Elizabeth: August 1559, 1-5

Pages 432-450

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1558-1559. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1863.

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August 1559, 1-5

August 1.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 184.
1101. Throckmorton to the Queen.
Wrote last on the 28th ult. On the 30th the Admiral of France and De la Brosse were sent to Calais; the Admiral to look to Picardy and to see the other furnished with ships, and the latter to take shipping with the men of war for Scotland. The whole number is 1,500 men, who are to embark at Calais, Newhaven, Bulloin, and elsewhere. De la Brosse will take shipping on the 10th inst., or sooner if possible.
The French are in great fear, in consequence of the preparation of her ships and the summoning of her musters, supposing that she will make some attempt upon Calais, The only way to cause them to keep good rule is for her to be in readiness and preparation for them. They are also in fear because of the King of Spain, who has not as yet restored S. Quentin's, Ham, nor Chastelet, the Spanish garrisons of which daily make courses into the country as far as Noyon, about which the Governor of Compegny has written to the King, adding that it were as good to have war as such a peace.
The Duke of Florence has surprised and taken Monte Alcino from the Senoese and Frenchmen. Instead of the Prince of Condé the Duke d'Aumale, brother of the Duke of Guise, goes into Flanders. Neither M. de Noailles, Ambassador in England, nor Bassefontaine, resident with the King of Spain, have any new commission. What he had previously written about some contention between the Duke of Wirtemburg and the Cardinal of Augusta was true, except as to the imprisonment of the Cardinal of Bellay. Sends enclosed a copy of a letter sent by the Cardinal Bellay's secretary from Rome to the Bishop of Paris. Bourg has appealed first to the Bishop of Paris and then to the Cardinal of Sens, late Garde [des] Seaux, both of whom have given sentence against him; he has now appealed to Lyons, the last appeal that he may make. So he draws to his end without hope of life.
About 26th ult., there landed on this side from Saintelowe in Cornwall, two priests disguised, who took their way towards this Court. Advises her to send into Cornwall to understand what priests are there missing. An English gentleman, much about the same time, landed at Newhaven, also disguised, who came in post to this Court. In Normandy, at a place called [blank], there is a ship in rigging forth to go unto adventure of robbing and spoiling. The Duke of Alva [torn] alone has used all the means he can to get hence, and [torn] promised to lay pawn for 200,000 crowns, so as he [torn] licence to depart, which has not liked the French very well; but he has a plain answer that he must remain here, whereby it may appear in what case the French are here. "And in very deed they are at this time in great perplexities, and know not which way to look, and are now as much afraid of Your Highness by means of your preparation as they thought to make you with their brave setting forth of things on this side." The Duke of Saxe having gone away in post without the knowledge of the French, they say he is gone into England, with which they are somewhat perplexed.—Paris, 1 August 1559. Signed.
Orig. Partly in cipher, deciphered. Slightly torn. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
August 1.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 413.
1102. Another copy of the preceding.
Forbes' transcript.
August 1.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 186.
1103. Throckmorton to Cecil.
The 29th ult. sent him a letter by the Earl of Glencairn's son. Has not much to write about, and refers him to his letters to the Queen for intelligence. Warns him against divers Frenchmen, who under colour of flying out of this country for religion, daily repair into the isles of Guernsey and Jersey. Although he could wish those that come for religion indeed should be received, and used as some of ours have been received in time of persecution among them, yet the present time, full of suspicion, causes him to doubt the worst. Warning should be given to the Captain of those isles, yet that such as are zealous to religion may indeed find sanctuary.
On 30th ult. came to his lodging one Dr. Mouse, heretofore a reader in Cambridge, who came into Flanders to follow a suit of a friend of his; from whence he came hither to renew his French tongue. Asked him whether he had licence to come over, to which he answered, No; that he had been a suitor for one, but could not obtain it, as Cecil and the Lord Great Seal did know, who were privy of his coming. Here are arrived two gentlemen from Italy, Mr. Phitzwilliam and Mr. Haywood, who remain as students at Paris. "Sir Henry Paget, by means of suspicions lately risen on this side," is departed from Paris and gone to Lyons for his more safety, if the worst should fall. Requests to be informed in what sort Cecil received this packet.—Paris, 1 August 1559. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
August 1.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 417.
1104. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
August [1].
Galba, C. 1. 50. Wright, 1. 5.
1105. Challoner to Cecil.
Will perceive the sum of his advertisements by his letters and other papers sent herewith to the Queen. Though the King and M. d'Arras use him with very good words, yet he knows otherwise what opinion they have of him. And indeed no more amity is to be looked for than respect for their private utility endures.
Begs that he may have signification of the Queen's pleasure, seeing the King embarks so shortly. Has not yet discovered to anyone her pleasure touching his abode here, trusting to have special letters, which, if they come not in time, he must frame some invention for having access at the King's embarking. —Ghent, [1] August 1559. Signed.
P. S.—Asks whether Cecil has received his [letters] and begs that he may receive two or three months' diets. All things here are outrageously dear beyond measure.
Draft. Hol. Injured by fire. Pp. 2.
August 1.
R. O.
1106. Challoner to Cecil.
The bearer, called Derike Feld, an Almain, formerly one of the gunners for the great ordnance in Boulogne whilst it was ours, and there maimed, also appointed (as he saith) for the room of an almsman at Canterbury, then at Rochester, from both of which places he has hitherto been kept out, has made application to the writer for his letters of recommendation. The Count de Feria has also recommended him. Enquiry respecting his case might be made of the Lord Admiral, who was then Deputy at Boulogne.—Gand, 1 August 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add., with armorial seal. Endd. Pp. 2.
August 1.
1107. Croft to Cecil.
The Laird of Ormeston sent him knowledge last night that the Duke of Chastelherault will take part with the Protestants, and will depart from the Queen of Scots within two [days]. If he keep appointment, the proceedings will go well forward.
On July 28, the inhabitants of Edinburgh were cast into the Tolbooth, and demanded who would hear Mass and who would refuse. They answered with one voice that they were members of the Congregation and would not leave their profession, and so departed. The Earl Morton was suspected by the Queen of Scots, and therefore he is departed from the Court. On the last of July the Master of Maxwell escaped out of Edinburgh Castle, whereby the strength of the Protestants is much increased.
A messenger has presently come from Aymouthe requesting him to send to see how the same is rased, of which he will advertise him on their return.—Berwick, 1 August 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. by Cecil. Endd. Chiefly in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 2.
August 1.
B.M. Sloane, 4734. 179. Calderw. 1. 489. Knox, 1. 382. Keith, 1. 224.
1108. Reformation in Scotland.
Bond of the Congregation against the Queen Regent of Scotland.
They, foreseeing the craft and sleight of their adversaries, tending all manner of ways to circumvent them, and particularly by fair promises to separate them one from another, to their utter ruin and destruction, bind themselves in the presence of God, and as they tender the maintenance of true religion, that none will pass to the Queen Dowager to talk or commune with her, without consent of the rest and common consultation thereupon; and as soon as message or writing come from her will notify the same one to another, so that nothing shall proceed therein without the common consent of all—Stirling, 1 August 1559.
August 1.
B.M. Sloane, 4737. 101.
1109. Another copy of the above.
August 1.
1110. Pickering's Accounts.
"A brief abstract of the accounts of Sir William Pickering, Knight, concerning the Almayne regiment, appointed to have been transported into England anno 1558," whereof the charge amounted to 9,971l. 0s. 5d. Flemish, and the discharge to 8,522l. 4s. 4d. Flemish, at the rate of 22s. Flemish to the pound sterling. The account extends from 8th March 1557 to 17 Nov. 1558 (256 days), being the day of the death of Queen Mary, and from 17th Nov. to 4th May 1559 (167 days), being the day of his return into England (in all 423 days).
Orig. Endd., partly by Cecil: Primo Augusti, 1559. An abbreviate of Mr. Pickering's accompte. Allowed by the Commiss. Pp. 3.
August 2.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 187.
1111. Throckmorton to Cecil.
Has sent to the Queen and him letters dated the 1st August by the Marquis of Trans' steward, who came to tell him [Throckmorton] of his going to England by post; which caused him to send by him what he otherwise would have sent by this bearer, his servant.
Has informed the Queen of his others sent the 28th of last month, and how that on the 30th the Admiral of France and De Labross were sent to Calais, the one to oversee his charge, the other to embark with 1,500 men at Calais for Scotland, the 10th inst. or sooner.
Wrote also of the fears the French have, for the preparation of the Queen's ships and the musters of her men.
Advertised further their fear of Spain. Also told the Queen of the surprise of the Siennois and Frenchmen by the Duke of Florence in Mount Alcino, which he prays her to disbelieve until further news, being but a bruit. Mentioned also that the Prince of Condé staid his going into Flanders. Also told the Queen of the landing of two priests from Saintlowe, in Cornwall, disguised; and of an English gentleman having landed at Newhaven; also of a ship prepared in Normandy at Grandville, which for haste he omitted to name. And how the Duke of Alva desired to be rid thence.
In the letter to him [Cecil] he [Throckmorton] mentioned the going of divers Frenchmen to Jersey and Guernsey, under colour of religion; also of his visit from Mr. Mouse; that Mr. Phitzwilliams and Mr. Haywood had come as students from Italy, and that Mr. Paget had retired to Lyons.
Thus has signified the contents of his letters by the Marquis of Trans' steward; for fear of an evil bearer, prays him to tell him how he received the letters.
Since writing the above understands that M. d'Aubeny will have M. de Lorges' charge. Has an inkling that now the French, having lost the Earl of Arran, will try to win the Earl of Lennox, so to have still a party in Scotland against Arran, to serve their turn. Though he would not bring suspicion on any one, yet having this matter broken unto him, has thought best to give him [Cecil] knowledge of it that he might have an eye on the said Earl and all about him. Understands from Mr. Mouse that one of the two priests from Cornwall is named Endall, of a benefice before Dr. Moreman's, the other Smart, a prebendary in Exeter, and otherwise beneficed, who was conveyed by a Breton into Bretagne; he is, (as Mr. Mouse tells him,) a subtle man. They are now both in Paris, where they were before in King Edward's time, and enquire for the Bishop of London. Prays him to thank Mr. Mouse for his trouble on his return. Sends to Cecil and Dr Wotton two books, containing certain works of an old author, Macarius; lately taken out of the King's library, being in Greek and translated into Latin, and so printed. Is sorry for his old friend, the Abbot of Westminster, and for his. . . .that this old author came to light no sooner, for he writes favourably for their profession.—Paris, 2 August 1559.
August 2.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 419.
1112. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
August 2.
R. O.
1113. Knox to Percy.
Although his desire was vehement to have spoken with Sir Henry, as well for further acquaintance as for discharge of his duty and commission, (for to him was the writer no less directed than to Sir James Croftes,) yet, because of the shortness of the time limited unto him and of the uncertainty of Sir Henry's residence, the writer was compelled to return without the comfort of his presence. Has left the whole matter in articles with Sir James, not doubting but that the same will be communicated to him. Beseeches him heartily to do [all] possible diligence that answer may be had with expedition. Mr. Kirkaldy heartily salutes him.—Holy Island, 2 August 1559, at night, in great haste. "Yours to his power in godliness, John Knox."
P. S.—Commandment was given to him by the Lords Protestants to require of Sir Henry the favour that the entrance of the Lord Marischal, his prisoner, may be prolonged, in case they write to Sir Henry for the same; for if his father can be made assured upon their part, the presence of the young man will be comfortable unto them. They are assured that this appointment will not stand, for the Queen Regent has already broken it, "and therefore we can be no longer bound than we be able to make our party good upon the field." Requests that either he [Knox] or Kircaldye may be informed of his pleasure, for the Lords will not write unless they be assured of his favour and good will.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: Knoxees letters. Pp. 2.
August 3.
R. O.
1114. [Challoner] to the Queen.
On Sunday 29th ult., considering how his access to the King was deferred, he gave advice thereof to her by a packet of letters, delivered to Nicolas Ferrers, merchant of London, to be delivered to Mr. Secretary. Sends the double thereof herewith to the Queen.
In continuation; not having been visited by any of the Court since his coming, nor bidden welcome from the King, considering also what lewd and unbefitting reports are here and at Antwerp generally bruited of our affairs in England, so evil and contemptuously as the same cannot but proceed of great misliking of us, adding to these the long deferment of his access, (though this was partly excused by the Feast of the Order, which fully did not end before the 1 inst.,) and understanding that some short language had passed at Otford between the Bishop of Aquila and Don Juan de Ayala, (whereof they failed not to write to the Court, and perchance to the King also,) he thought it not unmeet to desire to speak with the Count de Feria, who, it was said, would depart the next day to rencounter his wife at Bruges.
Spoke with him by appointment on Monday last, when he was received very courteously ["giving me the upper hand"], (fn. 1) and asked him to promote his audience with the King. The Count answered, very gently, that he would procure the same either by himself or by Don Antonio de Tolledo. "He is an open man and not much dissembling, or at least not caring in this behalf to discover (fn. 2) his mind." He discoursed of our estate and affairs in England, all tending to a misliking of the proceedings there, but professing regard to the Queen and the realm; and as he reputed himself, through means of his wife, partly Englished, he could not choose but be sorry for the same. The details for brevity he pretermits ["reserving the same to a particular note thereof herein enclosed, to be further by Your Majesty considered apart, either as the said Earl's own imagination, either else, (he being next the Duke of Alva in highest favour and place of this Council) as the common opinion of them all."] (fn. 3) At last he "gently brought me forth," and said he himself would move the King, but that, to his supposal, this would not be before the ceremonies of the Order were fully ended.
These ceremonies have been celebrated here in very solemn sort with great concourse of beholders, and continued three days, from Saturday last at evensong till Tuesday following; each day with a peculiar change of robes and chaperons, viz. crimson, black, and white. Every of these three days the King with the Knights of the Order were sumptuously feasted at the Town House at the several charge of the three estates of the said town.
Yesterday the Count de Feria sent to say that the next day the writer should have audience. To-day, in the forenoon, Don Juan de Piementel, one of the King's privy chamber, and in the absence of Ruy Gomes a supplier of his place, in great favour with the King, came to his lodging, sent by the King. In going and returning his talk was gentle and familiar. Coming to the Palace he was brought to the King's privy and bed chamber, where at the first were only Don Antonio de Tolledo and Don Juan Menriquez, with whom he passed reciproque salutations. Soon after the King himself came forth of an inner garderobe, clad in a plain black cloak with cloth cap (for he mourneth) very plainly. The writer did his due reverence, even to the kissing of his hand, which offer the King would not permit, but made him straight be covered. Presented the Queen's letters, which gently he received, read distinctly, and paused to hear his credence, which the writer uttered in Italian, as by a note enclosed appears. The King showed his good acceptation thereof by his countenance, while the writer was speaking, and at last made answer in Spanish, declaratory of his amity and of his intention to observe the leagues and treaties which had passed heretofore, concluding with many good words, in such gentle fashion and such smiling countenance as one might not well desire more at so great a Prince's hands.
Asked whether his embarkment would be so shortly as is reported; and the King affirmed that for his urgent affairs in Spain it behoved him to make all the haste he could. Wished him a happy and short passage; and that if he fortuned to have cause to touch at any of the English ports, he would be accommodated in no less wise than the Queen's own person; whereat he smiled and thanked her for the same. This was the substance of that conference.
Requests that the Queen would instruct him as to his further proceedings with the King when he embarks. Wise men suppose that he cannot despatch the matters of the Low Country so soon, being many and intricate, viz.:—
1. He has somewhat to do with the States of this country, about the acceptation of this Regent with so ample a commission and power as is meant to be left with her.
2. They stick and make great means to have the Spanish garrisons clean removed out of the forts of these Low Countries, and to have Almains placed in their steads.
3. St. Quentin and other French holds, though the artillery is clean removed out of them, are not yet rendered (whereupon it rests he is uncertain), but in the meantime the Duke of Alva remains pledge in France.
These matters may hold the King longer, but sure he makes all haste to recover Spain this August, the wind, as his masters mariners affirm, serving him in this month most propice. "And indeed I have not wanted some advertisements that otherwise it importeth him to make his hasty repair thither in respect of such stirs and innovations as are presently doubted, viz., for the affair of religion, wherein at his arrival there he intendeth (as is said) to show notable examples of punishment and execution; many notable persons of estate being already therefor arrested, and more upon his coming to be apprehended. So as the persecution there is like to be sharp and vehement."
"Touching the state of his affairs, he looketh for long time to live in rest for any wars with France, accounting through his great revenues and riches forth of all his provinces, viz., the Indies, from whence, by late imposition, a much great treasure shall accrue unto him, to be so cleared of his own and his father's debts, and so advanced aforehand, as this young French King, (if coming to age he would prove masteries,) shall find small handfast to his purpose."
"Touching all other states he counteth himself assured; the Almains being so well by him paid, and ready again to serve him. The Duke of Brunswick goeth with him into Spain."
"As for Italy he counteth them all at his beck. The Venetians, not two days afore I came, sent hither one of their most reputed senators, Marco Antonio Muta, a very wise man, to congratulate with the King this peace, and other compliments to show their good disposition. The Pope he now feareth not. Florence and Parma he counteth for his own creatures. Yesterday the Prince of Ferrara here arrived out of France in post, only (as I hear) to make fair weather for his father through such officiousness. So as (it is said) upon his getting into Spain he mindeth not to return unto these parts, if extraordinary accidents be not moved thereof, not of these many years; intending for his supply in these Low Countries within a year or such a space to send over the young Prince his son."
"In the meantime his payments to his men of war are full and liberal. His rewards given to retain his private ministers of late, as I have heard reported, are great and right notable. For example, to the Duke of Alva towards aid of his charges 150,000 ducats; to the Duke of Sessa, Governor at Milan, 80,000 ducats; to certain other Lords (fn. 4) after the like rate. And sure his liberality here is much spoken of [which signifieth belike he hath wherewithal to do it.]" (fn. 5)
Having written thus far, word was brought to the writer this morning that the Bishop of Arras was at good leisure. Visiting him (to understand his inclination towards her) he was received in very courteous manner. Told him of the Queen's good will and desire to maintain amity; "affirming to him that Your Majesty, for your part, was no less addicted to the conservation and continuance of the good amity than I had, on Your Grace's behalf, declared to the King; and semblably well given to the observance of all such leagues and capitulations as heretofore had passed for the better entertainment of the said good amity and intelligence, which by all good means Your Highness would be glad for your part to nourish and increase upon all good occasions." The Bishop reciprocated, "knowing how well inclined the King, his master, was not only in general to the conservation of the said amity, but particularly also towards Your Majesty, whose affairs in the time of the reign of the late Queen, your sister, he said he knew the King took in special recommendation. That have I not wanted (quod I), yesterday in my conference with the King, among other matters by her special order to remember and yield unto the King her most special thanks for the same, so as I trust His Majesty as in that behalf reputeth her not for unmindful."
Asked how soon the King would depart ? Was answered upon Tuesday next, to lie at a place called Zowdworke, within a league of Flushing, there to tarry wind for his embarking. The Bishop wished, for the corrupt air of the place, that the King had rather here remained, seeing it is within six hours, and "axed" whether the writer went with the King? Answered that he could not tell till he knew the Queen's pleasure, but that her affairs might detain him here still. The Bishop did not make semblant once to touch any other particular matter of England.
Touching his visitation of the Regent, has hitherto had neither leisure nor opportunity, she being day by day so occupied.—Gand, 3 August 1559. Signed.
P. S.—Has had such visitation with him of Ambassadors since he was with the King that the most part of yesterday afternoon and this day have been consumed about the same. They say constantly that the Earl of Arran, not a week ago, has covertly passed through this country into England, accompanied only by one Englishman; and that Scotland is still in arms against the Regent. (fn. 6) Others impute (by report out of France), that all their stirring is by intelligence and procurement out of England. The Marquis d'Elbæuf, with thirteen ensigns of Gascons, is already embarked to pass into Scotland, for relief of the French part. They account here that Arran would be King, but he shall not prevail. "The house of Guise is counted for deadly foes against us, if they may prevail."
Draft, in Challoner's hol. Endd.: 1559, 3 Aug. Despatched by Ro. Farneham, at evening. Pp. 24.
August 3.
B. M. Galba, C. i. 51.
1115. Fair copy of the above as sent to the Queen, with the postscript in holograph, and dated 3 Aug.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 12.
August 3.
1116. Sir Thomas Challoner to the Queen.
Having in his former letters of the 3rd inst., mentioned a certain discontentment and alienation of these men's minds, the motives whereof he then smally touched, he has now thought it good in this letter apart to inform her of some special matters.
August 3.
Challoner to the Queen.
These men have learned the first school point of deep dissimulation, yet a mind alienated cannot so be covered, but that on some side it will show itself. Omitting the vulgar sort, the greatest of them at their houses and tables speak unseemly of her affairs, and procure her evil subjects both here and at home to forget their liege duty. If occasion served, they would produce their evil meaning to effect.
1. "The suit of the marriage frustrate might engender the first grudge, whereas it was accounted almost aforehand that to so great a Prince nothing were not feasible. Such Ministers as were doers in it, seeing it framed not to their mind, supposing their reputation touched, have, for their own justification, suggested the reports of things with larger glosses than the bare matters imported."
2. "The alteration of religion in England they take for such a thing as it only they hold sufficient to descant on; and whatever other grudge they bear us, to pretend it alone for the whole."
3. Had noted on his first coming to Gand how privy the Count de Feria was in the most secret things of the state of England. And indeed no marvel, for at his being there his house was daily so stuffed with reporters on both sides as nothing was done, ("no, I ween, under Your Grace's pardon, about your person,") but that he knew it. That trade is yet well holden on by the Bishop [of Aquila]. They are marvellously well served of notice, (fn. 7) even of anything done in the Court. The Count said to the writer he was sorry to see her imminent ruin; that the French gaped only for their opportunity; that we were without money, men, armour, fortresses, practice in war, or else good captains. "And what a Council!" quoth he; and began particularly to discourse the Lords and others in England; concluding that unless we did speedily take up we could not continue, so many discontented heads being amongst us in division [nor yet long united within such this religion] (fn. 8) And that then England would be another Milan to set the Princes together by the ears, and that if such a chance had not of late "bitidde" the French King, he would not long have rested. "But," quoth he, "you see who ruleth about their young King; the greatest enemies ye have, verily the house of Guise. Take heed of them. If the King, my master," quod he, "would have given assent to their offers, ye had heard of them ere this time." Feria also lamented that the Queen gave not her mind to marriage, adding that if any casualty happened to her person, her realm were undone. He verily supposes she is determined not to marry at all. When such sayings proceed from one so near the King she may think what others believe. But through knowledge a remedy is the sooner provided, and oftentimes dissimulation towards a faint friend is a virtue, to beat him with his own weapon. ["I am sure in this Court here be some such of our nation (namely, as I here say, Mr. Harvye, now at Louvain,) as have notably abused their duties, if reports made to me be all true; but in time, if I shall better cull them. (fn. 9) ]
Although the Spanish so much mislike the English yet the gentlemen of these low parts in conference take our part and cannot endure to have us ill spoken of. Hears of no Nederlander of any account now passing with the King of Spain. "When he is once departed, it may chance whilst he studieth to keep Spain pure from Protestantship, he may find Flanders at his return well advanced." (fn. 10)
Another great matter shows on which side these men halt. Robert Hogysns, an English gentleman here, pensioner to the King, lately came to Challoner (who had lately delivered to him a letter from Mr. Secretary, to whom belike he had written,) with this advertisement, that a little before the late French King's death, these men, fearing the French King's pretended titles for the Scottish Queen, sought means to solicit and get into their hands my Lady Katherine Gray, whom further, as events should fall out, they might either marry to the Prince of Spain, or with some other person of less degree, if less depended on her. By this tale they take her to be of a discontented mind, as not regarded or esteemed by the Queen or of her friends. (fn. 11) It were well that this Huggyns should have some further letter of thanks from the Secretary, willing him to write the whole discourse thereof unto the Queen. Huggins told Challoner also of having seen part of a letter from the Bishop of Aquila in the hands of Fra Juan "the friar now apprehended in the ships," to this effect, "et tanto tardar del rey hara care los Inglesese se daran a Francia," which denotes some conspiracy. Since the French King's death he says he hears no more of the matter. It would not be difficult by some good means to know of my Lady Katherine if ever anybody have made a motion unto her. (fn. 12) Perchance it has not yet hitherto so far proceeded; but sure these men, as ill as they love us, are jealous over France and us, (fn. 13) and would be glad rather to take the pains themselves.
All this contempt arises because they repute us unarmed. One of the Count de Feria's terms was, "that we had matter, but we wanted form." Hopes that the next to God she will put her surest trust in the right hand; "for I never heard but an armed Prince had ever the quietest friendship of his neighbours." 200 gentlemen pensioners at 100 marks apiece, everyone with four (fn. 14) horses, swartrutters, in the whole but 1,000 horsemen, were but 20,000 marks by the year, besides the furniture of Your Grace's Court, with servants and gentlemen, the service and surety were great. A Prince so banded may the boldlier command. What if order were taken for the exercise of your subjects in armour, to have them described into legions, as hath the Duke of Florence, at a sudden to have 30,000 or 40,000 armed men? What Prince will give attempt to light upon such a receipt?
The Rhinegrave has been with him, brought by the Queen's servant, Mr. Barnardine Granado. The King here has clearly given him his ransom. He talked a long time with the writer. The French King his old master being dead, "he would, upon an honest entertainment, meet for one of his degree, be well inclined to serve Your Majesty before any other Prince, namely, for religion's sake. He is a wise man, a lusty and expert colonel, as any other of the nation." If his truth were not to be suspected for France, a round pension were well bestowed upon him. (fn. 15) "He did much wish and desire that England and Scotland were conjoined, then to set not a fig at foreign Princes' displeasures." Gave him good words and came to no other particularity. He has returned to the French King's coronation at Rheims. There Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, her Ambassador, may further feel his disposition.— Flushing, 3 Aug. 1559. Signed.
P. S.—[Cancelled.] "I write this letter apart from the other common letter, because it containeth more private matter." Pp. 13.
Draft. Endd.: M. to the Queen. xxiij. Aug. (sic) 1559, by Jones, sent from Flushing.
August 3.
B. M. Galba, C. i. 39. Wright, 1. 7.
1117. Abridged extracts from the above.
August 3.
R. O.
1118. Francis Edwards to Cecil.
His last letter was of July 25 signifying of certain ships rigging at Newhaven, and also of horsemen that should be at Arckes[Arques] at that time. Hearing of these preparations he rode there, where he thought to have seen forty horsemen named pistolers, who however had departed two days before his coming and returned to Picardy or Boulogne, from whence they came. Has since passed through such towns and villages as were appointed to lodge both horse and foot that should pass to Newhaven, but could neither see nor meet any such. The bruit therefore is uncertain. Rode along the coast, and at Feckam [Fêcamp] saw two ships of the burden of seven and eight score tons the piece, preparing to go to Newhaven. At Homflete saw two like ships making ready to serve the King.
After his business done there he returned to Newhaven, where he saw the ships of Feckam come into the haven, and also found there the two ships of Dieppe, of which he wrote in his last letters. These six ships, with other merchant ships of like burden, will be ready within six days, if they have their victuals. When they come together there will be of good ships about the number of fourteen sails; though some say there will be twenty-five, all which will meet at Calais, and there take in horsemen and footmen. The number of men will be about 2,000; some say not more than 1,500. They take in at Newhaven neither men, munition, or provision, but victuals only; they are appointed in no other wise than as if they should go on merchandise. The men sent on this voyage into Scotland are to furnish the holds that the French have there in keeping; and to remain there till they furnish another fleet of ships, which will be made ready after this is departed. The French King's ships lie still unrigged, except one named the St. John, a ship of 240 tons burden; her masts and tackles are up, but she takes in no ordnance nor anything as yet for this voyage; some say she shall not go at this present, within five days all will be ascertained.
Will be again at Newhaven within five days, but will send thither to be sure whether there be any other stay of them or not, as he perceived they expected some other commission from the Court or from Calais. Will write again as soon as he knows how things do pass.—Dieppe, 3 August 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
August 3.
R. O.
1119. [Croftes] to Cecil.
Because Cecil shall hereby receive certain articles from the Protestants of Scotland which Croftes might not conveniently put into cipher, he has therefore sent a post to see this packet safely delivered.
On 1 Aug. Mr. Knox come by sea to Holy Island, minding to come to Sir Harry Percy and himself secretly, but at his arrival he was so well known that his being here is published abroad, which will breed great suspicion. Howbeit, he is so secretly conveyed to this castle, that Croftes' speaking to him can be suspected but not known. He delivered the offers and requests of the Protestants, which the writer now sends. To declare the circumstances of their meaning as Knox had declared them to the writer, would make a large paragraph and not easy to be understood, nor the objections thereto answered, unless some one were there to answer them. Understands by Mr. Knox that the Protestants mean to leave France clearly, and to enter into amity with England in as great and strait manner as the Queen will devise. For that they look to be aided with men and money, and that their whole proceedings go forth by her consent, and that she have some men appointed to be with them, by whose orders and counsel they may direct their doings. Cecil must see that the enterprise that is in hand is first for the setting forth of God's Word, and therewithal the subversion of an estate to be altered into another form, which will not be without charges, and peradventure cum sudore et sanguine; therefore the matter requires good deliberation, and what aid to be given, and what charges, and when to spend and when to spare. For his own contentment the writer wishes he were with Cecil three hours.
Said to Knox he saw not how the Queen could enter a league with them till an authority were established among them; he said that they would elect amongst themselves whom she thought meetest. Therefore he desired that the Earl of Arran should be sent for into England, where he might be secretly detained for a time until wise men might consider what is in him; and, misliking him, to put the Prior of St. Andrew's to be the second.
This last night received Cecil's letter, dated after he had despatched Whytlow, who has not yet arrived here. Has declared the contents to Mr. Knox, who this night returns into Scotland. Knox excuses the Protestants, for that the Frenchmen coming upon them at Edinburgh when their people were departed to make new provision of victuals, forced them to make composition with the Queen. The French, however, he says, are appointed to depart out of Scotland by the 15th of this month, and the Protestants trust verily by this means to be the stronger; for the Duke upon breach of promise on the Queen's part, will take plain part with the Protestants.
Mr. Treasurer's brother will instruct Cecil fully what is owing for payment, for which Croftes trusts that Cecil will take order shortly. Mr. Knox desires answer to the articles.—Berwick, 3 Aug. 1559. Signed.
P.S.—Thanks him for his opinion of the tenths which he [Croftes] sued for, and desires that the Queen be thanked on his behalf.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil: 3 Aug. 1559. Sir James Crofts. Endd.: With Mr. Knoxees instructions. Pp. 4.
August 3.
B.M. Tit. B. vi. 47.
1120. English Goods arrested in Flanders.
Instructions as to the answers to be given to the Advocate Fiscal by the English Factor upon the part of the English merchants, in reference to certain transactions between them and the subjects of the King of Spain in the Low Countries, in reference to the sale of cloths, wools, and other things arrested in Antwerp and Bruges.
Copy. P. 1.
August 4.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 190.
1121. Throckmorton to Cecil.
Wrote to the Queen and him on the 1st inst., and delivered the letters to the steward of the Marquis of Trans, departing that night to England, but "to provide for all wants" sends the effect of both letters by a servant of his own, going but in journey. Thinks this letter, enclosed in one to his wife, will come as soon as the first.
August 4. Since his previous letters has heard that the King of Navarre has come as far as Vendôme, and is looked for here shortly. The Prince of Condé and the Conte d'Eu, eldest son of the Duke of Nevers, are departed towards King Philip, whither went before them the Prince of Ferrara. M. d'Aumale stayed at home through some displeasure between him and his brethren about the Duchess of Valentinois, whose daughter he has married. This being a matter of importance to her, it is thought to countervail the same she shall be in danger to lose the fairest house she has, or that is in Europe, called Anet, whereupon she has bestowed all that she could make, as well in building as in other furniture for pleasure. This sending away of the Princes of Condé and Ferrara with the Count d'Eu to Philip is thought to be a device to have the Prince of Condé and the Count absent from the Court when the King of Navarre comes, and also a practice with the Prince of Ferrara to seek to win the King of Spain for the making of the Pope if the other die; as it is thought he cannot escape. The French would fain make the Cardinal of Ferrara Pope, which would be the worst of all for the Queen. Were well done to travail by the Ambassador with the King of Spain and with the Emperor's Ambassador to prevent it. Will not fail to do what he can with the Ambassador of Venice for the same purpose. The Duke of Saxe has returned from abroad. Understands that they are advertised here from their Ambassador in England that the Earl of Arran has arrived there.
Has learnt that for France there is an accustomed seal made with the arms of France; and for the French Queen a seal is in making, wherein are half the arms of France in one half of the scutcheon, and in the other half the arms of England and Scotland are quartered; this is the pattern that is delivered to the graver to make the said seal by. The interment will be about the 12th or 15th of the month at the farthest; as soon as the interment is done the King goes to Rheims to be sacred, which is to be at as little cost as can be devised. Begs to be fully answered and instructed. Has received no blacks for mourning, and no more has the Ambassador of Venice; knows not what to do. Notwithstanding he has bought a mourning coat and cloak.
P.S.—Has not heard from him since 19th July.—Paris, 4 August 1559. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
August 4.
B. M. Sloane, 4134. 425.
1122. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
August 4.
R. O.
1123. Percy to Cecil.
Since his departure from Norham there has arrived at the Holy Island Mr. Knox, in such unsecret sort that it is openly known both in England and Scotland. Thinks he has not discreetly used his coming; for the Dowager of Scotland has sore burdened him [Percy], both by letters to my Lord of Northumberland and by message yesterday with the Lord Bothwell and Sir James Magill, that he [Percy] had conversed with the Prior of Saint Andrew's and the residue of the Congregation. This thing will cause him to be the more mistrusted; but for the proof thereof he is assured she cannot make it by any means. The contents of Mr. Knox's communing Sir James Croftes has declared to the writer that he has certified the whole effect of his commission to Cecil. Receiving a letter from Mr. Knox, has thought good to send it unto him, that he may see and understand all their whole doings in this weighty matter. Has received another from the L[ord] P[rior] concerning news which Sir James willed the writer to certify. The writer willed the L[ord] P[rior] to use a cipher which he sent to him, which Cecil may perceive as well by his "ticket" as by Mr. Knox's letter.
Has been at Tynemouth, where, as there is not so much as one man dwelling in the house nor yet any lying in the same, saving one priest, he placed some of his own men there, viz., Ralph Lowraunce, with a dozen others. Demanded of Lady Hilton the deliverance of the house, but she would not deliver it to him by the indenture by which she received it. Upon Thursday next she has promised that her indentures shall be there ready. If he had received the house as she would have delivered it to him, there would be neither door, lock, key, forms nor boards, mill, brew-house, nor any other, but only the ordnance and munition, for, as she saith, Sir Thomas Hilton bought it all.—Berwick, 4 August 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: Sir Henry Percy to Mr. Secretary, with Mr. Knoxees letters. Dorso: Received at Growbe (?) the 7 day of August at 11 of the clock at night. Received at Nedderbe, the 7 day of August, at 3 of the clock in the afternoon. Received at Fery . . . . . in the afternoon. Doncaster, 7 of August, at eight of the clock at night. Pp. 2.
August 4.
1124. Croft to Cecil.
Whitlowe came hither yesterday, and the same night departed with Knox into Scotland. It seems that Cecil looked to speak with Knox, who says that in no wise he can be long from his flock, and besides he is not himself meet to treat of so great matters, but thinks rather to devise that M. Henry Berneves, or some other wise man, may be sent to Cecil. It is more than time to determine what to do, for he [Croft] sees great peril to both the realms by "tracting" of time. Berwick, 4 August 1559. Signed.
Orig. Mostly in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
August 4.
B.M. Add. 5754. 50.
1125. Secret Service Money for Sir Ralph Sadler.
Warrant to George Bridgman, Esq., Keeper of the Palace of Westminster, to deliver 3,000l. to Sir Ralph Sadler, to be by him employed according to such instructions as she shall give him.—Eltham, 4 August, 1 Eliz. Signed by the Queen, with seal.
Orig. Endd. Broadside.
August 4.
1126. Winchester and Sackville to the Customers of London.
They shall pay to the merchant adventurers the sum of 2,062l. 14s. 11d., (owing to them by the Queen out of a debt of 20,000l.), out of the next money growing of their next shipping.—Westminster, 4 August 1559. Signed: Winchester,—By Sakevyle.
P. 1.
August 5.
R. O.
1127. Challoner to Cecil.
This morning has been with the new Regent, the Duchess of Parma, to congratulate her, on the Queen's behalf, on her calling to that charge. He found her answer very gentle and wise, as indeed she is reported a very wise lady, much experienced in matters of state. If he is to remain behind he requests that he may be regularly accredited.
The King certainly departs hence on Tuesday next. He resides near Flushing for one or two days until the wind serves him to embark. He makes all the haste he can possible. When the Court removes hence the writer will return to Bergh or Middelburghe, being not far from the place the King shall lie at.
It were well done to write to the western gentlemen to be ready to show officiousness to the King if he chance to touch [in England] by force of weather, or enter into any of the Queen's ports on that coast.—Saturday, 5 Aug. 1559.
P.S.—Has this day heard more particularly of the great gifts which the King has given to his noblemen, "above 500,000 ducats to one and other." Will send the particulars in his next. The sums will not be paid in hand, but in two or three years upon certain tolls and forfeitures.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
August 5.
1128. Croft to Cecil.
Has this day received his letters dated at Otford, 1 Aug., and, according to his direction, has sent the letter directed out of France to the Protestants, of whose proceedings he is in good hope, for he has knowledge that they intend to assemble against the Frenchmen.
This last night spake with Mr. James Mahil [Macgill], and by him understands that the most part of the Scottish Queen's Council are bent with the Protestants, therefore thinks the matter shall go forward. Thinks he shall have occasion to use the advice of Sir John Foster, to practise with some bor derers. He is a very wise man; but because the Earl of Northumberland is not his friend, he will not do anything for fear of his displeasure, unless Cecil will by letters signify to the writer that he may warrant Foster to cipher without danger of the law.—Berwick, 5 Aug. 1559. Signed.
P.S.—"The Protestants want not persuasions sufficient for the purpose." Signed.
Orig. Cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
August 5.
B.M. Vesp. F. 111. 105.
1129. Anna, Countess of Oldenburg, to the Queen.
Has received letters dated 16 June, in which the Queen thanks the writer for kindness shown to certain English, who had resided within her dominions, while exiles on account of religion. Thomas Thomson, or his agents, are permitted to execute the Queen's wishes, respecting the purchase of military stores within the states of the writer, provided they furnish her with an accurate account of the articles so purchased by them. Will be glad to be of service to her in any other matter. 5 Aug. 1559. Anna nata ab Oldenborg, Delmenhorst Comes, orientalis Phrisiæ Comes, Vidua. Signed: Anna myn hant.
Orig. Add., with seal. Pp. 2.


  • 1. These words are cancelled in the draft.
  • 2. Originally, "dissemble."
  • 3. These words are cancelled in the draft.
  • 4. Originally "Spanish Lords."
  • 5. This passage is cancelled in the draft.
  • 6. Originally, "and that he is like to be the leader of their band."
  • 7. Originally, "espials, even about."
  • 8. A cancelled interlineation, the reading of which is uncertain.
  • 9. This sentence is cancelled in the draft.
  • 10. Originally, "it will bud forth the more speed in those parts."
  • 11. A considerable portion of this paragraph is underlined, as if to be written in cipher.
  • 12. Here again some passages are underlined.
  • 13. Originally, "cannot endure that France should prevail."
  • 14. Originally, "five."
  • 15. Originally, "2,000 or 3,000 crowns."