Elizabeth: July 1559, 26-31

Pages 412-432

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1558-1559. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1863.

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July 1559, 26-31

July 26.
R. O.
1067. The King of Sweden to the Queen.
Credence for his son John, Duke of Finland, and Steno Erici, Baron of Greffsnest and Captain of Jencoping, about to proceed into England upon the matters formerly opened to the Queen.—Stockholm, 26 July 1559. Signed: Gostavus.
Orig. Lat. Broadside.
July 26.
R. O.
1068. Eric, King of Sweden, to the Queen.
His father, Gostavus, King of Sweden, sends to her at this time as his Ambassadors his son, John Duke of Findland, and Steno Erici, Baron in Greffsnest and Captain of Jenkoping, upon matters which are chiefly personal to the writer. Hopes his brother will obtain a favourable answer.—Stockholm, 26 July 1559. Signed: Vestræ serenitatis amantissimus, Ericus.
Orig. Lat. Broadside.
July 26.
R. O. 171 B.
1069. Another copy of the preceding.
Modern transcript.
July 26.
R. O.
1070. The Queen to Sir Thomas Challoner.
She has directed Cecil to write to him respecting the misdemeanour of the Ambassador [of the King of Spain] at her Court on the 26th inst. If he has occasion to speak of it with the Conte de Feria, or the King, he shall say that for the sake of the latter she passes it over, and that the former gave the Ambassador [the Bishop of Aquila] example and instruction at his departure.
He shall ask the King to permit Sir Thomas Gresham to ship to England 6,000 Collen cleves and 100 barrels of powder for her service.—Otford, 26 July 1559.
Draft in Cecil's hol. Endd. by him: 27 July. To Sir Thos. Challoner. Pp. 2.
July 26.
R. O.
1071. Mundt to the Queen.
In his last letters, dated 19 inst., he wrote that the Elector Palatine had advised him to remain here a few days longer whilst his proposition should be submitted by the Elector Palatine himself to the Princes and States of the Confession of Augsburg. This delay was increased by the absence of Wirtemburg and Deuxponts, upon whose return the matter was discussed, and it was decided that an embassy should be sent to her. Perceives that the Princes wish that this should be done quietly, knowing that the Emperor does not like such embassies. A portion of the contribution of Frankfort is still unpaid, and 300,000 "aurii" are to be paid in addition; yet the Emperor is not content herewith, and demands as much more, stating that he has no confidence in the peace with the Turks, who have lately made an inroad upon Istria. Further, that as it is reported that the elder Turk is dead, the successor will probably break the peace.
The States are therefore now deliberating whether they shall not to some extent satisfy the Emperor's demand, and unless they make some addition thereunto the Diet will be still further prolonged.
The Emperor's journey into Alsace is altered in consequence of the death of the French King; it is not known for certain where he will go, whether into the Tyrol, or into Austria. The report about the immediate departure of the Count von Helfenstein and his suite into England is still rife; the Count has lately returned here. The Baron von Harrach, who was also said to be going into England, has departed into Austria. The Pope has lately written to the Emperor for the reformation of the clergy in Germany, since their impious life and evil manners occasion the Catholic religion to be neglected and ruined. The Emperor has laid the Pope's complaint before the spiritual Electors and the other Bishops here, earnestly advising and commanding them to consider the spirit of the times, and to correct the manners and life of these persons by a revival and enforcement of the ancient discipline. There is now the prospect of a better understanding between the Pope and the Emperor, the latter striving to show the greatest obedience and respect to the former. The Princes and States of the Confession of Augsburg are speedily to meet about the settlement of certain doctrinal articles, and a general agreement upon matters of faith among themselves and throughout their States.—Augsburg, 26 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
July 26.
R. O.
1072. Mundt to Cecil.
Although the Diet is not yet finished, yet as there is no longer any discussion upon the chief articles, thinks of departing home to-morrow. Before his arrival at home he will have been absent from it five full months, that is, from 1 March, on which day he left it along with the Commissaries of the republic of Strasburg. This amounts to 153 days. Before that period he had gone to visit (as Cecil knows) the Elector Otto Henry at Heidelburg, who was not going to the Diet, on account of his corpulency, and yet the Queen had ordered that he was the first person who should be visited.
These journies are expensive; there are the servants, the horses, clothes, despatch of letters by post, entertainments, visitings, bribes for spies, presents to be made at inns, one's daily expenses, as well ordinary as extraordinary. To bear these is beyond his power (he is not wealthy), especially when it is known that he is in the service of the richest of realms and the most liberal of Queens. Massonus [Mason] and several other persons can state what was the allowance made to the writer in the days of Henry VIII. and Edward, when he went to the Diet in Germany. Leaves the consideration of these claims to Cecil and the rest of the Council, reminding them that he has served England for thirty-two years.— Augsburg, 26 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
July 26.
R. O.
1073. Croft to Cecil.
Has received presently from Kirkaldy the advertisements herein enclosed, who has now declared himself plainly, and is with the Protestants. He was suspected by the Scottish Queen for speaking with Master Percy and the writer. Cecil may now consider the contents hereof something according to Croft's opinion in his letter of the 22nd inst.—Berwick, 26 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: With the news of the composition.
July 26.
R. O.
1074. Croft to Cecil.
The Regent of Scotland, having had intelligence that the Congregation that lies at Edinburgh began to "scale" [separate], upon Sunday with great diligence sent the Duke and M. Dosel with such power as they had. Reckons the French at 1,200 men and the Duke and his friends at about 500. Some of the Lords and gentlemen of the Merse and Tevedale went in that company, being very few. Coming near to Edinburgh upon Monday, the Protestants hearing thereof assembled themselves in battle without the town, near Holyrood House; the French also did the like. Notwithstanding the great show of both parties, they fell to communication, wherein they could not agree; but respite is taken for three days. In the meantime either party makes itself stronger, so that it will appear shortly what shall become of this great variance. The Congregation yet stands firmly to have religion go forward and the Frenchmen expulsed. The French remain in Leith, and on the 28th inst. the Regent marches from Dunbar, having for her guard one ensign of Frenchmen which lies at Dunbar and another which lies at Aymouth, who mind this day to depart to Dunbar, to help to conduct the Regent. They have required him to send some persons to view the state of Aymouth before their departure.
Knew of the Frenchmen's going towards Edinburgh upon Monday, but thought it not meet to advertise anything till he might understand some ground of their going. As the case stands now there is little to be judged what shall follow till the three days be past and the power of every side assembled.—Berwick, 26 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 27.
B. M. Cal. E. V. 79 o. Forbes, 1. 172.
1075. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 22nd received her letters of the 16th from Mr. Killigrew (who then arrived in Paris), which mentioned that Richard Tremayne was to be employed by her, and her opinion of the Earl of Arran being helped from Geneva into England or Scotland. Received also her other letters of the 19th, touching the consultation had for the French King's style to be published to her prejudice, and bidding him remain there only as a private gentleman if the French King minded there to put their first deliberation into practice, signing himself to the Queen's prejudice. Is also informed by these letters, that commands are given to the French Ambassador on that side not to repair to the Court unless sent for by the Queen. Tremayne delivered also letters to the King and Queen of Navarre, the Duke of Guise, and the Constable.
2. For answer, Richard Tremayne has not yet come to him, but when he does, will send him to Geneva and Tygure, [Zurich], to understand something of the Earl of Arran, (and in case he can meet with him, to proceed according to her letters,) of whom he has heard nothing since the despatching of Mr. Randall from hence to Chastelereu, in company of the Earl's master of his horse, other than such advertisements as he sent her, which he had received from the said Mr. Randall. Whether the Earl be at Geneva or Zurich, where order was by the writer taken for his arrival, does not know.
3. It is said the Earl went eastward from Chastelereu, and on the 23rd the Baron of Corton, (who is not lodged far from Throckmorton,) told his host that the Earl on his way to Geneva had endured great penury, hiding himself for 15 days in a wood, and subsisting on fruit; and other news he has not.
4. Touching the other letter of the 19th, as to the matter of the French King's style, he has been told that after the first deliberation, a seal was made bearing the arms of England, France, and Scotland together, with this style alone "Franciscus Dei Gracia Francorum Rex." This being perfected was shown to the Council by the Duke of Guise and Cardinal of Lorraine; among whom was the Constable, who, having seen the seal, (as Throckmorton was told by one who seemed to know much,) stood up and said to Messieurs de Guise (as he termed them) that he thought it not honourable that there should be used in the seal of France any other arms than those of France; alleging that the late King, had never done so, nor had his ancestors, though laying claim to Naples, Milan, and divers other important places. Then some stay was made of the seal; and as yet they use the late King's seal, and the King [Francis II.] did lately write himself in a commission as French Kings used to do. He will not easily learn more until the late King be buried (which will be about the 20th August); at whose burial it is the custom here, as he is put in his tomb, to publish, Le Roy est mort, and then the new King is proclaimed with his whole style in order. The uncertainty as to how to behave himself to the King until these matters are known to a certainty being such, he has thought it best to retain the King's letter and that to the Duke of Guise, until he shall be more fully instructed.
5. Has thought good to send Mr. Killigrew to meet the King of Navarre to deliver him the Queen's letter, which will be the better welcome to him, causing him to think the messenger expressly sent to him. Thinks good to deliver the Constable's letter forthwith, that he may be the better affected to her if any question be put further in the Council.
6. On the 19th the Duke of Savoy and the Prince of Orange rode in post towards Flanders, which Prince has promised to return by a day. The cause of the Duke's going is to renew the treaty between France and Spain, which was made between King Philip and the late King.
7. On the 21st the Duke d'Arcus with the Count Carravallier arrived in post at the Court. His mission is to condole with the King, and to make agreement for the continuing of the league between them, and to perform all the articles agreed with France, Philip being willing to aid France with money or any other thing, yea, with the travail of his own person. Understands a commission is sent into Gascoign for men to be levied for Scotland. It is said the young King of Denmark is dead.
8. The Court removes to S. Germain's on the 25th to remain until near the King's burial. The Duke of Alva and the Constable remain at Paris. Does not understand that M. de Noailles is to be revoked, but hears that when the King is buried and things put in order, all the ministers shall be changed, and among them the Ambassador to England, being of the Constable's appointment.
9. On the 25th the Duke of Arcus goes to Flanders; Signor Ruigomes next day to Spain, whither King Philip hastes to follow. The advertisement touching the usher calling for place for the French Queen was spoken rather of pleasure by him than of any set purpose, because the Lady Stafford was hard by it.
10. Sends the Queen enclosed a note of such news as the Ambassador at Venice sent him, touching the Pope and the great conflict among the Turks.
11. Whereas commission was granted to an officer of the King's here, for letting the lands at Calais within the pale for seven years; he can get no one to take leases of them for that time, saying that within eight years it will be restored to the Queen. The officer went to the Cardinal of Lorraine, who asked him if he were so mad as to believe it really would be restored; and told him though the time of making the peace caused that covenant to be put in, no such thing was ever meant; and he therefore willed him to tell the tenants secretly that there is no such restitution meant.
12. Corsica is not yet restored to the Genoese; the cause thereof is, that when commissioners arrived to make restitution thereof, Ursino, (who has the charge for the French King there,) by the secret means of the great Prior caused the people of the isle to withstand its surrender to the Genoese. The Queen may inform the Spanish Ambassador hereof. Pierre Corsica has arrived at this Court, and is well received of the King.
13. Heretofore wrote to the Queen of the sending of the Duke of Wirtemburg and the Cardinal of Augusta from the Empire to that Court. The Duke refused to be joined with the Cardinal; but being pressed by the Emperor, he said the Cardinal was his enemy and had sought to kill him. The Cardinal repaired to the Duke's lodging, and desired to know whether what he had heard were true. The Duke affirmed it, and said he would stand to it; and being pressed by the Cardinal to say who gave him such information, said that he understood by letters from Rome that the said Cardinal in the Pope's presence had proponed matter that the Pope should find means to despatch him, and if he could not, the Cardinal would; adding that if the Duke of Wirtemburg were not put out of the way religion could never be staid in Almaine. The Cardinal utterly denied it, and then the Duke said he had received letters from the Cardinal Bellay to this effect, which he showed to the Cardinal of Augusta. He being satisfied with the Duke, forthwith wrote a despatch of the matter to the Pope, who, in reply, committed Cardinal Bellay to prison; and it is charged to be for the Cardinal of Augusta's cause. So said one who came by Paris from Italy on the 24th inst. to pass into Flanders.
14. The Princes of Condé and Ferrara shall be forthwith despatched into Flanders for the confirmation of the late treaty between France and Spain and its continuation. Is also told that after long debatings amongst these men about Scotland, they have decided to send De Labrosse and the Bishop of Amiens with 1,000 footmen and 100 men at arms; who, on their arrival, shall visit the fortifications, to see which are to be kept and which abandoned, and to place the soldiers in them; and then to see what they can do with the spirituality to appease the garboil among them. If they find difficulty, they have commands now in harvest time to employ the men of war to store up as much provision as they can gather, and to destroy all the country round them. And if the men they take will not serve their purpose, the Marquis D'Albœf will be sent after with greater force. The men for Scotland will be shipped about the 8th of next month.
15. Cannot but remind the Queen to be careful of the hostages, notwithstanding any good countenance they make. On the 25th the Vidame of Chartres was with him [Throckmorton] and gave him two supplications, the copies of which he sends her. The suppliant does him [the Vidame] much dishonour, and his doings seem otherwise worthy her indignation. Prays her to cause the party to be secretly apprehended, and to signify the same to him [the writer], that he may give her advice how to proceed. The suppliant names himself the Duke of Norfolk's servant, and has two names, Thomas Gery and Munceaulx, and is son to Philbert, late physician at Calais. He has a sister married in London to a surgeon who might tell where he is. Secresy should be used.
16. On the 26th James Hambleton, the Lord of Ormestone, the Earl of Arran's lieutenant, came to his lodging and told him that as yet there is no certain knowledge where the Earl was. And said also that the Duke of Chastilherault's lands, before seized into the French King's hands, were restored again on the 25th inst. to the Duke's use. Nevertheless, he said, he thought it done only to retain the Duke's devotion to the French. And to inform the said Duke of this and of their using of his son Davy, and of their purposes to Scotland, the said Hamilton will shortly send to the Duke into Scotland a gentleman named Henry Nesbet, for whom the writer gave the said Hambleton a passport, bearing date July 26th. Prays the Queen to give him one to Scotland, when he shall arrive at the Court.
17. A sea captain, John Rosse, has the conducting of the soldiers into Scotland. An Ambassador from Sweden has arrived; and the Queen may wish to learn his business from the French Ambassador resident with her.
18. When he had this far written, the Vidame sent word that they had found the party for whose apprehension he has written to the Queen; therefore she can stay in this matter, unless indeed he escape and come to England.—Paris, 27 July 1559.
19. P.S.—Has thought good, although the Vidame has found the party, to send her the supplications, for it concerns her service. After perusing them she may like to send them to Mr. Secretary, for the opening of the contents thereof may otherwise work some displeasure to the Vidame.
Orig. Add. Endd.
July 27.
B. M. Sloane, 4134. 393.
1076. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript
July 27.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 181.
1077. Throckmorton to the Queen.
Although has signified sundry advertisements in his other letters in this packet, addressed to her, to her Council, and to Cecil; yet thinks it meet to advertise her particularly of the things following:
The Vidame of Chartres (who has given him [Throckmorton] cause to think he is the Queen's friend) informed him last night that the French mean to break shortly with her; for on the 25th they were told that she intended to impeach their doings against the Scots, and also that there is a league between her and them. Whereupon they have to-day sent the Duke of Ferrara to the King of Spain, and mean shortly to send thither the Prince of Condé to conclude a new league between France and Spain to her detriment. He said further the French hoped the King of Spain would endeavour himself to repress rebels and heretics, so the French trust to win the alliance of Spain though they lose that of Scotland; and she (say they) shall lose the King of Spain's amity to win her ancient enemies. The arrival of the Duke of Arcus gives France hope of the King of Spain's assured amity.
Doubts not she will advisedly weigh not to suffer the French to suppress her friends in Scotland; and yet not to lean to the Scots unless they join their forces in unity. As yet they do not draw all one way, for besides the French nation there, there is a French faction among themselves, which must be extinct. Prays her to give her Ambassador with the King of Spain in charge, and to use all other means, to decipher the contents of this new league between Spain and France. Nor should she let the Spanish Ambassador resident in England abuse her with sugared words; for the writer sees and hears enough to make him think that the King of Spain is but a hollow friend to her, and so may do her more harm than an open enemy.—Paris, 27 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add., with armorial seal. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
A.D. 1559.
July 27. R. O. Sloane, 4134. 409.
1078. Another copy of the preceding.
Forbes' transcript.
July 27.
1079. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Privy Council.
On the 20th inst., came to his lodgings, two Frenchmen dwelling at Nantes, who delivered to him, on behalf of certain English merchants trafficking that way, a supplication touching certain impositions, wherein they found themselves aggrieved; the copy of which he encloses.
On the same day, a servant of his, an Englishman, (whom he took pleasure in for his skill in music,) was taken by certain of the Grand Prior's folk, as he walked in the street, and carried away. He therefore sent to the Duchess of Guise (the Duke and the Prior were not in town,) to complain; she sent for answer that the servant should be sent home, which was not done.
Next day sent a servant to the Court, (which was at Medune) to declare the matter to the Grand Prior, who answered, that application should be made to him at his return to Paris.
When the Prior arrived on the following day, the writer did so; and received for answer that neither he nor any other Ambassador should let him to do what he would therein. Throckmorton's messenger, not seeming satisfied with that answer, was willed by the Prior to tell his master that he might do as he would, for he [the Prior] would do what he thought good herein. The writer thereupon sent to the Cardinal of Lorraine, who said he knew not the matter, but would speak to his brother.
On the 24th sent to the Cardinal again, and he returned for answer that he had not yet spoken with the Prior, and seemed to make light of the matter. Has also sent diverse times to M. de Noailles and aggravated the matter with him, but all will not serve. Cannot hear what has become of his servant. Asks their advice and assistance herein.—Paris, 27 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
July 27.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 179.
1080. Throckmorton to Cecil.
Has received his letter without date by Mr. Killigrew, with two from the Queen to himself, one of the 16th, and the other the 19th inst., with others to the King of Navarre and the Queen, the French King, the Duke of Guise, and the Constable. Will put the contents into execution as soon and warily as possible. For the delivery of the rest of the letters has signified his mind therein to the Queen, so will not repeat it. Being uncertain what to do for his proceedings here, and the rather because he has not received instructions, and knows not the contents of the letters sent to him to be delivered, (the ignorance of which may be evil for the Queen,) reminds him of this. Asks for instructions in these things and that Cecil would send two other letters instead of those for the French King and the Duke of Guise, for he supposes their date will be old; and also to send him the minutes of these, and those also sent hereafter. And because the old Queen, (called la Reine Mère), has, though not in name, the authority of a Regent to the French King, thinks a letter should be sent to her.
Is secretly informed that there is a party in Scotland, to place the Prior of St. Andrew's in the state of Scotland, and that he also aspires thereto by all secret means. And as the state of France is governed by the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise, the Duke having only the charge of the war, and the Cardinal that of other affairs, as of the finances, the matters of estate, &c., and the special doing with all Ambassadors; for this cause, the Queen's minister here must have some favour with him, if he hope to do any service in such matters as the Ambassador shall have to do with the French King. Albeit he supposes the Queen has as small devotion to the Cardinal as he has to her, yet it were well that affections are dissimulated, for when he [the Cardinal] shall know the Duke of Guise is written to, and he [not] regarded, he will be as careless of them as they are of him, which shall smally further the Queen's service.
Thought good to send this despatch by John Melvin, a trusty man, whom he knows to be honest and very zealous in religion. Thinks him not capable of himself to go through with any matter of great importance, but is trusty, and with instructions will serve well. Reminds Cecil there is enmity of long continuance between the Earl of Arran's house and that of Lennox; to the intent that in all his [Cecil's] practices for Scotland he may have due regard thereunto.
Though he has talked with many men of diverse nations, finds none so trusty as James Melvin, presently in Scotland, the Constable's servant, a man of good capacity; and Cecil will do well to use the best means he can, should he come by him, to make him the Queen's, for he will be able to do her great service. Refers him, for the rest of the occurrences, to the Queen's letters.
P.S.—Desires that the enclosed may be sent to Croftes or Percy to be by them conveyed according to the direction.— Paris, 27 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
July 27.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 405.
1081. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
July 27.
R. O.
1082. [Cecil] to Sir Thomas Challoner.
To-day, about 1 o'clock after dinner, came hither the Countess de Feria, conducted by King Philip's Ambassador, and Don Gioan d'Ayla. She was invited to retire into Lady Howard's chamber, or Lady Sidney's, which she very gently refused, and seemed better content to tarry in the Chamber of Presence until she might see the Queen. The Bishop [of Aquila] required the Vice-Chamberlain to show the Queen that the Countess was desirous to see her, and if she might not do that speedily she should go before and he would tarry behind to make her excuse. The Lord Chamberlain prayed the Bishop to take patience awhile and the Queen would speak with the Countess. "It were meet (quoth the Ambassador) that the Queen should remember whose wife she is, and that the County de Feria is not her vassal." These words he spoke so loud and angrily as it was hard to forbear without some round answer; nevertheless the Lord Chamberlain answered him temperately. The Bishop was not content, but required that he might forthwith speak with the Queen before the Countess should speak with her; which request being showed to Her Highness, and being advertised by divers which stood by, of his former disordered speech, she sent the Lord Chamberlain to him requiring to know of him whether he had any matter on his master's behalf, who said he had none. Hereupon she forbare to speak with him, and sent for the Countess de Feria to come into her privy chamber, with whom she had very much familiar and loving talk; and indeed the same Countess showed herself very sorry for that the Ambassador had been in such heat, and used such disordered terms without just cause.
The Countess having taken her leave, the Queen sent for Don Giovan d'Ayla to come into her privy chamber, who, instigated by the Bishop, said that he was commanded by his master to come into her presence only in the company of the said Bishop. Hereupon the Queen, meaning not to proceed with the said Bishop in any further offence, as he had given great cause, sent her letters to the said Don Juan d'Ayala by him to be delivered to the King of Spain.
The Countess departed with very good contentation, and was accompanied to her house very honourably, with the Lord Chamberlain and others, the train of the Court. "Surely the Bishop forgat himself very much;" all he can pretend is that the Countess is with child, and had to ride to Rochester, twelve or thirteen miles off, both of which were well considered by the Queen, so that she was dismissed about 3 of the clock, so as to have six hours before night to ride her journey; and considering the heat of the day more meeter to be ridden toward the evening than nigh the midday.
Draft. Endd. by Cecil: 27 [altered from 26] July 1559. To Sir Thomas Challoner. Pp. 3.
July 27.
R. O.
1083. Reformation in Scotland.
The Lords of the Privy Council of England to the Lords of the Congregation in Scotland.
Have seen their letters sent hither by this bringer, and understand by Cecil further advertisement brought to him. Have conceived their good meaning both towards God's glory and the freedom of their country. Cannot forbear but recommend their good wills and devotion to the furtherance of such good things; and wish them strength in God, to the glory of His name, and power both of their own nation and all others that favour the glory of God to the maintenance of their liberty from captivity to strangers. Mean not by writing to dilate much at this present, yet shall they not neglect such godly and honourable enterprises, upon hope that thereby this famous isle may be conjoined at the last in heart, as it is in continent land, with one sea, and in one uniformity of language, manners, and conditions. Refer for the rest to letters written by Cecil; and wish them and all their assembly, the nobility there, such comfort as the writers would wish to themselves in the like case.—Otford, 27 July 1559. Your Lordships' loving friends, W. Northampton, W. Howard, F. Bedford, Penbroke.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 28 July. Letter of the Council to the L. of Scotland. Not sent. Pp. 2.
July 27.
R. O.
1084. Draft of the above.
Cecil's hol., endd.: 27 July 1559. The letters to the Lords of Scotland. Pp. 2.
July 28.
R. O.
1085. The King of Spain to the Queen.
Intercedes in behalf of the bearer, Deryk File, who had served her father and brother in the wars, and who had formerly enjoyed an annual pension given him by Queen Mary (whose letters he will produce to the Queen) but which is now discontinued.—Ghent, 5 cal. Aug. 1559. Signed: Philippus,—G. Perezius.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Broadside.
July 28.
R. O.
1086. Reformation in Scotland.
Cecil to the Earls of Argyll and Glencarne, the Prior of St. Andrew's, and the Lords Boyde and Ucheltrey.
The bearer brought on 26th inst. their letters dated on the 19th, as well to him apart as to the Queen. By the former they answer divers questions made by him in his former letters upon the matters named by Mr. Kirkaldy touching their causes now in hand. Has not only himself considered the whole contents of their letter, but also with others (as by their letter shall appear) whose estate the bearer can report to them.
For replication to their common letter, must needs confess that the two principal points intended by their proceedings are such as all good Christian men ought to allow, (1) to abandon idolatry, (2) to maintain the liberty of their native country from thraldom of strangers. The ends are simply good in themselves; but as to the means, there may arise diversity of opinions. Is it the office of all sorts of men to do this, or of some only? If of some, to whom does it belong and to whom not? Makes no determination against their doings. Nothing can be more joyful to them [the English] who, by exalting their Sovereign Lady to this kingdom have abandoned idolatry and brought our Saviour Jesus Christ into this kingdom, than that the same blessing may come to them [the Scotch].
The English have cause to rejoice also that England is delivered from the power of strangers. "But whether ye do indeed take that way that should both soonest and sureliest lead you thereto, it may be, and is, much doubted. Ye know your chief adversaries, (I mean the popish kirkmen) be noted wise in their generation. They be rich also, whereby they make many friends, by their wit with false persuasions, by their riches with corruption. As long as they feel no sharpness nor offence they be bold, but if they be once touched with fear they be the greatest cowards. In our first reformation here in King Henry VIII's time, although in some points there was oversight for the help of the ministry and the poor, yet if the prelacy had been left in their pomp and wealth, the victory had been theirs. I like no spoil, but I allow to have good things put to good uses, as to the enriching of the crown, to the help of the youth of the nobility, to the maintenance of ministry in the church, of learning in schools, and to relieve the poor members of Christ, being in body and limbs impotent. Knows of no better example of any reformed State than Denmark.
If they say that the present time requires the defence of themselves, he admits it is true; "and to me the more marvel that ye omit also such opportunity to help yourselves. Will ye hear of a strange army coming by seas to invade you, and seek help against the same, and yet permit your adversaries, whom ye may expel, keep the landing and strength for the others? Which of these two is easiest, to weaken one number first, or three afterward? Surely what moveth this to be forborne I know not; but what hurt, yea what peril, shall come thereof is evident. How many of your flock in that realm lack you to shew themselves ready to come to the fold whilst these wolves lie gaping against them? What will be the end when the beginnings be these? Will they favour you in Scotland that burn their own daily in France? What may the Duke's Grace there look for, when his eldest son was so persecuted as, to save his life, he was forced to flie France and go to Geneva not without great difficulty; his second brother, the Lord David, now cruelly imprisoned by M. Chevignye, one chosen out to show cruelty to your nation ; (fn. 1) divers others of the Earl's family put to torture; and, finally, the duchy of Chastelherault seized to the crown ? And to show you their proposed tragedy, the young Queen so sweareth, so voweth, so threateneth to destroy all the house of Hamilton, as it is beyond all marvel to see your old Regent there can inchant the Duke's ears to hear nothing thereof. God open his heart according to his knowledge. He maketh a slender account to see his sons, one driven away, the other imprisoned in France, and yet to be abused so far, (as I think, against his conscience,) in the end to be the slaughterman of his own family. It is manifest why the Queen in the end will be more cruel against his family, notwithstanding this his service, than against yours presently; and yet this is the determination had in their Council, first devised by the Cardinal of Lorrain, that the taking away of four heads thereof shall quiet the matter."
Such being their purposes, they here [in England] cannot but favour them [in Scotland]. Yet there are difficulties: the war has lately ceased with France, and it is a matter of weight to enter upon a new one. Many things are to be considered which cannot be conveniently written nor suddenly determined; therefore he has imparted to this bearer sundry things to be declared unto them, which being resolved upon, may bring forth some fruit to the glory of God and the weal of both their realms. God send them the strength of His Spirit, not to faint in the course of His Gospel and to maintain concord among themselves! " Your doings may bear the universal name of the Great Council of Scotland, for lack whereof your adversaries may rejoice and your friends rest perplexed. Such is the valour and opinion of authority, and such hath been (not only in France but in other realms) the laudable reformation of some weals almost ruinated by insolency of governors." Likes the bringer hereof so well for his fidelity that he has committed further credit to him.
Draft, in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him: 28 July 1559. Copy of my letter to the Earls of Argyll and Glencarne, the Lord Prior of Saint Andrews, the Lords Boyd and Ucheltrey. Pp. 6.
July 28.
B.M. Sloane, 4734. 182. Knox, ii. 34. Calderw. 1. 494.
1087. Cecil to Knox.
"Non est masculus neque fœmina, omnes enim, ut ait Paulus, unum sumus in Christo Jesu. Benedictus vir qui confidit in Domino; et erit Dominus fiducia ejus."
Has received his letters at the same time he thought to have seen him at Stamford. Knows not what is the cause of his let. Forbears to descend to the bottom of things until he may confer with such a one as him [Knox], and therefore if his chance shall be hereafter to come hither, wishes him furnished with good credit, and power to make good resolution. Although the writer's answer to the Lords of the Congregation is somewhat obscure, yet upon further understanding Knox will find the matter plain. Need wish him no more prudence than God's grace, whereof may God send him plenty. —Oxford [Otford], 28 July 1559. Signed: Yours as one member of the same body in Christ.
July 28.
B.M. Sloane, 4737. 102.
1088. Another copy of the above.
July 28.
1089. William, Lord Grey, to Throckmorton.
Requests him to be surety with his [the writer's] son for his [Grey's] coming to Paris, upon his faith that he shall for his personal forthcoming for the term that M. la Roche shall give him, there to find sureties for his ransom and to be true prisoner. Herewith sends his faith to La Roche signed with his own hand, perceiving by the bearer his servant and chiefest of Grey's guard, that his ransom is concluded upon. Is forced to trouble him, for he doubts his son is not able to get sureties there so well as the writer. Promises by his faith that he will sooner die than Throckmorton shall be found faulty in one jot of word for him, and whatever promise for him is made binds himself by this letter to perform.— Unzaye Castle, 28th July 1559. Signed.
Modern transcript. Add. Endd. P. 1.
July 28.
R. O.
1090. The second leaf of the original of the above, bearing address and endorsement.
P. 1.
July 29.
R. O.
1091. Challoner to the Queen.
Arrived at Dunkirk upon Sunday night last, and departed thence to Bruges, where he remained a season to send a servant to the Court at Gand, requesting the Count de Feria to appoint him some convenient lodging, which he with difficulty obtained, in consequence of the great concourse of the nobles to the Feast of the Toison and the unwillingness of the Spanish Friars. Arrived here at Gand upon Friday last, where the day before the King in person had celebrated the late French King's obsequies very solemnly, and that Friday in the afternoon personally received the new Regent, Duchess of Parma, at her entry into the town.
Immediately upon his arrival he sent to the Count de Feria requesting him to procure an audience with the King. The answer (uttered by the Count, as the messenger reported, "with very cold semblant") was that he would endeavour so to do, but that until the solemnities of the Order were achieved, the King should have no good opportunity to admit him. Wots not well what to say of the affection and inclination of the Spaniards generally towards the English. The Count is a person of principal favour about the King and one of the greatest of his Council.
The ceremonies of the Order were as follows. The King and the Knights of the Order passed to the great Church yesternight to evensong. "I did behold, disguised, in a house, the solemn pomp thereof; where first, the procession, with xxi mitred Bishops and Abbots in pontificialibus, and amongst them the Bishop of Arras, went before. Then the officers of arms and trumpets followed, next whom those of the Order, of the number of a xxiiij, and amongst them the Duke of Savoy, two and two together, and next them the King, all clad in robes of the Order, with their chaperons upon their heads, very rich and fair to behold. And last, a great number of his other Lords and gentlemen of his Court, closing up the pomp at the King's back. Ambassadors saw I none there. They say the King, with those of the Order, this Sunday, the Mass ended, dineth at the Town House at the cost of the Lords of Gand."
The King will depart hence by 8 proximo towards Flushing in Zealand, where after two or three days tarrying he will embark for Spain; his ships are in order and he makes all direct haste he can. How shall the writer use himself to the King at his departure? He has licensed all Ambassadors and others of his train (except certain chosen) to follow him into Spain by sea or through France, at their election. Challoner, remembering the Queen's pleasure, signified by her to him at his leave taking (to the effect that he should not follow Philip into Spain, but should remain in the Low Countries), does not make account that he will pass with him. The favour that any of our nation should find in Spain, when travelling from place to place, should be very meagre, and great circumspection would be necessary, as he judges by their talks and opinions in this Court.
Will visit the new Regent after he has been with the King. Hears that the Duchess of Lorraine returns shortly home into Lorraine "smally satisfied with the preferment of the other, for old emulations' sake." Various other bruits are current, but they are diverse and variant.
The Council standeth now upon a few heads, which rule under the Prince in highest trust; Alva and Ruy Gomez (now absent), the Count de Feria, Don Antonio de Toledo, Don Juan Manriques, late Viceroy of Naples [another Spaniard whom he has forgotten (fn. 2) ], the Bishop of Arras, with the two secretaries Perez and Erazzo. "Through these men's hands all matters of estate do pass."
Few of the Burgundian Lords follow the King, but after his embarkment return home.
"This Prince now standeth in reputation of his forces, the counterbalance of France being depressed by the late French King's death. The Spanish gentlemen of this Court dissemble not their acknowledgment thereof, and esteem themselves thereafter."—Ghent, Sunday, 29 July 1559. (fn. 3) Signed.
P.S.—The Prince of Ferrara is coming in post to visit the King with eighty horse; the Duke of Guise is reported to be coming with him, but this is scarcely credible.
"It should seem, for aught I yet learn, that the King Catholic is by reports out of England much incensed against us, and indeed the spies there are very many in the Count de Feria's lodging."
Orig. Hol., with seal. Endd. by Cecil. Portion in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 7.
July 29.
R. O.
1092. Sir Thomas Challoner to the Queen.
"Minute to the Queen's Majesty, 29 July 1559," of the last despatch.
Draft. Endd. by Challoner: M. to the Queen, 29 July 1559, from Gand; sent [by] Nicholas Ferrers, merchant of London. Pp. 8.
July 29.
R. O.
1093. Challoner to Cecil.
Writes to the Queen as he will perceive. "I like not hitherto this much; what will further fall out I will not fail to write. They seem to much dislike Mr. Wotton's being of the Council, as if now he had lost his credit among them." The Countess de Feria has been princely met upon the way; she shall rest her in a Spaniard's house at Bruges. He will write this afternoon to the Count, and thereby in part will feel his answer.—Sunday, 29 July 1559.
Orig. Add. Endd. Hol. Portions in cipher, deciphered. P. 1.
July 26 & 29.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 182.
1094. Throckmorton to Cecil.
The bearer, Mr. Andrew Connyngham, the Earl of Glencairn's son in Scotland, who has served the French King in the late wars with the charge of 100 light horsemen, is now moved, (as are many of his countrymen,) to return home through England. The writer thinks good (forasmuch as he is a man of service and a nobleman,) to tell Cecil of his coming, that he may be offered to see the Queen and kiss her hands, and receive more than common entertainment; whereby her service may be furthered. He has been with him [Throckmorton] and declared his great affection for England, and his evil satisfaction for such entertainments as his countrymen have found themselves grieved with there.— Paris, 26 July 1559. Signed.
This letter was opened after the first sealing, this gentleman having occasion to stay longer than he thought. Throckmorton will advertise the Queen of what has passed since his last letters sent by John Melvin, of 27 July. The Duke of Saxe is departed from this Court in post in great secret, no man can tell whither, though it is thought to levy men in Germany. Understands that the Ambassador of Sweden (of whom he advertised in his last despatch) is brother to the present Queen of Sweden, and on the 28th went to S. Germain, to have audience. All the colonels of the Almaynes from the Court are this day gone to S. Germain's, where they have good entertainment and countenance of the house of Guise. Supposes Cecil will hear of the Earl of Arran in England before he, the writer, will here; for the Earl departed the 6 July from Losanna, in Switzerland, in post, and sent him word he would embark when he could conveniently find passage. Butomcourt (who Throckmorton thinks passed to England,) had in charge to will the Queen Dowager of Scotland to conform herself to the Scots' proceedings in religion, and to dissemble with them, supposing this the best means to work their purposes. And at this very present hears they mind to stay the sending of men hither; but if this be certain he cannot say, being the first advertisement. Prays her to advertise the Scots of this dissimulation of the Queen Dowager, and to what end it be done.—Paris, 29 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 2.
Aug. 26 & 29.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 411.
1095. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
July 29.
1096. Cecil to Croftes.
Yesterday he despatched hence Mr. Whytlawe, who lacked the best part of their answer, because they [in England] challenged the cold proceedings of the Protestants there [in Scotland] against the French; and because also Cecil looked daily for the coming of Mr. Knox to these parts, according to his request and their contentation here, signified to him by Sir H. Percy. Yesternight had received advertisement by Sir H. Percy's letters, that the coming of Mr. Knox is delayed until Whitlawe's return; and also that it is understood that the Queen has sent for the Lord Hume and the power of the Merse and Tyvidale, and that the Lords Protestants are coming to Haddington towards the Queen. It is thought meet that he [Croftes] should give good ear to these proceedings "and to continue the Protestants in their humours," so that neither the persuasions of the Queen there, nor any lack of comfort hence, should cause them to come to any accord with the French, considering it cannot be without their ruin, and consequently our peril.
As he shall see cause therefor he may be bold to make them assured of help from us before the time of their danger; they shall have some help of money for a beginning, "wherein indeed is meant such proceeding as the Queen shall not be therewith in honour chargeable."
Has this day heard from Newhaven in France, where is provision of twenty-two sail, whereof four only are men of war; their preparation is for the number of 2,000 men. Their captains are gone to the Court in post and appoint their return the last of this month; but it is thought the number of their soldiers will not be ready by that time, and yet they make all the haste that can be. Two of the ships are ready to depart, which shall come beforehand to signify to the Queen [Regent] the arrival of the others. Hereof he shall do well to give advertisement. Looks hourly for some intelligence out of France for their proceedings there since the coming of the King of Navarre to the Court, how the house of Guise and he will part the governance, whereof he will inform Croftes.
In this doubtful time, my Lord of Northumberland should have in consideration some readiness of his wardenry, in all events to be aiding to that piece. Let the Treasurer signify hither the estate of his office and the debts there, wherein the writer is uncertain, by reason of the extraordinary expense of these works.
Draft, endd. by Cecil: 29 July 1559. Copy of my letter to Sir James Croftes. Considerable portions of this letter are underlined, probably with the intention of being expressed in cipher. Pp. 4.
July 30.
R. O.
1097. [Knox to Croftes.]
"Instructions to John Knox, the penult. of July 1559." Commission is given him to speak and propone these heads subsequent.
1. To declare to them to whom he is directed that this league is other than heretofore has been contracted or commenced upon between these two realms.
2. To declare the number of the nobility and of the towns that require brotherly concord with them; and the order taken for consultation of matters.
3. That though the contemplated league is only yet proponed to the Privy Council, which consists of certain of the nobility, yet it is much desired of the whole Barons, who partly accuse the Council of negligence in that they have so long delayed to seek support.
†4. That the Duke and Earl of Huntley have by their honour and faith promised to concur and assist, in case the Queen Regent break any "joit" of this last appointment; the heads whereof he [Knox] can declare.
†5. That such comfortable support be given as may impeach the enterprise of the enemies, and that to be ready upon the borders able to join with the petitioners without long delay.
†6. That the Queen and her Council should labour "to dress our borderers to one effect," and especially the Homes and the Kerrs.
Nota. (fn. 4) †7. That the Fort of Aymouth be incontinent after the sight of the French army taken and kept by them [the English], the Scots being assuredly informed that the enemy purposes to occupy it.
†8. That Stirling being a key and principal place which may divide and cut asunder the north from the south, if money can be furnished to sustain a garrison there, the Scotch will enterprise the taking of it.
†9. That some strength must be made by sea for the safety of Dundee and S. Johnston; and therefore that Broughty and the fort should be taken and fortified, which now would be easy to be done by reason of the favour and concurrence of the whole country.
10. That they [the Scotch] and their posterity will bind themselves to be enemies to the enemies and friends to the friends of the English, if they thoroughly agree in this league, and that they will never contract with France without the consent of the English, so as to be united with them in one body, so that neither can make war nor peace without the consent of the other.
†11. That they require this league (1) for the glory of God, and that the true preaching of Jesus Christ, with the right administration of His Sacraments, may be universally and openly maintained in this isle, and that the tyranny and superstition of that woman Antichrist may be utterly suppressed and abolished in the same; (2) that the liberties, laws, and privileges of both these realms may remain inviolate of any strange or foreign power. The Scots therefore promise the English that neither will they themselves invade England, albeit to the same they are provoked by France, nor yet will they suffer any other to molest it.
These articles having been given to him [Knox] with commission to amplify and explain the same if any obscurity appeared, he was commanded to require, under the 5th article, (touching the comfortable support,) that "not only must the Queen and her Council have respect that soldiers must be laid in garrison among us, and that men and ships must be in competent readiness, if we be assailed, but also that some respect must be had to some of the nobility, who are not able to sustain such households as now in the begining of these troubles are requisite. For the practice of the Queen Regent is to stir up enemies against every nobleman particularly, even in the parts where he remaineth."
Further, he had commission to speak with Sir Harry Percy touching the entrance of my Lord Marshal, which might be prolonged if his father, the Earl Marshal, would plainly assist the petitioners. He also asks that horses may be sold to them for reasonable prices.
These were the chief heads which he was required to communicate to him [Croftes] and Sir Harry Percy. Requests that they be signified to the Queen and such of her Council as he [Croftes] thinks expedient. Wishes, however, that Sir H. Percy be participant of the whole. Urges [Croft] to be diligent for Christ's sake. "The Spirit of wisdom rest upon you, now and ever."
July 30. Thinks it superfluous to write anything to Mr. Cycill, "considering that I have opened the whole case to you." The heads marked with this sign † are to be specially remembered and diligently answered. This other "ticket" is to be sent to Sir Henry Percy, and the letters, directed to Mrs. Bowes, are to be delivered to Mr. George, her son, to be sent unto her. "They are dated at S. Andrew's, from whence ye may alledge ye have received them among others. Thus yet I desire your felicity in Christ Jesus."
Orig. No signature or add., but Knox's hol. Pp. 4.
[July 30?]
1098. [The Prior of S. Andrew's to Percy.] (fn. 5)
Has received his writing with most hearty thanks, will do thereafter, conform to the same, God willing. Further [as to] the man [Percy] desired should come and speak, he shall come in by the west border and meet with Percy in Alnwick or Newcastle, if it please God to grant the opportunity, within the space of eight or ten days. To him he refers all other things, commending his correspondent in the mean time to the protection of God. Has also received his cipher, and will use the same accordingly.
Orig., on the third of a page of paper.
July 31.
R. O.
1099. Adolphus, Duke of Holstein, to Cecil.
The affairs of England are always interesting and important to him. Is rejoiced, therefore, to hear of the succession of Elizabeth, and the re-establishment of the pure Evangelical religion in England. Thanks her for having sent Armigilius Wade to him as her Envoy, by whom he despatches these letters.—Gottorp, prid. Cal., Aug. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 4.
July ?
R. O.
1100. List of the Retinue of the Duke de Feria.
"A list of the Duke de Feria, his train," arranged under these two divisions:
1. Estat de la suitte de duc de Feria.
2. Cavilliers qui viennent avec son excellence.
The total number is 205 men, for whom six score and nine beds are required.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 3.


  • 1. Originally; to be a butcher of your nation.
  • 2. In the draft (see next article), this clause is struck through, and above it is written, "the Count de Chinchon."
  • 3. In 1559 the 29 July fell on a Saturday.
  • 4. This word occurs in the margin of the original.
  • 5. This is apparently the "ticket" referred to in No. 1097. It is without signature or address, but is certainly in the same writing as the Prior of St. Andrew's. See that of Oct. 28, 1559.