Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.
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February 1560, 11-15
R. O. Haynes, p. 240.
|714. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 1)
|1. He has received a letter from the Queen Dowager, brought by a Scottish herald, which he sends herewith. Albeit the same imports some credit committed to the herald, yet he had nothing to say besides the contents of his letter. Supposing he was sent to espy their doings, he [the writer] has thought good to reciprocate, and has sent the answer to the Dowager by an English herald, so that he may bring such intelligence of their doings in Scotland as he can obtain. He dismissed the Scotch herald with an answer that, in a day or two, he would send a special messenger to the Dowager with such answer to her letter as he doubted not would be to her contentation.
|2. He has now sent Chester herald to Edinburgh with letters to the Dowager of such effect as Cecil shall perceive by the copies sent herewith; sends also the copy of proclamation set forth by the Dowager, whereby the Scotch expect open hostility and war at the hands of the English. They will inform him as they get knowledge how the proclamation is obeyed, or what shall ensue thereof.—Newcastle, 11 Feb. 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, William Grey, R. Sadler, G. Howard, F. Leek.
|Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
|715. The Garrisons in the North.
|"An estimate of the charge to be maintained in the north for forty-six days," viz.:—
|The Duke of Norfolk, his officers and 100 horsemen, from 16 Dec. 1559 until 1 Feb. 1560
|The Lord Grey until 1 Feb
|General of the horsemen and 600 horsemen
|Footmen 4,000, with forty captains and officers for thirteen days ending 31 Jan. at 118l. per diem
|and other officers, amounting in all by the month to
|and for the four months ending on the last of May
|The New Garrison at Berwick by the month 2,447l. 12s. 8d., whereof due from 25 July to 12 Dec. 12,566l.7s.; for five months ending 8 May 12,566l. 7s. The total for Berwick New Garrison 25,132l. 13s.
|The Old Garrison at 200l. by the month, for ten months, from July until May, 2,000l.
|The ordinary garrisons, viz, the East Marches, 3,048l. 12s.; the Middle Marches, 726l. 13s. 4d.; the West Marches, 1,000l. per ann., 4,775l. 5s. 4d.; by the month, 171l. 18s. 10d.
|The crew of 2,000 men within Berwick
|The Duke of Norfolk and 1,400 soldiers, from 20 Dec. 1559 to last of Jan. 1560
|For 4,400 new soldiers coming from several places, to 31 Jan.
|For coats and conduct to divers soldiers from diverse quarters, not yet paid
|To Mr. Wynter
|For 600 demi-lances
|The pay of February
|The monthly pay after
|Copy, with additions by Winchester and Cecil. Endd. by Cecil: 11 Feb. 1559. An estimate of the charges in the north. Pp. 4.
|716. The Duke of Norfolk to the Dowager of Scotland.
|Has received her letters of the 6th by Islay the herald. He knows of no such innovation as she complains of respecting the free passage of Jehan de Montaignac, upon whose arrival at Berwick he will take order for his safe and quiet passage to the Court.—Newcastle, 12 Feb. 1559.
|Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd. Pp. 2.
|717. Winter to the Duke of Norfolk.
|1. His servant, who came to him this day from Berwick, brought them letters from the Duke; the last of which, of the 2nd, informs him how thankfully his services are accepted. He lately despatched Mr. Southwaick with letters towards him; and whereas he wrote for 700l. to pay for fourteen days' victuals which he had caused to be provided in Fife and Angus, he now states that the Primrose and the Robert of Ipswich have this day arrived with the victuallers from London with two months' provision. Their masters report a great part of beer and biscuit spoiled with the cruel weather that they have had. The Duke therefore will not now need to send more than 300l. for that purpose.
|2. He also asks for 1,000l. to relieve the men with hose and stockings and other necessaries, yet this sum will not make a through pay for one month's wage. Did he not consider the want the Duke has of money, he would have craved a larger sum. He sends a bill subscribed by his hand by the bearer, Mr. Weston, to whom the sum of 1,300l. may be delivered in the absence of Mr. Southwick, to whom, if the Duke has given any portion of it, he begs that his Grace will give the rest to Weston, and take his bill for the whole amount and restore the writings he has received from Southwick.
|3. The Lord Admiral (by letters received from him this day by Winter) does not think it good that he should take any mariners from the north parts, for they would be greatly lacked if the ships of the coast were appointed to serve; but wishes Winter to write to the Duke for 300 harquebussiers with their captains, whom he will place among the ships. He has appointed the Halfpenny Pot and the Greyhound to transport them hither.
|4. He has received letters this day from the Lords at Glasgow, requiring him to appoint a vessel for the conveyance of the Lord James and others to Berwick, who will be ready to depart on the 20th. The Minion has not as yet come, nor can they hear of her. As for his keeping watch, he thinks the French in Leith and Inchkeith would not deny but that the fleet had kept them waking. There has been never night since he came hither, being possible for men to travail upon the water, but that he has had 300 or 400 men armed in boats to guard the haven's mouth, that no succours should come in to them between the shore and the ships; and that they might not be able to put more men or victuals into Inchkeith. He dare tell the Duke for truth that since his coming neither men or victuals have come by sea into Leith or Inchkeith. He has viewed Inchkeith, where he landed 300 men, and by their much hardiness had one slain and five or six hurt, amongst whom were Captains Gorge and Crokers, but there is no doubt of their good recovery without any maim to them, and the French scaped not scot free. The English are very well used by the Scots on Fifeside. Merchants repair from Aberdeen, Dundee, and those parts to Burnt island with great store of wine, barrelled salmon, cod, and herring, upon hope of the camp coming. He judges the Duke will have great relief from Fifeside at that time, as it is a country of much victuals. There will be want of nothing (having money,) but casks, which are not to be gotten for money in this country.— Leith Roads, aboard the Lion, 12 Feb. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
|718. Croftes to the Duke of Norfolk.
|1. Has received letters from the Council concerning their conference with Sir Richard Lee, touching the new fortifications to be made at Berwick, wherein Sir R. Lee dissents from the writer, wherefore he is required by the Council to answer certain articles.
|2. Knows himself to be ignorant in a matter of fortification, but has been always of opinion, and is yet, that men of the most skill should, upon the state of the ground, view and consider what is to be done, and not to determine anything upon the sight of the plat only. The fortification of this town, being the chief key of the realm, is most circumspectly to be regarded, and should not be considered upon the view of the plat only, but upon the view of the ground. Thinks it therefore to small purpose to answer any of the articles sent by the Council. For if he should confess that a battery for the Snowke cannot be defended, and that the town lies so open that no man can go "covart" for the shot on the further side of the water, must needs otherwise allege some other thing which to him seems doubtful, until men of judgment shall be able to resolve; for so would he but raise one doubt upon another and conclude nothing.
|3. Thinks it necessary therefore that Sir Richard Lee be hasted hither with some other men of skill and judgment, who together may consider the rest of the fortification which is to be taken in hand, and to set it forward as to all of them shall seem meetest.—Berwick, 13 Feb. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Add. Pp. 3.
|719. Croftes to Sadler.
|1. Has received answer from the Duke that he thinks it expedient that the writer should remain here to receive and to procure intelligence out of Scotland. The reason why he desired leave to come to Newcastle was, that he considered the time appointed for the coming of the Scottish Lords hither, and also how the French are reposing themselves, and so spare the victuals within Leith till the coming of the English into Scotland, so that by all likelihood there will be no intelligence of war until the conferences with the Scots shall be past. He thought it good, therefore, in this meantime to know the Duke's pleasure; what ordnance, men, and munition he would command out of this town, which consideration would be good beforehand rather than to be directed with haste. Diverse other things might better have been resolved upon there than at the Duke's coming here.
|2. As he was writing this letter Alexander Whytlaw came hither with such letters from the Lords as he [Sadler] shall receive in this packet. Has delivered to him 4,000 crowns out of his [Sadler's] bags, wherewith he is returned towards the Lords this night.—Berwick, 13 Feb. 1559.
|Orig. Hol. Add. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
|720. Complaints of the Merchants Adventurers.
|Articles exhibited to the Queen by "the fellowship of Merchants adventurers of England, trading the low countries of Brabant for sale of merchandise," declaratory of their grievances and losses occasioned by certain acts of her government.
|Endd.: 13 Feb. Pp. 2.
R. O. Haynes, p. 240.
|721. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 2)
|1. They have received his letters of the 11th inst., with others from the Lords of the Council on the 13th of the same, by which, and also by Cecil's other letter of the 8th, they perceive what expectation he has been in to hear of the French proceedings since their entry into Fife, and the state of the Queen's ships. They trust that soon after Byncks's despatch from him he received their letters of the 8th inst. They expected to have had some advertisement from Berwick, which, as soon as it came, it was despatched to him.
|2. They perceive his determination to have an eye to the Marquis d'Elbœuf's preparation hitherward, and to reinforce the navy here. They doubt whether the ships they shall have here of Newcastle and Hull are meet for such a purpose; for there is some want of mariners, and apt soldiers (especially harquebusiers) cannot be had here as in parts about London, unless they diminish their bands appointed for the journey.
|3. Orders should be given that the posts may use more diligence in conveying the Queen's letters, in which they are very negligent; the only remedy is to give them their old ordinary wages of 2s. per diem, having now but 12d., whereof they complain that they cannot keep horses to serve the turn.
|4. [Having presently received these letters from Randal (alias Barnaby) which they send herewith, they return this bearer unto Cecil with the same. As he will perceive that the Lords of Scotland have prevented the day of meeting at Berwick, so have the writers consented thereto, and look for his instructions how to proceed. (fn. 3) ]—Newcastle, 14 Feb. 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, William Gray, R. Sadler, G. Howard, F. Leek.
|Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
|722. Lord Grey to the Privy Council.
|The Queen having appointed him to the office of the wardenry of the East and Middle Marches, he, having no house in this country, requested my Lord of Northumberland to lend him his house of Alnwick (where all Wardens have heretofore most commonly remained), who appeared to be willing to satisfy his desire in that part and promised him so. Nevertheless, they who have the charge of his house have received a command to the contrary. The Earl has also written to him a plain denial, the copy of which letter he encloses. As he cannot remain in this country without a house to dwell in, requests them to move the Earl to lend him his said house of Alnwick, or else he must of force be a suitor to be discharged of the said office. The Earl's officers have carried away from Alnwick the most part of the stuff there, and broken up the brewing vessels and other necessary implements of household. —Newcastle, 14 Feb. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
|723. William Earl to Cecil.
|After his letter from Dunkirk, these are the next, dated at Antwerp, the selfsame time of his coming thither. Great assembly is made at Hoselunnen [Haselunen] in Westphalia of noblemen and colonels; it is a place situated most timely for the calling together both of horsemen and footmen; it is in the way to understand out of all Germany in a trice, and likewise out of these parts. A new bruit arises for the crown of Polonia, their King being newly deceased. Frederick Spitts and his company, who came over with the writer, seem in many ways suspect of double dealing. He intends to depart hence by the first opportunity.—Antwerp, 18 Feb. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. hol. [?], with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
|724. Fortifications of Berwick.
|A plat of the fortifications of Berwick (drawn by Rowland Johnston), showing the line of fire of certain pieces of artillery placed upon "the Snowk" (from 700 to 1,200 feet distant) and "the dovecot" (1,250 feet distant), and directed against the walls.
|Add.: To Sir Richard Lee, general surveyor of all the Queen's works and fortifications of Berwick, in Cheapside, at Mr. Graisse's house, the goldsmith, or elsewhere, I pray you with all possible diligence, 1559. Endd. by Cecil: Berwick platt. Broadside.
|725. The Fortifications at Berwick.
|Statement of the progress of the fortifications at Berwick arranged under the following heads:—
|1. The great mount next above Cowgate.
|2. The curtain from that mount to the east mount, passing by Cowgate.
|Mem. From the south end of this great mount runneth the new ditch cut overthwart the Snowke to the sea.
|3. The east mount.
|4. The curtain from the east mount to the mount at Saint Nicolas' ward corner.
|5. The mount at St. Nicolas' corner, being but the one half built.
|6. The curtain from the north east mount, back toward the north mount, called by some the middle mount.
|Mem. That here in this curtain must be made the gate.
|7. The north east or middle mount.
|8. The curtain toward the west mount.
|9. The curtain toward the west mount.
|Mem. that here must be the Mary gate.
|10. The west mount, alias Roaring Meg.
|Endd. by Cecil: The compas of Berwick. Pp. 2.
|726. Rowland Johnston to Sir Richard Lee.
|1. Has received his letters inquiring how many feet are between the nearest places of the furthest side of the water to the town walls. The next [neighest] place from thence is the Dovecote, and that is in length to the wall next the Pallis 1,250 feet long, from the place where any battery may lie. Also from the Snowk to the town wall next the Limekiln of the sands, at the nearest place 700 feet, and at the furthest place 1,200 feet. Because he would be something plain, he has drawn it out upon this "shaplye plat," that Lee may plainly understand it.
|2. All things here go well forward, both in getting stone and lime. Trusts to have good store against Sir Richard's coming, but was driven to take in some more carriages than they had in before, because the weather has been very foul. For lack of carriage has taken down to the sea side all the Irishmen and a great many of the other Kentish men; the number both of workmen, labourers, carriages, and freights for six months are here enclosed in an abstract, for Mr. Pretty wrote to him that Sir Richard desired to understand the same, and the other five months he will send from Newcastle, where he has remained ever since the writer came here. The number of workmen was much increased during his absence. Sir Ralph Sadler says they were informed that the best way, and the least chargeable, was to go along by the old wall, but who informed them of it the writer knows not.—Berwick, 14 Feb. Signed.
|3. P. S.—Prays him to make suit for money, for all the poor men cry earnestly for money, and are driven very bare for lack of help.
|Orig. Hol. Add.: To Sir Richard Lee, Knt., the chief surveyor and master of the Queen's works of Berwick, at Mr. Graysses, the goldsmith's, in Cheapside.
|Endd. by Cecil: 20 Feb. 1559. Pp. 3.
R. O. Haynes, p. 242.
|727. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 4)
|1. Cecil's letters of 11th at night, arrived here on the 15th at 5 a.m., in which there is no answer how they are to proceed in the conference with the Lords of Scotland, nor which of the hostages they are to receive, on which points they ask to be advertised.
|2. The meeting with the said Lords is postponed for two days; it cannot be sooner, for they understand that the said Lords having determined upon the 23rd are not now together.
|3. The proportion of artillery is small, although to him [Cecil] it seems large; for the furniture whereof they will make the best shift they can. Their lack will be of "limmer horses" for the draft of the great ordnance, which cannot be had in the limits of the Duke's lieutenancy; he therefore prays order to be given for 300 to be had in Northamptonshire and other places southward, with harness and draught gear for the said horses; if diligence be used the same may be sent hither in time.
|4. They marvel at not hearing of Abington, nor of the arrival of victual; if it be not supplied in time it will hinder the whole service. The sooner Cecil hastes the reinforcement of the navy and the sending of the treasure, the better shall all things succeed. The writers send herewith such letters as arrived here yesternight from Croftes, with others addressed to Sadler and himself from the Earl of Arran and the Lord James out of Scotland.—Newcastle, 15 Feb. 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, William Gray, R. Sadler, G. Howard, F. Leeke.
|Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
R. O. Haynes, p. 241.
|728. Norfolk and his Council to the Privy Council. (fn. 5)
|Whereas the Council wrote on 3rd February to the Duke with certain articles concerning the fortifications at Berwick (fn. 6) to be answered by Croftes and others dissenting from Sir R. Lee's opinion, he sent to the said James the plat, with the letters and articles to be answered. They will perceive the answer which he sends enclosed. The opinion of the writers is that before the works proceed further, the matter should be well debated rather upon the view of the ground than of the plat; and for that purpose Sir R. Lee and some skilful men should be sent hither with speed.—Newcastle, 15 Feb. 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, W. Gray, R. Sadler, Geo. Howard, F. Lee.
|Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
|729. Mundt to Cecil.
|He has at this time written to the Queen upon the affair is with which he was entrusted at his departure. This matter is such that it can be conveniently brought about only by the Electors themselves. He does not know whether the Queen will send to the other Princes. The Princes dwelling in Saxony should first be applied to upon this matter in his opinion, for there the greater part of both foot and cavalry is usually raised. Although they should straitly forbid their subjects to serve against England on account of religion, yet there is usually no faith or goodness in those soldiers who follow war as a trade. It is to be considered whether it is worth while that the Electors should write in the name of the other Princes and estates to the French, to the effect that if there is any cause of quarrel between them and the English, they should settle it by right and reason and not by force of arms. Hears that as yet no soldiers are collected thither, and it is rumoured that the Duke of Lorraine will seek by force of arms to obtain possession of the kingdom of Denmark with the aid of the French King, claiming it in his mother's right; and lately an envoy of the Duke is said to have been with the Emperor for the purpose of forwarding this matter. It is reported that the King of Spain has also promised assistance to the Duke. If this war is carried on this summer it will not give the French much leisure to meddle in other affairs; he fears it is a French trick, proclaiming one thing when they intend another. Has often pointed out how useful it would be to enter into treaty with the Hanse Towns on equal terms, it is also of much importance to those belonging to Denmark. If the King of Sweden trusts in specious promises, the mischief will eventually fall on his own head.—Rhinehausen, near Spires, 15 Feb. 1560. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
|730. Francis Edwards to Cecil.
|Wrote last on 9th inst. from Rye. On his arrival here he learnt that eight or nine ships had arrived at Portland [Dieppe] laden with merchandise for Romford [Scotland]; the chief merchant's name is Charles [M. D'Elbœuf], who pretends to depart with the first fair wind. Some say that he will wait for news from the clouds [French King], for of late news has come from Romford that the ships of the Laurell tree's [Queen's] have arrived there with the like and better merchandise, which makes Charles think that he shall come to an evil market. Many think therefore that Charles will be furnished with a new sort of merchandise ere he depart, and also hear of some better sale. Within four days, if weather permit, it will be known what he will do. It is doubted that the passages will be stayed for a time within four days. Charles has only 1,000 weight of lively merchandise to discharge when he comes to land. It is thought that he will not depart before the end of the month. The contrary will be known in four days if letters come. The Marquis d'Elbœuf and others are said to be going towards Scotland to see his sister.—Dieppe, 15 Feb. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.