Charles I - volume 500: January 1644

Pages 1-10

Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Charles I, 1644. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1888.

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January 1644

Jan. 3.
1. Articles of the Treaty agreed upon betwixt the Commissioners of both Houses of Parliament of England and the Commissioners of the Convention of the Estates of Scotland, authorised by the Committee of the said Estates, concerning the enforcement of the solemn League and Covenant, and the assistance demanded in pursuance of the ends expressed in the same. Signed at Edinburgh, 29 Nov. 1643. [Printed in Lords' Journals vi., 364. Certified copy. 8 pp.] Underwritten,
Mem. That these words, "without the mutual advise and consent of both kingdoms" in the first line of the 8th Article, and this word "between" in the second line of the last Article, and these words, "to be employed" in the third line of the said last Article, were interlined before the signing [and are adopted in the Lords' Journals].
Jan. 4. 2. Jane Bingley to her daughter Susan Bingley. I send you a letter, which it seems has miscarried. Your father is with his old master, Lord Wentworth, at Oxford, where he has been since your going for France. The writer is glad she likes her service. [Two seals with arms. 1 p.] Annexed,
2. i. "Melidora to Philitia." I am in such expectation of seeing Cavalier [Lord Wentworth ?] to-morrow night that I can hardly allow time to tell it you. There is a [Parliament] to begin at [Oxford] the 22nd of this month. There was a proclamation of pardon to all that would go in by that time, though it were "Corvina" himself. "Fidelia" was unwilling to let you know of the retaking of Arundel Castle in Sussex by the Parliament's forces, and many soldiers and commanders were taken. Next week I will give you a more certain relation of all that concerns them at Oxford. Meanwhile, your children are well, and being civil to the Monsieurs. Jany. 8. [Two seals, with arms the same as above. Partly in cipher. 1 p.]
Jan. 5. 3. Warrant of the Lord General the Earl of Essex to Colonel Sir Wm. Middleton, Bart., and whom he shall appoint. You are to make search in and about London and Westminster or within a circuit of 20 miles for all such horses, mares, geldings, and nags as ought to belong to the horse troops, dragooners, and train of artillery, also for all manner of arms, pikes, muskets, carbines, pistols, swords, saddles, and other ammunition any way belonging to the State which ought to be employed in the forces raised for the service of the King and Parliament, but which have been stolen, sold, or pawned, and you are to bring the same to me or whom I shall appoint, at the same time committing to safe custody all persons so offending until my pleasure be further known therein. [Not signed nor sealed. Damaged by damp. 2 pp.]
Jan. 8. 4. Pass by the King for some one whose name is not filled in [probably a Commissioner] to go to and fro between Oxford and London till Feb. 10th next. [Signed by the King and countersigned by Digby.]
Jan. 9. 5. Depositions taken before the Lords' Committees appointed to take examinations in the cause of Archbishop Laud, viz., of Samuel Bland, Henry Burton, James Wadsworth, John Cooke, Sir Nathaniel Brent, Thomas Mayo, Elizabeth Gray, Francis Newton, and Thomas Thrasher. Concerning the Archbishop's illegal proceedings in the High Commission Court, and his dealings with and favouring of Papists, priests, and Jesuits. [20 pp.]
Jan. 10. 6. The like depositions of John Holland, George Combe, Francis Nichols, Anne Griffin, George Walker, Rowland Tompson, Humfrey Mackworth, and Henry Bell. Concerning the Archbishop's illegal action in the matter of the dismissal of Dr. [Alexander] Gill, master of St. Paul's School, by the Mercer's Company; in the matter of the High Commission Court; in the matter of printing; in imprisoning Puritanical preachers; in tampering with the charter of the town of Shrewsbury; and in illegally imprisoning without expressing any cause. [10 pp.]
Jan. 10. 7. Another copy of the above deposition of Humfrey Mackworth. Concerning Archbishop Laud's interference with the charter of Shrewsbury, upon a dispute arising between that town and Dr. Beale, Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, about nominating a master to the Free School at Shrewsbury. [2 pp.]
Jan. 10. 8. An account of provisions delivered to Mr. Henry Procter, provider within the Wapentake of Claro, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, from June 5, 1643, to January 10, 1643–44. [1 sheet.]
Jan. 11. 9. John Ashburnham to John Marquis of Winchester. Recommending to his favour the sad condition of an unhappy lady, Mistress Zouch, whose husband served the King as a Colonel, and upon his death left her all her subsistence by a jointure at Odiham, now under contribution to his Lordship's garrison at Basing; where the tax falls so heavy upon her she is forced to represent it to his Lordship for relief. [Copy. 1 p.] Annexed,
9. i. Deposition on oath of Robert Green, gent., concerning the services and death of Colonel James Zouch. He came with his two brothers and betwixt 12 and 16 horses armed to the King's assistance at Braynford [Brentford] the beginning of last winter, and thence attended his Majesty to Reading and Oxford; and then having raised a troop of dragoons at his own charge they were commanded to Chichester, where they, together with a load of arms and all Mr. Zouch's wearing apparel, were lost. He afterwards raised a troop of horse and maintained them at his own charge until Prince Maurice went to the west, where he being made Captain of them was in all the actions till after the happy victory over Sir William Waller at Devizes, and thence to the siege of Gloucester, thence with his Majesty's army to the battle at Newbury. Going thence he fell sick of a great cold at Reading, whereof he died within 10 days. This deponent believeth the many journeys and ill lodging he had in his Majesty's service were the cause of his death. And this deponent knoweth it hath cost Mr. James Zouch in his Majesty's service above 4,000l. and he believes near 5,000l., and his pistols and all his horses save one were left to Sir Charles Blunt, a Captain in his Majesty's Army at Reading, and that with my mistress's consent, for his Majesty's service. 1 p.]
Jan. 11. 10. M. R[ichard] to her husband Mr. Richard at Paris. Explains why her last letter did not reach him. The Prince of Harcot [Count de Harcourt] is coming very suddenly into France without making a peace, for the Parliament will not treat with the King unless he acknowledge them a Parliament, which it seems the King will not, so there is an end of that business. The Ambassador has done as much as was expected from him. Beseeches him to take care what he and his children eat now at Shrove tide, for they say there is much feasting in France. P.S.—The King has warned all Parliament men to appear this month at Oxford, and has promised them all their pardon if they come. [Addressed: "A Monsieur Richard mon frere demeurant à la rue Grenouille vis à vis la Corne de Daim, a Paris, pour donne a Mons. Richard mon mari." [Seal with arms. 1 p.]
Jan. 12. 11. Examination of Sir Robert Berkeley, one of the Judges of the King's Bench, before the Lords' Committees appointed to take examinations in the cause of Archbishop Laud. About 10 years since Sir Thos. Richardson, being then Chief Justice, sent to him and the rest of the Judges to take counsel touching certain complaints made to the King touching prohibitions to Ecclesiastical Courts. They were then sent for to appear before the King in Council to hear the King's decision touching ecclesiastical jurisdiction, who then declared his royal pleasure that all Courts should enjoy their proper jurisdiction, but he doth not know who framed the said complaints. Remembers Laud taking part in the discussion, but not what he then said. That the Chief Justices have been questioned both at their being at the Star Chamber and at Court touching rules for prohibitions, &c. That the alteration of the English accompt of the Anno Domini to the Gregorian accompt was propounded for the consideration of the Judges, who decided that no such alteration could be made without an Act of Parliament, but Archbishop Laud never spoke to him touching the said matter. [2½ pp.]
Jan. 12. 12. Depositions of William Dell, Secretary to Laud, Wm. Flower, John Egerton, Lazarus Seaman, Thomas Wilson, and John Langley, taken as above. Concerning Laud's illegal proceedings in the High Commission Court, oppression of ministers, favouring Papists, &c. [7 pp.]
Jan. 13. 13. The like of Richard Barnard, John Pocock, John White, John Cockshute, Samuel Sherman, and Sir John Bramston, Justice of the King's Bench, and Sarah Wayman. Concerning the detention of a pardon by Archbishop Laud till a sum of money was given by the parties towards the repair of St. Paul's; his tampering with the charter of Shrewsbury; conventing people for not removing pews in churches from above the communion table; his intercession to the Judges of King's Bench and other Courts on behalf of clergymen indicted, &c. [8 pp.]
Jan. 13.
Court at Oxford.
Warrant of the King under the Privy Seal to the Treasurer and Under-treasurer of the Exchequer. To pay 2,000l. by way of imprest and upon account to Thos. Bushell who has by our command been employed for the clothing of our soldiers, wherein he has done us acceptable service and disbursed great sums of money. [Vol. ccccxcviii., No. 8, p. 18. Copy. 2/3 p.]
Jan. 15. 14. Depositions of John Stephens and Thomas Pury, taken before the Lords' Committees, concerning abuses committed by Archbishop Laud in the High Commission Court; and of Sir Thomas Trevor, one of the Barons of the Exchequer, concerning Laud's interference in the Court of Exchequer. [3½ pp.]
Jan. 16. 15. Answer of Archbishop Laud to the first and further articles of impeachment brought up by the Commons against him, and directed by the Lords on the 16th present to be put in. [Printed in the Lords' Journals vi., 388. And State Trials, by Howell, vol. iv., pp. 345–6. Copy. 2¼ pp.]
Jan. 17. 16. Declaration of the Committees and Commissioners of both kingdoms. Whereas the two Houses of Parliament of England, considering the great danger to religion and liberty from the great forces of Papists and others employed for the destruction thereof, have by their Commissioners desired the kingdom of Scotland to join in their just endeavours to preserve and reform religion, procuring the honour and happiness of the King, now engaged in counsels prejudicial to himself and his kingdoms, and to settle the peace and liberty of his dominions; and whereas the kingdom of Scotland has readily yielded thereunto and raised an army for the ends above expressed, to be ordered by us the Committees and Commissioners of both kingdoms; we, desirous to take the most orderly way for the provision of the said army, have thought fit to acquaint you with what is expected from you, the inhabitants of those parts through which this army shall pass, that so you may not be oppressed with arbitrary taxes and unreasonable spoils which you have suffered from those that have lived amongst you and upon you. This is a cause and time wherein the endeavours of everyone who loves his religion, King, or country ought to be expressed to the utmost, and what is required at your hands is to furnish those soldiers that shall be quartered with you with necessary provisions, not exceeding the allowance and rates mentioned in a schedule annexed. And for the better keeping an account of what is delivered by you to the officers and soldiers according to the said schedule, we desire that two sufficient men in every town or parish, one for the horse the other for the foot, may exactly take note of the billets of every particular horseman and footman, and of whatsoever shall be delivered to any of them, that satisfaction may be made to every inhabitant accordingly, which shall be speedily done out of the estates of Papists and other delinquents against the Parliament, or otherwise. Nor have you any reason to distrust us in this if you call to mind the equal proceedings you have heretofore found from the Scottish army at their former entrance; and in so doing you shall, besides the service you do the public, free yourselves from any irregular carriage of the soldiers, and be better able to require satisfaction for any injury done you. Underwritten,
16. i. A schedule of allowances to be made to officers and soldiers, horse and foot, in the Scottish army on their march, or as they shall be quartered in England, [Copy. 2¾ pp.]
Jan. 18.
Warwick House.
17. Warrant of Robert, Earl of Warwick. For the raising of volunteer marines by beat of drum in London and its suburbs, and in such other ports and places as shall be thought meet; to man some ships set forth by certain merchants of London in accordance with an Ordinance of Parliament. [Damaged by damp. 1 p.]
Jan. 20. 18. Depositions taken before the Lords' Committees appointed to take examinations in the cause of Archbishop Laud, viz., of Samuel Burrowes, Ralph Grafton, Robert Smyth, Thomas Revett, and George Merifield, concerning the illegal proceedings of Laud in the High Commission Court and ecclesiastical causes, and his interfering with the ordinary process in the King's Bench, Exchequer, and other Courts of law. [9½ pp.]
Jan. 21.
19. Du Moulin to Mons. des Boys, Maitre d'Hotel de Monsieur de St. Vaudreuil at Paris. It would give him great pleasure to return hence. There is little honour or security in serving here, but he would be much obliged were it possible for him to be paid his extraordinary expenses of which he has sent a note, so that he might disengage himself here where he owes much, not having been able to make the advances he has made without borrowing. Would like to know whether he is to return before or after the Prince d'Harcourt. [Black seal with arms and crest. French. 1 p.]
Jan. 21.
20. The same to Monsieur de Monteforte, Maitre des Comptes, at Paris. The courier of Mons. le Prince d'Harcourt being charged with all our letters, we went to ask a passport for him from the Parliament, which wished to inspect his letters. They opened all his packets, even those of Mons. le Prince, and that of the King, but that of his Majesty for M. de Gressy [Cressy] escaped them. They found in a packet addressed to Mons. de Gressy letters of Lord Goring's which have made a great noise, and wronged Mons. de Gressy, of which these gentlemen complain loudly. They have opened all the letters. I believe to-morrow they will resolve which ought to pass. [Black seal as above. French. 1 p.]
Jan. 22./Feb. 1.
The Hague.
Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, to Sir Thos. Rowe. I hope before this you have understood by Sir Wm. Boswell's letters the reason why I have not yet answered your letters, and I fear it may put you into some fear of [for] me, but I am now very well recovered. I never knew before what a pleurisy was, I had it in extremity for 12 or 14 hours, but as soon as I was let blood I was eased, I was let blood three times in one day, and the third day again, which made me a little weak but took my pain quite away; I am now very well and better than I was before I had it, I tell you all this because I believe you will be glad to hear it; when I have answer to those letters I wrote concerning you, you shall hear; I will again by the first occasion write of it. When the Ambassadors went from hence I was then very ill, else I had written to you by them. Our Plenipotentiaries here say they will be gone speedily, but I believe they do not mean to ride post. I pray let me know what you think of the Swedes entering into Holstein, I do not hear yet what forces my uncle [the King of Denmark] has levied to resist them. These Ambassadors do seem to be very much troubled at this invasion of the Swedes. I see your friend Monsr. d'Avaux only seldom, but his fellow servant comes often to me. I write all to you hand over head, for I am so deadly cold as I can scarcely hold my pen, but in spite of it it shall still assure you of my constant devotion. [Two seals with arms and crown. In Holland correspondence.]
Jan. 27.
At the Court at Oxford.
21. Secs. Digby and Nicholas, Masters and Comptrollers General of his Majesty's posts, to James Hicks, now residing in Weymouth. Knowing your experience in the Letter Office, we hereby appoint you to reside in Weymouth for the receiving and despatching all packets and letters coming to your hands, either from Court or any part within this kingdom—not possessed by the rebels—or from beyond seas, and to receive money for their port, such only excepted as are for his Majesty's service, or to tax them according to the rules of the Letter Office; as also to hire one or more passage boats as Sir Nicholas Crispe, our deputy, shall direct you, taking special care that all letters passing through the said port, and all passengers and goods passing in the said passage boats be duly taken notice of by you, and all duties paid before you dismiss them, the master of the packet boat to be answerable to you for the passage money of all goods and passengers he shall take on board; and generally in this employment to demean yourself as may be most for his Majesty's service, and the just benefit of the Letter Office under us, and to observe all directions you shall receive from us and from the said Sir Nicholas Crispe, and to render a constant true weekly account of all your receipts and disbursements to Mr. Tho. Nevile, at Oxford. And we desire the Governor, Mayor, constables, &c., of Weymouth to aid you herein. [Copy. 1 p.]
Jan. 27. 22. Petition of Lady Gee to the Committee [for Government] at Kingston-upon-Hull. There is a fee-farm rent due to his Majesty out of the manor of Bishop Burton, in Yorkshire, which petitioner formerly paid to the auditors, and now it is paid to Mr. Walter Fowkes, who affirms he hath power from the Parliament to receive it; which petitioner is willing to satisfy out of the rents accruing to her from the lands of the said manor. Now petitioner formerly leased out to Mr. Fowkes divers closes belonging to the manor for 40l. per annum, which is far short of their yearly value; yet Fowkes refuses to pay the said rent or allow it for the fee-farm rent which he demands and is issuing out of the grounds in his own occupation, and taking advantage of the times, knowing petitioner to be without remedy for the present by law; he hath this day, the day after it was demanded, distrained and driven away 20 beasts of her tenants for the said fee-farm, which petitioner would willingly allow out of the rent in his own hands, which he will not consent to. Prays you to call Fowkes before you and take further order for her relief. Underwritten,
22. i. Petition of the ministers and others of the East Riding of Yorkshire to Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, Lord General of the forces raised in the north for the service of King and Parliament, and Governor of Hull. They are respectively bound to pay his Majesty's receiver certain sums of money yearly; and Mr. Walter Fowkes, by order of Parliament, demandeth the said sums to be paid him by virtue of that order, and, though we vehemently suspect him to be insolvent, useth all rigour by violent taking away our goods, conveying them to places where we cannot find them; and although the money by him demanded was tendered before the driving away of the goods, yet he would not accept it, but taketh unreasonable fees by colour thereof. Petitioners pray they may not be so grievously oppressed in these necessitous times, and that further order may be taken that the money paid or to be paid might by him be deposited to prevent their paying it again. I refer the consideration of this petition to the Committee, who after examination of the grievances mentioned are to determine the same as cause requires. Fairfax, Jan. 27, 1643 [–4.]
22. ii. Deposition of Richard Cooper, of Routh, in Holderness. That the 25th inst. his goods were distrained by Fowkes, and he was appointed to come to Hull where he should have his goods; but bringing money this 27th Jan. he could neither find Fowkes nor his goods.
22. iii. The like of James Snayth, of Leven, in Holderness. On the 25th inst., being sent by Mr. Eyre, of Leven, for goods Fowkes had distrained from Mr. Eyre, he came on 26th Jan. to the house appointed by Fowkes' men, but could neither hear of Fowkes nor of Mr. Eyre's goods.
22. iv. The like of Christopher Satterthwait, of Long Riston, Holderness. The 25th inst. he offered Fowkes' messengers money for the rents in the petition mentioned, but they distrained the goods and said they could not receive any [money] nor give any discharge for it, and Fowkes would not receive it unless it were brought to Hull. Today he brought money to this town to redeem the goods distrained, but cannot hear of them or of Fowkes.
22. v. Articles against Mr. Walter Fowkes. This part of this country is so exhausted by the late numerous Popish army, so long lying among them during the siege of Hull, that they are not able to contribute any considerable proportion towards the support of the Lord General's forces here, insomuch that they are daily ready some to mutiny and some to disband for want of pay; therefore it is very unfit so much money as the sum of this collection should be sent hence where the soldiers are ready to starve, and do daily petition against this very thing. That Mr. Fowkes proceedings very much cross the execution of the Ordinance of Sequestration, occasioning great trouble to the Committee and vexation to the country. That he impoverisheth the country by exacting unreasonable fees and costs for his distresses, and multiplieth distresses without cause. That he is tenant to Dr. Hodgshon, a notorious delinquent living in York, and hath great sums in his hands of the arrears of his rent due to the said Doctor, which he endeavoureth to conceal in contempt of the order of Parliament. As it appears to the Committee, upon Mr. Fowkes' confession, that he hath considerable sums in his hands of a notorious delinquent, and the Committee conceives he hath more than he will confess, which in part they have already found, and in time hope more fully to discover, and he hath sent money to the said delinquent contrary to the ordinance of Parliament, and there is just cause to fear he may misemploy more: the Committee thinks fit the money in his hands should be seized till the Parliament give further order. [Copy. 2¾ pp.]
Jan. 27.
23. Edward Herbert to his uncle William Herbert, "of the [Cardiff] Friars." The occasion of mine abrupt writing is to desire that when you return homewards you will be very careful what way you come, for God miraculously defended you in your last journey; for had you stayed till Monday as you were persuaded— you know by whom—you had been taken that night at Jepstow [Chepstow], for the Gloucester men came by water to the house where you lay two or three hours before day, killed a captain in your chamber, and carried away prisoners all the strange commanders, 12 in number, and about 300l. in money, with other commodities. Also we hardly escaped them coming back, for as soon as we came to the waterside we took boat and came within a stone's cast of the other shore, but the tide turning they could not land us. Then we would have forced them to land us at the Black Rock, which if they had we had been taken, for there the enemies' boat lay, we having heard nothing of them. So we returned back that night, and passing next morning missed them not above half a quarter of an hour. [¾ p.]
Jan. 29.
24. Thos. Mathews to the same, his uncle, now at Oxford. Congratulates him on his escape as above. Morgan Griffins hath written to you touching a vacant place grantable by election in this country; I cannot conceive it feasible unless his Majesty's letters be grantable therein, with letters from you to some of your friends. You see more where you are how passages may be carried, therefore I will leave all to your consideration. [Seal with device. 1 p.]
Jan. 29.
25. Morgan Griffins to Richard Watkins, Bachelor of the Civil Law, at Oxford. Has sent Mr. Herbert a letter containing two particulars, one concerning some offices Mr. Arthur Lloyd and his son Charles have petitioned his Majesty for; one is Mr. Herbert's own office, the rest will be settled otherwise from Mr. Lloyd. Has drafted a warrant which, by Mr. Herbert's means and your careful solicitation, he hopes will be signed by his Majesty. 2. The second particular I shall desire you not to divulge on any terms; it is for a vacant coroner's place, which for many ages hath been replenished by some creature that belonged to the house of Pembroke; and if a letter be procured from his Majesty to the sheriff the business may be effected, if not there will be such opposition that it is better to silence it at the beginning. If the letter be signed, a writ from Chancery de Coronatore eligendo must be speedily sued out and sent me with his Majesty's letters, that I may bring them to the sheriff. P.S.—The County Court is to be held Feb. 12; if possible I desire an answer against that time. Pray impart the passages of these times to me, and send me 2 or 3 Mercuries for the 2 or 3 last weeks, also how the Parliament at Oxford goes on and what you understand from London. [1 p.]
Jan. 30. 26. Ordinance of the Lords and Commons, for the tendering of the solemn League and Covenant to all officers of the Chancery and other Courts. Those who refuse or neglect to take it forfeit their places: and that no searjeant-at-law, solicitor or other lawyer shall be allowed to practise before he has taken the said solemn League and Covenant. [Printed in the Lords' Journals vi., 403. Copy. 1 p.]
Jan. 31.
27. Alderman Henry Thomson to Major Norton at Richmond. Upon Monday night last I being with the Lord Mayor to take our leave of the Lord General and Committee, with Sir Edward Osborne present, and some dispute [having arisen] about money, the public business requiring a sum, Sir Wm. Carnaby told my Lord of your [having] 1,500l. belonging to her Majesty and Prince [Charles]; I answered true it was about such a sum you left in my trust, but no order for delivery or payment; my Lord said he thought not to have meddled with it, but necessity caused him to it, and willed me pay the same to Sir William, who promised I should have warrant for it to your contentment, and Mr. Roulston in presence of divers promised and undertook to save me blameless from you. I found the money to be 1,540l. less 8s. 6d. mistold. I told my Lord it was not in my power to take any bond for you. This acquittance I suppose will not please you, but it was not in my power to help. [1 p.]
Jan. 28. Petition of divers officers and captains, with many thousand citizens and others in and about London, trading in tobacco, to the Committee for the Navy and Customs. Petitioners taking notice of an Ordinance of Parliament of the 7th of this present January touching the excise on tobaccos of the English plantations, enjoining them to take an oath of all tobaccos sold by them since Sept. 11 last and of those now remaining in their hands or be deprived of the benefit of that ordinance, they cannot with conscience take that oath, since many of us have not kept punctual account of our sales since Sept. 11; neither are we able to pay 1d. a lb. for tobacco sold since then, as we have been forced, the excise running so high, to vend our commodity upon ordinary terms or be undersold by others who partly, and would more fully, have supplied the markets from the enemy's quarters. Petitioners pray you to appoint a certain number of traders in that commodity to attend you for settling the trade, that the State may have speedy supply of money and those that live thereby may be enabled and encouraged cheerfully to pay the same. [Damaged. ½ p.]