fn. 868) An unusual feature of the church was a stone altartable. (fn. 869) The church was badly damaged in the Second World War. It was closed in 1948 and demolished in 1958–9, (fn. 870) the parish being united with that of St. Saviour. (fn. 871)
The church of St. Saviour, in Stoneferry Road, was consecrated in 1903. (fn. 872) A Consolidated Chapelry from the parishes of Sutton and St. Mark's was assigned to it in 1904. (fn. 873) The church replaced an iron building given by J. T. Firbank, M.P., and dedicated in 1898. (fn. 874) It is a brick building, consisting of aisled nave and chancel, the architects being Brodrick, Lowther, and Walker. (fn. 875) The Marriott Bequest Fund contributed £1,500 towards the cost. (fn. 876) The pulpit is reputed to be the work of Canova and was brought from Murano by George Earle. (fn. 877) In 1957 the parish was united with that of St. Mark, (fn. 878) and in 1961 the patronage was transferred from the Crown to the archbishop. (fn. 879)
The church of St. Michael and All Angels, in Holderness Road, Sutton Ings, was consecrated in 1927. (fn. 880) A Consolidated Chapelry, from the parishes of Sutton and Drypool, was assigned to it in that year. (fn. 881) The patron is the archbishop. The site for the church was given by F. A. Scott in memory of his father. (fn. 882) A temporary church had been dedicated in 1913, (fn. 883) and was the first building to be erected under a new Hull church extension scheme. (fn. 884) The new church, which is of brick, was designed by Sir Charles Nicholson. (fn. 885) There is a nave with south aisle and a chancel. This church was completed and dedicated in 1915. (fn. 886)
The church of St. Margaret of Scotland, in Shannon Road, is a dual-purpose building in the parish of St. Michael. It was dedicated in 1959. The architects were Fisher & Hollingsworth, of Hull, and the church was largely built by funds from the Humberside Appeal. (fn. 887)
Modern Parishes formed from the Parish of Cottingham
The church of St. John, in Clough Road, Newland, was consecrated in 1833, (fn. 888) and a Consolidated Chapelry from the parish of Cottingham assigned to it in 1862. (fn. 889) The patron is the Bishop of Chester. (fn. 890) The original church was rectangular in shape, built in white brick, in the style of the 12th century, and designed by William Hutchinson. (fn. 891) In 1893 a chancel and vestries were added, and in 1902 the nave was extended to the west and a north aisle added. The architects for each of these alterations were Smith and Brodrick, and the effect was to turn the building into a version of 16th-century Gothic. (fn. 892) The church contains the old font from St. Mary's, Hull; it has been recut. (fn. 893)
The church of St. Augustine of Hippo, in Queen's Road, was consecrated in 1896. (fn. 894) A District Chapelry from the parish of Newland was assigned in 1897. (fn. 895) The patron is the Archbishop of York. This church replaced a temporary building, opened on the same site in 1884. (fn. 896) It is a brick building in the style of the mid-14th century, and consists of a nave with north aisle, a chancel, and the first stage of a tower which has never been completed. The architect was George Gilbert Scott, the younger, but the work was carried out by T. L. Moore, who appears to have produced almost a fresh design. (fn. 897)
The church of St. Cuthbert, in Marlborough Avenue, a district church in the parish of St. Augustine, was an iron building opened in 1906. (fn. 898) It was destroyed in the Second World War and has been replaced by a brick building, designed by Douglas Potter of the firm of Gelder and Kitchen, dedicated in 1956. (fn. 899) It was built partly by money ported from the destroyed church of St. Bartholomew. (fn. 900)
The church of St. Alban, in Hall Road, was consecrated in 1956. (fn. 901) This was on the completion and rebuilding of the first section of a permanent church which had been consecrated in 1938, and which had replaced a temporary building opened in 1929. (fn. 902) A district, taken from the parishes of Newland and Cottingham, was assigned in 1936. (fn. 903) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The church is a brick building, and has a nave with aisles, chancel, and west tower. The architects were W. Milner and R. B. Craze. (fn. 904) Money ported from the demolished church of St. Peter, Drypool, was used in the rebuilding. (fn. 905)
The church of St. Michael, in Orchard Park Road, was consecrated in 1958. (fn. 906) It replaced a temporary church, which had a first-floor chapel, opened in 1934. A district, from the parishes of Newland and Cottingham, was assigned in 1950. (fn. 907) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The church is a brick building, designed by F. F. Johnson. It has a nave with narthex, a west gallery, a shallow south transept, which houses the font, a chancel, and a west tower. The chapel in the temporary church was extended and fitted as a Lady chapel. The church was largely built with ported money from the demolished church of St. Stephen; (fn. 908) this fact is commemorated in a window depicting St. Stephen, with the old church in the background. This window and three others were designed by L. C. Evetts of Newcastle. A mural on the east wall was painted by Denis Booth. The figure of Our Lady was carved by Norman Cawthra. The arcaded circular 12thcentury font came from the ruined church of Wharram Percy. (fn. 909)
Modern Parishes formed from the Parish of Kirk Ella
The church of St. John the Baptist, in St. George's Road, was consecrated in 1878, (fn. 910) to serve that part of the parish of Kirk Ella known as Newington. A Consolidated Chapelry from Kirk Ella and North Ferriby was assigned to it in 1879. (fn. 911) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The church is a brick building in the 13th-century Gothic style, and was designed by Smith and Brodrick. (fn. 912) There is a nave with aisles, a chancel, and a tiny spire over the nave roof.
The church of St. Mary and St. Peter, in Hessle Road, Dairycoates, was consecrated in 1902. (fn. 913) A District Chapelry taken from Newington parish was formed in 1906. (fn. 914) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The church, which was of brick, consisted of a nave with aisles, a vestry, and a bell-cote at the west end. It was designed by W. S. Walker of Brodrick, Lowther, and Walker. (fn. 915) In 1962 the church was deconsecrated, and on the same day a new church, added to an existing hall and designed by Allanson Hick, was consecrated. (fn. 916) The old church was subsequently demolished. (fn. 917)
The church of the Transfiguration, in Albert Avenue, was consecrated in 1904, (fn. 918) and a District Chapelry from the parish of Newington was assigned to it in 1906. (fn. 919) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The church replaced a temporary building which had been used as a navvy mission during the building of the Hull and Barnsley Railway. The architect of the present church was F. S. Brodrick. (fn. 920) It has an aisled nave, a chancel, and an octagonal bell-turret to the south-west of the nave. It was not completed until 1915, when the turret and a west bay were built and dedicated. (fn. 921)
The church of St. Martin, at the corner of North Road and Anlaby Road, was consecrated in 1939. (fn. 922) A district from the parishes of Anlaby, the Transfiguration, and St. Nicholas was assigned to it in 1938. (fn. 923) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The church, which was designed by R. B. Craze, replaced a temporary building opened in 1928. There is a nave with narrow passage aisles, a chancel, and a bell-turret at the west end. (fn. 924) It contains a 13thcentury font from the ruined church of Nunkeeling. (fn. 925) The sum of £3,000 was given by Col. Carver towards the cost of the building, as a memorial to his wife. (fn. 926)
The church of The Ascension, in Priory Road, was consecrated in 1958. (fn. 927) A district from the parishes of Anlaby, the Transfiguration, and Cottingham was assigned to a temporary church in 1935, (fn. 928) and this became the new parish in 1959. (fn. 929) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The temporary building, designed by Wellsted, Dosser, and Wellsted, was originally intended as a parish hall. To this building a chancel was added by F. F. Johnson in 1957–8, the hall forming a nave. (fn. 930) The new work was paid for by ported money from the destroyed church of St. Mark. (fn. 931) The pews are from Christ Church and the altar plate from St. James's. (fn. 932)
A temporary church of St. Chad, in the parish of Anlaby, was dedicated in 1941, the site being purchased with help from the Medd Bequest. In 1948 this was replaced by another temporary church, adapted from a building on a war-time camp. This was furnished with fittings from the war-damaged church of St. Thomas, the title of which it assumed. In 1956 this church was placed under the care of the Vicar of the church of the Ascension. The present church, at the corner of Hotham Road and Louis Drive, is a dual-purpose building, designed by H. R. Spencer, (fn. 933) and was built partly from funds ported from the destroyed church of St. Mark. (fn. 934) Most of the fittings from St. Thomas's Church, Hull, were transferred to the new church, which acts as a district church to the church of the Ascension. (fn. 935) The church was dedicated in 1957.
Modern Parish formed from the Parish of Hessle
The church of St. Nicholas, at the corner of Hessle Road and Pickering Road, was consecrated in 1915 (fn. 936) and a District Chapelry from the parish of Hessle was assigned to it in the same year. (fn. 937) The patron is the Archbishop of York. The church was given by Christopher Pickering and is a memorial to King Edward VII; the architect was John Bilson of Hull. (fn. 938) The church is of brick with stone dressings, and has a nave with aisles, a chancel, and a west tower. The style is a free rendering of 15th-century Gothic. (fn. 939)