A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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Hotune, Hotone (xi-xv cent.); Hoton Buscell, Bucell, Bossell (xiii–xiv cent.).
This parish contains the townships of Hutton Bushel and West Ayton, the eastern end of the Vale of Pickering. Its area is 6,100 acres, of which 2,589 acres are arable, 1,718 acres permanent grass and 819 acres woodland. (fn. 1) The subsoil is Corallian Beds and Oxford Clay. Alluvium is found, and the soil is partly gravel; wheat, potatoes and turnips are grown. The land is moorland to the north, with numerous earthworks. Inclosure Acts were passed in 1750–1 and 1789–90 for Hutton Bushel, in 1791–2 for West Ayton (fn. 2); 700 acres of arable common field, 170 acres of common meadow and 1,250 acres of common pasture were inclosed in Hutton Bushel in 1790. (fn. 3)
Hutton Bushel is a long and straggling village on a by-lane a short distance to the north of the main Scarborough and Pickering road. The cottages are mostly built of stone; many are ruinous and a few retain their old thatched roofs.
The Osbaldestons lived at Hutton Bushel (fn. 4); the site only of their house now remains, for it was burnt down in the middle of the 19th century at a ball given to celebrate the coming of age of Mr. George Osbaldeston, whose father George Osbaldeston (1787–1866) had 'raised himself to the very pinnacle of fame 'as a sportsman. (fn. 5)
The Bushells, who lived at Hutton and gave it their name, afterwards removed to Whitby (q.v.), and their successors, the Aytons, probably built the peel tower, known as Ayton Castle, which stands on the gently sloping ground to the north of the River Derwent, a few hundred yards north-east of West Ayton village. It is a plain rectangular structure, erected towards the end of the 14th century, about 54 ft. from north to south by 34 ft. 6 in. from east to west, faced with ashlar and having a plain chamfered plinth course carried round the base. The ground floor is divided into two apartments by a transverse wall running east and west, and is entered by a doorway in the west wall. Both apartments are roofed with a pointed barrel vault supported on heavy parallel ribs, chamfered on the edges. They are lighted by four narrow square-headed window openings deeply splayed. The first floor formed a single apartment, and is approached by two straight staircases in the thickness of the east and west walls. A large fireplace occupied the east side and there is a two-light window in the south wall. The north and west walls are almost completely destroyed above the first floor level, but the south and east walls remain almost to the full height. The building was originally three stories high, the walls being set back slightly at each stage and the angles machicolated. Of these, however, only the south-western remains, and even here the parapet has fallen.
Gilbert de Ayton was assessed for the subsidy at Ayton in 1337, (fn. 6) and his brother William on account of his eighty-seven years was allowed to give his deposition here in the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy in 1389. (fn. 7) His descendant William Place lived here. (fn. 8) In 1545 Agnes the Dowager Lady Eure was assessed for the subsidy, (fn. 9) and at the Rising of the Earls in 1569 William Lord Eure, then owner of the manor, proposed to tarry at his house here 'while things remain doubtful . . . and serve Her Majesty with the Lord President and others.' (fn. 10)
Gilbert de Ayton in 1334 established his claim to honey and wax in his woods of Hutton Bushel and Troutsdale in Brompton parish (q.v.), housebote and haybote in the same, Ayton and Aycliffside, the appointment of woodwards in the woods of Hutton Bushel and Ayton, and agistment in the marsh of Hutton. (fn. 11) The bow-bearer of Hutton is mentioned in 1394. (fn. 12) A bridge over the River Derwent, which encircles West Ayton north, east and south, connects that township with East Ayton in Seamer parish (q.v.). John Eure of Ayton left 40s. to the works of the bridge in March 1492–3. (fn. 13) Westcroft Bridge is further north. In the early 12th century Alan Bushell granted to Whitby Abbey his land called Westcroft and the hermitage near. (fn. 14) Preston Hill, north of Hutton Bushel, commemorates a place (Presteton) mentioned with Hutton and Ayton from 1086 to 1490. (fn. 15)
There are public elementary schools at Hutton Bushel (1854) and West Ayton and a Wesleyan chapel at Hutton Bushel.
Gilbert de Ayton, lord in 1334, produced a charter of Henry I granting to Reginald Belet, Gilbert's predecessor in title, for 110s. annually, 11 carucates 1 oxgang of land in Ayton and Preston and 13 oxgangs in Ebberston, with soc and sac, tol and team, infangentheof and all customs; these lands, he said, had become the manors of Hutton and Ayton. (fn. 20) This Belet was identical with the Reginald Bushell who married Aaliza or Alice niece of William Percy, founder of Whitby Abbey, and of Serlo the prior, (fn. 21) and granted to the abbey the church of Hutton; this grant, with that of half a carucate of land and Westcroft, was long afterwards confirmed by Alan his son in the presence of King Stephen. (fn. 22) Alan son of Alan again confirmed these grants. (fn. 23) An Alan son of William Bushell confirmed the grants of Reginald and Alan his son. (fn. 24) In 1179–81 Alan and Richard Bushell were engaged in a suit against William de Ayton (fn. 25); in 1211 Alan was succeeded by William his son, who was living in 1230. (fn. 26) Ralph Bushell made a grant here about 1270–80, (fn. 27) but in 1276 Alan Bushell was said to have had gallows here for sixteen years. (fn. 28) Ralph Bushell, an outlaw in 1284, held a messuage and 9 oxgangs of land, (fn. 29) but the manor seems to have escheated to the Vescys. Lady Agnes de Vescy held its 11 carucates in 1284–5, (fn. 30) and although in 1316 it was said to be in the possession of the overlord, the Earl of Lancaster, (fn. 31) Gilbert de Ayton, heir of the Vescys, (fn. 32) entailed the manor in 1327. (fn. 33) On the partition of the Ayton lands in 1387, while Old Malton (fn. 34) was held undivided by the Eures, Hutton Bushel became the share of the Places and afterwards of the Conyers, and descended with their part of New Malton (fn. 35) until the beginning of 1613–14, (fn. 36) when Sir George Conyers conveyed it to Ralph Lord Eure. (fn. 37) It was divided in 1652 between Mary and Margaret Eure; Mary's share continued to descend with Old Malton until 1739, (fn. 38) when Thomas (Watson-Wentworth) Earl of Malton conveyed it to Richard Osbaldeston, D.D., (fn. 39) Dean of York, who was in 1747 made Bishop of Carlisle; he was translated to London in 1762. (fn. 40) Margaret Eure's portion was conveyed by her to Sir William Humble, bart., in 1680, and a further conveyance was made nine years later. Before 1660, however, John Farside was settled at Hutton Bushel; he died in that year and was succeeded by his son William Farside of Fylingdales. John son of William Farside was aged four in 1665, and his sister Elizabeth may be identical with the Elizabeth Farside, spinster, who conveyed premises to John Farside in 1711. (fn. 41) Elizabeth brought this share in marriage to Richard Osbaldeston; the bishop, however, died childless in 1764. The bishop's elder brother William, lord of Allerston (q.v.), inherited, and the Osbaldestons held the manor until 1840, when they conveyed it to Marmaduke Langley, ancestor of Viscount Downe, the present owner. (fn. 42)
At the beginning of the 12th century WEST AYTON (Atune, xi cent.; Atton, Hatona, xii cent.; Hayton, xiv cent.) was held by a family bearing the territorial name. Gilbert son of Lagi is said to have been father of William de Ayton, (fn. 43) and William to have been succeeded by the Gilbert de Ayton (fn. 44) who married Margery de Vescy. (fn. 45) William grandson of Gilbert and Margery (fn. 46) was lord in 1284–5 (fn. 47) and was succeeded by his son Gilbert by 1315. (fn. 48) Like Malton (fn. 49) West Ayton was in 1387 divided among co-heirs. The Eure third part (fn. 50) was conveyed as the 'manor' to Matthew Hutton and Thomas Savile in the spring of 1638–9. (fn. 51) As 'one fourth part of the manor' it was conveyed by Thomas Metcalfe, clerk, and Ann his wife to Richard Osbaldeston, Bishop of Carlisle, in 1758, (fn. 52) and has since descended with the manor of Hutton Bushel. (fn. 53) It is now in the possession of Viscount Downe.
The third part held by Anastasia de Ayton descended with her part of Brompton (fn. 54) (q.v.) in Pickering Lythe until 1795.
The third heir's portion was in 1612 conveyed by Sir George Conyers to William Best in fee. (fn. 55) Its history during the next fifty years is obscure. On the death of William Best in 1630 his lands descended to Anne, his daughter and heir, (fn. 56) but West Ayton had already passed out of his hands. Threefourths of the manor were among the lands settled under a trust deed of January 1704–5 by Dame Sarah Hewley as part of the estate granted by her to trustees for the maintenance of Dissenting ministers. (fn. 57) The lands are still held by the trustees of Lady Hewley's charity.
The church of ST. MATTHEW stands at the western extremity of the village and consists of a chancel 37 ft. 7 in. by 17 ft. 1 in., an aisled nave 31 ft. 7 in. by 19 ft. 6 in., western tower and south porch, the width across nave and aisles being 43 ft. 6 in.; the total external length of the church is 80 ft. 7 in.
The chancel was rebuilt in the 15th century and is lighted by a three-light east window and two in the south wall, the mullions and tracery being modern restoration. The chancel arch dates from the 15th century, but the north chapel has been rebuilt. Externally the chancel is divided into two bays by buttresses, those at the angles being placed diagonally and carried up in the form of cusped gables.
The nave is of early 13th-century date. To this period belongs the north arcade of three bays, having circular piers with moulded bell capitals and arches of two chamfered orders. In the 15th century the nave was the subject of extensive alterations. The south wall was taken down and an arcade of two bays with a south aisle and porch erected. The pier and responds are octagonal and the two-centred arches are struck from below the level of the capitals. The south aisle is lighted by two-light square-headed windows. At the same period the clearstory of two-light windows, three on each side, was added and the north aisle rebuilt. The nave was finished externally with embattled parapets and crow-stepped gables with diagonal buttresses to the porch. A small sanctus bellcote occupies the summit of the gable above the chancel arch, and above the door of the porch is a canopied niche now occupied by a sundial. The north aisle has again been rebuilt within recent years and all the roofs are modern.
The most ancient part of the structure is the tower, of which the lower stage dates from the 12th century, with one narrow light on the south side. The opening from the nave is of the same period with a chamfered impost, but the arch above has been altered and plaster and whitewash effectually conceal all evidence of its date. The tower, which is unbuttressed and batters inwards slightly, is three stages high. The upper portion was built c. 1180, and the belfry stage is lighted on each face by a window of two round-headed lights divided by a small shaft with capital and base and inclosed in a pointed arch. The corbel table immediately above them marks the original height of the tower, to which a heavy embattled parapet was added in the 15th century. Of the three bells, two were recast in 1902, but the third bears the inscription '+IHC + campana: Sancti . Matthei . sur . Thomas . de . Druf+eld parson . me . fecit,' in Lombardic characters.
On the north wall of the chancel is a white marble monument to Richard Osbaldeston, D.D., Bishop of London (died 1764). It bears the arms of the see of London and of Osbaldeston. On the opposite wall is a monument to his wife Elizabeth (Farside), died 1748. It bears the arms of the see of Carlisle impaling Osbaldeston with Farside on an inescutcheon.
The reredos is a modern work in oak, but the pulpit has some Jacobean carving and panelling re-used.
The plate includes one piece of the highest interest. It is a large silver-gilt cup and cover bearing the London date mark for 1611 and stands 10 in. high without the cover. The bowl is gourd-shaped and covered with rich repoussé ornament and the stem is in the form of a twisted tree trunk. On the cover is a small armed figure with a spear. It is evident that this cup was not made for ecclesiastical use, and it bears a close resemblance to several of the grace cups belonging to the London City companies. The rest of the plate is of the 18th century or modern—a flagon (London, 1713), a second flagon of about the same date (mark obliterated), a paten (London, 1701), an almsdish (London, 1716), and a modern cup and paten.
The registers previous to 1812 are as follows: (i) all entries 1572 to 1633; (ii) 1653 to 1669; (iii) 1670 to 1716; (iv) 1716 to 1726 (this book also contains affidavits of burials in wool from 1678); (v) baptisms and burials 1722 to 1771, marriages to 1753 only; (vi) marriages 1754 to 1812; (vii) baptisms and burials 1771 to 1795; (viii) baptisms and burials 1795 to 1812.
In the churchyard is the base and shaft of a stone cross.
The church was given to Whitby Abbey by Reginald Bushell, (fn. 58) and the abbey continued to hold it until the Dissolution. (fn. 59) The living was a rectory divided into two moieties, and in 1253 a dispute arose as the rector of one moiety said that the division was a new, not an ancient, one, and that the other portion ought to be consolidated with his. The archbishop ruled that this rector should have all the revenues of the church for life, but pay 15 marks annually to the clerk to be instituted by the abbot and convent to the vacant portion. (fn. 60) The division remained until 1452–3. (fn. 61) In February 1451–2 the abbot and convent had licence to appropriate this church, of their advowson, value £25 yearly, to pray for the good estate of the king and his soul after death, (fn. 62) and on the death or resignation of the rectors, on 7 August 1452 and 2 October 1453 respectively, the two moieties were appropriated. (fn. 63) In 1458 a vicarage was ordained. (fn. 64)
The advowson of the vicarage was granted to Nicholas (Heath) Archbishop of York and his successors in 1558. (fn. 65) Thomas Jerome presented in 1616 for one turn, (fn. 66) and in the same year the advowson came into the hands of Sir Ralph Eure. (fn. 67) From this time it descended with the manor of Malton, (fn. 68) and is now in the gift of Earl Fitzwilliam.
The free school founded by the wills of Thomas Farside, 1712, and Lucy Osbaldeston, 1783, is endowed with a rent-charge of £8 a year issuing out of land known as Fenton Closes in this parish, payable by the lord of the manor, and with 12 acres, or thereabouts, allotted on the inclosure in 1797.
In 1867 Henry Pearson, by his will proved at York 21 February, left £200, the income to be applied by the minister and churchwardens in the distribution of money, coals or bread among the poor of Hutton Bushel and West Ayton. The legacy was invested in £214 3s. 10d. consols.
In 1880 Thomas Joseph Candler, by his will proved at York 16 February, bequeathed £500 upon the like trusts. The legacy was invested in £518 16s. 1d. consols.
The sums of stock are held by the official trustees. In 1906 the dividends, amounting together to £18 6s. 4d., were distributed in flour to forty-five families, coals to ten families, and in money to twenty-two widows and widowers.
The Wesleyan chapel, founded by deed, 1822, is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners, 1870.