Elizabeth: February 1560, 16-20

Pages 378-394

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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February 1560, 16-20

Feb. 16.
R. O.
731. The Queen to Throckmorton.
1. The bearer will inform him of what it is meet he should understand presently, whereby he may perceive how to behave himself.
2. The French Ambassador, Noailles, to whom a reward has been appointed, took his leave yesterday, and has been succeeded by M. de Seure, who has brought very friendly salutations and letters from the King, his mother, and his [wife], the Cardinal of Lorraine, and the Duke of Guise. If these words follow to effect, as the Ambassador uttered them, the writer trusts they shall live in better peace than they looked for.—Westminster, 16 Feb. 2 Eliz. Signed.
Orig., with seal, in a very decayed condition. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Feb. 16.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 325.
732. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Requires him to be a means to the Queen for the better passage of Patrick Hume and Alexander Donaldson, Scotchmen and household servants to the Earl of Arran, through her realms to their own country. They desire to rid themselves hence, where this nation is not the best looked on.
2. This King works to have 500 Spaniards of the old bands that have served King Philip in Flanders for Scotland. The writer has prayed these men (who will pass through Flanders) to inquire thereof and to advertise Cecil of what they can learn of the matter. He has also written hereof to Challoner, and in his absence to Gresham, to hearken thereunto; and has spoken hereof with King Philip's Ambassador. "Take your time now whilst it is offered, for you shall never have better opportunity upon these men than you have at this present; and believe nothing that shall be said unto you by any of these ministers, for they mean as ill to the Queen as may be, and seek to put her from her advantage with fair words."
3. Has had no audience, as the King is abroad a hunting. On the last of January the Queen of Spain was married in Castile.—Blois, 16 Feb. 1559.
Orig., portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Feb. 16.
R. O.
733. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
The bearer, the Laird of Leddyngton, is repairing to Scotland and has occasion to confer with the Duke, who will find in him much understanding and knowledge of the state of Scotland. He has a plain earnest affection to have his country remain free from conquest or oppression. The Duke will find him meet to give advice or intelligence; wherefore he is to be used favourably, and care taken that for this his service to his country he be not by any practice of the French either intercepted or endangered as has been purposed.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 16 Feb. 1559. Pp. 2.
Feb. 16.
R. O. Haynes, p. 245.
734. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to the Privy Council. (fn. 1)
1. The Privy Council by their letters of the 12th present signified to the Duke that the Queen has willed the Lord Admiral to set forth certain ships out of Newcastle and Hull for the reinforcing of the navy in the Frith; wherein the Privy Council requires the Duke to cause Geoffrey Vaughan and others that are appointed by the Lord Admiral to put the said ships in readiness for service to be assisted in all things requisite. The writers now inform their Lordships that Geoffrey Vaughan being absent, he [the Duke] called Bartram Anderson, who has charge with the said Vaughan for setting forth the ships, by whom they perceive that albeit the ships have been stayed here for this service, from such voyages as the owners would have employed them ever since Vaughan's arrival here, yet they are utterly unfurnished of ordnance, victual, and mariners, there being such lack thereof that they cannot see how the number can be supplied here, so that the ships cannot be put in readiness for this service in time to be able to serve the turn.
2. Also, as they wrote to Cecil on the 14th inst., they cannot levy in these parts apt and expert soldiers, especially arquebusiers.—Newcastle, 16 Feb. 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, William Gray, R. Sadler, G. Howard, F. Leek.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Feb. 16.
735. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to the Lords of the Privy Council.
The bearer, Capt. Andreas, having gone to London to make up a band of his own countrymen there, finding that the weight of his suits was such that he doubted of his coming down at all, they request that the Lords would have consideration of him as shall appertain.—Newcastle, 16 Feb. 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, William Grey, R. Sadler, G. Howard, F. Leek.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Feb. 16.
736. The Duke of Norfolk to Cecil.
1. His letters to the Council he has answered for the matters pertaining to the ships. Desires to know the Queen's pleasure for their meeting with the Scots, and upon what points they are to agree with them. They hear nothing of victuals provided for this journey. He would wish to have wholly put out of the Council's mind the expectation of any help from the Scots, considering the bareness of the country and the waste made by the French in Fife. As for the expulsion of the French by the Scots only, he can only wish it may be done; he will work to the uttermost to win the Merse and Lothian.
2. He has not heard whether it is the Queen's pleasure to make Mr. Tempest her sergeant for the bishopric of Durham; until he does the commission of Oyer must be staid, of which there is great need, as also of a commission to the Dean of Durham to try spiritual cases, which in many things run out of order. The Queen's ships are in good safety. Prays him to take some order of the posts; the last through post came in half the time that any other did.—Newcastle, 16 Feb. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 16 Feb. 1559. Pp. 3.
Feb. 16.
R. O.
737. Report of the Chester Herald.
1. On Friday the 16th Feb. at 9 a.m. he arrived at Edinburgh, with a letter for the Dowager of Scotland from the Duke of Norfolk, which he delivered at 3 o'clock in the presence of the Bishops of St. Andrews and Amiens, M. M. La Broche and D'Oysel, the Earl of Bothwell, the Lords Semple, Seaton, and others. The Dowager demanded from whom it came; he replied, from the Duke of Norfolk. The Dowager read it, but before he could deliver his credit, she (as it were in choler) demanded why the ships of England were arrived within her waters, and marvelled that the Queen should break a peace so lately confirmed, and which she had promised not to break by letters of her hand; notwithstanding which her ships had taken divers of the Dowager's ships laden with ordnance and other munitions, and their men had landed to apprehend the isle of Inchkeith. At the first their talk was in the Scottish tongue, which the herald not well understanding, he was forced to speak French, requiring the Dowager's answer in writing of all her griefs, which she promised, but at his departure he had not received it.
2. He then declared his credit, which was that the Duke of Norfolk marvelled to receive a letter from her by Islay, her herald, and knew no cause to hinder her sending a gentleman into England. Concerning the ships he said, that the King of France having assembled a great power upon the frontiers of Picardy to proceed into Scotland, the cause whereof the Queen could not understand, for the better safety of her frontiers she had sent certain ships with munitions and victuals upon her borders, with other ships for their conduct, which after long travail and foul weather lost all their boats and that after the victuals and munitions had arrived at Newcastle, Berwick, and Holy Island, as they had no wind to return, they thought best to take the Frith for their succour, and coming thither as friends found the cannon bent against them, whereat the Duke of Norfolk did not a little marvel.
3. The Dowager answered that all stranger ships passing by a hold should do their homage, and that it was well known before their coming, for the Congregation did not let to declare the same, and letters were sent between, whereof she had to show.
4. The herald answered that concerning the ships he neither saw or knew of their doings, nor had yet spoken with any of them. He then took his leave.
5. On the next Sunday he was commanded to come before the Dowager, where he found the same nobles as before, who declared that she marvelled that the Queen took part with rebels, and that the peace lately confirmed was only with the French King deceased and not with her subjects, with whom she had not to do, and she trusted that the Queen would not move war with her without any summons; requesting that the Duke of Norfolk would give her to understand the same, when she would prepare accordingly, and said that she would send a gentleman into England with the herald. On his demanding if it was M. la Broche, he, standing by, answered that he heard that the English were coming into Scotland and that he would give them the looking upon. And M. d'Oysel asked, what Queen Mary got by her last wars?
[Forms part of the following document.]
Feb. 16.
R. O.
738. Intelligence from Scotland.
1. Chester herald all the way between Berwick and Edinburgh, found great friendship from the Scots, who seemed very glad to hear of Englishmen; demanding heartily of their coming to deliver them out of their misery and captivity of the French. He met by the way Hamilton, Laird of Enderwick, who offered him great friendship, and prayed him at his return to come to his house, which he promised, but was unable to do so. The writer asked him [Hamilton] why they suffered the French to oppress them ? he answered that one of them stood in doubt of the other, which could not be helped without England. None of the nobility of Scotland are of the Dowager's Privy Council, but the Bishop of St. Andrews. The Dowager has proclaimed that all men between sixteen and sixty should be in readiness within an hour's warning. She had also commanded all her subjects from Edinburgh to the Pease to break their brewing vessels and put out of the way all their victual that might sustain the English. He heard generally at Edinburgh and by the way that the commons of Scotland knew not what to do, what for the oppressions of the French and the fear that the Congregation should spoil them. She prays they may be put out of doubt, for the only trust of most of them is in the coming of the English.
Endd.: 16 Feb. 1559. Pp. 6.
Feb. 17.
R. O.
739. The Queen to Throckmorton.
Letter of recommendation for Guido Cavalcanti, to whom she has given a pension of 100l. for his services in bringing about the peace of Cambrai.—Westminster, 7 Feb., 2 Eliz. Signed.
Orig., with royal seal. Add. Endd.: Received 7 March 1559. Pp. 2.
Feb. 17.
R. O.
740. Count Mansfelt to Cecil.
Desires him to procure an audience for Christopher Hartman, whom he sends with letters to the Queen. Francis Buckhart died a short time before Cecil's letters came to hand. Is waiting the arrival of the messenger who, as Cecil stated, would set out within ten or twelve days after the despatch of his letter.—Mansfelt, 17 Feb. 1560. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
Feb. 17.
R. O.
741. Count Mansfelt's Instructions.
A brief extract from the form of instructions which Christopher Hartman, the Minister of Count Volrad of Mansfelt, shall use in the presence of the Queen upon offering the services of his master.—Mansfelt, 17 Feb. 1560. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
Feb. 17.
R. O.
742. The Answer to be given to M. de Seurre, the French Ambassador. (fn. 2)
1. "To be said to M. de Seurre, the French Ambassador, by command of the Queen, 17 Feb. 1559, by Cecil and Sir John Mason."
2. The Ambassador, at the end of his talk, made mention of two special matters, to which, her answer having been short, she has sent them expressly to signify her pleasure touching the same.
3. The Ambassador said that the young French Queen bare not the arms of England of her own motion, but by commandment of the late King.
4. Her Majesty takes this excuse as very strange or very imperfect. For though the arms were borne in the late King Henry's time, (as they were when he was slain,) yet it has been much increased since, therefore it is hard to impute the continuance of the injury to him. And though the Queen may be somewhat excused as acting under her husband, yet she does not act the part of a friend herein; and besides Her Majesty marvels much that the [Scottish] Queen, in granting privileges in her name to merchants, should so commonly use the style of England. Her Majesty likes it not indeed, nor can she for her honour suffer her estate to be so neglected in the open sight of the world.
5. The French Ambassador having next desired to know whether she intends peace with the French King, they are to reply that she means nothing else; and as to her aiding those whom he terms rebels (though she will not many times speak all that she thinks), yet she does not take them for rebels. And, indeed, if they permitted their kingdom to be evicted out of the governance of the nation of Scotland during the marriage and absence of their Sovereign, whilst she is directed only by the French, especially the Guises, truly the world might speak shame of them, as would the Queen herself if she outlived her husband.
Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
Feb. 18.
R. O.
743. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to Queen Elizabeth.
1. It has been difficult to the writer at all times, and yet is, to persuade herself that at the solicitation of some particular rebels the good peace should be interrupted. Yet there are presumptions that they have practised in England and obtained large sums of money, and some of them have been apprehended with a part thereof.
2. The arrival of Winter with certain of the English principal ships in the Frith was no ways consistent with tempest of weather, as he rather traversed contrary to the wind and season of the time. He gives comfort and fortifying to the said rebels; he has sent a summons to the garrison of Inchkeith, requiring it to be surrendered to him, and assaulted it, but has been repulsed. He has said, by a gentleman named Southwall, that he has advertised her [Elizabeth] of his proceedings, and will restore nothing till he knows her mind on that behalf. She, therefore, desires her to declare her intentions to the French Ambassador, and to grant a safe conduct to this bearer to pass into France.—Edinburgh, 18 Feb 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Broadside.
Feb. 18.
R. O.
744. M. de Seurre to the Duke of Norfolk.
He has arrived in this city a few days ago, having been sent thither as the French Ambassador resident with the Queen. Has been informed by M. de Noailles, his predecessor, that certain vessels laden with victuals for Scotland have been driven into Scalbourgh [Scarborough] and Newcastle by the weather (where they still remain); he sends M. de Plancy, the bearer, to view them, and to remove the obstacles to their despatch. He begs that the Duke will pay for the provisions which he hears have been removed from them at Newcastle.—London, 18 Feb. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Fr. Pp. 2.
Feb. 18.
R. O.
745. Robert Horne, Dean of Durham, to Cecil.
1. Cecil's painful care to further Christ's true religion, and his accustomed goodness towards the ministers of the same, "bolden" the writer to trouble him. The face of the Church in these parts is so blemished with ignorance and licentious living through want of godly instruction and due correction, that if there be not some speedy remedy found to instruct the consciences with knowledge in the true fear of God, and correct the lives of these libertines (he may well so term them) with some discipline, they shall fall to barbarous atheism, void of all religion, either one or other, and become a new Babylon in confusion of licentious life. For, besides robberies, thefts, murders, with such like, (which he trusts and such do fear shall be redressed by the Duke in executione justitiæ,) there is such continuance in superstitious behaviour, contrary to the order taken for religion, such contempt and neglecting of God's service at the times and places appointed, and such uncleanness through fleshly life, yea, such horrible incests, as have not been heard of among the heathen. Writes this of certain knowledge, and not without grief of mind.
2. Beseeches him to be a means to the Queen that this part of the realm may have some workmen thrust forth to labour and watch over it, to the planting of knowledge and virtue and the uprooting of ignorance and vice. The occasion presently offered in part furthers his suit, for three prebendaries of the cathedral of Durham (Robert Dalton, Nicolas Merley, and John Tutting,) refuse the oath, and he thinks Anthony Salvine will do the same. If Cecil knows no apt men to occupy their rooms, the writer recommends Mr. Ebden, Mr. Carvile, and Mr. Horton, whom the Bishop of London well knows.
3. Asks Cecil's assistance in a controversy depending between himself, J. Watson, late Bishop of Lincoln, and the recusants above named, for his goods and books taken unjustly from him.—Durham, 18 Feb. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: "28 Feb. 1559." Pp. 3.
Feb. 19.
R. O.
746. The Duke of Guise and Cardinal of Lorraine to the Queen Regent of Scotland. (fn. 3)
1. "Madame, we have done all in our power to keep you advertised of our news. If our despatches have been able to reach you without mischance, we are assured that you well understand the order that the King has given to succour you, and also how the bad weather has driven our brother M. le Marquis and all his fleet back to Dieppe, where he has been compelled to make a long stay in order to refit and wait for favourable weather, where he is still at present. This has occasioned us the profoundest regret on account of the mischief it will do to your affairs. In the mean while the King has done all he could to amuse the Queen of England and keep her from becoming suspicious, and also to assure her of the amity and good peace which he desires to continue in with her, so that she may not let herself be persuaded to assist the rebels in Scotland, lest that should deprive us of the good understanding we have with one another, having always assured her that the force which we sent into Scotland was simply to reduce it to obedience. All this she seemed to take in good part, giving to our people about her the fairest words in the world, as she still does daily; nevertheless, we have found out that in an underhand way she has shown the said rebels all the favour she could, by giving money to send troops to their frontiers, by great preparations by sea, and many other things, well showing that there is a hidden poison; for which, when remonstrance is made to her, she always excuses herself by saying that it is only for the safety of her realm. This the King pretends to believe, and dissimulates as much as he can, so that she may not see that he distrusts her; and in the meantime hastens the departure of our said brother.
2. "During these doings, the King has had abundant intelligence that she has given all she could to the said rebels, and will not permit the King to make himself absolute there, preventing our said brother and any other succours from passing, and also that we should not have any news delivered. We are advertised from divers and sure quarters that the ships which she has had sent (which are in number at least thirty) are at sea in the Frith of Scotland, and that they have set out to hinder the passage of our said brother; to which are joined eight or nine other ships of the Scotch rebels, and some of an Englishman who is said to be banished, and who keeps the sea. All which said ships are well provided and furnished with soldiers, to the number of more than 6,000 or 7,000. On land, the Duke of Norfolk and Lord Grey have come to Berwick with 8,000 or 9,000 men, which is not for the sake of doing nothing. Moreover, we are certainly informed that the said Queen has the aid of Duke Adolph of Holstein, the uncle of the King of Denmark, her pensioner, to raise and throw twenty-four ensigns of lansnechts across the frontier of Scotland.
3. "All these things, Madame, with many other sinister reports, make the King believe that she wishes to do worse than she says, and that she has given orders accordingly.
4. "And forasmuch as we have no news from you, and would not rashly hazard the passage of our said brother, if it were certain that the said forces were within the said Frith of Scotland for the purpose of hindering him, seeing, moreover, that the weather is disposed not to be fair for his said passage for twelve or fifteen days, and knowing that the roads are all watched, we have thought fit to risk the bearer of this by Flanders to bring you this letter, and to advertise you of all things as above. Praying you, Madame, to send to us by the same route, as quickly as possible, by him or another, and by divers persons, to let us know in what state your affairs are, what you perceive and know of the intention and disposition of the English, and of the preparation and force that they have on the borders, whether the said ships are thus at sea, and the force that they would have to resist the passage of our said brother ; also of all other things appertaining to the business and service of the King in that matter and the good of your affairs there, how everything has gone since the departure of the courier, Protestant; so that we may arrange our affairs accordingly, and you may be able better to provide what the King desires.
5. "You must especially consider, Madame, how necessary it is that you should have the castle of Edinburgh, if you have not got it already, in which we here think lies the principal safety of your affairs, and not to omit anything to enter it; and this we pray you do, for the King has commanded us to give orders that every effort shall be made to do so.
6. "The King does not write to you, not wishing to charge the bearer with another letter on account of the danger, and a copy is sent by another hand, that from one side or another you may get this advice, and that we may have news from you, which you can address to our Ambassador in Flanders, reckoning that this is at present the safest road.—Vendôme, 19 Feb. 1559.
7. "P. S.—Madame, we beg you most earnestly to let us know whether, the passage by Leith being closed, there is any safe way of succouring you by way of Dumbarton or elsewhere; and not to lose any time in causing Leith to be put in better security and fortification; for our advices say that the English are going to attack it. If you find affairs in bad train, as we fear they are, the best thing that you can do to check this rage, will be to agree with the rebels to let them live as they are, provided they remain in allegiance to the King and the Queen your daughter. Giving them hope that if they comport themselves quietly in the said obedience, you will soon after cause the greatest part of the French to be withdrawn who are there, and all at the good pleasure of the King. There is nothing, Madame, in this strait so necessary to be done as to gain time; and it would be well, for the better disposing and advertising your people, if you can publish by little libels that the English have agreed with the rebels to make them return into their obedience.
8. "If, Madame, you have nothing for M. de la Brose to do, since he has a passport from the Queen of England to return here by land, it may seem good for you to try to make him pass across her realm; he would thus learn abundance of things, and would give us an account of all that we wish to know.
9. "Take measures, Madame, if you please, that we may know by the first despatch the number of French who are there, and what will be necessary to fill up the bands to the extent of their great losses as we have known."—Vendôme, 19 Feb. 1559.
Copy, entirely in Throckmorton's cipher, deciphered. Endd. Fr. Pp. 7.
Feb. 19.
747. Decipher of the above.
Modern transcript. Fr. Pp. 4.
Feb. 19.
Haynes, p. 246.
748. Norfolk to the Lords of the Council. (fn. 4)
In debating the weightiness of the service here, one matter is not yet appointed. Lord Grey (for fear there may be lack in him found hereafter) requires him to be suitor to them that some worthy man may be appointed, who, by his experience in warlike matters, might be better able to furnish the service. He wishes Lord Grey's circumspect request to be answered. If Lord Grey should someways take lack, the whole would redound to the Duke's dishonour.—Newcastle, 19 Feb. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. by Railton. Endd. Pp. 2.
Feb. 19.
R. O.
749. Lord Grey to Cecil.
Upon conference had between them concerning the entry of the army into Scotland, the writer had declared that it was requisite to have some discreet man of good authority and credit to go with him in that journey, that in case any misfortune happen to himself, the other might be able to go forward with the enterprise. Cecil considered that Sir James Croftes was the meetest for that purpose, from his experience amongst the Scots, and his travail taken in the discourse of the said journey; but because he may make some difficulty to go forward upon very short warning, the writer thinks it were convenient that the matter should be signified under him from the Queen or her Council. He therefore desires Cecil to devise order that Croftes should put himself in readiness with all speed; as without some man of council the writer would be very loath to take so great a charge into his hands.—Newcastle, 19 Feb. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Feb. 20.
R. O.
750. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On his arrival at Blois he sent Mr. Jones to the Court at Morell to speak with the Cardinal of Lorraine for audience, who sent answer that it would be eight days before he could have it, because the King removed to and from to houses of very small receipt. If the same be through fear of somewhat they guess of his coming, he is glad of so good an occasion to increase their fear. Jones with some of his folks travailed to find out some of their acquaintance, both Scots, French, and Italians; all such as they met did utterly estrange themselves and would by no means talk with any of them.
2. Like as at his being there the Queen licensed him to intimate unto her, as he did to the Lords of her Council, the state of the affairs on this side, so on his arrival here he sees all confirmed, and fit opportunity offered to disappoint their purposes; for many wise men agree that now is time and good occasion offered to abate the French pride, which is most necessary for her honour and surety. The French are afraid of her preparations by land and sea, and are greatly perplexed and driven by hard and hot handling, for fear of broils at home and danger abroad, to be reasonable and good neighbours, and as willing of her favour and friendship as of any of her predecessors. Now she has the sword in her hand and an occasion whereby she shall satisfy the expectation of all Christendom touching her foresight and knowledge. King Philip succeeded his father barely, out of estimation and credit, left to match with the late French King, a long victorious prince, in chief prosperity and credit at home and abroad, in whom wanted no courage nor force; albeit he was no man of war, yet he was advised for reputation's sake, being injured, to put the uttermost of his force into the field and thereby did win the estimation he now has. Wherefore however any one shall persuade her to sit still, the French mind when ready to use small entreaty for the matter.
3. The reason moving her to set forth men by sea and land at so great charge is not for defence, but specially to serve the present opportunity to drive the French out of Scotland where they make the foundation of their doings.
4. The King of Spain's Ambassador assured him that, whatever the French say, they tarry but their time to break to their advantage, and that for all their friendly countenance after the peace, they did then begin to broach the matter. Within eight days after the Duke of Alva's arrival in Paris, the Cardinal, on the French King's behalf, moved him to procure King Philip not to hinder the prosecution of the Dauphin and his wife's right to England. The Duke did, on their earnest suit, write to the King; and the Prince of Orange and Count d'Egmont were also moved in the matter.
5. Considering that the Marshal St. André in his talk with the Ambassador enforced the French Queen's claim to England, and yet took it upon his honour that the French King had but good will towards her [Elizabeth], wherein he greatly dissembled, for the Ambassador knew the contrary, and also that the chief point in the Marquis d'Elœuf's commission is to provide that the discipline of war in Scotland be diligently observed according to the constitutions of France, both for horsemen and footmen,—he doubts not but that she conceives whereto the same tends. These men give the Queen leave to defend herself when they can do nothing; but if they be not prevented they will so provide that they will not put anything into execution but upon assured hope of victory."
6. King Henry VII. was in all things noted wise, but that he knew not how to make war, and his regard to peace and to grow rich did more hinder the strength of the realm and his successors, as appears at this day, than all the rest his son was able to countervail. His regard hereto caused the neglecting of the assured alliance of the house of Bretagne, which therefore fell to the French King's hands, whereby he lost his strongest friend and ally for sparing a little treasure, and for fear of breaking a peace, which has since caused many wars. If Henry VIII. had not been a prince of rare courage and wisdom, and furnished with experienced councillors, besides great store of nobility and valiant captains which he cherished, the realm would ere now have felt the loss of the alliance of Bretagne. Since his death the Scots, for conscience sake and hatred to the French, and partly through hope of the Queen's friendship, have hazarded themselves, and desire "to expulse" the French and enter into an alliance with England. If they are deceived in their opinion and not succoured, the sequel of their doings is evident; and whatsoever promises are made to the Bishops of St. Andrews, Arran, Argyll, Glencairn, or others, their heads are sure to pay for it if the French gain any advantage over them. If this should happen the Queen's party in Scotland would be quailed, and the French grow strong, at whose hands the Scots can receive no equal conditions. If they be driven thence, Scotland is like to be friendly, and French practices with Ireland die withall, when the Queen shall have commodity to order some policy and to reduce the people and country to more service and profit than she now has them, or her predecessors ever had. If Scotland sit still, by which way they have always put England to greatest charge in time of war, the Queen shall spare so much and be a great deal the stronger to resist the power of France when she shall have to do but with it alone. Now is the time to assure the state of England and to recover the estimation thereof, and to strengthen so dangerous a frontier as is towards Scotland in expulsing the French thence, and constraining them to be good neighbours; or else to bear with their dishonourable injuries and suffer them by subtle ministries to win time to provide for war when it shall not be thought upon, and therewithall to lie so near the Border to the continual danger of the strong pieces there, and in the end so trouble the realm, that there shall never after be hope of peace, which cannot be honourable or true till the French have felt her force, and time shall make that easy for them, which, being prevented, they shall never hereafter dare to attempt.
7. If this opportunity pass, their trouble at home is ceased; they which mind the same shall step back, their enemies abroad sit still, their friends confirmed, whilst the Queen will lose credit among her friends, who are ever more ready to afford succour when there is no great need of them.
8. As the French have sent M. de la Cievre in place of De Noailles, he begs that she will send some one to take his place, as in case matters break out to extremity, and he should be sequestrated (as they take him to be evil disposed towards them,) they would treat him with more rigour than another. He suggests Mr. Mason, Mr. Mewtas, or Mr. Sidney. Besides they would hardly be satisfied to receive him again if he should enter fully into their disgrace.
9. Sends the Queen a copy of all the matter which passed between the King and the Ambassador of the empire, which she may like to show to Count Helfenstein and the Spanish Ambassador. Is informed that this King has presented 500 Spaniards in the Low Countries to be conveyed into Scotland.
10. The Ambassadors of the empire had, on their departure, between them a reward of 28,000 francs; and four gentlemen of their train, (whereof one was the brother of the Bishop elect of Trent), each a chain worth 400 or 500 crowns.
11. This King takes an emprunt of the Parisians of 7,000 francs at 8 per cent. Bourdezier will be sent to Rome to the Pope on the King's business and other affairs. The Admiral has left the Court for his charge; Marshal St. André goes into Gascony to cause men to be in readiness for the first occasion.
12. It is judged, for all the Pope's demonstration of desire for a General Council, that nothing will be done, unless he may rule there by his authority.
13. Ferdinand, the Emperor's son, will marry the daughter of Poland.
Draft. Endd.: 20 Feb. 1559, par Couche. Portions underlined, to be put in cipher. Pp. 10.
Feb. 20.
R. O.
Forbes, 1. 326.
751. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
1. On the 18th inst he sent to the Court for audience, the King being then at Morrell, eight leagues from this town. The Cardinal of Lorraine answered that he might come when he would, but that as the King was travelling about, (going through Vendôme and Chateau Renart) Throckmorton could have no audience till the King came to Amboise, which would be about eight days hence. Their Lordships can well gather by this that the French have no great fancy to hear him, nor to his coming to the Court.
2. When he sent Mr. Jones to demand audience, such as were of his familiar acquaintance used themselves very strangely unto him; and instead of friendly entertainment, which he before received at their hands, they now shrank from him, and being saluted would make no countenance again. Thinks by this dealing they have conceived some jealousy towards the Queen. With regard to this delay of the audience and also strange usage of his minister, the writer trusts they will requite the French Ambassadors with the like, and so "for like bread like broth." This is the very way to deal with these folk and to bring them to know themselves and make them well perceive the greatness of their neighbours, and if it please the Queen to proceed as she has begun, to make them feel it also. Beseeches that he may hear often out of England ; so that, by knowing how things go on there, he shall be better able to order himself and others' services, greatly to the advancement of affairs on this side. He has not heard once out of England since his arrival. Refers to his letters to the Queen.—Blois, 20 Feb. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Feb. 20.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 328.
752. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. What order is taken with him for his audience Cecil shall perceive by his letters to the Queen and the Council. He hopes he will use the French Ambassador in like sort. Sends this despatch into Flanders by an express messenger for its speedier delivery to Mr. Gresham. Has not heard since his departure from England. Cecil knows how odious he is to these men, as the stirrer and worker of all that is done. They change their Ambassador in England, to have a new minister with the Queen, who at his first coming may be very welcome, and also take away the occasion of any suspicion that Cecil may have conceived against the other Ambassador. The French have two Ambassadors in England and the English but one here. Trusts the Queen does not mean that he shall end his service all at once, and be made inapt to be received another time abroad through the opinion they begin to have of him already, which must needs happen to him if he tarries till things grow to extremities. To remedy this he begs the Queen to send Mr. Mason, Mr. Mewtas, Challoner, or Sidney, of whom the French have good opinion. If things grow to such a pass so shortly that none can be sent before the execution thereof, he must take patience and abide that shall light upon him. Requests that he may be remembered with oftener letters than heretofore, and though Cecil's messenger come almost empty hither, yet shall he return otherwise. He has written certain other matters to the Lord Admiral.—Blois, 20 Feb. 1559. Signed.
2. P. S.—Thinks it more expedient to send this letter by this bearer the right way with despatch than through Flanders, specially with regard to the departure of the Marquis. When Cecil writes next he will do well to send a courier, who shall better pass than a private man. If things break out in enmity he advises Cecil to be informed of Mr. Wotton how he has been used twice in this Court; and that, as the French sequester Ambassadors, their Ambassador, if they fall out, should be used in like manner, and sent to some place out of the common way from London and the water side. He shall also do well to cause some gentleman to attend on the said Ambassador, and to have an eye that neither he nor his servants send or receive any letters, or go themselves to London, and to have an eye on Comis the merchant, and John Braynard. late Throckmorton's servant. Means this only for one of the Ambassadors, as it would not be honourable for the Queen to stay them both. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Portions in cipher deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Feb. 20.
R. O. Haynes, p. 247.
753. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 5)
1. Since their last letter of the 16th, they have called before them Bartram Anderson of this town, who is joined with Geoffrey Vaughan for furnishing and setting forth such ships to sea as are appointed here and at Hull. He informs them that six ships of this town (the names of which are underwritten), or at least four of them, shall be at sea within ten days, and the other two soon after; for the manning of which they have taken order for the levying 400 soldiers, besides a sufficient number of mariners, who will be ready by Saturday next. They have written to Vaughan at Hull for the setting forth of four ships with all speed, and have given orders to Sir Thomas Gargrave for the manning of them with such a number of soldiers out of Holdernesse as he shall think needful. They have not yet heard from Vaughan what is done. They have put 1,000 more footmen in readiness for the exploit in Scotland, as it is thought here 4,000 are not sufficient; for the which purpose the writer has sent letters into Cheshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Nottinghamshire, for the levying of 200 men in each, to be sent hither by the 6th of March, intending to employ them in this service, or to stay them, if, upon conference with the Lords of Scotland, it shall seem meet to do so. To-morrow they repair to Berwick to meet the said Lords, with whom they are to treat according to the Queen's pleasure upon such points as be contained in her letters of the 15th; of their proceedings and resolutions they will advertise Cecil with diligence.
2. P. S.—The names of the ships of Newcastle and their captains appointed to sail into the Frith, six altogether, two are of 120 and the rest of 110 tons burden.—Newcastle, 20 Feb. 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, William Gray, R. Sadler, G. Howard, F. Leeke.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
Feb. 20.
R. O. Tytler, vi. 458.
754. Questions to the Lords of Scotland, with their Answers.
1. Whether they be able of themselves to expel the French?
Answer. They are not able to expel them out of the fortresses without the Queen's aid, specially seeing the whole body of the realm is not yet united.
2. What aid they would then require of the English for this purpose ?
Answer. They desire a league with England for mutual defence, and that the Queen will supply any lack in their force.
3. What power of horse and foot they are able to bring, and by what time?
Answer. They will be able to bring 5,000 men, whereof 2,000 shall keep watch and ward with the English, and 3,000 keep the country, so that the English need attend to nothing but the French in the fort. They would meet the English army at Achison's Haven on the 25th March.
4. How long they be able to abide in the field?
Answer. The whole nobility and landed men with their households will remain as long as the Queen's power remains, how long soever it be; and the remnant, twenty days after the joining of the armies upon their own charges; and then 2,000 footmen are to receive wages of the Queen and continue as long as need be, with 300 or 400 light horse, in like manner. The number of the nobility, etc., remaining after the twenty days shall be declared.
5. What ordnance and munition they can bring into the field?
Answer. All the artillery and munitions of Scotland are in the hands of the Dowager, the French, and the strengths that are in their hands.
6. What carriages they can furnish for the draught of great ordnance?
Answer. The artillery, etc., being brought by sea to Achison's Haven, carriage horses will be supplied from thence to Leith by the Scots.
7. What number of pioneers they can furnish?
Answer. Upon the Queen's charges they can levy 300 or 400, or more.
8. What necessaries they have for scaling and assaulting forts?
Answer. They have none in store ; whatsoever there is in the country shall be at the command of the English, and there is wood and broom enough within four miles of Leith.
9. How much victual, and for how long, they can furnish both for horse and man?
Answer. They shall have sufficient oats for their horses, but they are in doubt what they may certainly promise of forage till they see if the country be destroyed or not. For victual for men it will be necessary to send into Scotland some commissaries with a convenient sum of money aforehand; there will be plenty, and the longer the army remains the better they will be furnished. There are arrested in merchants' hands at Dundee and Burnt Island 200 tuns of wine, which will be delivered to the commissaries for 34l. Scotch the tun, viz., 8l. 10s. sterling.
10. How they may be furnished with victual for horse and man between Berwick and Edinburgh?
Answer. It will be good for them to bring victual for the men with them. For their horses they must trust to what may be had. Proclamation will be made for all men to furnish forage at a reasonable expense, which if they fail to do, liberty shall be given to take it.
11. Where and when the two powers shall meet?
Answer. In some part of Lothian, which they leave to the discretion of the English.
12. Whether they will be able to occupy Edinburgh; and are sure of Lord Erskine, the captain of the castle, that at least he will be no enemy?
Answer. It is too great hazard for the Scots to enterprise the taking of Edinburgh before the joining of the armies; for they doubt the French, as desperate men, will enterprise battle with them. They will promise nothing assuredly of Lord Erskine, but they hope he will be no enemy.
13. How the borderers of Scotland may be reduced to take part with the Lords in this cause?
Answer. They are labouring to reduce the most part of them thereto, and for such as shall remain obstinate, they will take order with them by the advice of the English.
14. What ships they can make to the seas for the wars?
Answer. They have no great number of ships at their command, but some there be who make forth against the French upon their own adventure.
15. Where they shall be able to lodge together in towns 600 demi-lances and 600 light horsemen?
Answer. They shall be placed in Edinburgh; and failing thereof, in towns thereabouts which shall be left to them.
16. Where they may best land their artillery, etc., and what the ground is?
Answer. At Achison's Haven, with good hard ground from thence to Leith.
Endd. by Cecil: 20 Feb. 1559. Pp. 6.


  • 1. Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 2. Cotton's copy of this paper occurs in the B.M. Cal. B. x. 67.
  • 3. Another copy of this letter occurs in B. M. Calig. B. ix. 94.
  • 4. Another copy of this letter is at Hatfield House, in the Duke's letter-book.
  • 5. Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.