East Indies, China and Japan: January 1617

Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, Volume 3, 1617-1621. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1870.

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'East Indies, China and Japan: January 1617', in Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, Volume 3, 1617-1621, ed. W Noel Sainsbury( London, 1870), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/colonial/east-indies-china-japan/vol3/pp1-15 [accessed 21 July 2024].

'East Indies, China and Japan: January 1617', in Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, Volume 3, 1617-1621. Edited by W Noel Sainsbury( London, 1870), British History Online, accessed July 21, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/colonial/east-indies-china-japan/vol3/pp1-15.

"East Indies, China and Japan: January 1617". Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, Volume 3, 1617-1621. Ed. W Noel Sainsbury(London, 1870), , British History Online. Web. 21 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/colonial/east-indies-china-japan/vol3/pp1-15.

January 1617

Jan. 1. Firando in Japan. 1. Richard Cocks to the East India Company. Arrival of the Thomas 22nd June by way of the Moluccas. Death of John Baylie, merchant. Arrival of the Advice from Bantam 13th July. Death of Yeward, [Robt. Youart] merchant, the year before. The Company's letters of 3rd and 19th Nov. 1614, and 20th Jan. 1615, received. Reasons for wishing his salary to be paid to him in the Indies. Refers himself entirely to the Company's good consideration ; confesses he cannot brag of deserving much, as he is in a place where no benefit redounds to them of all his labours, but has no doubt things will amend in time. Touching their order to join all the voyages into the joint stock. Was more than four months at the Emperor's Court, about renewing the Company's privileges ; thought at one time to have lost all, and that they should have been banished from Japan. Finds it far contrary to Capt. Saris' expectation as well touching the trade to Patani and Siam as to Corea or Tushma ; his reasons. Richard Wickham's salary of 20l. per annum too little. Can get no trade into Corea, that of Tushma not worth the looking after. The factories of Patani and Siam cannot be furnished from Bantam. Voyage to Cochin China undertaken by Wm. Addames who is now out of the Company's service. Coromandel steel not esteemed in Japan ; no sale for Russian hides and other skins. Knives, looking-glasses, and glass bottles the Japanese do not care for. The value of other commodities. How to realize the Company's expectation to have the silver of Japan furnish all other factories in the Indies. Details of his visit to the Emperor's Court ; the Council's desire to know whether the English nation were Christian or no, "but," said they, "are not the jesuits and friars Christians too, which I answered they were, but not such as we were, for that all friars and jesuits were banished out of England before I was born ;" warning given to them that they were not to communicate, confess, or baptize. Discovered that in their new privileges the English were restrained to have their shipping and sales at Firando only ; his unsuccessful endeavours to have the privileges amended or to have three years respite. Leave to sell the goods they had at Yeddo, Miako, Osaka, and Sakaii, refused ; this restraint has put him to great shifts. The Emperor's secretaries very sorry they could not remedy the matter at present, because an Emperor's edict by act of parliament having been so lately passed, it could not so soon be repealed without scandal to the State, but that if Cocks renewed his demand next year, being so reasonable, they verily thought it might be amended ; hopes when General Keeling comes, it may be, otherwise the Japan trade will not be worth the looking after. All factors withdrawn to Firando. A present, brought by a friar from the King of Spain, returned by the Emperor of Japan after he had kept it about half-a-year. A Spaniard refused access to the Emperor ; the Spaniard's vexation and false reports of the English. Desire of the Japanese Admiral to engage Addames' services as a pilot to make conquest of certain islands rich in gold. The Japanese verily think that the English pretence to discover to the northward is to find out some such rich islands and not to seek for any passage that way for England, but Cocks persuaded the Admiral to the contrary and suggested to him the conquest of the Manillas. Is still of the same mind as to procuring trade into China ; had it not been for the great wars between the Tartars and Chinese last year, the English had had entrance before now: Letters and presents sent for that object ; is told that they will undoubtedly take effect. His care to have all Chinese well treated ; Capt. Jourdain offended with the Hollanders at Bantam. News of the false report of Mr. Peacock's murder, he having lost his life by drowning through the accidental running down of the vessel by the Hollanders ; his body found with a bag of money in his pocket by Walter Carwarden, without a scar upon it, by whom it was buried. Carwarden's stay in Cochin China. Cocks' efforts to procure the Emperor of Japan's letter to the King of Cochin China for payment of the goods bought of Peacock, the King acknowledging the debt. If a trade can be got in Cochin China, raw silk in great quantity is sure to be had every year ; twice as much silk cometh yearly there as to Bantam, Patani, and Siam. No benefit to be expected from Patani but pepper ; from Siam, deer skins. Sends piece of root from Corea worth its weight in silver ; all that can be got is taken by the Emperor ; it is held in Japan the most precious thing in physic in the world, and sufficient to put life into any man if he can but draw breath ; it is like a parsley root and very sweet to the taste. Arrival of the Sea Adventure from Siam, fully laden with skins, also of a junk in Shashma or Xaxma, which had been lost but for Edmund Sayer, not six men being able to stand upon their legs ; the King of Xaxma's extraordinary favours ; ordered them fresh men. The junk since sold to Addames and his partners. Sales of commodities. Presents fit for the Emperor of China ; a white or red coral tree he would esteem a most precious jewel. Arguments with the Emperor of Japan's Council, concerning the privileges for trade granted by the Emperor of China to the Spaniards and Portuguese. Conversation between a Portuguese and the Emperor's secretary as to the former exercising "their pagan religion ;" said the Secretary "Hath not the Emperor of Japan as much reason to put your jesuits and friars out of Japan and to withstand the secret entrance of them, knowing them to be stirrers up of sedition, and turbulent people?" Good and serviceable ordnance cast by the Hollanders, of copper mixed with tin. The Japanese Secretary very anxious to have five or six brass falcons or falconets from England, saying he would rather have one cast in England than ten of those cast in Japan. The Portuguese galleons from the Philippines that thought to have destroyed both English and Hollanders at Bantam, destroyed before the fleet of Don Juan de Silva arrived, who is said to have died of sorrow. Regrets he is in a place which hitherto hath been rather chargeable than beneficial. If the Emperor of Japan will not enlarge their privileges, whether trade cannot be carried on between China, or at least Cochin China and Firando and Nangasaki, where they are permitted to keep factories. Inconvenience of being in so small a town as Firando ; the Hollanders use every effort to drive the English out of trade, not caring whether they profit by the commodity they sell or no. [Fourteen and a half pages. Indorsed "Received by the Charles the 31 August 1618." Original Correspondence from the India Office, Vol. IV., No. 424.] Incloses, Copy of the privileges granted to the English nation by Shongo Same, Emperor of Japan. English shipping arriving in any part of Japan to retire to Firando, and there only to make sale of their goods ; all other places in Japan forbidden to receive any English goods. If by contrary winds their shipping be constrained to put into any other port, then to be friendly used. Any thing needed by the Emperor from the ships to be reserved for him, he paying the worth of it. Neither Japanese nor English to be forced to buy or sell. Disposal of goods in case of death, and accommodation of differences.
Jan. 1. Firando. 2. Copy of the preceding letter. Fifteen pages. Indorsed, "By the Peppercorn, received 6th Sept. 1617." [O.C., Vol. III., No. 342.]
Jan. 1. Firando. 3. Another copy of the above. [Twelve pages. Indorsed, "Received 6th of November 1619, by the Little James." O.C., Vol. IV., No. 425.]
Jan. 2. Ajmere. 4. Fran. Fetiplace to the East India Company. The King and his whole camp of late removed to Agra, so that this place is left desolate. Robt. Hewes [? Haies] remains with Fetiplace, with their goods. When the time and place of the King's settling is certainly known, they will go to his Court. Wm. Biddulph is there with his Lordship [Sir Thos. Roe.] Jos. Salbancke remains at Agra. Knows not how those of Surat will dispose of him, but he desires the Company to dispense with the residue of his time so that he may return home. [One page. Indorsed, "Received by the Globe." O.C., Vol. IV., No. 426.]
Jan. 3. to April 11/21. 5. Minutes of a Council held by Nathaniel Courthope, Sophony Cozucke, Thos. Spurway, John Davye, and John Hinchley "upon the coming in of the Hollanders." That the English having possession of the land and road of Pooloroon given up to them (by the inhabitants) for the use of the King's Majesty, and doubting the Hollanders' treachery to dispossess the English of it as formerly they have done at Pooloway and other places, a letter was written to the Dutch Commander and sent aboard their Admiral, and that he might not have the excuse of not being able to understand English, [Geo.] Muschamp was sent to make them understand, who reported that the Dutch "desired respect till the next morning." This answer being considered a delay for their advantage, and having been informed that the Dutch have shipping at Pooloway, ready manned and armed, and as the Council think in all probability, to come to Pooloroon this night to drive the English from the island, Muschamp was again dispatched with the answer annexed which the Dutch desired to have under the hands of the Council, and this was presently sent aboard their Admiral. Annexed, Answer of the English Council at Pooloroon. That in respect of the abuses of the Dutch, the English cannot repose any trust in them, "we have been the means to stay the hands of the people of the island ; only two hours is the time limited, from this time present. If you weigh not before, you shall have shot from the land and we will aid them." Pooloroon, 3 January 1617. [Signed as above.] "Insinuations made by the factors of the Dutch [East India] Company to the servants of the English Company in Banda." The Dutch complain that the English not only endeavour to wrest from them their trade in spices at Amboyna, Banda, and the Moluccas, but that they also assist the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Bandanese with whom the Dutch were at war. Among other instances of their having done so, the following are cited : In May 1615 at the conquest of the fort of Pooloway, the Dutch found a quantity of English arquebuses, powder, and artillery which the English confessed they had sold to the Bandanese ; in the following January [1616], the English against the wish of the Governor of Ternate, settled themselves at Lugho, Cambello, and other places, planted their cannon on the little fort of Cambello and killed "an Amboynese of ours" and wounded another ; that in the past year [1616], the English assisted the enemies of the Dutch at Tidore who were in great straits, and daily, by undue and sinister practices incited the inhabitants of Banda, Amboyna, and the Moluccas against the Dutch, making them odious ; also that on the 3/13 January last past, [1617], on the arrival of two of the Dutch ships with a bark at Pooloroon, the English took away a red flag, planted an English flag on the island, constructed two or three batteries, and compelled the Dutch ships to withdraw within two hours, on pain of being treated hostilely ; that they required restitution of Pooloway, and threatened in case of refusal to take the island by force ; that they planted an English flag at Rosingyn, and committed other acts tending to prevent their peaceable enjoyment of the traffic of spices in the places where they have so dearly bought it. "We have thought fit in the most courteous manner to declare and demonstrate to you that our nation has taken under its care, and with the assistance of God, has effected the defence of several Indian kings and people against the violence and oppression of the Spaniards, Portuguese, and their adherents, and we are resolved henceforth to persevere in so laudable a design, according to the contracts and agreements which the said kings and people, and above all those of the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda in general, have reciprocally allowed to our nation, not to give up the fruits of the spices or any other [commodity] to any but our own [people], without which it would be impossible to support the excessive expense and charges of the said onerous defence, requiring nevertheless as our good friends, allies, and confederates, that you will so conduct yourselves as not to attempt anything against the said contracts and agreements, or endeavour to wrest from us by any means whatever the effect of them, and especially that you will not attempt to deprive us of the fruits, a right to which for a lawful consideration has been conceded to us, [de nous priver des fruicts qui avecq une ligitime cause nous sont oubligs,] or assist with artillery, munitions of war, victuals, or other necessaries, the inhabitants of the Banda isles in general, with whom we are at contention, and who, the past year by the treaty of peace, so solemnly, to the exclusion of all others, promised the said fruits." The English are therefore required to depart with their ships from thence, and put themselves under the protection of the Dutch fort, in which they shall be used as the Hollanders' best friends, but should they refuse, the Dutch will be constrained by all means possible, even if need be by force of arms, to maintain the said contracts and compel the English to withdraw. All the inconveniences which may arise from the attempts or opposition of the English, the Dutch acquit themselves of, before God and the world, as wishing nothing but friendship with the English. 4/14 January 1617. [French.] Minutes of a Council held aboard the Swan, by Nat. Courthope, Sophony Cozucke, Thos. Spurway, Geo. Muschamp, Robt. Hayes, John Davye, John Hinchley, Walter Stacie, Barnard Downes, and Richard Swanley. The Flemings having received an absolute answer not to anchor in "this our road of Pooloroon" given up by the inhabitants of the island into the hands of the King of England, it is resolved "for our further fortification" if the Dutch attempt to come to the road, to defend themselves, and to land seven pieces of ordnance for their greater security, provided they may, with little trouble be brought aboard again. It is further resolved that if the Dutch attempt the assault of Pooloroon to the annoyance of the English trade, agreed on by the islanders, "to use our best force against them for the defence of our right and ourselves, and not to permit them to anchor but our forces ashore to begin with them." 5th January 1617. John Davye to N. Courthope and the rest of his friends. The [Dutch] Admiral and the rest have sealed their resolution to have Pooloroon according to their commission, if they may, without spilling more blood in this quarrel, which has so far passed already that it cannot be ended here or at Bantam, but in England and Holland. Knows without they talk together there will be much slaughter about it, for the Dutch are all double manned from the castle, and must fight it out as Davys has proved already, "for they did shoot at me twice before I began, although I was in the sea, eight leagues off, when they chased me. We fought almost board and board an hour and a half till they had killed five men, maimed three, and hurt eight, and when we began we had not 35 able men to do anything, or any wind to work the ship withal, wherefore, if you mean to save your men, parley before you fight, for that will give you content, otherwise you are to stand to the hazard of wars ; they know we have Rosingyn and Wayer surrendered, but there must neither English nor French, nor none to carry any goods away from none of these islands of Banda, but to bring their ship, under their castle and let the law end it at home, for they do think that this that is already done will join both the companies in one when it shall come home." Davye and his company are favourably used ; the men have their victuals from the ship, but are kept ashore for their own security, for the Dutch have many prisoners ; all is spiked down close, "but if you fight the soldiers will have their pillage." 4 March 1617. Courthope, Spurway, and Hinchley to the Dutch (? Admiral). Have received their letters, together with a letter, as they pretend from Mr. Davis [sic, Davye ?], from which they understand that the Dutch have by force taken the English ship the Swan, killed and wounded divers of her men ; that the Dutch first began the quarrel, upon what ground the English know not, they therefore require one of the ship's company to certify them of the very truth which they greatly mistrust, as they have been informed by an escaped black that not only the merchants, master, and others were killed in fight, but also that all the rest of the company were murdered in cold blood. "With what security can we commit ourselves into your hands who have so barbarously taken our ship, and, as we credibly hear, murdered our men?" The English also have commission to maintain the King's Majesty's right to Pooloroon, surrendered to his subjects, and to fortify it against all nations. "Therefore to bring ourselves under your subjections we will not, until we speak with an Englishman of the said ship to satisfy us whether it be so with our men, as we hear reported, or not, that upon his manifestation to us we may the better resolve what to do herein." 7 March 1617. [The Dutch Admiral ?] to Courthope and his companions. Is much astonished at their very unworthy proceedings, notwithstanding the "insinuations" and warnings [advertissements] the Dutch have already given them. The strict alliance and good understanding between the crown of England and the United Provinces, which above all things have been recommended to them on the part of the United Provinces, induce the writer in the first place to beseech him, in order to avoid the further effusion of blood, to take to heart and maturely consider the position in which they have placed themselves, since the Dutch cannot suffer any nation under any circumstances to come and enjoy with them [the Dutch] the traffic of spices which the Dutch have with so much cost, and to the exclusion of all others, acquired in Banda, Amboyna, and the Moluccas, but they are ready, according to the instruction of their superiors [if fair means will not avail] forcibly to drive them out of Pooloroon and Banda, and the writer hereby protests before God and the world, that the evil or inconvenience that will ensue on that account they [the Dutch] are innocent of, as having desired to maintain a strict friendship with the English ; if they please to send some one to speak to him on this point, he shall have liberty to come and good treatment. Is very much astonished that M. de Laire, assistant merchant, who was sent to them some days since, has not returned, does not know whether he is detained against his will. Recommends them not to detain him against the common right of people, and also to return to the bearer the goods he had with him. 30 March/9 April 1617. [French.] Answer of the English to the Dutch letter of 30 March/9 April, signed by Nat. Courthope. Have received their letters, whereby the English understand the desire the Dutch have of coming to a reasonable composition to avoid the effusion of much blood. It is not their desire to spill blood unless forced thereunto, and therefore they may confer of such composition if the Dutch will, according to their letters, and send pledges. Courthope makes choice of Seignrs. Henry de Waterfort and Henry de Yonge, and he will himself come over to see if he can make a good composition with them [the Dutch] as they pretend, hoping he shall find them gentlemen of such courtesy as to have free regress, as likewise the English will have through the Dutch hostages. If therefore the men above-named are sent, Courthope will go back in the same prow they come in. This letter was purposed to have come to their hands by their messenger, but Lantor men would not permit him to come. Pooloroon, 2 April 1617. "Presentation" given to Nathaniel Courthope. That he, Courthope, having been four months chief merchant upon the English ships, the Swan and Defence, come from Banda, and at this time fortified in Pooloroon, knows and confesses that the Sieur Laurens Real, Governor General on behalf of the States General of the United Provinces, and of the [Dutch] East India Company, has made Courthope an offer of restitution of the ships Swan and Defence, with everything that at the time of the taking thereto belonged, together with all his people, and restitution to them of whatever damage they have sustained by the pillage of the Dutch soldiers and sailors, provided that he go out with all his people and abandon the isles of Bauda, in which the said General promises all assistance, so that Courthope may not only remove his people but also the artillery with all their belongings, without danger. French.. Neira, 7/17 April, 1617. Answer to the preceding Presentation, signed by N. Courthope and Thos. Spurway. They have duly considered every point in the [Dutch] demands, and find them altogether so impossible that they cannot yield thereunto ; first, because they would give away the right of their Sovereign and of the Company, their employers, which by tbeir oath they are bound to maintain, and would bring themselves within the compass of treason ; next, that they would betray the people of these islands into their [the Dutch] hands, who have surrendered these islands and themselves unto his Majesty of England which, should the inhabitants perceive the English to prove so false and act so unchristianlike, they could expect no other than fury from them, they [the inhabitants] being the stronger ; but the writers make this proffer again, that if the Dutch return the ship Defence, and men and anchors, and bring token to carry the English cargo to Bantam, and "give under their hands" that neither they nor any of their forces will attempt or offer violence against either of those two islands of Pooloroon [sic] or any of the English or Bandanese here, being all the King's Majesty's subjects by lawful surrender, "provided until it be decided in England or Bantam." 10 April 1617. Answer to the preceding letter signed by Laurens Real. Their letter of the 10th, old style, was received this morning, the contents of which were well understood. Recapitulates the terms set forth in the Presentation of the 7th present, and as touching the alliance between the English and those of Pooloroon, "upon which you so grandly repose," the Dutch put it to the English to which they ought to attach the greater weight, to the ancient alliance between the crown of England and the United Provinces, or to this new alliance, which without orders [charge] from their King the English have contracted, against all right, with the infidel Moors their enemies, who are under their subjection and under contract to them [ nous tenuz et obligez par contract]. Three days are hereby given to the English to consider which they will judge the best for their convenience. If, notwithstanding, the English proceed besides to the defence of the said Moors, the enemies of the Dutch against whom they are ready to continue hostilities, the Dutch protest before God and the world that they are not guilty of the effusion of blood that may thereby ensue. They also require that Christopher de Laire, with the Mardykers who were sent to the English by the Lieut.-Governor of Banda, be sent back. French. From the Fort of Nassau, Isle of Neira, 11/21 April 1617. Together seven papers ; 13 pp. Copies, with Dutch certificates that they have been collated with the originals and found correct. [East Indies, Vol. I., Nos. 50-56.]
Jan. 4. In the Factory of Tecoe. 6. Henry Pattesonn to William Nicolls, chief factor at Acheen. Knavery of "the Pollema" which should be punished for future example, though he thinks to have procured this letter on his behalf ; no trade to be had without great bribes. [Two pages. O. C., Vol. IV., No. 427.]
Jan. 8. Surat. 7. Attestations against William Leske, minister to the English factory at Surat, on his removal by Capt. Henry Pepwell, Commander of the English Fleet. Setting forth that he is a most licentious, ungodly liver, and one that prefers his epicurism, drunkenness and intolerable insolent pride before the divine worship of God. Signed by Thos. Kerridge, Thos. Rastell, Henry Woodroffe, Fras. Futter, Wm. Martin, Lewis Smyth, and Robt. Hutchinson. [Three pages. O. C., Vol. IV., No. 429.]
Jan. 14. Firando. 8. Wm. Addames to Sir Thos. Smythe, Governor of the East India Company. Has been Cape merchant three years. His intended voyage to China prevented by a grievous storm ; arrived in safety at the Leques Islands, where they found marvellous great friendship, but were forced to return to Japan, because the monsoon was past. Prosperous voyage to Siam. Was most joyful to see the Thomas and the Advice arrive. Went to Court with Rich. Cocks ; their privileges renewed, but afterwards altered, confining them to trade at Firando and Nangasaki. Fails in his endeavours to get the privileges reformed. The present Emperor more against the Romish religion than his father was ; he has forbidden, on pain of death, any of his subjects to become Romish Christians, and also any stranger merchant from abiding in any of the great cities for fear on that pretence that jesuits and friars might secretly teach the Romish religion. Intends taking a voyage in hand this year to Cochin China, to see if by his means privileges may be obtained to get free trade into their factory again, and also to find out how Mr. Peacock lost his life. [One page and a half. O. C., Vol. IV., No. 428.]
Jan. 14/24. Firando. 9. Jacques Specx [the Dutch Chief in Japan] to John Jourdain, President of the English at Bantam. Is sorry to find from his letter to Capt. Cocks that he is discontented with the burthen of the Osiander ; her goods have been brought to Bantam. Everybody offered a price to lade goods thereon. Thinks they have not broken his rules. All has been done in good will to the captain. Professions of respect. [Dutch. One page. O. C., Vol. IV., No. 430.]
Jan. 15. Jask. 10. Edward Connok, Edward Pettus, and Wm. Bell, to the East India Company. The Company will, before this, have understood of their new settled trade by the writers, and of the arrival of the James in Persia. Having considered the necessity of servants, and from experience of the dear rates of service of this country people, they have entertained for land soldiers three of the men from the James at 20s., 15s., and 10s. a month each : one as cook, the others to be trained up in the feats of merchandise. [One page. O.C., Vol. IV., No. 431.]
Jan. 15. Jask Road, in Persia. 11. Edw. Connok and others to Capt. Alex. Childe, master of the James. In case he cannot recover the Road of Surat by about the end of February, he is to sail with the James directly to Bantam Road, where he will receive further directions. [One page. O. C., Vol. IV., No. 432.]
Jan. 16. Firando, Japan. 12. Rich. Cocks to the East India Company. Brief of part of his letter of the 1st January. Silver may be procured in great abundance, and liberty to carry it out at pleasure, but not with English commodities, rather with raw silk and silk stuffs, all of which must be procured with money to have them in any quantities ; so that to begin this factory, a great sum of ready money or plate must be provided, and afterwards, the profits arising will provide Bantam and other factories without sending any more out of England. Commodities which will and will not be vented. Great charge of sending junks from Japan ; they should go twice a year from Siam to Patani ; little or no silk at those places. It should be provided at Bantam and not all sent to England, but part reserved for Japan. Advantages of procuring trade in China. Doubtful whether the Japanese will now assist in any discovery for the north-west passage to England. Sickness of John Totten, master of the Advice. In great want of hard wax, quills, sealing thread, and good ink, [Two pages. Indorsed, "Received by the Peppercorn." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 433.]
Jan. 16. Firando. 13. Copy of the preceding. [Indorsed, "Received by the Charles 31 Aug. 1618." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 424.]
Jan. 16. Firando. 14. Another copy of the above letter. [Indorsed, "Received 6 Nov. 1619, by the Little James." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 425.]
Jan. 17. 15. Sir Thos. Roe to [William] Robbins [agent to Sir Robert Sherley in Persia]. His honest and good affection to his country will not be unrecompensed by the East India Company. Finding Sir Robt. Sherley had undertaken to interest the Spaniard in the trade of Persia, Roe deferred prosecuting his intents until he was encouraged by Robbins' letters and by a conference with Mahomet Baze-Leage, Shah Abbas' ambassador. The Company cannot profit by landing their goods at Jask and transporting them up to Court at their own charges, except under certain conditions. They therefore desire that a port be secured by the King, free for them alone or for all indifferently, where they may land their goods ; the requisite privileges and a settled agreement as to prices ; and the King's commands for his silks to be brought down yearly at the season to the port, which is easier than by Aleppo. A trade thus settled will be durable and steadily increase. To this purpose a ship is now sent to Jask to unlade cloth and other goods. Encourages him to assist in procuring the necessary phirmaunds, "for we aim, not at gnats and small flies, but at a commerce honorable and equal to two so mighty nations." Tells him "to open the King's eyes that he be not blinded with the smoky air of Spanish greatness * * * You are an Englishman ; show it rightly." If he find the above conditions will not be agreed to, "assure the King that we will not come like pedlars and to advise us that we spend no more time and travail in vain." Expects to turn his face homewards in December, unless he is ordered to visit the Shah Abbas. [One page and a half. Indorsed, "Copy of a letter received 5th March from the Right Hon. Sir Thos. Roe, dated 17th Jany. 1616-7, received by the way of Aleppo and Marseilles, 26 Nov. 1617." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 434.]
Jan. 18. Savoy. 16. Geo. Lord Carew to Sir Thos. Roe. Thanks for his letter from Ajmere, "the King of Mogoll's Court" ; entreats him to continue the curious description of that huge monarchy in which all cosmographers are very much mistaken. All novelties of the country will be welcome, especially books and coins, but not to trouble himself about loadstones. Supposes he finds mighty opposition from the Jesuits. Sends news since his last. The commentaries of Matteo Riccio, a jesuit, who resided at Paquin in China many years, printed in 1616 ; amongst other things, he reports the travels in 1603 of Benedictus Joesius, a Portuguese friar. A caravan was two years going from Lahore to Paquin ; calculates the distance to be above 4,000 miles, and if so, "it follows that all our cosmographers are much mistaken, and China in the maps must be stretched farther to the eastward." The friar's journey was by command of his superior, to discover Cataya and see Cambalu, both mistaken by our cosmographers ; no other countries called Cataya but China, and Paquin is the city called Cambalu. A pamphlet lately extant of Corint's travels to the Mogul's country, "you have him with you," or would have sent his book. He would do well to inform himself of the countries to the north and north-east of Mogul, and of the prince we call the Great Cham, "for it certain there are large kingdoms whereof we are nearly ignorant." Describes the course taken by the caravan by Mercator's Geography, and explains the cause of the long travel which might have been performed in less than 492 days. Reasons for correcting his former opinion, that Asia ought to have a longer extent to the eastward than is given in the maps. The north-west passage attempted last summer, but nothing effected, and now less hope to find it than before. Suggestions for bringing commodities from the Mogul's country, Persia, and the kingdoms adjacent, "if the rivers of Indus or Ganges be navigable as the Ob is," by a less tedious and dangerous route. The ground of the complaints of the Levant Company arises from the spoils and robberies committed, as the Turks allege, by our merchants upon the Grand Signor's subjects in the East Indies. Leaves him to the report of the English factors going to Surat, to state the cause of the difference between the English and the Hollanders about English cloths ; it is a question of profit, as taking from them Hollanders the maintenance of 600,000 persons who gain their living by dyeing and dressing cloth. A copy of his letter, dated at Ajmere in February last, was presented by Sir Thos. Smythe and others of the East India Company to the Lords of the Council on 16th January ; his project for opening a trade with Persia so well liked by the Lords and the merchants that it is concluded a trial will be made ; there is such a madness in England to be clothed in silk that we cannot endure our home-made cloth ; conceives, however, objections to his project ; the Grand Signor may be irritated to the confiscation of all English merchants' goods throughout his dominions ; the silks are only sold for ready money, and 600,000l. will scarcely he able to drive that trade which "will exhaust the treasure of the realm." The East India fleet being ready to fall down the river, is enforced to end this gazette. [Extracts from Domestic Jac. I., Vol. 90, No. 24, Cal., pp. 424-428. Printed in Carew's Letters for the Camden Society, edited by John Maclean, pp. 27-79.]
Jan. 18. Bram pore [Burrampoor]. 17. Nicholas Banggam to the East India Company. By Capt. Keeling's orders he settled a factory at Burrampoor last year. English goods sell at a greater profit than at Surat ; list of those sold, and the prices ; last year they amounted to 3,000l. sterling, which he has passed on to Ahmedabad. Hopes to double the amount this year. Refers them to Lawrence Walldo who lived here the year past and now goes home sick. The Lord Ambassador (Roe) is at Court at great charge by reason of the King's progress ; he is sometimes in favour and sometimes out, he is standing upon the credit of his place and our nation, and takes his place so near the King that the great men of the Court envy him and would not have it so. [A marginal note (made in England) says: Why was not the 3,000l. rather remitted to Agra to be invested there in hard indigo ? Two pages. O. C., Vol. IV., No. 435.]
Jan. 19. Jask. 18. Edward Connok and Thomas Barker to the East India Company. Capital brought from Surat to Persia [in the James]. Can write with no certainty as yet of the sales of English commodities. Spices will sell at almost the same rate as in England. Ormuz, famous for her trade, has greatly declined the last three or four years. The Portugals grow weak. Earnestly request directions to be given to the factories at Surat and Bantam for a yearly supply to the writers of at least 500 tons of spices. Hopes of a good trade in Persia. Reasons for persuading the whole fleet to be sent directly for Persia ; chiefly for the health of the mariners which by toddy, rack, and women in Surat is much weakened. Commends the victuals at Jask. The bay at Jask a fit place for fortification, "which I doubt not but from the Sophy to obtain ;" in a month's time it may be made defensible against a multitude. Carriage of goods up the country cheap, some dispatched under the conduct of Edw. Pettus and Wm. Bell ; Geo. Pley, and Wm. Tracy left with other goods. Have not treated with the Governor of Jask for privileges but refer to the Sophy himself. Sufficient testimonies received of fair usage and good intentions. [Three pages. Indorsed, "Read. Received 5 September 1617 by the Globe." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 436.]
Jan. 19. Jask. 19. Edward Connok and Thomas Barker to Thomas Kerridge, chief factor at Surat. Arrived at Jask 24 Dec 1616, in twentysix days from Surat. Gave chase to divers boats and took one of 30 tons, with a Portuguese pass, and laden with timber. Friendly reception by the Governor of Mogustan, which is eight days journey from Jask, and where licence was obtained for landing their goods. George Pley and William Tracy left there. Found all places they passed through extremely poor and without any commerce except for necessaries, having lately been overrun by the King of Persia though formerly distinguished from the Persian government and known by the ancient name of Ormuz. Nothing discouraged, being assured the inland mart towns were exceeding rich ; Combran [Gombroon] the present port of the Portuguese, Shirauz, or Siras, and Ispahan, the seat of the King, being exceeding great, populous, and wealthy. Reasons for returning some of the goods. Desire all the cloth that comes in the next fleet for Surat to be sent to them, as well as the whole fleet with all the cargo, having first supplied their own wants, as at present they do not know what English commodities will sell in Persia. For the purchase of a good quantity of silk and other Persian commodities, they have written to the President at Bantam to send them annually a ship of 400 tons laden with spices, which they believe will sell at as good rates as in England. Large quantities of Guzerat cloth imported by the Portuguese. List of goods required by the next ships. A good supply of presents necessary for so potent a Prince. [Two pages. Indorsed, "This copy sent into India to the above named by express messenger under the 15th of May from Ispahan, accompanied with others our letters of this date." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 437.]
Jan. 19. Jask. 20. Connok and Barker to Capt. W. Keeling, "Commander General over all the English in the East Indies and to the English merchants resident in the factory of Bantam." Inclose accounts of their arrival and proceedings in Persia. In former times the Portuguese supplied the large territories of Persia with spices, by which means chiefly they made the barren island of Orm z to yield more profit than any of their Eastern trades beside ; they are now so weak through losses, chiefly by the English and Hollanders, and so molested by sea robbers that no quantities of spices are now imported by them and the price is very much improved. Expediency of sending large quantities of spices. Refer to other reports as to the fittest time for sending the ships. [Three quarters of a page. Indorsed : "By the James." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 438.]
Jan. 21. Advice by Capt. Anthony Fugars for ships sailing for the coast of Persia, given to Edw. Connok for the good of the East India Company ; also for the safe landing of goods and for fortification. [One page. O. C., Vol. IV., No. 439.]
Jan. 20. Lambeth. 22. Archbishop Abbot to Sir Thos. Roe. Thanks for his letters ; begs him to continue the same course of advertisements, which are of great consequence to our affairs here, particularly for the welfare or ill fare of the Portugals and the King of Spain. A man is simple who doth not see that the King of France, the Princes of Italy, and especially the Hollanders are the greater or the lesser as events turn out in those Eastern parts. Cannot hastily resolve what may be thought of the trade for Persia ; exceptions to it. [Sir Thos.] Sherley's children have all been shifters, venturing on great matters, carrying high shows, and in the end coming to beggary. Describes the position of each. Sir Thomas in the Fleet for debt ; Sir Anthony in Spain has his pension seized for debt, and is barely kept from starving ; Sir Robert "if he have any religion is a Papist ;" Papal indulgences, medals, &c. granted to and dispensed by him, among them a power to legitimize bastards, he laid the fault upon his wife, whom he acknowledged to be a Romanist ; "in a word you know that he is a hungry fellow and liveth merely by his wit." [Two pages. Domestic Jac. I., Vol. 90., No. 34., Cal. p. 429.]
Jan. 20. Firando. 23. John Osterwick to the East India Company. Has not written since he left England in the fleet under the command of Capt. David Middleton. Account of his several employments. Death of John Bailey on 29 August ; Capt. Totten and himself appointed overseers of his estate ; their disposal of it. [One page and a half. Indorsed, "Received from Bantam by the Charles, 1 Sept. 1618." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 440.]
Jan. 27. [Firando.] 24. R. Cocks to the East India Company. Sickness of Capt. Totten ; Rich. Wickham going chief commander of the Advice to Bantam. Six men ran away from the two ships during Cocks' absence at the Japanese Court, one having stolen a bag of money from his master. Drunkenness and bad conduct of many of those in the ships from England ; thinks their friends glad to be rid of them, send them out, hoping these long voyages may make an end of them. His advice to Jourdain in case Capt. Keeling be gone to the Moluccas before the Advice arrive at Bantam ; also in case they get trade in Cochin China which they cannot tell until Capt. Addames' return. Thinks the Advice fit to undertake the discovery to the northwards. The King of Firando owes 3,000 taes for goods bought last year ; he is moneyless and they cannot get a penny from him ; he owes the Hollanders about 10,000 taes. The pictures of the planets, which cost 3l. sterling a piece, wrapped together face to face before being dry are all utterly defaced and not worth one penny ; had they come in their full beauty they would never have sold for a quarter of their cost. Useless sending such things, they esteem a painted sheet of paper with a horse or ship or a bird more than such rich pictures ; no one will give 6d. for that fair picture of the conversion of St. Paul. Account of monies laid out. [One page and a half. Indorsed, "Received by the Charles, 31st Aug, 1618." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 424.]
Jan. 27. [Firando.] 25. Another copy of the preceding letter. [Indorsed, "Received 6 Nov. 1619 by the Little James." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 425.]
Jan. 31. Firando. 26. Cocks to the East India Company. The Advice ready to sail with Wickham as chief commander. III condition of the goods sent to Firando ; cloth rotten and moth eaten, looking glasses spotted, skins worm eaten ; cargoes for Japan should not be opened until they arrive at their destination. The pictures, maps of cities, shires, and provinces come so torn and defaced that they are worth nothing ; the pictures in oil all defaced through being clapped together wet ; rich pictures not esteemed in Japan but rather printed black paper with ships, horses, battles, and birds, and such like trifles. [One page. Indorsed, "Received by the Hope from Bantam 2 Sept. 1618." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 441.]
Jan. 31. Firando. 27. Another copy of the preceding letter. [Indorsed, "Received from Bantam by the Charles 1 Sept. 1618." O. C., Vol. IV., No. 442.]