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Charles II: Undated Papers 1670

Pages 634-643

Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Charles II, 1670 With Addenda 1660-70. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1895.

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Undated Papers 1670

Clause in a grant to Anon. to have charge of the fowl and trees lately planted in St. James's Park, and of the plantations at Greenwich and Hampton Court, in place of Adrian May, deceased. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 203.]
Warrant to Sir Thos. Chicheley, Master of Ordnance, to deliver to Charles, Duke of Richmond, 2 brass three-pounders, with carriages, shot, stores, &c., thereto pertaining, for defence of his house at Cobham, Kent. [Ibid. No. 204.]
Court at Whitehall. Warrant for a grant to [—Jepson and others] of the fines of 20 marks each, adjudged in the King's Bench against John Smith, and 11 other late Commissioners of Sewers for London, for contempt; with power to recover the same. [Ibid. No. 205.]
Copy of the same. Endorsed, " Jepson." [Ibid. No. 206.]
Order for a warrant for annexation of the port of Seaton Sluice, near Seaton Delaval, to that of Newcastle-on-Tyne, with authority to the customs' officers to appoint a person to be constantly resident there; also for a grant to Sir Ralph Delaval, Bart., of the same, with all profits of the harbour, he having spent 7,000l. in making a sluice and harbour fit for export of salt, coals, and grindstones. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 207.]
Note of an indenture whereby the King allows to Mr. Slingsby 18d. on a pound of silver, and 7s. on a pound of gold, as expenses connected with coining according to Blondeau's invention, which is to include the 3d. now paid to Mr. Blondeau. [Ibid. No. 208.]
Warrant to Lord Ashley to pay out of prizes 40l. to [Jonas] Moore, for services by him done during the late war with the French and Dutch. Minute. [Ibid. No. 209.]
Warrant to advance to Wm. Samuel, surveyor, 439l. 13s. 4d. for rebuilding the house of Thos. Wyndham, equerry, in the Green Mews, which is decayed. [S.P. Dom., Case C, No. 17.] Annexing,
Estimate by Samuel of the cost of the above house, with 1 cellar, hall story 10 feet high, dining-room story 11, and last story 7½ [Ibid. No. 17i.]
Minute of a warrant for the records of a survey of Windsor Forest, 20 James, to be delivered to Mr. Tayleur; with note for Sir Thos. Draper and Sir Rich. Powell to be added to the Commissioners, [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 210.]
Order for the Attorney-General to prepare a warrant, authorising Sir Hen. Palmer of Kent to grant a demise for 41 years of lands held by him of the manor of Tottenham to Lady Mary, wife of Sir Hen. Wood, Bart., if Wm. Bornieu and Hen. Walthew live so long, on rent of 4l. 18s. to the Cofferer of the Household. Endorsed, "Lady Wood and Mr. Surveyor." [Ibid. No. 211.]
Pass from Lord Arlington for—Valeran, who has lived long in his family. [English and French. Ibid. No. 212.]
Directions for a letter from the King to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen of London, for prevention of disorders in the next election of a Lord Mayor; blaming their practice of trying by a faction to continue the late Lord Mayor, on pretence that there was not a person on the bench fit to elect; and failing in this, then trying to pass over 4 or 5 senior aldermen, in order to elect one fit for their purpose. The King requires them to elect one of the two eldest aldermen, according to ancient custom. [11/8 pages. Ibid. No. 213.]
The King to Dr. [Thos.] Pierce, President, and the bursars of Magdalen College, Oxford. We request you to give no disturbance to Nat. Chyles of the Middle Temple, appointed steward and clerk of the college lands in the time of Dr. [John] Oliver, late President, in execution of the said office. This letter is to be entered on the college register. [Ibid. No. 214.]
[Lord Arlington to the Duke of York.] The King finding several particulars relating to military affairs and the well ordering of the forces unregulated since the Lord General's death, wishes you, in conjunction with the Duke of Monmouth, Earls of Oxford and Craven, and 5 others, to take such affairs into consideration. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 216.] Annexing,
Account of the mode of proceedings under the late Lord General, in reference to the mustering of the King's forces and garrisons, and their payment; he ordered 1,300l. to be paid from the fund for contingencies for fire and candles, in garrisons where no allowance was settled for them; he also ordered all removals of troops or ordnance stores; gave orders to courts martial to punish disobedience, providing they spared life and limb; received reports on the debts of officers or soldiers; executed the King's orders for raising or disbanding men, and prepared accounts of any additions required to the establishment; but the differences between soldiers and townsmen about London and Westminster he always referred to the Earl of Craven. [3 pages. Ibid. No. 216i.]
Draft of the above letter [by Williamson]. [Ibid. No. 217.]
Sir John Bennet to Williamson. My brother Arlington requires you to draw a letter in form given to the Lord Mayor. [Ibid. No. 218.] Prefixing,
Lord Arlington to the Lord Mayor [of London]. I request the release of Clavell, a servant in the Post Office whose duty it is to work late, and who was sent to the Counter by the constable on watch at Bishopsgate last night, provided it appears on examination that the constable is in fault. [Ibid. No. 218i.]
Jo. Bentham to Williamson, his Mæcenas. Thanks for introductions [at Oxford]. Compliments. As Orpheus drew the beasts by the power of his music, so your praises have made a singer of me. [Latin and Greek. 2 pages. Ibid. No. 219.]
— to — Account of the misconduct of two prisoners, husband and wife, in the House of Correction, for which the wife received 4 stripes; whilst the keeper was carrying away some tile pins made by the man, for which he had paid him, the man stabbed him in the breast. [Ibid. No. 220.]
Jo. Binckes to Lord Arlington. Notice is taken of some meetings to be held next Lord's day, but not of Mr. Franklin's, Blue Anchor Alley, Whitecross Street, Mr. West's in Moorfields, &c. I wish none may escape till the King is fully satisfied. [Ibid. No. 221.]
Sir Chas. Cotterell [Master of the Ceremonies] to the Treasury Commissioners. I find on consulting precedents, that the presents to Ambassadors in King James's time were of the value of 1,600l. each; but he being informed that this was more than given by other Kings, reduced it to 800l., Residents to 210l., and Secretaries to embassies about 100l. This has been the rule since, though with exceptions for Ambassadors Extraordinary. There is now less expense about their reception, the coaches to meet them being sent to Gravesend only, instead of Dover; in 1626 their expenses ceased to be defrayed during residence, and in 1634 those of Ambassadors Extraordinary, except till their audience, usually the third day after their entry. The only exception to this has been that of the Portuguese Ambassador at the time of the Queen's marriage. The presents to Envoys have been somewhat uncertain, but the best plan would be to fix a speedy payment, so that they may be worth their full value. With a list of presents made to Ambassadors 1622–1643, and another list since the Restoration, 1660-1670. [3 pp. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 222.]
Two copies of the above. [Ibid. Nos. 223, 224.]
M. Ferdinand to the King. Being chosen by your Majesty 7 years ago for your music, I gladly left my good employments in France. Your Majesty, on dismissing me, ordered me 600 jacobuses, but I was unable to obtain them, and returned to France; finding the door shut against me there by my wants, I return to beg the payment of the said sum. [French. Ibid. No. 225.]
Rob. Julian to Williamson. I have not time to give you as full an account of things as I should. I beg you to request Mr. Goldegay to go to my wife, and tell her I hope to be home soon. [Ibid. No. 226.]
Dr. Blasius Nunes Marihaus, the Queen's physician, to Williamson. I request a reply promised me many weeks ago. [Latin verse. Ibid. No. 227.]
Sam. Mearne to Lord Arlington. I delivered yearly, from 1660 to 1667, 36 volumes of almanacks, bound in Turkey leather and gilt, for the use of the King and Council, for which my charge was 21l. 12s.; but finding that formerly they were bound in vellum, and only two gilt, I charged only 13l. 4s., as was charged in 1635, yet the Lord Keeper still abates 64l. from my bill of 172l. 16s., part of which has been due 10 years, by which I shall be a great loser. I request your interposition. [Ibid. No. 228.] Annexing,
Statement by Sam. Mearne to the same effect. Begs full payment for the preceding year, having waited so long for his money. [Ibid. No. 228i.]
Eliz. Moore to Lord Arlington. I was formerly known to you, having lost my little fortune in prosecuting a concern which properly belonged to the King. My husband left me a year ago, and will not allow me 6d.; I beg that he may be compelled to keep me from the parish. I am almost starved, but being the daughter of a well descended gentleman, am ashamed to make my wants known. [Ibid. No. 229.]
Fleetbridge. S. Pordage to Viscount Conway. Thanks for a present of 2 guineas, sent by Mr. Bromley. [Ibid. No. 230.]
Earl of Rochester to Williamson. I wish you to get a mandamus drawn for Rob. Parsons to be chosen squire bedel, as the King has promised. [Ibid. No. 231.]
Queen's College. Edw. Sculthorpe to Williamson. Complimental, and longing for his return to Oxford. [Latin. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 232.]
Albert Spindler to [Williamson]. Request to send him a blank passport for travelling by sea or land to Bruges. [French. Ibid. No. 233.]
Eliz. Sutton to Lord Arlington. I beg your remembrance for admission to the Charterhouse of my dear and hopeful boy, who bears the founder's name, Thos. Sutton, and that he may be next registered, as promised after Bish was disposed of. [Ibid. No. 234.]
Capt. Thos. Crowe to the Duke of York. On 19 Aug. last, I received an order to sail on the morrow, to fetch the Duke of Buckingham from Calais; on coming to the Treasury Office, and finding the boatswain there, he told me the mast was not set; and on my asking the reason, he replied that he had been staying there one night for his money, and would not go down without it, as you had given order for its payment. I saw Wm. Walters, clerk to Mr. Hutchinson, the paymaster, and asked him why my men were not paid; he said that Mr. Pointer, the Comptroller's clerk, and Mr. Shales, Lord Brouncker's clerk, were not [there] to solve the books, and he would not without them. They had put off my men for two days, and not computed the pay as ordered, for when the Navy clerks were there, Mr. Hutchinson was out of the way; and when he was there, the Comptroller's clerk was absent.
Having to sail so soon, no mast aboard, and some of my men there for pay, I fell into a passion, and James Littleton coming into the yard, bade the porter turn me into the street; upon his refusal, Littleton turned me violently out of the gate, which made me the more passionate.
I pray your consideration of all this; I was only desirous of obeying your orders, which were obstructed by all the persons aforesaid, and I beg you will not think me guilty of any wilful misdemeanor. [1½ pages. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 286, No. 294.]
Surveyor Thos. Middleton to the Navy Commissioners. I have examined the rigging and stores on board the Assistance, and found the rigging almost new; she had 7 new cables, and the usual allowance of other stores for 12 months. As to Capt. Hubbard's complaint that he had but 3 barrels of tar and 2 of pitch, I find his officers indented for 6 of tar and 4 of pitch, which he might have found, had he consulted their indents instead of going upon their reports; as to his often complaints that kerseys ought to be allowed him, I assure you that only cotton is allowed to fourth-rates, except to flagsmen, such as transport Ambassadors; such was his case, but his retinue made bold to carry all away, and none of it returned into the King's stores. Although I think what he has is sufficient, I have ordered him to be supplied with certain stores mentioned, which will be ready at Deptford; if you think he ought to have them, a vessel should be sent to carry them to him. [1½ pages. Ibid. No. 295.]
Agreement by Wm. Castell with Commissioner John Tippetts, for the repair of the Crown and Dover, the Crown to be completed and delivered afloat in the Thames by 31 Dec., and the Dover by 31 March following. [2½ pages. Draft. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 286, No. 296.]

Deptford.
Certificate by W. Fownes that Rich. Wharf, clerk in the iron house, gave attendance 174 days in 1669, and 236 in 1670; and that Benjamin Fletcher, timber measurer, did the like for 174 days in 1669, and for 236 days in 1670. [Ibid. No. 297.]
Propositions offered to the Navy Commissioners by Col. Reymes and Co., in order to reconciling the difference between them, about 1,500l. imprest for the encouragement of the English manufacture of sail cloth.
That the imprest bill for the 1,500l. be delivered up to the Colonel, and the 500l. due to him by contract paid him.
That the Colonel pay or allow 200l. out of it, and give bond for payment of the 1,300l. within 1½ years, provided the Commissioners take all the sail cloth that the Colonel and his partners make meantime, at the price contracted for; and because the Navy Commissioners shall not be so long out of purse for the 1,300l., the company will allow them 20 per cent. out of every parcel of goods they deliver in monthly, towards payment of such bond, and allow 200l. more out of the money they are to receive 7 March, towards a further payment.
To let the Navy Commissioners see that the company are as willing to be out of their debt as can be desired, they further propose that, if the Commissioners will take the whole cargo of a ship of theirs of 40 tons, which has gone to Bayonne (?), and is expected to return in two months laden with pitch and rosin, at the price current, they will abate 20 per cent. of those commodities towards a further payment of their debt, rather than press too quick upon the poor workmen for refunding all at once; when the money was imprested, it was promised that it should be repaid by instalments, as they could spare it, and do the manufactory no harm, and this is the only reason why time is desired. [Ibid. No. 298.]
Notes by Pepys in shorthand, of the examination of — Bernard, purser, with reference to the disposal of 1,000l., imprested to Capt. Wood of the Henrietta, for the use of the fleet. [Ibid. No. 299.]
Statement by Anon. I receive 30l. a year from my paternal estate in Yarnfield Manor. Maiden Bradley parsonage, worth 100l. a year, has been mortgaged this 11 years to my brother Brent for 1,000l., but the house, which has been ruined in these wars, will cost 1,500l. in repairs; I have raised 3,000l. from my estate at Yarnfield, but Maiden Bradley is mortgaged for 4,000l. Details of business transactions. I have lands and stock of value in cos. Wexford and Dublin, Ireland. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 235.]
Request by Dr. Cartwright, that he may be informed before any commission of review is granted to Thos. Cookman, who has been sentenced in several courts to pay him certain arrears of tithes with costs, &c., total 182l. 1s. 8d., and who only seeks fraud and delay. Endorsed, "Mr. Fanshaw." [Ibid. No. 236.]
Deposition of Chas. Chillingworth. Paid 700 crowns to Jos. Kent for the pro-consulship of Gallipoli in 1665, spent 1,000 crowns in reforming the trade and oil measures there, and paid Kent several sums for consulage, and on his retirement in 1669, 80l. pension was reserved to him out of the fruits of the said office; bought the agencies of Gallipoli and Livorno [Leghorn] from Mr. Kent, and paid at different times near 3,000 crowns for them. If he may not be continued in the said consulships, begs return of the moneys he advanced for them. [2 pages. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 237.]
Request to Sir John Duncombe, Bart, to be presented to Lord Arlington, that the business of clerks of the peace being determined, it may be speedily despatched, the petitioner having waited long. [Ibid. No. 238.]
Memorandum for Lord [Arlington] to request the King to grant to Capt. Jefferyes and Mr. Matthewes the estate forfeited, as set forth in their petition; a former petition from the latter was useless, because they were not then agreed. The Earl of Leicester has laid aside some pretensions he had thereto, the parties are attainted by outlawry, and the King's title is clear. [Ibid. No. 239.]
Statement of the case of Sir John Knight, that on a contest between himself and the county of Somerset, relative to the repairs of breaches made by the sea, he was first fined 100l., but on appeal, obtained a verdict in his favour, which the other party oppose; he requests that the decree may be allowed to pass. [Ibid. No. 240.]
Statement of the case of Lady Anne Poole, for herself, her sister Lucy Withypool, her daughter the Countess of Newburgh, and the Earl of Newburgh, (fn. 1) showing that her mother, Lady Frances Withypool, left 1,500l. a year for herself and sisters in the hands of trustees, of whom the Earl of Cleveland was the only acting survivor; that he took the estates to pay his debts, and promised to pay 6,000l. as a compromise, but did not do so; a clause in the bill in Parliament for sale of the Earl's lands to pay his debts, stipulating the repayment of the 6,000l., was afterwards omitted, and the money retained, though Lord Wentworth entreated his father to pay it, or nothing he had would prosper. [Printed. Ibid. No. 241.]
List of 8 deputy lieutenants of the East Riding of Yorkshire. [Ibid. No. 242.]
Names of 3 married seamen who have the King's grants, dated 1668 or 1669, to be almsmen of Westminster College, and of 3 others who have grants dated before the order of Council for the seamen, 25 July 1666. [Ibid. No. 243.]
Case of Mrs. Rabsey Smithsby, daughter of Wm. Smithsby, showing that on the death of her father, Oct. 1660, there was due to him 12,000l. out of an annuity of 1,000l. a year on the customs on wines, bought by him from Lord Baltimore, for which no compensation has been received, though the Farmers of Customs were compensated in 1664 for a similar loss. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 244.]
Note of inquiry to be made of Sir Edmund Turner, whether money is yet received by Mr. Dickenson on Wm. Smithsby's account. [Ibid. No. 245.]
Statement of the cause of Olympia Tupton [Tufton], widow of Sir Wm. Wray, Bart., of Ashby, Lincolnshire, v. Wm. Balantine, a Scot, Dorothy Balantine, a Parisian, Pierre Baudouin, alias Montarcis, and Margaret Methelin, for their seducing her son Christopher, a minor of 18 years of age, into a marriage with Dorothy Balantine, a girl of improper character. [French. Printed. 15½ pages. Ibid. No. 246.]
Proposals for a more beneficial and equal establishment of a company to carry on the African or Guinea trade, to be called the Adventurers of Africa, admitting any persons on paying 5l., &c., by which the abuses of a monopoly will be prevented, the trade greatly enlarged, and the Plantations better supplied with negroes. [Printed. Ibid. No. 247.]
1670.
London.
"A method of government for such publick working almshouses as may be erected in every county, for bringing all idle hands to industry, as the best known expedient for restoring and advancing the woollen manufacture. Humbly offered to the King's most Excellent Majesty and both Houses of Parliament, by R. Haines." [Printed. 8 pages. Ibid. No. 248.]
1670.
London.
"The Royal Fishing Revived, wherein is demonstrated from what causes the Dutch have upon the matter engrossed the fishing trade in his Majesty's seas, wherein the principles of all the trades they drive in the world are chiefly founded: as also from what causes the English have lost the fishing trade, to the endangering the small remainder of the trades they yet enjoy. Together with expedients by which the fishing trade may be redeemed by the English, and proposals for carrying on so great a work. Humbly offered to the consideration of the King and Parliament." [Printed. 12 pages. Ibid. No. 249.]
1670 ? Part of the answer of the French merchants trading to England in wines, to the complaint made [to Council] by London merchants trading in French wines. Deny that they bring in falsified wines, or sell French for Rhenish; the high country wines are landed at Bordeaux, but it is only to gauge the vessels; English merchants are obliged to buy at Bordeaux through a public broker, but so are all who are not free of the city. They think that the extra duties which the English try to impose on them would be very hard, as the English pay no more than themselves in France. [1 sheet. Ibid. No. 250.]
Names and addresses of 12 persons in or near London, authorised by the company of French merchants to get in their goods, &c., the King having, at request of Parliament, given leave for their landing, though he expects a present of very great value. Lord Arlington also would give no orders thereon without money for himself and Mr. Ashburnham, but on 1,100l. being shared between them, the orders were given. Parliament being then prorogued, no further addresses could be made. There were many abuses about the goods; Mr. Clifford of the Prize Office forced them to be sold at low rates to Mr. Hartlib, with whom he probably went shares. Endorsed, "The French merchants' wine paper." [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 251.]
Answer to the objections of English timber traders, that the free import of timber for encouragement of the fishing trade will hinder English navigation; showing that were the free import permitted, a hundred times more vessels would be employed in fishing than are now employed in the timber trade, &c. [Printed. Ibid. No. 252.]
List of 10 commanders or captains of the several parishes in Guernsey. [Ibid. No. 253.]
List of 15 towns in Holdenshire [Howdenshire] Wapentake, co. York. [Probably with reference to the hearth money.] [Ibid. No. 254.]
List [by Williamson] of 100 late and present servants and dependants of the King [including Household, Navy, and other officers, Governors of colonies, Ambassadors abroad, &c.]. [Ibid. No. 255.]
List of inhabitants of Stepney who have lately been taken into captivity by the Turks, with the ships in which they were taken. [4 columns. Ibid. No. 256.]
Propositions by John Collins, accountant of the Royal Society, for improvement of the King's revenue, and carrying on the fishery trade, by an excise on salt—former duties, the detail of which is given, to be renewed, and one-fifth of the profit employed in the royal fishery—and arguments in favour thereof. Also proposal to revive the decaying trade of cordage making, especially at Great Yarmouth, by raising a tax of 3s. to 5s. per cwt. on the importation of cordage, as hemp could be either imported or grown on the marsh lands in the Eastern counties, and showing the advantages to be derived therefrom. [3 pages. Ibid. No. 257.]
London. "A mediterranean passage by water from London to Bristol, &c., and from Lynn to Yarmouth, and so consequently to the city of York, for the great advancement of trade and traffic." Addressed to the King and Parliament by Fras. Matthew. With engraved portrait of the King. [12 pages. Printed. Ibid. No. 258.]
Account of the militia tax for Northamptonshire, as stated before the Commissioners for Accounts at Brooke House. [Ibid. No. 259.]
Proposal by Lord Keeper Bridgeman, for a stay to be put to the printing of seditious, treasonable, and blasphemous books, &c., by ordering the Master and wardens of the Stationers' Company to give security in 300l. not to print any unlicensed books or papers, and to return to Council the names of those who refuse compliance; also to suppress all supplementary presses used by master printers, more than they are enabled to use by Act of Parliament. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281a, No. 260.]
Proposal for the King to order public libraries in every borough, for the use of ministers, schoolmasters, and any that are studious, by the free gifts of benefactors, 10l. in each place sufficing for a beginning; briefs to be issued for collections therefor, the money to be laid out by the Wardens of the Stationers' Company, and by the Vice-Chancellors of the two Universities. [2 sheets. Ibid. No. 261.]
View how Kings, foreign Princes, and Princes of the royal family, Knights of the Garter, have had their stalls placed and removed at Windsor, from 1660 to 1669. [Ibid. No. 262.]
Oath of allegiance declaring the King to be lawful sovereign, notwithstanding any censures of the Pope; promising to disclose any conspiracies against him; abjuring the damnable doctrine that subjects may take arms against or murder their sovereign; and renouncing all dispensations from this oath. Endorsed, " The oath as framed by the King himself." [1½ pages. Ibid. No. 263.]
Poems on Rome and other subjects, by Thos. Spark, with a dedication and postscript to Williamson. [Latin. 19 pages. Ibid. No. 264.]
Rhyming epistle to Jos. Williamson, requesting a contribution towards 90l. to be raised for the expense of increasing the number of bells at St. Margaret's, Westminster, from 6 to 9. [Ibid. No. 265.]
Portion of a play, in which the characters are the Dutch[ess] Emilia, Aurindo, Cleanthes, the Duke, Prince, Lord Calimachus, Victoria, and Palemon. [8 printed pages, 33–40, 12mo. Ibid. No. 266.]
"The genealogy of the most ancient and illustrious family of the Veres, Earls of Guisnes in Normandy and Oxford, and Lord Great Chamberlains of England, being descended from the kings of the Argives, and from the Dukes of Milan, Angiers, and Man, &c., collected and drawne downe in the severall branches to this present yeere Ao. 1670 by Jo. Tilston." [16 pages. Ibid. No. 267.]
"Book of signings," being a list of documents signed by the King, from 20 Jan. 1670 to 4 May 1673. [Small quarto bound in parchment. S.P. Dom., Car. II. 281b.]
Newspapers for the Year.
London Gazette, published twice a week, 38 papers. [Newspaper Collection, No. 4.]
Guzette de Londres, published twice a week, 79 papers. [Newspaper Collection, No. 8.]
Mercurius Librarius, published quarterly, 1 paper. [Newspaper Collection, No. 2.]

Footnotes

  • 1. James Livingston, first Earl of Newburgh, married as his second wife Anne daughter of Sir Henry Poole of Saperton, co. Gloucester, and of his wife Anne, who was daughter of Sir Edmund Withypool of Ipswich, and of Frances his wife, daughter of Sir Wm. Cornwallis. This Countess of Newburgh does not appear in the printed peerages, but is found in the MS. pedigree, College of Arms.—Ed.