A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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Steintun, Esteintona (xi cent.); Staynton (xiv cent.).
The parish of Stainton covers an area of 6,097 acres; its townships of Ingleby Barwick, Hemlington and Maltby contain 1,555, 1,118 and 1,116 acres respectively, whilst the area of Thornaby, in 1831 also one of its townships, amounts to nearly 1,996 acres. The soil is for the most part clay on a subsoil of Keuper marls. In Stainton and its townships there are 3,114 acres of arable land, 2,697 of permanent grass, 72 of woodland; in Thornaby 620 of arable land, 672 of permanent grass, 48 of woods and plantations. (fn. 1) The chief crops are wheat, oats, barley, beans and potatoes. The land rises from about 50 ft. above the ordnance datum near the Tees to a height of 250 ft. at Hemlington in the south-east of the parish.
North-west of Stainton lies the town of Thornaby, which was formed into a separate parish in 1844, (fn. 2) after the extension of the Stockton and Darlington branch of the North Eastern railway to Middlesbrough had brought to it much trade and a large population. (fn. 3) The village of South Stockton sprang up here on the banks of the River Tees, by the bridge which was finished in 1771 (fn. 4) and connected it with Stockton. The place became important in the first half of the 19th century. A pottery was established in 1824 and glass bottle works in 1839. Iron-works were founded before 1859, (fn. 5) and there are now extensive shipbuilding yards and flour-mills. As 'South Stockton' it formed a suburb of the Durham town until it was incorporated as the independent town of Thornaby-on-Tees in 1892, when the town hall was built at the corner of the Mandale Road.
South of Stockton race-course, on the east of Thornaby-on-Tees, the marshes and district of Mandale preserve a 13th-century name. (fn. 6) Another place-name of the same date, Hauchbanc, once marked the part of the river bank where nets were hung. (fn. 7) A close called Chevyett in the 16th century (fn. 8) reappears as Cheviott in the next, when Hall Carr, Fopgarth and Raile Close were also mentioned. (fn. 9)
The ancient village of Thornaby is scattered round an extensive green about a mile south of the modern town. The church stands in the middle of the village at the south end of the green and is surrounded by a few small houses and gardens. Thornaby Hall is the residence of Mr. J. Robinson Crosthwaite. The capital messuage of the manor of the Thornabys of Thornaby is mentioned in the 16th century. (fn. 10) There must have been a mill here in 1275–6, when complaint was made that William de Boyvill, the lord of the manor, had imprisoned Robert the miller until he bought his release by the payment of two salmon. (fn. 11) Below the village, on the banks of the Tees and the Leven, is the township of Ingleby Barwick, watered also by Bassleton Beck. Some legal proceedings in 1582 as to a right of way through the pasture called Ingleby Summer Field down Leven Bank to Leven Bridge show that Cold Ingleby lay between Barwick in the north and the River Leven in the south-west of this township. (fn. 12) Grants for the repair of Leven Bridge were made in the 17th and 18th centuries. (fn. 13)
The hamlet of Stainsby lies east of Thornaby. It is inclosed on the north by Stainsby and Maltby Becks, the fishery of which once belonged to the religious houses of Guisborough and Byland. (fn. 14) In the south are Stainsby Wood and the site of the ancient hall of the Gowers. This capital messuage is mentioned in the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 15) It is now a farm-house.
The village of Stainton is built on rising ground round the junction of the roads to Maltby and Hemlington; the church and vicarage are at its west end. A capital messuage here is mentioned in the 13th century. (fn. 16)
Adjoining to the south is the little village of Thornton, where the Pennyman family once had a large house of which only the gardens now remain. (fn. 17) Some places here in the 17th century were known as Boltmar feild, Swarthbies feild and Barker close. (fn. 18)
South-west of Stainton is the township of Maltby, which was described in the middle of the 19th century as 'an indifferently built village perched on an eminence.' (fn. 19) There was a capital messuage here in the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 20) Some little distance north of the village the principal highway in the parish leads north-east towards Guisborough.
Hemlington, which lies about half a mile east of Stainton, consists of scattered farms and houses, amongst them Hemlington Hall and Grange and Coulby Manor Farm. There was a capital messuage here in 1353 (fn. 21) and in 1570. (fn. 22) An infectious diseases hospital was erected in 1904.
There are Wesleyan chapels at Stainton and Maltby, the former dating from 1840, and a Primitive Methodist chapel at Ingleby Barwick. At Thornaby there is a Roman Catholic church, opened in 1872, and there are also Congregational and Baptist chapels.
In 1086 2 carucates in STAINTON and 3 in THORNTON (Tornetun, Torentum, xi cent.) were soke of Earl Hugh's manor of Acklam (fn. 23) (q.v.). At this date Robert Malet held a 'manor' and 2 carucates in Stainton with soke of 1 carucate in Thornton. Edmund had held these before the Conquest, (fn. 24) while a 'manor' and 7 oxgangs in Stainton, once of Uctred, were held of the Count of Mortain by Richard. (fn. 25) The king had in his own hand the 'manor' and 2 carucates in Thornton once held by Ulchil (fn. 26) and 1 oxgang in Stainton, (fn. 27) which was transferred to Robert de Brus before the close of the Survey. (fn. 28)
It is probable that by the 12th century the larger holdings had also been absorbed in the Brus fee, (fn. 29) though the records of the overlordship of this family here are extremely scanty. Land in Thornton was held by the same tenure as the manor of Acklam (q.v.) until 1488. (fn. 30)
In the 14th century, and probably earlier, the Nevills, lords of Sheriff Hutton, enjoyed a mesne lordship over 2 carucates in Stainton and 1 carucate in Thornton. (fn. 31)
The history of the sub-tenancy of the manor or manors of Stainton and Thornton is almost as fragmentary as that of their overlordship. Robert Greathead, who held 4 carucates in the joint townships in 1303, was probably lord in 1316 also (fn. 32); he had been succeeded before 1367 by John Greathead. (fn. 33) Later tenants were, in 1388 John de Thornton, (fn. 34) in 1428 Elizabeth Hornby. (fn. 35) Possibly some land was held by the Bruses in demesne, passing with Kilton (fn. 36) (q.v.) through the Thwengs to the Lumleys, for in 1507 the vill or manor of Thornton was in the possession of George Lord Lumley, (fn. 37) whose great-grandson and heir John Lord Lumley owned the manor of Stainton and certain lands in Thornton in 1524. (fn. 38) From that year until 1576 both followed the descent of the manor of Kilton (fn. 39) (q.v.). Stainton and Thornton were described as separate manors between 1586 and 1591, when they were in the possession of Ralph Bowes and his wife Joan (fn. 40) daughter and heir of William Headlam of Nunthorpe. (fn. 41) A considerable estate in Thornton was afterwards acquired by the Pennymans of Ormesby, (fn. 42) probably in the 18th century, since Sir James Pennyman, who died in 1745, is the first of his house described as of Ormesby and Thornton in Cleveland (fn. 43); it is still held by their heirs. At the beginning of the 19th century the manorial rights of Stainton had fallen into disuse, (fn. 44) and the owner was unknown. George Marwood was said to be lord in 1872 and 1879, Charles Newcomen in 1889 and also in 1893, since which year the manorial rights seem to have again lapsed.
In 1591 a water-mill and a windmill were appurtenant to the manor (fn. 45) of Stainton.
In the 16th century the priory of Moxby had tenements in Stainton. (fn. 46)
The moiety of a carucate in COULBY was in 1086 soke of Acklam (fn. 47); this land followed the main descent of Hemlington (q.v.) until 1426, but was now and again subinfeudated to other tenants. (fn. 48) It is possible that this holding was afterwards absorbed in that of the priory of Basedale. (fn. 49)
Three carucates in HEMLINGTON (Himeligetun, Himelintun, xi cent.) were soke of Earl Hugh's 'manor' of Acklam in 1086 (fn. 52); they came afterwards to Robert de Brus and were held of his heirs, (fn. 53) apparently with 2 other carucates here not accounted for under this place in Domesday Book (fn. 54) but held in 1279 as of the honour of Chester. (fn. 55) In the partition of the Brus inheritance the overlordship of this land seems to have been assigned to Marmaduke de Thweng and his wife Lucy, and belonged to their heirs until 1346. (fn. 56) Before this time, however, some confusion as to the tenure of the manor of Hemlington had arisen out of its surrender in 1298 by the sub-tenant, John Wake, to the king, who afterwards regranted it to him. (fn. 57) In 1310 and 1311 Hemlington was declared to be held in chief, (fn. 58) and though this statement was contradicted in 1361 (fn. 59) it was repeated more than thirty years later. (fn. 60)
A lordship here enjoyed by Robert de Nevill in 1279, (fn. 61) and by his heirs in 1367 and 1389, (fn. 62) belonged to his lineal descendant Ralph Nevill, first Earl of Westmorland, in 1423, (fn. 63) when the manor itself came to the earl's grandson and heir Ralph Nevill on the death of his mother Elizabeth Holand. (fn. 64)
The manor of Hemlington followed the descent of the manor of Great Ayton until 1571, when both were forfeited to the Crown on the attainder of Charles (Nevill) Earl of Westmorland. (fn. 65) A moiety was then leased to Thomas Burdon and the rest in equal parts to four other tenants. (fn. 66) In 1573 Elizabeth granted the whole, as a reward for his services and expenses in the rebellion, to Ralph Tailbois of Thornton, Durham, (fn. 67) whose son Robert sold the manor to Thomas Wildon in 1598. (fn. 68) Christopher Thornton bought Hemlington from Thomas Wildon in 1607 (fn. 69); in 1613 he conveyed half the manor and in 1619 or 1620 the whole manor to Sir Guilford Slingsby of Scriven, (fn. 70) whose daughter Margaret held it in 1649. (fn. 71) It is not clear how Hemlington passed from her to Sir James Brookes, bart., lord in 1717 and 1718, (fn. 72) nor by what steps it afterwards came to the Halls of Skelton. John Hall, lord in 1796 (fn. 73) and 1803, (fn. 74) was represented by General Hall in 1808. At the latter date, however, most of the land is said to have belonged to different freeholders, (fn. 75) and the manorial rights probably lapsed soon afterwards.
Free warren in his manor of Hemlington, granted to Robert de Stutevill in 1253, (fn. 76) was claimed by Baldwin Wake in 1279 by virtue of this charter. (fn. 77) A windmill was appurtenant to the manor in 1352. (fn. 78)
The overlordship of 3 carucates in INGLEBY BARWICK (Englebi Bereuuick, xi cent.; Berewyk super Teysam, xiii cent.; Barwick upon Tease, xvi cent.), which formed a berewick to Earl Hugh's 'manor' of Acklam in 1086, (fn. 79) descended with the overlordship of Acklam (q.v.) until 1490. (fn. 80) In 1519 as the manor of Barwick-upon-Tees it was held of the Crown. (fn. 81)
From the 13th century to 1443 a mesne lordship here was enjoyed by the Percys of Kildale. (fn. 82) They had probably held the place in demesne until William de Percy gave his manor of Barwick to his daughter Alice and her husband Adam de Staveley. (fn. 83) Alice their daughter brought it in marriage to Ranulf son of Henry, (fn. 84) lord of Ravensworth, with whom she held land here in 1219. (fn. 85)
This manor followed the same descent as that of Ravensworth, (fn. 86) and on the division of the Fitz Hugh lands in 1512–13 fell with it to the share of Sir Thomas Parr. On the attainder in 1547 of William, son of Sir Thomas and Marquess of Northampton, (fn. 87) Barwick was forfeited to the Crown, (fn. 88) whose hold on the manor was strengthened in 1583 by a quitclaim from Gregory Fiennes Lord Dacre. (fn. 89) It was afterwards acquired by Sir Thomas Smith of Fulham, who left it to his son Robert in 1609. (fn. 90) Fifty years later the manor was sold by Alexander Thayne and his wife Anne, to whose inheritance it belonged, to Margaret Herbert, widow, (fn. 91) and came from her, possibly by a daughter's marriage, to Sir Thomas Lynch, who with his wife Vere sold it in 1677 to Sir William Turner. (fn. 92) It was afterwards appropriated to the endowment of the hospital founded by Sir William at Kirkleatham, (fn. 93) and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners are now lords of the manor.
In 1279 and later the lords of the manor claimed to have held the right of gallows from the Conquest. (fn. 94) Free warren here was granted to Henry son of Ranulf in 1251. (fn. 95) Passage across the Tees was appurtenant to the manor in 1425, (fn. 96) as was a fishery then and in the 17th century. (fn. 97)
Six carucates in COLD INGLEBY or INGLEBY HILL (Calengilbi, Engelby Loreng, xiii cent.; Cald Ingleby super Levana, xiv cent.; Ingilby near Yarm, xv cent.; Ingleby Lawrend, xvi cent.; Ingleby Barwick, xvii cent.) were soke in 1086 of Earl Hugh's manor of Acklam, (fn. 98) and afterwards formed part of the Brus fee. (fn. 99) The overlordship followed the descent of Skelton (fn. 100) (q.v.).
From William Loring, tenant in demesne in 1279, (fn. 101) Ingleby passed to a branch of the Gower family. Stephen Gower and his wife Lucy, who held in 1284–5 and later, (fn. 102) were succeeded by John Gower, lord in 1316 and 1319 (fn. 103); a John Gower of Cold Ingleby was charged with trespass in 1356. (fn. 104) In 1362 William Gower died seised of the Brus fee here, leaving the guardianship of his infant daughters to his brother Stephen, who three years later was accused of interfering with Queen Philippa's right to the custody of the lands of Walter Fauconberg's heir. (fn. 105) William and John Gower were returned as tenants in 1422 and 1428 respectively. (fn. 106) In February 1440–1 William Holgill surrendered to Christopher Boynton and his heirs all right in the manor of Ingleby, (fn. 107) which descended with Castle Leavington (q.v.) until 1608, (fn. 108) and in 1634 was held by Roger Beckwith of Aldbrough, purchaser of part of the manor of Castle Leavington. (fn. 109) No public record has been found to show how Cold Ingleby came to Thomas Bowlby, lord in 1750, (fn. 110) and it is probable that it was broken up in the possession of different freeholders not long afterwards. (fn. 111)
A capital messuage belonged to the manor of Cold Ingleby in 1365, a water-mill from that year until 1636. (fn. 112)
In 1276 the Prior of Guisborough held half a carucate here, (fn. 113) and in 1428 the holding was extended at a whole carucate. (fn. 114) The Abbot of Jervaulx also held property here in 1276, (fn. 115) amounting to 2 carucates in 1428. (fn. 116)
Three carucates in MALTBY (Maltebi, xi cent.; Maultby, xii cent.) which were soke of Earl Hugh's manor of Acklam in 1086 (fn. 117) came afterwards to the Brus lords, (fn. 118) and followed the descent of Skelton until 1619. (fn. 119)
At the beginning of the 13th century Maltby was held by a family who took their name from the place. (fn. 120) Fulk de Maltby was father of William, living between 1222 and 1240. (fn. 121) John, said to be William's son and heir, (fn. 122) was lord in 1290 and 1303. (fn. 123) Another William de Maltby, who had succeeded John before 1316, (fn. 124) and is not named in the traditional pedigree, held also in 1319. (fn. 125) From John de Maltby, the tenant of 1362, (fn. 126) Maltby passed before 1422 to Robert, (fn. 127) whose successor, another John, was lord in 1428. (fn. 128) In 1466 Thomas son of Thomas Maltby sold his manor of Maltby in Cleveland to William son of John Sayer, (fn. 129) who also bought from James Thomson and his wife Elizabeth a renunciation of Elizabeth's rights here. (fn. 130) The tenure of the Maltby family, however, did not end with this sale. Christopher Maltby, the direct lineal descendant, as it is said, of Thomas, (fn. 131) died seised of this manor in 1585, leaving a ten year old son and heir Christopher, (fn. 132) to whom two years later John Morley, son of Robert Morley and Isabel daughter and heir of William Morley, Christopher's greatuncle, (fn. 133) renounced all right in the manor. (fn. 134) The younger Christopher was seised of Maltby at his death in 1619, when he left three daughters and co-heirs. (fn. 135) Catherine, the eldest, afterwards became the wife of Michael Wharton of Beverley, and their granddaughter Mary Wharton seems to have brought lands in Maltby to her husband Sir James Pennyman of Ormesby and Thornton in Cleveland, (fn. 136) whose descendants are still important landowners here. The other moiety is said to have been brought in 1626 by the second daughter Everilda or Averil to her husband Sir George Wentworth of Woolley. (fn. 137) It is not clear, however, to whom the manorial rights belonged after 1619, and they appear to have been in abeyance at the beginning of the 19th century. (fn. 138) Since 1879 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have been lords of the manor.
Three carucates in STAINSBY (Steinsbi, xi cent.; Staynesby, xiii cent.; Low Stainsbie, xvii cent.) were soke of Acklam in 1086 (fn. 141); they were held of the same lords as that manor until the latter part of the 15th century. (fn. 142) In 1549 the overlordship belonged to Lord Conyers, (fn. 143) and followed the descent of Yarm (q.v.), being held as of the wapentake of Langbaurgh. (fn. 144) The Nevills enjoyed a mesne lordship here in the 13th and 14th centuries. (fn. 145)
Walter de Stainsby held Stainsby from 1284–5 to 1303, (fn. 146) as did his heir or heirs in 1316. (fn. 147) In 1367 the sub-tenant was Peter de Mauley, (fn. 148) who had been succeeded in or before 1388 by the heirs of John Gower of Picton. (fn. 149) From that date until 1566 the manor of Stainsby followed the descent of the manor of Picton (fn. 150) in Kirk Leavington (q.v.). Thomas Gower, lord of Stainsby at his death in 1586, was succeeded by his son Nicholas, (fn. 151) who was heavily mulcted as a recusant in 1612. (fn. 152) He died in February 1613–14 and Stainsby descended to his son and heir John Gower, (fn. 153) lord in 1616 and 1623. (fn. 154) Another John Gower rented land in Stainsby in 1679, but the manor itself was in the possession of Richard Slater and his wife Elizabeth, who with Constantine Vernatty then sold it to Sir William Turner. (fn. 155) John Turner, perhaps grandson of Sir William's nephew William Turner of Stainsby, (fn. 156) was lord in 1738 (fn. 157); he died in 1741, (fn. 158) when his three sisters, Catherine wife of Charles Slingsby, Elizabeth wife of Joseph Storr and Anne wife of George Buckley, (fn. 159) each inherited a share of the manor of Stainsby. (fn. 160) In 1748 the whole manor was held by Charles Slingsby and George Buckley with their wives. (fn. 161) It was afterwards acquired by an ancestor of the second Lord Harewood, lord in 1808, (fn. 162) and his heir, the present Earl of Harewood, is now the sole landowner in the township.
The abbey of Byland obtained a royal confirmation in 1247 of a fishery and lands here. (fn. 163) In 1547 the land of this house here was granted to Roger and Robert Taverner. (fn. 164) The Abbot of Rievaulx also held land in Stainsby at the Dissolution. (fn. 165)
Three carucates in THORNABY (Tormozbi, xi cent.; Thormodebi, Thormoteby, xiii cent.; Thermerby, xiv cent.; Thormundby, Thornaby, xvi cent.; Thormanby, xvii cent.) were soke of Earl Hugh's manor of Acklam in 1086 (fn. 166); this land paid 15s. 3d. yearly as castle guard of Chester. (fn. 167) It came to Robert de Brus, (fn. 168) and in the partition of the Brus inheritance was allotted to Marmaduke and Lucy de Thweng, (fn. 169) whose overlordship seems to have fallen into abeyance between 1285 and 1362. (fn. 170)
In the latter part of the 13th century William de Boyvill, tenant in demesne, granted his manor of Thornaby to Guisborough Priory, (fn. 171) which had held land here since 1208. (fn. 172) His gift was confirmed by Edward II in 1312. (fn. 173) The prior held one knight's fee here and in Stainton, Linthorpe, Lazenby and Goulton in 1284–5 (fn. 174) and was returned as sole lord in the township in 1316 (fn. 175) and 1428. (fn. 176) The manor of GUISBOROUGH PRIORY IN THORNABY was of considerable value when it came to the Crown on the surrender of this house. (fn. 177)
In 1544 Henry VIII granted it to Thomas Lord Wharton, (fn. 178) from whom it descended in or before 1569 to his son and heir of the same name, (fn. 179) lord until his death in 1572. (fn. 180) Philip Lord Wharton, his son and heir, obtained from James I in January 1611–12 a fresh grant of the manor, (fn. 181) which, with his son Thomas, he sold later in the same year to Francis Lascelles. (fn. 182) Francis was seised at his death in January 1627–8, when his heir was another Francis Lascelles, son of his son William, then deceased, who came of age six years later. (fn. 183) Philip Lascelles held the manor of Thornaby in 1657 with Francis Lascelles and his wife Dorothy, (fn. 184) the sole possessors in 1660. (fn. 185)
In 1687 Edward and Henry and in 1693 Daniel Lascelles were landowners in Thornaby. (fn. 186)
The manor of Thornaby bought by George Brown of Stockton in 1800 from John Wear and Margaret his wife (fn. 187) may perhaps be identified with the manor of Guisborough Priory. This descended through Elizabeth daughter of George Brown and wife of Sir Robert Preston to her nephew and heir George Gilpin of Sedbury, who assumed the name of Brown under her will. His son and heir George Thomas Gilpin Brown is now lord of the manor. (fn. 188)
Free warren in Thornaby was declared in 1276 to have been appropriated by William de Boyvill (fn. 189) and was granted to the Prior of Guisborough in 1365. (fn. 190) In the 16th and 17th centuries there was a windmill in this manor, (fn. 191) and free fishery in the Tees also belonged to it. (fn. 192) Court leet and view of frankpledge were mentioned amongst its appurtenances in the grant of January 1611–12. (fn. 193)
Two pre-Conquest 'manors' in Thornaby, each assessed at l½ carucates, were held by Ulchil and Edmund respectively under Edward the Confessor; they belonged to the king and Robert Malet in 1086. (fn. 194) The king's land came soon afterwards to Robert de Brus, (fn. 195) on whom probably Robert Malet's land was bestowed early in the 12th century. (fn. 196) From 1349 the overlordship of one of these 'manors' followed the descent of the manor of Great Ayton (fn. 197) (q.v.), being held as of that manor by military service. (fn. 198)
Robert de Thornaby, who held this fee in demesne in 1349, (fn. 199) had been succeeded in or before 1352 by Richard de Thornaby. (fn. 200) Another Richard held in 1416 and January 1424–5, when the name of Robert Thornaby also reappears. (fn. 201) In 1556 Christopher Thornaby died seised of the manor of Thornaby in Cleveland, leaving as his heir George, son of his dead son Thomas, then aged sixteen. (fn. 202) George sold Thornaby in the beginning of 1566 to Robert Appleby, (fn. 203) against whom an action was commenced by Anthony Robinson touching a lease. (fn. 204) Robert, who had acquired other property in Thornaby in 1569, (fn. 205) was succeeded by Ralph Appleby, by whom the manor was sold to Lawrence Meynell in 1617. (fn. 206) Lawrence died seised the next year, when his heir was his son John, aged ten. (fn. 207)
Another Lawrence Meynell held land in Thornaby in the spring of 1672–3, (fn. 208) and in 1718 two Anne Meynells, widow and spinster, owned free fishing in the Tees with appurtenances in Thornaby and Stainton. (fn. 209) No later reference to this manor has been found. In the 17th century a windmill was among its appurtenances. (fn. 210)
The history of the other pre-Conquest 'manor' must be left almost entirely to conjecture. The overlordship of part of the Brus fee in Thornaby belonged in 1346 to Bartholomew de Fanacourt and his wife Lucy, (fn. 211) and to her descendants of the house of Darcy until 1420. (fn. 212) In 1524 John Lord Lumley held a manor in Thornaby (fn. 213) which descended with his manor of Thornton and Stainton (q.v.) until 1576. This may possibly be the manor which Cuthbert Browne owned at his death in 1632, (fn. 214) and of which his son and heir William was granted livery three years later. (fn. 215)
Early in the reign of Edward I the Abbot of Byland had here a tenement, (fn. 216) which was extended at a carucate and 5 oxgangs in 1284–5 and was in the fee of Brus. (fn. 217) Thornaby was included in the liberty of Byland in 1303 and 1316. (fn. 218) Lands and rent of the abbey were leased in February 1543–4 to Giles Garrett. (fn. 219) No further grant of this land has been found.
Before 1252 William Brito granted his fishery and capital messuage in Thornaby to Rievaulx Abbey. (fn. 220) Small gifts of land here were made by various donors and confirmed by Henry III and Edward III. (fn. 221) A tenement and 6 oxgangs were rented in 1539 by William Pressick, (fn. 222) and five years later were included in the grant of the manor to Thomas Lord Wharton. (fn. 223)
The church of ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL (fn. 224) stands on an ancient site on high ground at the west end of the village, and consists of chancel 44 ft. by 19 ft. with north vestry, aisleless nave 41 ft. by 23 ft., north transeptal chapel 15 ft. 6 in. by 20 ft. 6 in. and engaged west tower 9 ft. 9 in. square, all these measurements being internal.
The building has but little ancient work to show, the chancel arch, which is of 13th-century date, being the oldest part. The tower belongs to the 15th century, and the transept is old and may belong to the same period. (fn. 225) The chancel was completely rebuilt in the style of the 13th century in 1876, and the nave walls appear to have been rebuilt on the old foundations in the 18th or early 19th century, when they were carried westward so as to provide a staircase to the gallery on either side of the tower, north and south. The tower thus stands within the church, though to the west of the nave, the whole of the extended space, which is only 4 ft. 6 in. in width on either side, being occupied by the staircases.
The returned walls of the nave are flush with the west face of the tower. At the time the nave was thus refashioned the building was also more or less restored. It was repaired again about 1845, when texts of Scripture and the Lord's Prayer in blackletter characters were exposed on the walls. (fn. 226) The nave and transept were restored in 1902, when new roofs were erected; the old barred sash windows of the nave had been replaced by modern Gothic in 1897.
Three pre-Conquest stones have been found in the course of repairs, and are now built into the north wall of the chancel outside. One is part of a cross shaft with strapwork, another is a fragment with interlaced pattern, and the third, which has the head and fore paws of a bear, is apparently part of a hogback stone. (fn. 227) Inside the chancel is a stone coffin and two early fragments, one a 12th-century corbel, together with a semicircular window head, perhaps of the same date, cut from a single stone and carved with a raised twisted pattern above the arch. (fn. 228)
Externally the chancel is of three bays, with highpitched blue-slated roof, the ridge of which is above that of the nave. The east window is of three lights and the vestry is in the middle of the north side. The pointed chancel arch is of two chamfered orders without hood mould, the inner order springing from half-round responds with fillet on the face and moulded capitals and bases. The abaci are square and form the impost of the chamfered jambs of the outer order. The circular moulded bases stand on a square plinth. The opening is 14 ft. 4 in. wide, and the floor of the chancel is two steps above that of the nave.
The nave has a modern blue-slated roof behind straight parapets and has three windows on the south side and one opposite, the north side being open for about half its length to the transeptal chapel, from which it is separated by a wide pointed arch of two chamfered orders, the outer dying into the wall and the inner carried on corbels. The walling of the transept consists largely of old masonry and has a chamfered plinth, but the windows are all modern, and the parapet has been wholly rebuilt. To the north it has a wide flat stepped gable with apex cross.
The tower has an embattled parapet and a squareheaded two-light transomed belfry window on each side with trefoiled upper lights. The west doorway is a wide round-headed opening of 18th-century date with moulded architrave and hood mould, and the window above, though perhaps retaining its ancient head, belongs to the same period of reconstruction. The original aspect of the tower has been completely altered as seen from the west, from which point of view it now appears merely to rise from the gable of the reconstructed nave, which has been built up against it on either side, reducing its apparent height and destroying its proportions.
The west gallery has now disappeared, and the organ stands within the chancel. The fittings are all modern. The font and pulpit are both of Caen stone, the former dating from 1897 and the latter from 1907. (fn. 229) The wooden reredos dates from 1876.
In the chancel is the recumbent effigy of a priest, in very flat relief, the hands apparently holding a chalice and the feet resting on a dog, and there is a small oak chest with two locks and two old oak chairs of comparatively late date. The chancel also contains six mural monuments to members of the Pennyman family. (fn. 230)
There is a ring of three bells. The first is undated, with the inscription, 'Ama Deum, time Deum'; the second and third were cast by Samuel Smith of York, and bear respectively the inscriptions, 'Ricardus Lumley, vicarius de Staynton hanc posuit campanam 1690' and 'Gloria in altissimis Deo 1690.' (fn. 231)
The plate consists of two cups with cover patens, two flagons and one almsdish, all made in 1692 by Thomas Ash of London, and each engraved with the arms and crest of Turner and inscribed, 'This Plate was given in ye yeare 1692 to ye Parish Church of Stanton in ye County of Yorke by Sr Wm Turner Knt Lord Maijor of ye Citty of London.' (fn. 232)
The registers begin in 1552.
The church of ST. PETER, (fn. 233) Thornaby, is of late 12th-century date, and consisted originally of a chancel and aisleless nave, but the chancel has disappeared, probably in the 18th century, and the chancel arch has been built up. The internal dimensions of the nave are 40 ft. by 17 ft. 6 in., (fn. 234) but the walls, although in a great measure ancient, have been a good deal repaired, (fn. 235) and vary in thickness in different parts. There is a bell-turret over the west gable containing two bells. The roof is covered with modern red pantiles.
Some of the stones in the walls bear traces of having been reworked and two may be of preConquest date. (fn. 236) One of these near the south-east corner outside has carved ornament and the other bears the fragment of a runic inscription. (fn. 237) Near the latter is an early dial, the markings of which are still distinct. (fn. 238) There are three modern squareheaded windows in the south wall and one near the east end of the north wall; the west doorway is also modern. There is, however, a built-up 12th-century doorway on the north side, quite plain in detail, the jambs and head being merely chamfered. At the west end are two heavy buttresses of two stages, probably of 15th-century date, the northern one of which is in line with the north wall, and over the west doorway is the head of a two-light window with rounded lights apparently of late 15th or early 16th-century date.
The semicircular chancel arch is of two orders slightly chamfered on the angles, and has a chamfered hood mould. The inner order springs from keelshaped responds and the outer from detached angle shafts, all with carved capitals and moulded bases. The imposts consist of a square member and cavetto, and are returned a few inches beyond the hood mould. The width of the opening is 7 ft. 6 in.
The building was restored in 1908, when the lime and colour wash was removed from the chancel arch and the high pews and three-decker pulpit erected in 1818 were removed. The font is a plain circular stone bowl and may be ancient.
One of the bells, which is cracked, seems to bear the date 1671, and the other is more modern. (fn. 239)
The new parish church of ST. PAUL was erected in South Stockton in 1857–8, (fn. 240) and consists of chancel, nave with wide north and south aisles, south porch, and tower added in 1898 at the northeast corner of the north aisle, the lower stages forming a vestry. The church is built in the style of the 14th century, and the nave and aisles are under three separate gabled roofs.
The plate consists of a plated cup, paten and flagon. A terrier of 1764 enumerates 'a large pewter flagon, a small silver cup, [and] a pewter plate,' but these have disappeared. (fn. 241)
The registers begin in 1844, before which date Thornaby was a portion of Stainton parish.
The church of ST. LUKE, originally a mission chapel, was rebuilt in 1901. It is of stone in transitional 12th-13th-century style, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles, transepts and an unfinished tower.
The ecclesiastical parish of St. Luke was formed from St. Paul's in 1895. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the archbishop. (fn. 242)
The church of Stainton was given, with half a carucate of land, by Robert de Brus to Guisborough Priory at its foundation, (fn. 243) and was afterwards appropriated to that house. (fn. 244) A vicarage was ordained before 1246, (fn. 245) and seems to have been reconstituted in 1398, when an inquiry into the ordination was made. (fn. 246) On the surrender of Guisborough Priory the advowson came to the Crown. (fn. 247) It was included in the grant to the see of York in 1545, (fn. 248) and the archbishop has presented from that time. (fn. 249) The rectory, which has always followed the descent of the advowson, (fn. 250) was leased by the archbishop in 1596 and again in 1601 at a rent of £38. (fn. 251) The site of a dwelling-house belonged to the vicarage in 1535, (fn. 252) and in 1840 there was a glebe-house fit for residence. (fn. 253)
The chapel of Thornaby, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene in 1495, (fn. 254) is mentioned in 1309. (fn. 255) As a perpetual curacy it was united to the vicarage of Stainton (fn. 256) until 1845, when it received a separate endowment. (fn. 257) It is in the gift of the archbishop. (fn. 258)
In 1546 it was found that 2 acres of land in Thornaby and one cottage in Stainton had been given to find five lamps in the chapel of Thornaby. (fn. 259)
The Poor's Money, the gift of an unknown donor, consists of a sum of £10 deposited in the Post Office Savings Bank, the interest of which is distributed in bread.
In 1817 Mrs. Mary Burdon by deed (enrolled) charged her close, known as Broad Close, with the annual payment of £5 5s. for teaching six poor children to read and furnishing them with books. The rent-charge is vested in the official trustee of charity lands, and by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 4 August 1899 the yearly income is employed in payments to encourage continuance of children at school or towards the maintenance of evening classes or lectures.
Thornaby-on-Tees.—By deed, 1897, land containing 4 acres or thereabouts was given for the purpose of a public park.