A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 3, Ouse and Derwent Wapentake, and Part of Harthill Wapentake. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1976.
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The Village of Dunnington, which was an Anglian settlement, (fn. 1) lies about 4 miles east of York on the southern flank of the York moraine. (fn. 2) The small hamlet of Grimston, also Anglian, occupies a similar situation in the west of the parish, and surviving wells near both settlements suggest that a supply of water was readily available. In 1086 there was another hamlet in the parish, a Scandinavian settlement called 'Janulfestorp', (fn. 3) but no later reference to it has been found and its site is not known. The irregularly-shaped parish covers 3,837 a., of which Grimston township accounts for 797 a. (fn. 4)
The boulder clay, sand, and gravel of the moraine, (fn. 5) along the northern margin of the parish, lie mostly at a height of between 75 ft. and 100 ft. above sealevel, although the area around Mill hill in the north-east is higher. Other sections of the moraine are called Thorn, Thorntree, and Stock hills. The village lies at about 50 ft. to 75 ft. and the rest of the parish to the south occupies the more low-lying outwash sand and clay. The open fields of Dunnington lay for the most part on the moraine and an area of assarts and ings on the adjoining lower ground. The pattern of long narrow fields reflects the inclosure of these grounds by 'flatting' in 1707. Much of the lower ground in the south of the parish was occupied by the common, and there the larger more compact fields are the result of the inclosure of 1772. In Grimston township more irregular fields may reflect its earlier inclosure.
The low grounds are drained by several dikes and streams, some of which form sections of the parish boundary, notably Common drain in the north-east. Common, Ings, and Howden Jury drains unite in Dunnington as Tilmire drain, which flows southwards towards the former Tilmire (fn. 6) and becomes Bridge dike in Escrick parish. The name 'Howden Jury', recorded by 1850, suggests that the drain may have been the responsibility of the court of sewers for the west parts of the East Riding. (fn. 7)
The former Roman road from Brough to York via Stamford Bridge follows the moraine along the northern edge of Dunnington, where it forms the entire parish boundary. The Dunnington stretch is now part of a main road to the coast. A second Roman road to York, more southerly and more direct, crosses the centre of the parish and meets the first road at Grimston. This later became the main York-Beverley road. Both roads were turnpiked in 1765 and the trust was not discontinued until 1872. A bar was built at the junction and the still-surviving milestones were erected. (fn. 8) The roads have been widened and straightened in the 20th century. (fn. 9) Dunnington village lies between the main roads and is linked to them by four minor roads. One of the latter, Common Lane, continues southwards beyond the Beverley road at Four Lane Ends. It crosses Common drain by a small 19th-century brick bridge, known in 1709 as Byart bridge, (fn. 10) in 1850 as Scauders bridge, (fn. 11) and in the 20th century as Hassacarr bridge. From Grimston a road formerly known as Grove Lane (fn. 12) leads southwards to Elvington. The Derwent Valley Light Railway, opened in 1912 with a station at Four Lane Ends, crosses the parish west and south of the village. The line was closed for passenger traffic in 1926 (fn. 13) but in 1974 was still used for goods from York as far as Dunnington station. A York bypass road was being constructed across Grimston township in 1974.
The older houses and cottages of Dunnington village, all of brick and dating from the 18th and early 19th centuries, lie for the most part along the closely built-up York and Church Streets and Common Road. Characteristically they have plat bands, brick cornices, and rising sash windows. Several of those of early date appear to have been of only one storey with attics, but, with the exception of one close to the church, they have been heightened to the full two storeys which are normal until the 19th century. At the road junction in the centre of the village stands a cross, replacing a medieval shaft and socket stone which in 1972 were in the Rectory garden. The present shaft, with ball finial and stepped socket stone, was put up in 1840; (fn. 14) it was restored in 1900. (fn. 15) Near by stood a lock-up with two cells, built in 1850 and largely demolished by 1908. (fn. 16) Other older houses stand along Water Lane, and back lanes around the village include Church, Garden Flat, Pear Tree, and Peter Crofts Lanes.
The most noteworthy dwelling in the village is Dunnington House in Common Road, a later-18thcentury house of three bays, with additions of the early 19th century which include the central doorcase and flanking screen walls with round-headed recesses and ball finials. The house was a private lunatic asylum owned by the Hornby family from at least 1817 until the 1880s. In 1826 it was said that only a limited number of patients 'of distinction' were admitted, but in 1838 11 out of 16 were paupers. Later there were usually about 20-40 patients. (fn. 17)
A great expansion of Dunnington as a dormitory for York has been in progress since c. 1960 and estates of private houses and bungalows have appeared in all parts of the village. (fn. 18) There are also some 30 council houses in Church Lane and York Street and 19 west of the village beyond the railway line.
The Temperance Hall, which in 1903 became a club and reading room, was built in Church Street in 1889. (fn. 19) In 1823 there were two inns, the Cross Keys and the Greyhound, (fn. 20) and both still existed in 1972. By 1840 the Smith's Arms, later successively known as the Blacksmith's Arms and the Three Horseshoes, had appeared, also in the centre of the village; (fn. 21) it closed in the 1930s. (fn. 22)
The now much shrunken hamlet of Grimston consisted in 1606 of 10 houses and 8 cottages standing in north, south, and east rows. (fn. 23) An undated 18th-century map shows that some houses then lay west of the Elvington road as well as alongside it as at present. By that time there was also a group of houses at the junction of the Beverley and Stamford Bridge roads, (fn. 24) and by 1850 they were known as Grimston Smithy, (fn. 25) later simply as Grimston. Of the older houses Manor House or Manor House Farm is a mid-18th-century building with a stringcourse, a dentil eaves course, and a doorcase with panelled pilasters surmounted by a cornice. Hill Farm is a similar but plainer 18th-century building. There are earthworks, possibly representing former house-sites, in near-by fields, where there is also a 19th-century brick well-head. Three alehouses were licensed at Grimston in the 1750s and one in the 1760s and later. (fn. 26) By 1823 it was known as the Blackwell Ox (fn. 27) and by 1840 as the Bingley Arms. (fn. 28) It was presumably on the site, at the junction of the Bridlington and Beverley roads, occupied by the New Inn in 1850. (fn. 29) It had closed by 1872. (fn. 30)
In the 19th and especially the 20th centuries a scattered collection of houses has grown up on the York-Beverley road and on the side roads north and south of Four Lane Ends. They include the Windmill inn, first mentioned in 1872. (fn. 31) The isolated farm-houses in Dunnington township apparently all date from after the inclosures of 1707 and 1772. Dunnington Hall, known throughout the 19th century as East Field House, (fn. 32) stands in its own grounds in East Field Lane. It is a large early19th-century three-storeyed building, extended later, and has a coach-house and stable block. The house was owned by a York druggist in 1821 (fn. 33) and may be an early reflection of the proximity of the city. Clock Farm in Grimston has a large barn surmounted by an ornate brick and stone clock tower with a wooden bellcot.
In 1377 there were 127 poll-tax payers at Dunnington. (fn. 34) In 1672 74 households there were included in the hearth-tax return, 19 of them discharged from paying. Of those chargeable 45 had one hearth, 7 had 2, and one each had 3, 4, and 8 hearths. (fn. 35) There were about 78 families in the whole parish in 1743 (fn. 36) and 70 in 1764 (fn. 37) The population of Dunnington township was 430 in 1801 and it rose steadily to a peak of 842 in 1861. It then decreased to 741 in 1881 and 654 in 1901 (fn. 38) before again rising to 738 in 1921 and 818 in 1931. The population of the whole parish was 958 in 1951 and 983 in 1961, but with the subsequent building of housing estates it rose to 2,442 in 1971. (fn. 39)
There were 41 poll-tax payers at Grimston in 1377 (fn. 40) and 14 households were included in the 1672 hearth-tax assessment. Two were discharged from paying, 4 had one hearth, 6 had 2, and one each had 4 and 13 hearths. (fn. 41) In 1801 the population of the township was 51 and until 1901 it varied only between 50 and 81. (fn. 42) In 1921 there were 77 inhabitants and in 1931 66. (fn. 43)
MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
In 1066 Slettan and Edwin held two manors totalling 4 carucates at Dunnington, which in 1086 were held as one estate by the chapter of York. Before the Conquest two other estates there, totalling 5¾ carucates, had been held by Norman and Alden. In 1086, despite a claim that 14 bovates belonged to William Malet, they were held as one estate by Geoffrey of William de Percy. (fn. 44) The chapter of York subsequently became the under-tenant of the Percies and the whole of the chapter's Dunnington estate was set aside for the support of two prebendaries.
The land held under the Percys became part of the endowment of Dunnington prebend, which had apparently been formed by 1175 when, on the division of the Percy barony, a York prebend, presumably Dunnington, was assigned the share of Jocelin of Louvain. (fn. 45) The Percy interest in the prebend was finally extinguished in 1225, when Richard de Percy quitclaimed all his rights in the prebendal lands in Dunnington, Grimston, and elsewhere to the archbishop of York. (fn. 46) The prebend's estate in Dunnington township was later known as the manor of DUNNINGTON. It consisted of 18 bovates, 68 a., and some 20 tofts and crofts c. 1295. (fn. 47) About 1330 2 bovates were alienated without royal licence, (fn. 48) and in 1349 they were ordered to be restored to the prebendary. (fn. 49)
The manor was let by the prebendary in 1548 to John Boyce and in 1692 to Thomas Rhodes for short terms, (fn. 50) and in 1703 to Tobias Jenkins for lives. At the inclosure of 1707 the last-named received 138 a. for his demesne. About 600 a. were then allotted to copyholders. (fn. 51) The manor was let to J. S. Smith in 1767 (fn. 52) and at the inclosure of 1772 he received no a. for his demesne. Copyhold tenants were awarded about 700 a. (fn. 53) The manor was let to the Revd. William Lowth in 1772 and to the Revd. Frederick Dodsworth in 1796. In 1829 the estate was let in three parts, Dodsworth's devisees receiving the manor and 92 a. and two other men a total of 181 a. (fn. 54) In 1847 the manor was vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners upon a voidance of the prebend. (fn. 55) The commissioners sold 156 a. to Thomas Barker in 1853 (fn. 56) and 77 a. to the Revd. E. Prest in 1855-6. (fn. 57) A total of 353 a. of copyhold land was enfranchised between 1898 and 1922, (fn. 58) and the remainder under the Law of Property Act of 1922. (fn. 59) The commissioners sold a further 38 a. between 1947 and 1964. (fn. 60)
In 1672 a house of eight hearths at Dunnington, which may have been the prebendary's manorhouse, was occupied by a Mr. Hall. (fn. 61) The manorhouse was let to Thomas Barker in 1829 (fn. 62) and sold to him in 1853. (fn. 63) It stood west of the church (fn. 64) and was described as a 'neat residence' in 1872. (fn. 65) The house was demolished c. 1966 and a housing estate built on the site. (fn. 66)
The rest of the chapter's estate in the township was assigned to Ampleforth prebend, presumably at its formation before 1219-34. (fn. 67) The prebendal estate consisted of 20 bovates, 100 a. of pasture, and 6 tofts and crofts c. 1295. (fn. 68) It was let for a short term to William Witham in 1639, (fn. 69) and was later attached to the prebendary's manor of Heslington, the lessee of which, Henry Wickham, received 103 a. for his demesne at the inclosure of 1707. Copyholders received about 200 a. (fn. 70) Wickham's lease was renewed for lives in 1722 (fn. 71) and at the inclosure of 1772 the Revd. Henry Wickham received 6 a. as lord of Heslington manor. Copyholders were allotted 133 a. (fn. 72) The estate followed the descent of Heslington manor, (fn. 73) and in 1853 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners sold 52 a. to Elizabeth Appleby. (fn. 74) The rest of the estate was subsequently merged with Dunnington manor. (fn. 75)
The prebendary of Ampleforth had a manorhouse at Dunnington c. 1295. (fn. 76)
In 1066 Sonulf held an estate of 2 carucates at Grimston and in 1086 it was held by Niel of the count of Mortain, despite claims by William de Percy and Ernuin the priest. (fn. 77) In 1166 it was apparently held by Matthew de Punchardun of Bertram of Buhner (fn. 78) and in 1284-5 Alan Roald and Hugh of Methley, described as chaplains, held it of 'the heirs of Punchardun', and they of Ralph de Neville. (fn. 79) In 1287 Hugh de Punchardun granted the manor of GRIMSTON to York minster to support a chantry he had founded there. (fn. 80) In 1346 a carucate was held of Richard de Neville by the heirs of Simon de Hescheheld. (fn. 81)
The Punchardun chantry in the minster was dedicated to Saints Agatha, Lucy, and Scholastica. (fn. 82) After the suppression its Grimston property was granted by the Crown to William Tanckard in 1599, when it comprised 7 houses and cottages, 4 closes, and 11 bovates. At the same time Tanckard acquired the former lands of St. Nicholas's hospital, York, and in 1606 his estate in Grimston amounted to 268 a. He still had the manor-house in 1630. (fn. 83) Tanckard conveyed property in the township to Sir Henry Jenkins in 1622, (fn. 84) and by 1697 the manor was held by Tobias Jenkins. (fn. 85) Like Scoreby manor Grimston was settled on Tobias's daughter Mary and her husband Sir Henry Goodrick, and it passed in 1715 to Mark Kirkby. Whereas Jenkins surrendered his life interest in Scoreby to Kirkby's sons Mark and Christopher in 1723, he regained Grimston from them that year and promptly sold it to Robert Benson, Lord Bingley. (fn. 86)
Lord Bingley's daughter Harriet married in 1731 George Fox, who became Lord Bingley in 1762, (fn. 87) and by 1779 it had passed to his nephew James FoxLane (or Lane-Fox). (fn. 88) It descended in the family until 1856 when George Lane-Fox sold it, comprising 761 a., to T. S. Watkinson. (fn. 89) In 1890 Watkinson's devizees sold the manor to William Hotham (fn. 90) and his heir Edward Hotham Newton sold it to J. J. Hunt in 1899. (fn. 91) In 1954 the executors of Reginald Hunt (d. 1941) sold the estate, then comprising about 1,000 a. in Grimston and Dunnington, in various lots. (fn. 92)
In 1672 Tobias Jenkins occupied a house of thirteen hearths at Grimston, (fn. 93) presumably that described as Grimston Hall and owned by him or another Tobias Jenkins in 1719. (fn. 94) George Fox's lessee did much work on the house in 1750. (fn. 95) In 1772 it stood on the west side of the Elvington road. (fn. 96) It may have been demolished when Grimston Hill was built in the early 19th century and it had certainly gone by 1839. (fn. 97) Grimston Hill, which apparently replaced the hall as the manor-house of the Lane-Fox family, stands beside the Beverley road. The brick and slate building, painted white, has a canted bay window rising through both storeys and a porch with Ionic columns and an entablature. Grimston Hill was replaced in its turn as the manorhouse by Grimston Court, a large Jacobean-style red-brick building standing in its own grounds on the opposite side of the road. It was built in 1903 by J. J. Hunt. (fn. 98) It was sold in 1958 by the executors of R. Hunt (fn. 99) and in 1972 was an old people's home.
In 1086 an estate of one carucate at Grimston, which Ulchil had held before the Conquest, was in the hands of William de Percy. (fn. 100) It had evidently passed to the chapter of York by 1225, when Richard de Percy quitclaimed his rights in the chapter's lands there, (fn. 101) and in 1284-5 the chapter held a carucate in the township. (fn. 102) In the late 15th century the estate was known as GRIMSTON manor and was held by Henry Annas of the chapter. Annas later granted the manor to Thomas Barton, and it was subsequently held by John Barton (d. 1506), John Barton (d. 1553), and Thomas Barton (d. 1565). (fn. 103) Thomas's son Edward Barton died in 1610 seised only of common rights in Grimston. (fn. 104) In 1606 the estate was represented by 8 bovates of copyhold land, held by several tenants of the manor of Dunnington. (fn. 105)
The hospital of St. Nicholas, York, bought 3 bovates at Grimston between 1260 and 1291, (fn. 106) and in 1346 it held 2 bovates of the Neville fee. (fn. 107) The estate was let by the Crown to Leonard Beckwith in 1553 (fn. 108) and granted to William Tanckard in 1599, then comprising 2 houses, a close, and 5 bovates. (fn. 109) Thereafter it formed part of the manor. (fn. 110)
In 1086 the chapter's estate in Dunnington township had land for two ploughs and, although two villeins had only one plough, the estate had increased in value from 105. before the Conquest to 155. The Percy estate had land for three ploughs and Geoffrey had one plough and two villeins half a plough. The estate had fallen in value from £1 4s. in 1066 to 10s. (fn. 111)
Though little is known of the process, considerable reclamation was evidently carried on in the Middle Ages. Peter Crofts, adjoining the village on the east, (fn. 112) may represent part of the nucleus of land cultivated by the chapter's tenants at the time of Domesday. The Intake, south-east of the village, may have been subsequent reclamation, and other reclaimed land went to form the later open fields.
About 1295 the prebendary of Dunnington held in demesne 8 bovates and 12 a. of arable land, 20 a. of meadow, 30 a. of moor, and 6 a. of wood. There were 38 bond tenants, of whom one held 4 bovates, 2 held 2, and 8 held one bovate, and the remainder held only tofts and crofts. The tenants performed boon-works and rendered money rents, hens, and eggs. The lord enjoyed pannage, merchet, leyrwite, and multure. (fn. 113) At the same time the prebendary of Ampleforth's demesne comprised 6 bovates, each consisting of 10 a. of arable and one of meadow. There were also seven bond tenants, each holding 2 bovates for boon-works, money rents, hens, and eggs. Each tenant was to provide a haymaker and five reapers, perform carting services, provide an assistant for the lord's thatcher, and pay small sums known as 'wodepeny' and 'Romepeny'. The lord had merchet and relief. There were also six cottars and grassmen holding tofts and crofts. The tenants all had common rights in about 100 a. of pasture. (fn. 114)
Three of the open fields, Undergate, Mill, and East fields, were named in 1628 and the fourth, Thornhill field, in 1631. New field, or Ox close, and the Intake, both of which were evidently divided into strips or subject to common rights, were mentioned in 1621 and 1631 respectively. (fn. 115) Together with the ings, all these areas were laid out in flats and inclosed by agreement in 1707, (fn. 116) confirmed by a Chancery decree of 1709. (fn. 117) In all, 1,049 a. were dealt with. Undergate field, which adjoined the village on the south-west, contained 117 a., Thorntree field, evidently the earlier Thornhill field, to the north, 155 a., Mill field, north-east of the village, 126 a., and East field 295 a. The ings, beyond Undergate field, occupied 118 a., the Intake 75 a., and New field, between the ings and the common, 163 a. (fn. 118) Tobias Jenkins, as lessee of Dunnington manor, received 138 a. and Henry Wickham, as lessee of Heslington manor, 342 a. There were also 2 allotments of 50-100 a., 14 of 10-49 a., and 16 of under 10 a.
The extensive common, which was unstinted in 1709, occupied the southern part of the township. The south-east section of it was evidently used at one time as a rabbit warren. (fn. 119) The common was inclosed in 1772, (fn. 120) under an Act of 1770, (fn. 121) and 937 a. were allotted. J. S. Smith, as lord of Dunnington manor, was awarded 110 a., the Revd. Henry Wickham, as lord of Heslington manor, 6 a., and the rector 103 a. There was one allotment of 57 a., 25 of 10-50 a., and 34 of under 10 a.
At Grimston in 1086 the count of Mortain's estate had land for one plough. Niel had a plough there and three villeins had half a plough. The estate had decreased in value from £1 in 1066 to 10s. There was also land for a plough on the Percy estate. Before the Conquest it had been worth 10s. but in 1086 it was waste. (fn. 122) About 1295 four bond tenants of the prebendary of Dunnington at Grimston held a total of one carucate and two cottars held tofts for money rents, hens, eggs, and boon-works. (fn. 123) By 1606 there were 389 a. of open-field land in the township, including 71 a. in New field and 60 a. in Low field. The commons then included the 25- acre Bymoor and the 335-acre Great moor, in the south of Grimston. There was also a stinted cow pasture in which William Tanckard had seven gates in 1630. Several small closes were already mentioned in 1599, and by 1656 a close of 6 a. had been taken out of Bymoor, and the 22-acre Far pasture and the 39-acre 'new intake' called Cony hill out of Great moor. Thirteen acres of Cony hill were ploughed up in 1657. (fn. 124) The township was apparently mostly inclosed by 1708 and certainly by 1719. Among the closes mentioned in the former year were Merial ings, West ings, and Summer pasture. (fn. 125) An undated 18th-century map shows the whole township inclosed except 89 a. of Great moor, then called Grimston common and reached by an outgang on the line of the later Elvington road. The inclosed parts of Great moor included several called Tilmire which were attached to three of the nine farms in the township. (fn. 126)
In 1801 475 a. of the whole parish were under crops, mainly oats (200 a.) and rye or maslin (100 a.). (fn. 127) The number of farmers in the parish in the 19th and 20th centuries was usually between 20 and 30. (fn. 128) In 1851 7 held 100-200 a. and 20 held smaller amounts, (fn. 129) and in 1937 4 farms had an acreage of 150 or more and 13 were smaller. (fn. 130) There was a score of marl pits on the former common and New field in the mid 19th century. (fn. 131) In 1905 there were 1,224 a. of arable of 535 a. of grassland at Dunnington and 547 a. of arable and 161 a. of grassland at Grimston. There were then only 85 a. of woodland in the parish, mostly in Grimston. (fn. 132) Grimston wood has been managed by the Forestry Commission since 1963. (fn. 133) In the 1960s the parish was still largely under arable, but there was a substantial amount of grassland in the south; the former rabbit warren, which in the 1930s was heathland, had been planted with trees. (fn. 134)
For most of the later 19th century much of the country's home-grown chicory was cultivated in and near Dunnington, which was described as 'the English chicory-growing metropolis'. (fn. 137) The crop was probably introduced c. 1840 (fn. 138) and in 1851 there were three chicory merchants in the parish. (fn. 139) In 1856, when it was apparently declining, the industry was said to have formerly employed 400 people for much of the year. There were then nine disused kilns in the parish in which the roots had been dried. (fn. 140) The industry evidently revived, and in 1872 'a great quantity' of chicory was said to be grown. (fn. 141) By 1902, however, none of the twelve surviving kilns was still in use. It was then reported that 200-300 a. of chicory were formerly grown in the parish and that hundreds of itinerant labourers had been employed during harvest. Only 50 a. of the crop were then grown, mainly in small plots which the farmers kept 'for luck', and for many years the chicory had been taken to York for drying as well as processing. (fn. 142) A small amount continued to be grown until the 1930s. (fn. 143) Three kilns still stood in 1972, the largest, in Common Lane, a long twostoreyed building with a half-hipped roof and a flight of stone steps leading to the first floor. (fn. 144) Another kiln, in York Street, had been converted into a shop.
Dunnington was also well known in the 19th century for the manufacture of agricultural implements, machinery, and carts. In 1851 there were two firms, one employing ten men and the other six. (fn. 145) Implement manufacture was described as the main industry of the parish in 1856 and the quality of the products was said to be widely renowned. (fn. 146) Fifty workmen were employed by one manufacturer in the later 19th century and several new types of implement originated at Dunnington. (fn. 147) By 1908 the numbers employed had greatly decreased, (fn. 148) but two firms continued throughout the 1920s and 1930s (fn. 149) and one, Hornshaw's, remained in 1972, although implements were then only repaired, their manufacture having ceased c. 1967. (fn. 150)
A weaver, a rope-maker, and a tanner were mentioned at Dunnington in 1772, (fn. 151) a brewer in 1872, and a maltster in 1879. (fn. 152) There were two bicycle manufacturers from at least 1909 until the late 1920s. (fn. 153) In 1972 two firms of grain handlers had premises at Four Lane Ends.
The prebendary of Dunnington had a water-mill and a windmill c. 1295, (fn. 154) and a windmill in 1723. (fn. 155) The windmill may have stood in the area known as Mill hill, on the moraine north-east of the village, where Mill field was mentioned in the earlier 17th century. (fn. 156) There was a miller from at least 1823 onwards (fn. 157) and in 1850 a windmill stood near Four Lane Ends. (fn. 158) It closed down c. 1900 (fn. 159) and has since been demolished.
There are surviving court rolls for the capital manor of Dunnington for the years 1606-40 and 1724-1925. The court was largely concerned with land transfers; officers were not mentioned until the 1860s, but thereafter two bylawmen, two affeerors, and a bailiff were usually sworn. (fn. 160)
Constables' accounts survive for 1765-1844, churchwardens' accounts for 1818-66, (fn. 161) overseers' accounts for 1816-31, (fn. 162) and surveyors' accounts for 1843-56. (fn. 163) Dunnington was a member of the Rillington union and maintained one or two paupers in the workhouse there throughout the period 1816-31. Until 1820 there was one overseer and thereafter two. Two poorhouses were built in 1816 and two more in 1821. Dunnington joined York poor-law union in 1837. (fn. 164) In 1850 two rows of poorhouses still stood in the south of Dunnington village and another row on the Elvington road at Grimston; (fn. 165) one set survived until 1936. (fn. 166) Dunnington was included in Escrick rural district in 1894, Derwent rural district in 1935, (fn. 167) and the Selby district of North Yorkshire in 1974.
Although parts of the fabric are earlier, a church at Dunnington was not mentioned until 1220, when Richard de Percy and the archbishop were in dispute over the advowson. (fn. 168) The living was described, apparently erroneously, as a vicarage in 1225. (fn. 169) In that year the archbishop quitclaimed the advowson to Richard de Percy, (fn. 170) in whose family it descended (fn. 171) until 1537, when it apparently passed with the rest of their Yorkshire estates to the Crown. (fn. 172) Presentations were made by the Crown in 1556 and 1558, (fn. 173) Robert Cripling in 1568, John Gibson in 1582, and Ralph Eure, Lord Eure, in 1610. (fn. 174) The advowson had passed by 1642 to John Egerton, earl of Bridgwater, and descended in the Egerton family (fn. 175) until 1823, when it passed to John Home-Cust, Viscount Alford, the heir of John Egerton, earl of Bridgwater. (fn. 176) In 1722 and 1755 the archbishop of York presented, (fn. 177) presumably by lapse. In 1950 the patronage was transferred from Peregrine Cust, Baron Brownlow, to the archbishop of York. (fn. 178)
The church was valued at £13 6s. 8d. in 1291, reduced to £8 n the new taxation, (fn. 179) and still at the lower figure in 1428. (fn. 180) It was worth £19 net in 1535. (fn. 181) In 1650 the value was £80. (fn. 182) In 1829-31 the average net income was £349 a year, (fn. 183) in 1884 about £420, and in 1914 £313. (fn. 184)
Tithes accounted for most of the income in 1535 and later. In 1546 the tenant of an area in the south of the parish called Grey leys claimed to pay a modus of 3s. 4d. a year for tithes there. (fn. 185) The prebendary of Ampleforth owned the tithes arising from his estate at Dunnington and they were let with it in the 17th century and later. (fn. 186) In 1685 the rector received tithes from 63 bovates at Dunnington and 7 at Grimston. (fn. 187) In 1716 the lord of Grimston manor paid a composition of £6 a year for the remaining Grimston tithes. (fn. 188) At the inclosure of 1707 the tithes of the whole of Dunnington township, except for New field and the common, were commuted for 1s. 8d. a year from each acre. (fn. 189) In 1225 the archbishop granted two tofts and common rights to the rector (fn. 190) and at the inclosure of 1772 the rector was awarded 4 a. for common rights. He also received 98 a. for half his tithes from the common and a rent-charge of about £16 for the rest. (fn. 191) In 1838 the remaining tithes and existing moduses were commuted for a rent-charge of £348 a year. (fn. 192) The living was endowed with another 2 a. by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1858. (fn. 193) In 1925 98 a. of glebe were sold (fn. 194) and the remaining 6 a. in 1949. (fn. 195)
There was a parsonage house in 1535. (fn. 196) About 1610, when it was in disrepair, it was a thatched building containing a hall, parlour, 'great chamber', and study. (fn. 197) In 1727 it was said to comprise three bays of building and in 1743 to be of two storeys. In 1764 it was a brick building with a tiled roof, containing four bedrooms. (fn. 198) It is said to have been rebuilt in 1777, but a new house was built in 1823-4 (fn. 199) and it was still the Rectory in 1972.
There is no certain reference to a chapel at Grimston in the Middle Ages, but Chapel garth there was mentioned in 1606. (fn. 200)
In the 1440s the rector also held the living of Huggate. (fn. 201) It was reported in 1579 that the rector had been non-resident for two years and that the cure had been served by an assistant curate. (fn. 202) In 1612 it was claimed that Christopher Lindley, the previous rector, had allowed the church and parsonage house to fall into disrepair. (fn. 203) Henry Ayscough, rector 1610-42, who also held the living of Elvington, was a Puritan. (fn. 204) In 1628 he was licensed to be absent because of ill-health, (fn. 205) and in the 1630s and 1640s he employed an assistant curate. (fn. 206) In 1743 the rector resided on his other living at Settrington and employed an assistant curate, who was also vicar of Osbaldwick (Yorks. N.R.) and curate of Rufforth (Yorks. W.R.), and who lived at York. (fn. 207) An assistant curate was also employed in the 1860s and 1870s. (fn. 208)
There were two services each Sunday in 1743 and Holy Communion was celebrated three times a year, with 30-50 communicants. (fn. 209) By the 1860s and 1870s there were three services each Sunday and communion was celebrated fortnightly, usually with 14-28 communicants. In 1884 there was a weekly celebration and in 1894 four services were held each Sunday. In 1914 two Sunday services were held (fn. 210) and in 1972 three. From 1865 until it was removed in 1911 services were also held in a mission room at Grimston. (fn. 211)
The church of ST. NICHOLAS is built of freestone and rubble and has a chancel with north aisle and south vestry and organ chamber, aisled and clerestoried nave with north porch, and west tower with south vestry. The nave is small and perhaps 11th-century in origin. In the 12th century aisles with arcades of two bays were added to north and south, the former slightly the earlier, and the plain west tower is probably of the same date. The east end of the church was completely rebuilt late in the 13th century to provide a new chancel, in which the piscina and sedilia survive, and north aisle with a three-bay arcade. The removal of the chancel arch may date from that time or it may be a more recent alteration. The upper stage of the tower dates from the 15th century.
The tower was repaired in 1717 (fn. 212) and in 1738-40 the pulpit was rebuilt and the church repewed. (fn. 213) All three aisles were rebuilt in 1839-41. The nave aisles have small round-headed Norman-style windows and three-light clerestory windows, and the chancel aisle windows are in the Decorated style. At the same time the main entrance was moved from the south to the north side and the north porch was built. The west gallery was removed and replaced by a smaller one, the chancel and tower were repaired, and the church was repewed. (fn. 214) The plain font also probably dates from this restoration. Another restoration, by C. H. Fowler, took place in 1877 and a vestry and organ chamber were added to the east end of the south aisle. (fn. 215) In 1930 the north chancel aisle was converted into a side chapel. (fn. 216)
The windows are all filled with 19th- and 20thcentury stained glass. A grave slab with an incised floriated cross is in the south aisle.
In 1743 it was reported that a house and 23 a. had been left for repairs to the church. (fn. 217) In 1824 the church estate, the origin of which was then unknown, consisted of a house, a shop, and 28 a., 5 a. having been awarded for common rights at the inclosure of 1772. (fn. 218) The rents, totalling about £62, were used in place of church-rates for repairs to the church. (fn. 219) Most of the property was sold in 1921. In 1972 the income was £128 from £2,111 stock. (fn. 220)
The tower contained three bells in 1770 (fn. 221) and there are still three: (i) 1639; (ii) 1700, Samuel Smith of York; (iii) 1727. (fn. 222) The plate includes a silver chalice and paten, both made in London by 'I.F.' in 1876, and a silver flagon made in Sheffield in 1828 by 'T.B.' There is also a brass alms-dish dated 1677. (fn. 223) The registers begin in 1584 and are complete. (fn. 224)
There were seven protestant dissenters in the parish in 1676. (fn. 227) A Quaker was reported at Dunnington in 1743 (fn. 228) and a house was registered for Quaker worship in 1748. (fn. 229) In 1764 there were said to be 'four or five' Methodists, (fn. 230) and houses were registered for dissenting worship in 1765, 1788, 1803, 1807 (two), and 1819. (fn. 231) The Wesleyan Methodists built a chapel in 1805 in York Street (fn. 232) and this was replaced by a new one in Common Lane in 1868. (fn. 233) In the latter year the Wesleyans were said to have a strong hold on the minds of the people (fn. 234) and in 1884 they had 38 members. (fn. 235) In 1871 the former 'meeting-house', presumably the old chapel, was owned by the rector and occasionally used for Anglican services ; (fn. 236) it was used as a store-house in 1900 (fn. 237) but was later demolished. The new chapel was still used for services in 1972.
In 1640 the assistant curate was also the schoolmaster, (fn. 240) and a schoolmaster was again mentioned in 1725. (fn. 241) In 1743 there were three unendowed 'English' schools in the parish. (fn. 242) No school was reported in 1764 (fn. 243) but a master was again mentioned in 1781 and later. (fn. 244) In both 1819 and 1835 there were three unendowed schools, containing in the former year 80-90 children and in the latter 109. (fn. 245) The churchwardens repaired the school-house several times in the 1820s (fn. 246) and they built a new school in the centre of the village in 1836. In 1864, when it was largely supported by school pence, the school contained 65 pupils. (fn. 247) It first received an annual government grant in 1864. (fn. 248) It was enlarged in 1905-6, (fn. 249) and from 1908 to 1936 the attendance varied between 105 and 142. In 1938 attendance was 98. (fn. 250) In the 1950s and 1960s the Methodist chapel schoolroom and the village reading room were used as additional classrooms. (fn. 251) A new school was built in 1969-70 in Church Lane (fn. 252) but in 1972 the former building was still used as well. In April 1972 the number of pupils on the roll was 324. (fn. 253)
In the 1860s an unsuccessful evening school was held. (fn. 254)
CHARITIES FOR THE POOR.
Timothy Overend, by will dated 1728, gave £10, the interest of which was to be distributed annually in bread to the poor of the parish. In 1824 the income was 10s. James Twinam, by will dated 1733, devised a 4-acre close, half the income of which was to be distributed to the poor of Dunnington and half to those of Holtby (Yorks. N.R.); in 1824 £4 8s. was received by Dunnington. (fn. 255) Dinah Richardson, by a codicil to her will dated 1787, left £2 10s. a year to be distributed in bread in church every Sunday to the poor who attended service. Her executor Thomas Wilson increased the annual sum in 1816 to £3 15s. (fn. 256) These three charities were administered together for much of the 19th century and a joint distribution in bread was made. From 1844 to 1884 a total income of £8-10 was usually received, and from 1885 to 1895 £5-8. In 1896 the administration of the Overend and Twinam charities was transferred to the parish council. (fn. 257)
In 1972 Richardon's charity was represented by £79 stock and the income of £2 was kept in an accumulating fund. The income had been distributed to the sick poor in 1967. The land belonging to Twinam's charity was sold in 1967, Dunnington's share of the proceeds being £413. (fn. 258) The income was £22 in 1973-4, used to help a club for local pensioners. Income is no longer received from Overend's charity. (fn. 259)
John Hodgson, a guardian of the poor, by will proved in 1891, bequeathed £5,000 for the benefit of the sick poor, not in receipt of poor relief, living within the area of York poor-law union or at Sheriff Hutton (Yorks. N.R.). In 1949 £4,643 was added to the endowment under the will of H. A. Phillips (d. 1940). The income in 1972 was £446 from £9,799 stock, and 38 cash grants were made, (fn. 260) including one to a resident of Dunnington. (fn. 261)