Elizabeth: October 1559, 1-5

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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'Elizabeth: October 1559, 1-5', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, ed. Joseph Stevenson( London, 1865), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp1-18 [accessed 24 July 2024].

'Elizabeth: October 1559, 1-5', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Edited by Joseph Stevenson( London, 1865), British History Online, accessed July 24, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp1-18.

"Elizabeth: October 1559, 1-5". Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Ed. Joseph Stevenson(London, 1865), , British History Online. Web. 24 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp1-18.

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October 1559, 1-5

A.D. 1559.
Oct. 1.
R. O.
1. Augustus, Duke of Saxony, to the Queen.
The dreadful confusions and perils of Europe induce him to pray earnestly to God that He would unite Princes within His church and that she may have a long reign. His chief desire is that her and his churches may be united in godly agreement; and he rejoices that she prefers the pure, simple, and plain doctrine of the Confession presented to Charles V. at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, before all the others that have arisen within the last forty years. It is obvious that they hold, truly and plainly, the sum of the doctrine of the Catholic Church, as it is delivered in the prophetic and apostolic writings, and in the creeds; putting aside all seditious and monstrous opinions and rejecting all errors blasphemous to God and injurious to mankind. Is persuaded that this Confession agrees with the writers who lived near the apostolic times.—Cal. Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Lat. Pp. 2.
Oct. 1.
R. O. 171 B.
2. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
R. O.
3. (a) to Cecil.
1. Has received Cecil's letters of Aug. 8 and 27, and according to his command has imparted what he had to say on the Queen's service to the Ambassador here, thinking that he would have imparted the same to Cecil. The writer therefore addresses himself direct to Cecil at the Queen's request, premising that he fears he shall write like a rude and soldierlike secretary, who has been used rather to the trailing of his pike.
2. At the King's first coming into England, the late Queen preferred the writer into his service, remembering what he had done for her at the beginning of her reign, but had been smally rewarded. Not contented therewith he sought his adventures abroad, following the wars in the service of the King under the Duke of Alva, who had him in reputation, he having had experience in the late wars against Rome, so that the King has considered him. He has not been in England above two months and a half since the said time, which was when he was sent over with the Conte de Feria when he came to England about the loss of Calais.
3. As concerning the L[ady] C[atherine], who is one he has never seen, he understood when he first wrote of it that the practice had then been three or four times talked of, with the full determination what should be done therein, of which the writer thought fit to inform Cecil. It would have been put in practice if the French King had not died, an event which has happened since he wrote. Is not certain whether their determination has altered. The King here does not so much fear the French King that now is as he did his father.
4. The King here, (perceiving that the French were determined to make war against England in the title of the Scottish Queen, and making full account to win it by conquest, knowing its weakness of men of war, government, and treasure, and that it was much divided for matters of religion,) was jealous of the French King, if he become so strong as to be King of three kingdoms. His Council thought how he might bothe "geg"' the French King and also have a title to the crown of England, namely, by the conveying out of the realm of the L. K. [Lady Katherine] who is supposed to be the next heir to the realm, and marry her to the Prince, his son, or some other smaller personage, as occasion should serve.
5. These persuasions were used to make the matter easier to be accomplished, viz., the said lady was in the Queen's great displeasure, who could not well abide the sight of her. The Duchess, her mother, with her father-in-law did not love her, and chiefly her uncle would in no wise abide to hear of her, so that she lived as it were in great despair. She had spoken very arrogant and unseemly words in the hearing of the Queen and others standing by. It was hence thought that she could be enticed away if some trusty body spoke with her. They suggested the mother of the maids (not one of the best or honestest of livers) or the Countess of Feria, but the Count would in no wise agree that his wife should tarry any longer in England, he having a great misliking of her evil usage at the Queen's hands after his departure, nor yet would he return for many respects, but chiefly because he could not suffer quietly the evil entreating of his wife in his absence. The Lady Montague was named, also the wife of the Lord John Grey, but it was thought that the one loved her husband too well to keep the matter secret. The Lady Hungerford was named, and last of all the Earl Arundel, who was said to have sold his lands and was ready to flee out of the realm with the money, because he could not abide in England if Mr. Pickering should marry the Queen, for they were enemies.
6. Amongst the rest the writer was named by the Duke of Alva, to be sent into England to attend upon the Bishop of Aquila, the Duke having had experience of his services in the matters of Italy. It was also thought good that some ship should be sent into England to lay in the Thames, as if for the Ambassador. It was thought that if she were so stolen away it would be suspected that some within the realm had done it, thinking to marry her.
7. He does not know whether the L. K. [Lady Katherine] or any of the parties before rehearsed are privy to these practices, or whether they are only thought meetest by some on this side. But if the French King had lived, Cecil would perhaps have seen something thereof. But since his death the writer has heard no more, though some others also said that the King should sit quietly and let England and France war together until they were both well spent, and then he might rule them both as he listed, and take England himself. This advice was not worst liked.
8. As to the friendship of some of the nobility in England to the King, the writer having been made acquainted with Fra John de Villa Garzia, who was reader in Oxford, there was showed to him a letter from the Bishop of Aquila in the matters of England in which he noted these suspicious words. "Yo conosco que el mucho tadar de su Mgd. haze que los grandes de Ynglaterra mas quyeren el Re de Francya que a su Mgd.," the construction of which words he omits now. He has learned that the King still entertains certain of the noblemen, whose pensions are secretly paid by the Bishop of Aquila, whose names he will not rehearse at present. Omits all other naughty rumours and slanderous reports, because he has told them to the Ambassador. Assures him that there are at this day many eyes over England, and as the Queen matches herself in marriage so shall the things fall out which as yet are hidden. To make a hard comparison, he may liken England to a bone thrown between two dogs, for many times he sees what he will not speak of, and suffers what his heart will not well bear. Offers to do the Queen service. Is appointed by express name to go into Spain, but has asked leave to remain here with the Conte de Feria. While in Spain will send information if he may be assured how to convey his letters.—Antwerp. Signed and with two seals, one being Challoner's.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil. Portion of the endorsement torn off. Pp. 6.
Oct. 1.
R. O.
4. Cecil to Throckmorton.
1. Is sorry Barnaby has not been despatched before now, whom now he sends with the present letter.
2. The French Ambassador has delivered the confirmation of the treaty of Scotland; wherefore Throckmorton should return the commission sent to him for demanding the same. The Ambassador has of late been very earnest with Her Majesty on behalf of the Queen Dowager of Scotland, to permit no Scot to pass through England without letters of the Queen, according to the treaty. This, whatsoever he says, has been duly observed, saving for certain recommended by the said Ambassador. Her Majesty will be more the ware and give passport to none, except such as shall bring request from one of the Scottish Queens. If complaint thereof is made, let him use his answer accordingly, because notwithstanding all this matter is for the Earl of Arran and such like. Has this morning received letters from Berwick, whereby it appears that the French make fortification at Leith, wherewith the Duke of Châtellerault and Congregation of Scotland are much offended; and now they have ended their consultation, and assemble with all speed to try the matter. The Duke of Châtellerault and Earl of Huntly refuse to come to the Queen Dowager. Within these few days more will appear.
3. The Bishop of Amiens has arrived in Scotland with 300 men. They say certainly that the Earl of Arran is in Scotland and joined to the Congregation. Some think he passed by Denmark, some through England by stealth, which might be easily done under pretence of a Frenchman, as they do daily pass. The French suspect the Queen was privy of his going, but herein they be deceived.
4. Here is great resort of wooers, and controversy amongst lovers. The King of Sweden's second son, John, Duke of Finland, has arrived at Harwich with five hulks. Encloses a letter from Mr. Smith concerning the same. Perceives here is some heart-burning.
5. The French, to hinder the suits of Austria and the mistrust of Scotland, favour Sweden; and the Ministers of Austria mislike both Sweden and Scotland. The Duke shall come on Wednesday to Winchester House, and he thinks on Friday hither. He brings great plenty of silver, but yet much counterfeited; it is not valued, but Her Majesty provides that the Swedes shall have current money at the Mint upon an exchange. The Commissioners on the Borders have ended touching good order upon the frontiers, but he knows not what is done. The Bishop of Durham is deprived, and for certain disordered speech committed to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who to-day has written some hope of his reconciliation; a thing for Cecil's part much desired. Carne is still at Rome, and says he is still stayed there, writing piteously in words to be helped home. Lord Grey has safely arrived. Strangwish and seven more shall be put to execution, the rest shall go to the galleys. The Duke of Saxony's Ambassador, Count Mansfelt, and one Francisco, who was the old Duke's chancellor, shortly return re infecta. It may not be much known that they motioned any matter of matrimony. The chancellor of the Duke of Holstein is treating here for an intercourse of merchandise.
6. Throckmorton will now look for some comfort for himself. The only let of his abiding in France, is the necessity of his service, which is such as, all parts considered, Cecil knows not the like choice; yet he presses for his release, to prove another heretofore named by Throckmorton, but who cannot be here so allowed.—Westminster, 1 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd.: Mr. Secretary to me. Pp. 4.
Oct. 1.
R. O.
5. The Earl of Oxford to the Council.
This morning he received [the Duke of Finland] and appointed [Sir] Thomas Smith to talk with him by the way touching the proclamation, of which a copy in Latin was shown to him at Colchester. If they who have been deceived by the false money will bring it to him in London, he is willing to pay them, so that they shall be no losers. He has this night come to Colchester with eleven carts and forty-four horses, and of his own horse about thirty. The writer must lay out money for them this night; seeing the proclamation is now known abroad they will take none of his coin. The Duke likes the country very well. The Earl has prepared for him and his uncle handsome ambling geldings, and will do still for his journey. Does not doubt to bring him to London on Wednesday at night betimes.—Colchester, 1 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd.: 2 Oct. 1559. Damaged in the margin by damp. Pp. 2.
Oct. 1.
R. O.
6. Sir Thomas Smith to Cecil.
1. If the Duke were never so great a Prince he may be well content with his entertainment here. Likes him better every day, because he begins more and more to learn our manners, and (as we call it merrily in England) to be a good fellow; "I mean, to leave off his high looks and pontificiality." In everything that is moved touching the matters mentioned in the letters from the Council he answered gently and wisely. Our country he likes but too well. My Lord here omits nothing that should be needful or meet for him. Assures him that no man in England could do so much and so readily as the Earl, with the love that the gentlemen and the whole country bear to him, whether for the antiquity of his ancestry, or his own gentleness, or the dexterity of those that are about, or rather all these.
2. For the dalers, seeing they are bullion, it must needs come hither to-morrow. Cecil has not written to tell them what value the true daler is esteemed at the Mint. The Duke likes his conduction so well that he will now go and tarry even as my Lord wills, but his halberdeers and guard follow him. He has with him eight footmen arrayed in black velvet jerkins after the manner of England, "as I perceive some of his hath seen about London, and rideth a faster pace than he was wont to go on hawking. The most care that he hath is for his great horse; and yet I do not doubt we shall learn them to go these small journeys well enough."—Colchester, 1 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Injured by damp. Pp. 2.
Oct. 1.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 192 b. Knox. 1. 420. Calderw. 1. 522.
7. The Lord James to the Regent.
Has received her writing, and finding the business of such importance, has thought good to delay the answer thereof until he may have the judgment of the whole Council. They have amongst them a solemn oath that none of them shall traffic with her secretly, or make an address for himself particularly, which oath he purposes to keep inviolate. When the rest convene, he will leave nothing undone for the quietness of the realm, provided the glory of Christ is not hindered by their concord; and if she is as tractable as she now offers, he doubts not to obtain of the rest of his brethren such favour towards her service as she will be content with. Takes God to record that in this action he seeks nothing than God's glory and the liberty of this poor realm. Has shown to her messenger the things that have misliked him in her proceedings. —St. Andrews, 1 Oct. Signed.
Oct. 1.
B. M. Sloane, 4737. 107.
8. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 2.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 192b. Knox, 1. 421. Calderw. 1. 523.
9. Proclamation of the Queen Dowager of Scotland. (fn. 1)
1. Forasmuch as she understands that the Duke of Châtellerault, in his missives lately directed into all parts of the realm, mentions that the Frenchmen with their families begin to plant themselves in Leith; and that the fortifications thereof are a purpose devised in France, and that therefore M. de la Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens are come to this country: —Therefore she is moved to make patent what her proceedings have been since the appointment made on the Links besides Leith, that every man may understand how unjustly that will to suppress the liberty of the realm is laid to her charge.
2. Although, after the appointment, divers of the Congregation (and that not of the meaner sort,) had contravened violently the points thereof, and made sundry occasions of new cumber, the same was in part winked at and overlooked, in hope that they would in time remember their duty, whilst in the mean time nothing was provided for her own security. But at last by their frequent messages to and from England, their intelligence was then perceived; through which force was to her Grace, seeing so great defection of great personages, to have recourse to the law of nature, and she could do no less than provide some sure retreat for herself and company. She therefore chose Leith, because it was her daughter's property, and because in time afore it had been fortified.
3. About the same time that the seeking support of England was made manifest, arrived the Earl of Arran, and joined himself to the Congregation. And as some of the Congregation at the same time had put to their hands and, taking the castle of Broughty, had put forth the keepers thereof, immediately came from the Duke to her, unlooked for, a writing, besides many others, complaining of the fortification of Leith, in hurt of the ancient inhabitants thereof, brethren of the Congregation, whereof he then professed himself a member. Albeit the bearer of the said writing was an unmeet messenger in a matter of such consequence, yet she directed to him two persons of good credit and reputation with answer, offering, if he would cause amends to be made for that which was committed against the laws of the realm, to do further than could be craved of reason. Nevertheless they continue in their doings, usurping the authority, charging free boroughs to choose provosts and officers of their naming, and to assist them in the purpose they would be at; they will not suffer provisions to be brought for sustentation of her houses, and great part has so plainly set aside all reverence and humanity; whereby every man may know that it is no matter of religion but a plain usurpation of authority, and no doubt simple men therewith falsely have been deceived. The world shall see that the fortification of Leith was devised for no other purpose but for recourse of her and her company, in case they were pursued. Wherefore all good subjects will not suffer themselves to be led away, but will assist in the defence of their Sovereign's quarrel. She therefore ordains the officers of arms to pass to all head boroughs of the realm, and there proclaim that none put themselves in arms or take part with the said Duke and his assisters under pain of treason.
Oct. 2.
B. M. Sloane, 4737. 107 b.
10. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 2.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 477. No. LXI.
11. Sadler and Croftes to the Privy Council.
The late Queen Mary addressed her letters to the Earl of Westmorland, then her lieutenant in the north, that he should allow 2 lbs. of corn powder every month to every harquebussier, that by exercise of their pieces they might learn to be the more perfect in that feat, who thereupon wrote to Mr. Gower, the Master of the Ordnance in the north parts, to make the said allowance by warrant of the muster master, Sir John Brende. This was performed till the 1 May last, since which time Gower has had no further warrant, notwithstanding which the soldiers have had their powder as before. Gower now requires to stop so much of their pay as will answer for the powder which they have had since 1 May; while on the other side the captains and soldiers allege that they know none other but that they should still enjoy their said allowance, because they have not had sufficient warning of the contrary, or else they would not have spent so much powder. Gower says that he gave them warning, which they deny. The writers therefore beseech their Lordships to send Gower a warrant for the allowance up to the present, and that from henceforth it may cease.—2 Oct. 1559.
Oct. 3.
R. O.
12. The Queen to John Frederic II., Duke of Saxony.
1. The Count of Mansfeld and Franciscus Burcardus, the Duke's Legates, besides delivering his letters, have addressed her upon two matters.
2. Upon the subject of religion. Herein she so much approves of his proceedings as that, although she has already followed the same, she will take care to let him see that herein he has not laboured in vain.
3. As to the question of marriage. Although she has always been opposed to it, yet she confesses she is much indebted to him for the way in which he has recommended his brother to her, whose merits are well known at home and abroad. Of this he will be more fully informed by his Orators, to whom she has explained herself at greater length. Will be happy to continue the friendship which has hitherto existed.— Westminster, 3 Oct. 1 Eliz. A.D. 1559.
Corrected draft, in Ascham's hol. with a short addition by Cecil. Endd.: M. to the Duke of Saxony from the Queen, the second of September (sic). Lat. Pp. 2.
Oct. 3.
R. O. 171 B.
13. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Oct. 3.
R. O.
14. The Emperor Ferdinand to the Queen.
The citizens of the maritime states of the Germanic empire have from time immemorial enjoyed many privileges from the Sovereigns of England, and have had a house and market of their own [in London] until the time of Henry VIII. During the reign of Edward VI. these privileges were for a time curtailed, but they were restored by Queen Mary, notwithstanding which they are again endangered. He therefore prays that she would restore these petitioners' ancient privileges and protect them in the possession of the same.—Vienna, 3 Oct. 1559.—Signed: Ferdinandus,—Haller,—V. Seld.
Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
Oct. 3.
B. M. Nero, B. ix. 94.
15. Another copy of the preceding.
Copy by Cotton's transcriber. "Ex originali."
Oct. 3.
B. M. Sloane, 4142. 30.
16. Another copy of the preceding.
Forbes' transcript.
Oct. 3.
R. O. 171 B.
17. Another copy of the preceding.
Modern transcript.
Oct. 3.
R. O.
18. Gresham to Cecil.
Wrote on the 2nd inst. to say that he had taken up by exchange 5,102l. 15s. 3d. sterling, and that the exchange was now at a stay and no money stirring. The permission money rises from 2l. 10s. to 3l., the Prince having "brought in all the fine monies and brought in two pieces of 5s. 10d., which is very basse and naught." His very friend Mr. Jasper Schettes, the King's general factor and one of the Council of Finance, promises that a commandment shall come from the Regent that no man take above one per cent. for the difference of current money and permission money, for which Gresham has promised to give him in the Queen's behalf 600 crowns. This will save the Queen at least 2,000l. in the payment of the 95,000l. which she owes here now in October and November. Writes in post that Cecil may cause the merchants to pay the 600 crowns and allow one per cent.—Antwerp, 3 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Fragment of seal remaining. Pp. 3.
Oct. 3.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 478. No. LXII.
19. Cecil to Sadler and Croftes.
Their letters and enclosures of the 29th Sept. came on the 3rd Oct. The Queen is pleased, that, with what remains in their hands, they reward such Protestants as the Lords of Ormeston, Kirkaldy, Balnaves, and Whitlaw. They shall have shortly 3,000l. sent. The Scots who sue for liberty of trafficking cannot be answered without request from their Queen, in which point the French Ambassador has been lately very earnest; and yet if the Captain of Berwick can help the matter he shall have authority from the Court. Cannot hear of any that sues for Mrs. Bowes' licence, or to whom he might deliver it if it were obtained.—Westminster, 3 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Oct. 3.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 193 b. Knox, 1. 424. Calderw. 1. 525.
20. Declaration of the Lords of the Congregation.
1. Are unwillingly compelled to answer the grievous accusations of the Queen Regent and her perverse Council.
2. So far from pretending the subversion of all just authority they have sought nothing but that such authority as God approves by His Word should be established amongst them. True it is that they complain of this inbringing of soldiers with their wives and children, which appears a ready way to conquest; and they earnestly require indifferent persons to judge whether their complaint be just. Six years past the question was demanded of a man of honest reputation, what number of men was able to "dantoun" Scotland and bring it to the full obedience of France.
3. She alleges that it is untrue to say that the fortifications of Leith were devised in France, and that for that purpose were M. de la Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens sent; but it is evident that since their arrival Leith was begun to be fortified. She alleges that she was compelled to provide some sure retreat for herself and company, but why does she not answer for what purpose she brought in her new bands of men of war?
4. Whatever she alleges, she cannot prove that the Congregation contravened the appointment in any chief point before the arrival of her throat cutters, or before the fortifying of Leith, a place very meet for receiving strangers at her pleasure; for if she had feared pursuit, she had the Inch, Dunbar, and Blackness, forts and strengths already made.
5. The writers will show the title that she and her daughter have to Leith. There having been an old contention between Edinburgh and Leith respecting the liberty and freedom of the latter, the Queen Regent advertised some of Leith that she would make their town free, if she might do it with any colour of justice. By this promise the principal men of them travailed with the Laird of Restalrig, to whom the superiority of Leith appertained, that he should sell his title to the Queen, which the inhabitants of Leith paid for, with a large taxation more, to the Regent, in hope to have been made free, in despite and defraud of Edinburgh. Whereas she alleges that it was fortified before, they ask whether that was done without the consent of the nobility and estates of the realm?
6. How far they have sought support of England, or of any other Princes, and how just cause they had to do so, they will shortly manifest to the world. In this their enterprise against the devil and idolatry, they only seek God's glory to be notified to man, sin to be punished and virtue maintained; so where their power fails, they will seek wheresoever God offers the same; and in so doing are assured neither to offend God, or do anything repugnant to their duties. They thank God that the Earl of Arran joined them; but how malicious a lie it is that they have promised to set him up in authority, the issue shall declare. No such thing has entered their hearts, nor has he moved it to them. The least of them knows better what obedience is due to lawful authority than she or her authority knows how to practise the office of such as worthily may sit upon the seat of justice; for they perform all obedience which God has commanded and deny neither toll, tribute, or honour to her and her officers. They only bridle her blind rage, in which she would maintain idolatry, and murder their brethren who refuse the same. But she utterly abuses the authority established by God; profanes the throne of His Majesty on earth, making the seat of justice to be a den and receptacle of thieves, murderers, idolaters, whoremongers, adulterers, and blasphemers of God and all godliness. It is more than evident what men they are whom she maintains and defends.
7. They deny not the taking of the house of Broughty, and think that no natural Scotchman will be offended at this fact. It was found that the taking of the said house by Frenchmen would be destructive to Dundee and hurtful to St. Johnston, and therefore it was thought expedient to prevent that danger. The conjectures that the French minded shortly to have taken those two towns were not obscure. Wish that their power had been in the same manner to have foreclosed their entry to Leith.
8. If her accusation against the Duke of Châtellerault be truly spoken, they will not refuse the judgment of the very men whom she alleges to be of so honest a reputation. For the Duke answered that if the realm were set free from the bondage of the men of war, he and all the Congregation would come and give all "debtful" obedience to the Queen her daughter, and to herself, as Regent; but to enter into conference so long as she keeps above them that fearful scourge of cruel strangers, he thought no wise man would counsel. Which answer they approve; adding that she can make no promise which she can keep or they credit as long as she is forced with the strength, and ruled by the counsel of the French.
9. They are not ignorant that Princes think it good policy to betray their subjects by breaking promises be they ever so solemnly made. Nor have they forgotten the counsel that she and D'Oysel gave to the Duke against them that slew the Cardinal,—that what promise they list to require should be made unto them, but that so soon as the castle of St. Andrews was rendered, he should chop the heads from every one of them. To which the Duke answered that he would never consent to so treasonable an act. Mons. D'Oysel said in mockage to the Queen in French, "That is a good simple nature, but I know no other prince who would so do." If this was his judgment in so small a matter, what have they to suspect in their own cause? If the slaughter of a Cardinal be an irremissable sin, as they affirm, and if no faith ought to be kept with heretics, as their own law speaks, what promise can she that is ruled by a Cardinal make that can be sure?
10. They deny that they have commanded free boroughs to choose provosts and officers of their naming, but have only exhorted them to choose such as have the fear of God before them. Has she not compelled the town of Edinburgh to retain a man to be their provost, (fn. 2) most unworthy of any regiment in any well ruled commonwealth, and forced them to take baillies of her appointment, some as meet for their office, as "a sowtar to sail a ship in a stormy day"?
11. She complains that they will not suffer provision to be made for her house. They repent that they took not better order that her murderers and oppressors had not been disappointed of that great provision of victuals which she and they have gathered, to the great hurt of the whole country; but in time coming they will do diligence somewhat to frustrate their devilish purpose. They commit their cause to God, and fear not to say that against them she makes a most malicious lie, where she says that it is not religion that they go about but a plain usurpation of authority. While idle bellies and bloody tyrants, the Bishops, are maintained, and Christ's true messengers persecuted, no godly man can be offended that they seek reformation of these enormities, even by force of arms. The oath that they have made to be true to the commonwealth compels them to hazard whatever God has given them before they see the miserable ruin of the same. As the enemy foresees that idolatry cannot be universally maintained unless they be suppressed, so they consider that the true religion cannot be erected unless strangers be removed. Therefore they desire all natural Scotchmen to discern between them and the Regent, and not be persuaded to lift their weapons against them or extract from them their support; assuring such as shall declare themselves enemies that they will repute such, whenever God puts the sword of justice in their hands, worthy of such punishment as is due for those who study to betray their country.
Oct. 3.
B. M. Sloane, 4737. 108.
21. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 4.
R. O.
22. The Queen to Philip, King of Spain.
1. Congratulates him upon his safe arrival in Spain, of which she has been informed by the Bishop of Aquila.
2 The Bishop having asked her how she would receive a visit from Charles, Archduke of Austria, (the Emperor's son and Philip's cousin,) she inquired whether he had done this upon his own authority? And having been informed by him that he had asked the question by Philip's orders, she writes to him upon the subject. She requests that her reply may be taken in good part, and lead to no coolness between them.
3. She believes that Philip is already aware that she has always been opposed to matrimony, and she assures him that she still adheres to the same resolution. Consequently she would have found it difficult to have answered Philip's Orator, had not he assured her that the Archduke's visit did not depend upon the hope which he had of effecting this marriage, but proceeded from the independent wish of visiting her and her realm.
Oct. 4. 4. She is thus enabled to return for answer that, the matter being understood to be on such a footing, the King and the Archduke must herein exercise their own discretion.— Westminster, 4 Oct. 1559.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 7.
Oct. 4.
R. O. 171 B.
23. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Oct. 4.
R. O.
24. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to the Queen.
Having occasion to send a gentleman, named Le Croc, into France, she commends him to the Queen, and requests that she will give him audience and credence in the thing which he will declare.—Edinburgh, 4 Oct. 1559. Signed: [y]our gud sester and allya, Marie.
Orig. Add. Endd. Broadside.
Oct. 4.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 479. No. LXIII.
25. Sadler, Croftes, and Abingdon to the Privy Council.
They perceive, by the remainder of victuals left, that they will not last over March next, and have but insufficient money to buy more. As no provision can be made here for want of money, they think that the Council should either appoint purveyors here, with money to make a new provision, or else give leave to John Abingdon to come to London to devise with them how the said provision may be best made in London, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and so along the coast, which he may well do in returning hither.—4 Oct. 1559.
Oct. 5.
R. O.
26. Mundt to the Queen.
1. Has not written for some time. The empire is quiet, as far as regards wars, but it is split up and divided with dissensions in matters of faith and religion. The application made to protect the clergy here resident has been rejected, and they have been advised to abandon their superstition and idolatry, and to embrace true religion. The people of Treves lately procured for themselves an evangelical preacher, and protect him against the Archbishop Elector. At Aix-la-Chapelle in Belgium the populace requested the magistrates to cause the Gospel to be preached; and so high did the strife run between the parties that the matter would have been put to the vote, had not the greater part of the magistracy been of the papistical side.
2. The Count of Brabant and the Bishop of Liége, who are their neighbours, would terrify them from making any innovation in religion, being apprehensive that such like changes will spread into their jurisdictions. The present administration of affairs in France is exceedingly displeasant to many great men, and many persons think that this usurpation will be broken up with some great tumult, for which a head is wanting but not members. To this Vendôme has been invited, but he has closed his ears. Bad news have arrived from France respecting the health of the King and Queen; the former suffers from an incurable disease and will not live long, the latter is in a consumption. The Duke of Saxony has lately arrived here from France, from which he has returned not well satisfied. His chancellor reports that he, the Duke, was dismissed without honour or reward, nor was he paid what was due to him. The Duke has departed from hence to the Elector Palatine, his elder brother, whose daughter he has married. It appears that Philip is about to make a long stay in Spain, for the Count von Bolwyler will be Orator in Spain with Philip from the Emperor, and his embassy is for two years. The Palatine's brother, who had been asked to accompany the Legate and the Bishop elect of Trent, in the name of the empire, into France, to demand the territories seized by the French, has refused the mission; and now it is reported that Count Louis von Stolberg will accompany the Bishop elect. Time will show with what success.—Strasburg, 5 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add., with armorial seal. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
Oct. 5.
R. O.
27. Munt to Cecil.
1. Wrote last upon 3 Sept. and supposes his letter has been received. Of what has happened since that date he has informed the Queen. Mentioned in his letter to her of 15 August that it appeared to him to be expedient that a letter should be sent to the Duke of Wurtemberg, who feels himself slighted, in having received no reply to the many communications which he has sent into England; no answer, however, has been made to this his suggestion. He had also written not long ago to Cecil from Augsburg that it was advisable, in his opinion, that England should enter into a league with the Hanse towns, and he is still of the same way of thinking. The Saxons are the most powerful nation in Germany, both in horse and foot soldiers, and it is easy thence to send troops into England; besides, when Henry, Duke of Brunswick, (who is now old and infirm,) dies, the whole of Saxony will be of one faith, as the Duke's only son and heir is an earnest favourer of religion. It will be far easier for England to have the assistance of the Saxons than for France to have that of the Swiss, which is an expensive alliance. The Duke of Saxony is endeavouring to renew the old leagues with the Swiss, and is prepared to submit to the decision of the rest of the Swiss Cantons his dispute with the Bernese. The quarrel between the people of Berne and Geneva respecting jurisdiction has been decided by the people of Bâle, to whom it was referred. They have decreed that the Bernese shall pay to the Genevans 30,000 crowns.
2. Has lately heard with much sorrow that Cecil's fatherin-law has had an attack of a quartan fever. Requests to be recommended to Masson, and entrusts his cause to Cecil's prudence and integrity.—Strasburg, 5 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add., with armorial seal. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
Oct. 5.
B. M. Add. 5754. 53. Sadler, 1. 480. No.LXIV.
28. The Queen to Sadler.
Knowing that, for the purpose committed to him, he requires relief in money, has sent to him by this bearer, 3,000l. in gold, until she hears from him what further shall be convenient to do herein, and in what manner this portion shall be defrayed. Prays him not to neglect advertising her of things from time to time. Is pleased that he shculd bestow some of the former sum which he had at his departure, on those persons, before mentioned, who have expended of their own. —Westminster, 5 Oct., 1 Eliz. 1559.
Copy of the Queen's letters remaining with Sadler, certified by the signatures of Winchester and Wa. Mildmay. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Oct. 5.
MS. Burton-Constable.
29. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 5.
B. M. Add. 5754. 57 b.
30. Another copy of the above.
P. 1.
Oct. 5.
R. O.
31. Another copy of the above.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Oct. 5.
B. M. Add. 5754. 54.
32. Money for Sadler.
Warrant to George Bredyman, Esq., to pay to Cecil 3,000l. to be by him issued again for her affairs in such sort as she shall specially direct unto him.—Westminster, 5 Oct. 1 Eliz.
Orig. on vellum, signed by the Queen, with seal. Endd.
Oct. 5.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 481. No. LXVI.
33. Cecil to Sadler.
1. To-morrow morning Overton, the clerk of the musters, shall depart hence with 3,000l. He knows not how much he brings with him. Sadler may be bold (as he sees cause) to defray part thereof. He may perceive by the enclosed complaint of the French Ambassador, how hard it is to give safe conducts to Scots not warranted by their Queen. Has this day received the letters of Sadler and Croftes touching the unnatural proceedings of old Mr. Croftes. Thanks them for their opinion for order of the wardenries. God send good speed there; for if an advantage be not gotten, time will never return it; and so he ends. This day Math. Arundel is married to Mrs. Willoghby. The French are making greater preparations than before, and trust for the time upon the fortification of Leith.—Westminster, 5 Oct. 1559. Signed.
2. P. S.—When Mr. Raylton writes in cipher, let him write no more than needeth, in regard to Cecil's other labours.
Oct. 5.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 482. No. LXVII.
34. Affairs of Scotland.
Memorandum of the request made to the Queen and Council by the French Ambassador at the last audience.
Many Scots having passed into England and English into Scotland, without the letters required by the late treaties, (as for example, the Laird of Grange, a Scotchman, who went to Norham, when the Earl of Northumberland and his brother were there, being conducted thither by an English servant named Refflaurens [Ralph Lawrence?] and a servant of the Earl of Arran, named Forbes, a Scotchman, who several times passed and repassed without a passport;) it is therefore requested that, as these violations of the truce may lead to misunderstandings, they may be discouraged.
Oct. 5.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 483. No. LXVIII.
35. Lord Wharton to Sadler.
1. A servant of the writer, having taken prisoner the young Lord of Coldingknowes, Scotchman, on the day of the disordered skirmish called Norham Chase, which prisoner he let to sureties upon bond to enter again upon warning, especially for the relief of Roland Forster, then prisoner at Edinburgh, at the Dowager's command caused the sureties to be warned for the said Coldingknowes to enter at Newcastle. Is told by his friend, Sir Robert Brandlyng, that the prisoner was with him; and before his entry made, the mayor there took him upon the Earl of Northumberland's letters, his [Sadler's], and Croftes'. Knows not what is done with him.
2. Desires that he may have this prisoner for the use of his servant, whom he took on Halidown Hills, and brought in at the postern of Berwick Castle; before my Lord of Northumberland, Crofts, and Sadler. And if any trial of this have passed before the Marshal, trusts he will consider that thing as done during his charge as Captain of Berwick, that the Marshal now do not suffer such a case to be tried before him. The same and many other things deface officers of trust.—Wharton, 5 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Oct. 5.
R. O.
36. English Fugitives into France.
i. The confession of Richard Swete, servant to Richard Prestwode, concerning the behaviour of parson Smarte and Yendalle, 5 Oct. 1559.
1. They took shipping in the river of Exmouth, and landed about Conquete or Brest.
2. At their coming to Morles they said they had rather to live poorly in a strange country with a quiet conscience than otherwise to live in their native country.
3. He showed them they should live "more better" at Paris than at Morles, whereupon they took their journey to Paris, having one horse lent them by Humphrey Paris. Within one month they came back from Paris, partly upon the death of the French King, and partly for that victuals were there so dear that they could not live.
Oct. 5. 4. They inquired of an Englishman, who came out of England, what news there; who said that certain of the Canons with the Bishop of Exeter were come home again, and that they had subscribed unto such articles as were laid unto them. Yendall answered by a certain term of Latin that they had not kept promise.
5. He understands by the merchants of Morles that they had declared that the cause of their coming out of their country was that the Queen had caused the churches to be put down, and that the Sacraments were not duly ministered, and that they stood in doubt that they should be put to trouble for the same.
ii. The Confession of Humphrey Paris.
Departed from London towards Rome, [Rouen?] 18 June, and from thence to Morles, where he arrived 8 July. About 13 July arrived these two priests, Smert and Yendall, with the former of whom he was acquainted, he being the chief overseer of the children of John Paris, the deponent's brother, lately deceased. Smert declared that the cause of his coming was but to serve his conscience, and that he came from Exmouth Haven. The deponent having his horse, (which he brought with him from Rome, and could not sell but for a small price, and which was standing him every day 6d. for his meat), offered his horse to Smert, if he would pay for his meat and would sell him in Paris and send him the money, with which he was content. One Richard Heballe, being in company, said he much marvelled that such as were here kept them company.
iii. The Confession of John Hockley.
Being at Morlaix about 1 September last past, there came in a friar of S. Francis, where two English priests are now remaining, parsons Smerte and Yendalle. Asked the friars how such priests liked their abode so solitary and close, considering their large liberty and overmuch pleasure in England. The friar said they were well content for the time, looking ere long to have some change in religion through the death of the Queen, which they most desired; the friar repeated these words sundry times. The deponent came to his lodgings and opened these words in the presence of the merchanst that lodged in that house, "declaring them villains and traitors for so saying of their Queen, who hath been overmuch merciful to all their sect." He went to the friars the Sunday following, where he spake with the said priests, who demanded of him how the Bishop of Exeter did, and where the Canons were, as namely the Dean Blaxston and Doctor Gammon, with others; to whom he answered that the Bishop had subscribed, and for that was admitted again to be Bishop, and for the Canons, said they were all come to Exeter again. Parson Smerte changed colour and said, "Then we may say that men are ly[ers]." Had no further talk with him. Signed: John Chechester.
Slightly torn. Endd. 20 October 1559. Pp. 4.
Oct. 5.
R. O.
37. Gresham's Accounts in Flanders.
"Money received and due by Thomas Gresham," viz.,
1. Received 5 Oct. 1559, 16,410l. 12s. 9d., and paid by him between 20 Aug. and 27 Sept. last, 9,951l. 18s. 6d., leaving a balance of 6,458l. 14s. 3d.
2. Money due by exchange to 23 Oct. 1559, 15,959l. 12s. 9d. Endd. by Cecil: Mr. Gresham, Mr. Osborn. P. 1.
Oct. 5.
R. O.
38. Munition from Abroad.
"The provisions hereafter ensuing are to be made in the parts beyond the seas very needful for the service and defence of the realm, viz., cornpower, saltpetre, brimstone, Cullyn cleves, dagges, copper in bullets for guns of brass, bowstaves," (fn. 3) amounting to 16,550l.—5 Oct. 1559.
Endd. by Cecil. P. 1.


  • 1. The Vice-Chancellor of Scotland to Noailles.
    Oct. 2.
    MS. Paris, Angl. Reg. xiv. 86. Teulet, 1.355.
    Is sorry to find that the French in Scotland are reduced to such extremities as to be compelled to entrench themselves against the very persons from whom they might have expected assistance. Matters were not going well with them previously, but since the arrival of "him whom you know" [Arran], they have become worse, he having induced his father to act along with him. He is proceeding in such a way as to confirm the writer in his opinion that these men employ religion only to colour their designs. Hopes that he will fall into the ditch which he has made, and that his iniquity will recoil upon his own head. Refers for further particulars to M. du Croc.—Edinburgh, 2 Oct. 1559. Signed: De Rubey.
  • 2. Here occurs the marginal note, "The Lord Seytoun unworthy of regiment."
  • 3. Opposite this entry Cecil has written, "6 feet di."