A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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Neuuetune (xi cent.).
The parish of Newton-upon-Ouse, including Beningbrough and Linton-upon-Ouse, covers 5,146 acres, of which 2,353 acres are arable land, 2,548 acres permanent grass and 85 acres plantation. (fn. 1) It is bounded on the north by Tollerton, Easingwold and Youlton, the western and southern boundaries being formed by the River Ouse. The entire parish is very flat and well watered. The soil varies, but the greater part is alluvium; brick and tile works, now closed, formerly gave employment to many of the inhabitants.
Nearly the whole of the parish once lay within the boundaries of the royal forest of Galtres. A perambulation made in 1316 (fn. 2) gives the boundaries, from York 'following the wall to the water of Ouse, thence to Beningbrough and Newton Bridge, and so by Linton brook, and the midst of Linton marsh going on to the west of the village of Tollerton.'
The village of Linton lay outside the forest at the date of this perambulation, although it had formerly been included.
As early as 1284 the king's deer had ceased to frequent this part of the forest, and in this year the master and brethren of St. Leonard's Hospital were accordingly given licence (fn. 3) to inclose and impark 56½ acres of wood and their demesne lands adjoining, containing 100 acres, this land forming what is now known as the Old Deer Park. The forest-land was evidently being brought under cultivation at this time, for the tithes of assarts and land that should be assarted were especially reserved to Holy Trinity, York. (fn. 4)
At the close of the 16th century disputes had arisen (fn. 5) between Sir Ralph Bourchier, lord of the manor of Beningbrough, and the royal verderers, owing to Sir Ralph's taking of bough wood from trees growing on the West Moor. Sir John, Sir Ralph's successor, continued the practice, sixty loads of wood being said to be cut yearly. Lord Strafford, then keeper of the forest of Galtres, determined to put an end to these depredations, and proceeded against Sir John Bourchier for encroachment upon the forest. Sir John defended his right, claiming common of pasture for 300 sheep and 60 cattle as part of the perquisites of his grange of Beningbrough, and in 1632 he received 95 acres of West Moor in compensation for 'his pretence of title in the forest.' (fn. 6) His encroachments, however, continued, and he was summoned with several others before the Star Chamber and condemned to imprisonment and a heavy fine. In a letter to Mr. Secretary Coke in 1633 (fn. 7) Strafford gives his opinion of the case, saying 'as concerning Sir John Bourchier and his insolent carriage, it is his daily bread, the man is little better than mad, one grain more would weigh him down to a direct Fury. . . . For the title he can pretend to anything in the park he hath long since concluded himself by an order made here on the Exchequer, with his own consent, and then judge what he can expect, and yet he hath been scolding at me these two years because I would not give him the king's land, and now finally he plays this May game.' The 'May game' referred to was probably the pulling down of fences. (fn. 8) Bourchier was, however, revenged later when his case was brought before the Long Parliament and formed one of the lesser charges against Strafford. (fn. 9)
The common fields were inclosed in 1815 under an Act obtained in 1812. (fn. 10) The main roads in Newton form a triangle, the base of which is Moor Lane and the apex close to York Bridge, crossing the Kyle in the north of the parish. The village of Newton-on-Ouse lies close to the river bank, the houses, which are mostly modern, being built on either side of a broad road shaded with a pleasant avenue of trees. Back Lane runs parallel with the main village street, joining Moor Lane close to the schools. The church and a Methodist chapel are to the north of the village.
Newton Grange, formerly in the possession of the master and brethren of St. Leonard's Hospital, stands in an isolated position in the north of the parish.
Beningbrough lies south of Newton-on-Ouse on the banks of the river which makes a great curve at the ferry.
A towing-path skirts the river, a stretch of which is known as Moulston Reach, and is continued under the name of Bourchier's Scalp, deriving its name, no doubt, from the family which for 200 years owned the manor of Beningbrough. Traces of their old manor-house can still be seen south of the present Beningbrough Hall, which stands in the centre of a beautiful park occupying almost a third of the entire township; the house is a large 17th-century mansion, now the residence of Captain Guy Dawnay, D.S.O.
Chapel Garth, otherwise Coney Garth, and Nut Flat, near the site of the old manor-house, are mentioned in 1544. (fn. 11) Other place-names are Calf Lees, Birkers, Lambert Close, Ryddynge, Staunderson Hagge and Mydle Bush. (fn. 12)
Beningbrough Grange, a modern house, a little to the north of Beningbrough Lane, is on the site of the grange that was granted for life to Thomas Magnus, master of St. Leonard's Hospital, in 1539 (fn. 13) on the surrender of the hospital, and was leased to Sir Leonard Beckwith in 1557. (fn. 14)
The hamlet of Beningbrough lies close to the river at the extreme south-eastern corner of the parish. It consists of but a few houses built on the north side of Bellground Lane. Somewhere in the north of the parish, impossible now to identify, was once 'a little thicket called "Wythes" (fn. 15) by the road to Newton,' which William son of Henry de Beningbrough gave to St. Leonard's Hospital in 1294. At the same date he confirmed gifts previously made by his father of 'a toft and osier bed, where the house of the brethren is placed, and three other manses of land with their crofts and all the land of Nidderminne in meadow and arable, . . . and from Deneburg which is the boundary between Newton and Beningburgh, that part of the wood which runs to the East part of the assart of the hermit, and thence to Lidgete by the oaks on which the donor's father made crosses with his own hand, and all the land called "Wra," and common pasture of Beningburgh with access in the wood.' (fn. 16) Other field-names mentioned in the same charter are Gairbrad, Brianriding, Kirkwites, Barkestokeheved and Little Barkestokeheved, and Langelandes 'near the bridge of the church near the water which is called Ouse.'
Linton-on-Ouse is bounded by the Ouse on the west and south and by the tributary River Kyle on the east; hence the whole township is very flat and low-lying, scantily wooded, and consisting chiefly of pasture and arable land.
Linton Bridge over the Kyle is in the extreme south-eastern corner of the parish. The road from Newton to Aldwark crosses it before reaching the village, which consists of a few houses built on the north side of the road and on the banks of the Ouse.
The brick church or small chapel-school, with apsidal east end and a bell-turret over the chancel, stands on the outskirts of the small hamlet close to the Hall Garth, where are the remains of a moat. It was built in 1873 by University College, Oxford, to which the whole of Linton belongs. (fn. 17) Further along the main road is the site of the old hall or manor-house, and still further, beyond the West Field, lies Hunter's Lodge. The Galls, Clough Garth End and Butchers' Ings, as well as Great Sheep Rakes, are among modern place-names.
Linton Wood is mentioned in 1388, (fn. 18) when John Lord Roos of Hamlake obtained licence to impark it.
Harbour Plantation and Fall Gates Woods are in the northern portion of Linton.
In the time of Edward the Confessor NEWTON-ON-OUSE was in the hands of Merlesuan, Sheriff of Lincolnshire; he kept his lands until 1069, when they escheated owing to the part he took in the rebellion of that year. (fn. 19) His entire estate, including ten 'manors' in Yorkshire, was granted to Ralph Paynel, (fn. 20) who in 1086 was holding a 'manor' and berewick of 9 carucates in Newton-on-Ouse and 'Toresbi' in this parish. (fn. 21) The overlordship remained in the hands of the Paynel family, following the descent of Bartonle-Street (q.v.) until the reign of John, when the heirs of Paynel of Drax, adhering to Philip of France, lost their English estates. In the 13th century the overlordship was in the hands of Maurice de Gant. (fn. 22)
Certain lands in Newton were evidently held in demesne by either Gerbert de Place or John de Courcy, the one being mesne lord of the other. (fn. 23) In the 12th century probably Gerbert de Place and John de Courcy gave all their lands in Newton to the hospital of St. Leonard, York, the grants being confirmed by Edward I in 1294. (fn. 24) A William de Place held lands in Newton and the church, which was also granted to the same religious house. (fn. 25) The master and brethren of St. Leonard's in 1282 (fn. 26) obtained licence to hold a market on each Tuesday at their manor of Newton, as well as a fair on the eve, day and morrow of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist and a second fair on the eve, day and morrow of the feast of All Saints.
The manor was accounted in the Liberty of St. Leonard and continued (fn. 27) part of the temporalities of St. Leonard's until the Dissolution, when it came to the Crown and was granted in 1599 (fn. 28) to William Allen and Richard Burrell.
Before 1620 (fn. 29) it came into the hands of Sir John Bourchier of Beningbrough and was leased by him in that year to Robert Morley for ninety years. In 1647 (fn. 30) Robert Morley compounded for delinquency in adhering to the king against Parliament, but having taken the national covenant and negative oath his forfeited lands were restored to him. After raising money by various mortgages he died in 1651, (fn. 31) leaving two sons Cuthbert and James. His eldest son and heir Cuthbert having that same year been outlawed for felony and murder, James, the second son, petitioned for the restoration of his brother's lands. James Morley was registrar accountant to the Revenue Commissioners in Ireland, and was described as a 'sober gracious Christian, and so useful that business suffers by his absence.' (fn. 32) A fifty years' lease of the manor of Newton-on-Ouse was granted to him in 1656 (fn. 33) at a small rent, a settlement being made in 1661. (fn. 34) In 1711, (fn. 35) at the end of the ninety years' lease originally granted to Robert Morley, the manor of Newton-on-Ouse was released by William Hawkins and others to John Bourchier of Beningbrough (q.v.), and since then has followed the same descent as that manor, being now in the hands of Captain Guy Dawnay, D.S.O., elder son of the late Col. the Hon. L. P. Dawnay.
In the time of Edward the Confessor BENINGBROUGH (Benniburg, xi cent.) was in the hands of Asford, who held there in demesne a 'manor' and 3 carucates. In 1086 (fn. 36) his right had passed to Hugh son of Baldric, whose tenant was one Ralph. It eventually formed part of the Brus fee. (fn. 37)
The manor was held probably in the 12th century by William de Beningbrough. (fn. 38) He granted lands to the hospital of St. Leonard, York, the grants being confirmed by his son Henry. (fn. 39) The hospital received further grants from William son of Henry, and these were confirmed by Peter de Brus, lord of the fee, who further granted (fn. 40) the master and brethren a sheaf of corn yearly for every plough in his demesne lands. William de Beningbrough died before 1223, when Mary his widow quitclaimed one-third of 2 carucates to the master of St. Leonard's, (fn. 41) he in return agreeing to allow her three measures of wheat and two pigs or 4s. yearly.
Beningbrough continued (fn. 42) in the possession of St. Leonard's Hospital until 1539, (fn. 43) when the master, Thomas Magnus, surrendered his house and all its temporalities to the king, receiving as a pension a life interest in the grange of Beningbrough. In 1544 (fn. 44) the reversion of Beningbrough was granted by Henry VIII to John Banester. He died in 1556, (fn. 45) his heir being Ralph Bourchier, son of his sister Mary. Sir Ralph died in 1598, (fn. 46) having in 1586–7 settled Beningbrough on his son William and his heirs male. William, described as 'insane' in 1598, (fn. 47) left three sons—Robert, ten years old, John and Thomas. (fn. 48) Robert died unmarried, and Beningbrough appears to have passed to John Bourchier, the second son, (fn. 49) who held it in 1621 and 1627. (fn. 50) Sir John was a staunch supporter of the Parliamentarian cause and sat in the Long Parliament as member for Ripon in 1645. (fn. 51) Later he was chosen one of the judges at the trial of Charles I, and signed the death-warrant. At the Restoration he was attainted and surrendered himself on 18 June 1660. While his fate was still undecided he died. (fn. 52) The forfeited lands of Sir John were, however, restored to his son Sir Barrington Bourchier. (fn. 53) He had a son Barrington, who married Judith Milbank, (fn. 54) a settlement being made in 1670. (fn. 55) After the death of his first wife Sir Barrington married Margaret Hardwick (fn. 56) and had two sons—John, who was High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1719, and Ralph, a physician in London. (fn. 57) Sir John had one son, John, who succeeded his father both in the family estates (fn. 58) and the office of high sheriff, which he held in 1749. (fn. 59) He died in 1759, (fn. 60) leaving an only child Mildred, who in 1760 married the Hon. Robert Lane and died in the same year. (fn. 61) The manor of Beningbrough passed to her great-uncle Ralph the physician, and after his death, in 1768, to his daughter Margaret wife of Giles Earle. (fn. 62) In 1779 Giles Earle and Margaret leased the manor of Beningbrough to Peter Johnson. (fn. 63) After her death in 1827 the manor passed under her will to the Rev. the Hon. William Henry Dawnay, who succeeded his brother as sixth Viscount Downe in 1832 and who held it in 1833. (fn. 64) On his death in 1846 (fn. 65) Beningbrough passed to his second son the Hon. Payn Dawnay, who died in 1891. Col. the Hon. Lewis Payn Dawnay, J.P., second son of William Henry seventh Viscount Downe, was lord of the manor until 1910, when he was succeeded by his son Captain Guy Dawnay, D.S.O., the present lord of the manor.
At LINTON-ON-OUSE (Loletune, Luctone, xi cent.) Torphin and Tor held two 'manors' and 5 carucates of land before the Conquest; these in 1086 were held by the Count of Mortain. (fn. 66) It afterwards formed part of the barony of Roos and was apparently held in demesne by the lords of Helmsley (q.v.) in the 13th century, following that manor (fn. 67) in descent until 1626, when Sir Richard Cecil sold the manor to Ambrose Appleby and his son Thomas, (fn. 68) who succeeded to the estate on his father's death in or about 1649. (fn. 69) He was charged with recusancy in 1652, (fn. 70) and made a settlement of the manor in 1661. (fn. 71) By his second marriage he had one son Thomas, who was holding the manor in 1683, (fn. 72) and was followed by Hugh, living in 1697. (fn. 73) He appears to have died without issue, Linton passing to three co-heirs, probably his sisters Elizabeth the wife of Francis Trappes, (fn. 74) Juliana, who married first Rowland White, and as her second husband Robert Plumpton, and Margaret Ryther. (fn. 75)
Robert de Roos received a grant of free warren in all his demesne lands here in 1265. (fn. 78)
The Benedictine convent at Nun Monkton held lands in Beningbrough, (fn. 79) and in 1224–6 (fn. 80) Mary widow of William de Beningbrough quitclaimed her dower lands to the prioress and convent, who also held lands in Newton of the gift of Gerbert de Place at a rent of 30s. (fn. 81) In 1403 (fn. 82) Robert Skete, Richard Jackson, Simon Mason, chaplain, and John Fennell alienated three messuages and 4 oxgangs in Newtonon-Ouse to the convent. At the Dissolution their temporalities in Newton-on-Ouse were valued at 38s. 6d. (fn. 83) and were granted together with the priory in 1538 to John Lord Latimer (fn. 84); they continued (fn. 85) in the Northumberland family until the beginning of the 17th century.
In 1626 (fn. 86) free fishery in the Ouse was quitclaimed by Sir Richard Cecil to Ambrose and Thomas Appleby.
The church of ALL SAINTS was, with the exception of the tower, rebuilt in 1839 by Viscount Downe and University College, Oxford, and again by the Hon. Lydia Dawnay of Beningbrough Hall ten years later (1849). The base of the tower is of the 12th century, but the rest of the building, consisting of an aisled nave of four bays, chancel and spire, is modern.
The tower arch is semicircular with two shafts to each respond having cushion capitals and square abaci of early 12th-century date.
The reredos is a modern carved work erected in 1892, and in the centre of the chancel is a modern brass to the Rev. William Henry Dawnay, sixth Viscount Downe, 1846. The rood screen of carved oak was given in 1911 by Lady Victoria Dawnay and her children to the memory of her husband, Col. the Hon. L. P. Dawnay.
The tower contains three bells inscribed (I) 'Jesus be our speed, 1619'; (2) 'Jesus be our speed, 1621,' in Lombardic characters; (3) 'Christus est lux vita et veritas' in the same characters.
The plate consists of a cup (London, 1570), with an engraved band round, and a cup, paten and flagon of 1847, given by the Hon. Lydia Dawnay.
The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) mixed entries 1651 to 1747; (ii) baptisms and burials 1748 to 1812, marriages 1748 to 1753; (iii) marriages 1754 to 1812.
The church at Newton-on-Ouse was given by Ralph Paynel to the priory of Holy Trinity, York, in 1089, (fn. 87) when he restored the service of that church and gave it as a cell to the French abbey of Marmoutier, Tours. (fn. 88) This gift was confirmed by Henry I in 1100–8. (fn. 89) Their rights were quitclaimed to William de Place by the brethren of Holy Trinity, who, however, reserved to themselves two parts of the tithes of the demesne lands, afterwards commuted into a pension amounting to 16s. at the Dissolution. (fn. 90)
William de Place granted the church with all his lands to the hospital of St. Leonard, to which it was appropriated in 1314. (fn. 91) The date at which the vicarage was ordained is not known.
At the Dissolution the rectory and advowson were granted to John Banester (fn. 92) with Beningbrough (q.v.), which they have followed in descent, the vicarage being now in the gift of Captain Guy Dawnay, D.S.O., of Beningbrough Hall.
In the 13th century (fn. 93) a church at Linton-onOuse was mentioned in a charter of William son of Henry de Beningbrough, and may have been the chapel dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, (fn. 94) which was probably a domestic chapel to the house of the Lords Roos of Hamlake. In 1338 William de Roos received licence to alienate one messuage, 6 oxgangs of land, and 13s. 4d. rent to the chaplain who was to celebrate mass daily for the repose of his soul and for his parents. (fn. 95) In 1343 (fn. 96) the advowson was in the gift of Lord William de Roos of Hamlake. All trace of this chapel is now apparently lost, but the present chapel-school is said to be built on its site.
The charities subsisting in this parish are regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 7 December 1897 under the title of 'The United Charities of Thomas Lund and others.' The trust fund consists of £539 £3 per cent. consolidated stock of the Lancashire and York Railway Company held by the official trustees, representing the benefactions of Thomas Lund, Barrington Bourchier, Mrs. Bourchier, Gabriel Priestman, John Robinson and Benjamin Burton. By the scheme the yearly income, amounting to £16 3s. 4d., is divisible into thirty-four equal parts, of which five parts are applicable in the ancient parish for the general benefit of the poor in one or more of the modes therein indicated, fourteen parts in the township of Beningbrough, five parts in the township of Linton, and ten parts in the township of Newton.