Elizabeth: March 1560, 21-25

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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'Elizabeth: March 1560, 21-25', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, ed. Joseph Stevenson( London, 1865), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp462-476 [accessed 18 July 2024].

'Elizabeth: March 1560, 21-25', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Edited by Joseph Stevenson( London, 1865), British History Online, accessed July 18, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp462-476.

"Elizabeth: March 1560, 21-25". Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Ed. Joseph Stevenson(London, 1865), , British History Online. Web. 18 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp462-476.

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March 1560, 21-25

March 21.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 382.
881. Throckmorton to the Council. (fn. 1)
1. Since the despatch of his last letters to the Queen, and to them on the 15th inst. he has not slacked to ask an answer to what he proposed to the King from the Queen, and delivered to the Cardinal of Lorraine. This morning the 20th he sent again to the Cardinal, who said the King had concluded thereupon, and would send the same to the Bishop of Valence, now in England, to proceed thereupon with the Queen. Throckmorton asked whether he should have no other answer, as he had trusted to have had the King's answer in writing; whereunto the Cardinal answered that the King minded to do as he said. He thinks this a cold kind of dealing, that having put him off so long for an answer, now to make it after this sort, and make him privy to no part of it, nor send him word of it, but that he must thus wrest it from them. What need is there for an Ambassador here, when he receives no answer to his matter, as they have used of late more than once? He thinks they do it but to dally with the time rather than to go the right way. Thinks that the Bishop shall have no commission to end these things, but only power to talk and argue of the same with the Queen, and, having heard her answer, will perhaps say he will write to the King thereof, and so win more time.
2. In his last letters the writer said that when he told the Cardinal of Lorraine that their Ambassador Sevre had agreed to certain things, he answered that Sevre had forgotten himself and passed his commission; being told to talk of matters, but conclude nothing. And seeing he behaved as though he had authority, and yet had none, this writer thinks it will be the same with this Bishop. He hopes the Queen and Council will require to see his commission, and if he has power to end the same in deed and that out of hand, then he is not to be refused an audience; and yet (in Throckmorton's opinion) this should by no means hinder things abroad, for that will make them the sooner come to reason. If he has no such authority then he should be handled as he deserves; wherein he will not take upon himself to advise their Lordships. Having heard that these men say they know how to handle the Queen and gain time, and have delayed till March what she should have done in December, it makes him more earnest to entreat the Council to beware of their wiles, to let them win no more time, for this is their intent.
3. He sends off Francis, the courier, with the Cardina lof Lorraine's answer and with what he has written to the Queen. There was to-day granted a general pardon for all of the late conspiracy, remitting all that is past, so that each of them return to their habitation or country, not above three or four in a company; or if more are found together, or if they remain in any place, then they are exempt from the pardon. And although things be now calmed and this business is little spoken of, yet the Duke of Guise and Cardinal of Lorraine live in great fear and know not whom to trust.— Amboise, 21 March 1559. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 5.
March 21.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 384.
882. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. He wrote last on the 15th inst. by Barnaby. Refers him to his letter of same date to the Queen for information since the 15th inst. Thinks good to advertise her of the garboils here. Unless the French think that she dallies with them, he knows not what they mean. Their present affairs are great and many. They will accord with her demands, but redeem the time till these garboils are overblown and their affairs in better readiness. Whatever the Ambassador promises, when they come to the execution they will be far enough from it. She should compel them to agree to such reason as she will require of them.
2. Cecil wrote in his last letters of the 7th, that the advance of the Duke of Norfolk was deferred from the 25th to the 28th, which makes the writer wish that there were no longer delay. There are not many enemies in Scotland; they have not many places, nor are these strong, nor can they have help from hence. Since 1 Sept. the writer has still called to have this matter to be followed. If they were then in ill case to withstand the Queen, they are now in a great deal worse and we in far better order. Now is the opportunity; now may she do what she will. Whereunto this stir will grow Godknows, for he hears they begin to stir in a great many more places.
3. To hear often from hence is requisite, and 100l. (or indeed 500l.) should not be spared. If things grow to extremities here he knows not in what case he is like to be, and therefore despatches this while he may. It were meet he were revoked, for the Ambassador of Spain told him that the French conceived he was a great party in these garboils.
4. Has received an answer from the Cardinal, for which he refers Cecil to his [the writer's] letter to the Council. They must stand stoutly with the Bishop of Valence, to whom the matter is committed. John Combes is much offended with the writer for having written about him to the Council; it is strange how he should have any inkling thereof. Every three or four days a post comes hither from the Ambassador Sevre. Florence de Diaceto, misliking the offer made by the Queen, has entered the service of the King of France with his old pension, of which the arrears are confirmed to him. He is shortly to be employed upon the affairs of England and Scotland.
5. Has written to Lord Arundel in behalf of William and Augustine Haward, of Sevenoaks, in Kent, two poor serving men, who having committed a small robbery in Kent about a year ago, came over into France, where they have wandered up and down since Hallontide [1 Nov.] last. Asks Cecil to help them.—Amboise, 21 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 9.
March 21.
R. O.
883. The Substance of the Message of the Bishop of Valence.
1. He stated that he had been sent by the French King, to answer certain complaints of the Queen, and to declare certain griefs of their own.
2. As to the bearing of the English arms by the French Queen, that was thought in France to be done for the honour of Elizabeth and to show that the French Queen was her cousin.
3. As to using the title of England, that had been done in time of war to annoy Queen Mary, and had been treated of at Cambray, and there was never any complaint made about it till now.
4. As to the force in Scotland, he extenuated the number, inducing that there was no cause for England to fear invasion from so few.
5. Finally, he complained of the Queen's navy lying in the Frith and stopping the victuallers, taking their merchants prisoners, as also M. d'Elbœuf's horses.
6. The Duke of Norfolk and his army had committed divers disorders on land. He also had commission to go to Scotland to inquire into the grievances; and whether they were about religion, or disorders against their liberty committed by the Regent, D'Oysell, La Brosse, or the Bishop of Amiens, he had authority to reform all matters. The same number of soldiers to remain there as was wont before the marriage.
7. Answer was made to the above by certain persons appointed thereto, viz., the Earl of Pembroke, the Lord Cham berlain, the Lord Admiral, Cecil and Wotton. They complained that his answer was too meagre. On his justifying his answers they impugned them as follows.
8. As to these arms of England; it was absurd to say that the French Queen bore them merely in honour, as she in writing called herself Queen of England. Her father, Henry VIII.'s nephew, never bore them; besides a cousin of the house of England would bear them with some difference from the very possessor of the Crown.
9. As to the title of England; if it were taken in time of war, why is it used in time of peace? Why have the arms of England been up in every place whither the French Queen resorted, and why were commissions signed and sealed with the title and arms of England? Why have such practices been made at Rome in her favour?
10. As to the forces in Scotland; the French could bring no more by reason of the tempest. The preparations and ordnance are far too many and great for Scotland. Besides peace might be had there without force, by governing them according to their laws. If the French will withdraw their forces, the Queen will withdraw hers, and remain in good and perfect amity with them.—Dated 21 March 1559.
In Cecil's hol. Pp. 4.
March 21.
R. O.
884. The Duke of Norfolk to the Queen Dowager of Scotland.
1. He received yesterday, by one of her trumpets called Drummond, her letter of the 17th inst., enclosing a copy of Queen Elizabeth's letters addressed to her, and also a memorial of the attemptates alleged against Winter, to whom he has already written, in order that if he has misbehaved, redress might sooner be devised.
2. The Duke has been advertised that though the French Ambassador promised that the French garrisons in Scotland should retire into Edinburgh and Leith and cease from all hostility, yet sundry ensigns are departed towards Glasgow to impeach and annoy the Duke of Châtellerault and the other Lords of Scotland. He despatches this bearer to learn her mind touching the promise of the French Ambassador.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 21.
R. O.
885. Attemptates committed by William Winter since his arrival in the Frith.
1. On the 23rd January he took two ships pertaining to the King and Queen, and commanded by captains James Cullen and Farrand, with their soldiers and mariners, artillery and munition.
2. On the 24th he took a hoy fraught from Leith to Fife, with two bastards, one "moyane," and two falcons, with their equipage and fourteen barrels of powder, with divers other munitions and artillery. Also forty barrels of meal, one piece of wine, certain puncheons of beer, and some bread.
3. He has also taken sundry other ships, and amongst them one hulk with horses, besides many boats both passengers and fishers. They also keep prisoner the Bishop of Orkney, and have caused one John Seatoun to pay a ransom. Of these and other attempts there shall be made a more special declaration hereafter.
Orig., in a Scottish hand. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 21.
R. O. Haynes, p. 266.
886. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 2)
1. Forwards such letters as were addressed to him [Norfolk] from the Dowager of Scotland by one of her trumpets, who arrived yesterday, rather to espy their doings than for any other cause. The Duke sent him back immediately, and this day he has sent an English trumpet with his letters.
2. Yesterday morning the Frenchman, Guilliam Chaperon, who passed lately from De Sevre, the French Ambassador, with the Scottish herald, arrived here out of Scotland, and returns this day towards London to the said Ambassador. The Duke has learnt of him of the repair of certain French ensigns towards Stirling, and that now they have directed their journey towards Glasgow with intent to levy a siege laid to the Lord Semple's house by the Duke of Châtellerault, although indeed it is untrue that the Duke has attempted any such matter. If it had been so the writers would have known it from Randolph, who came from Glasgow on the same day that the French marched thitherward out of Edinburgh. The truth is the French perceive that the Lords begin to assemble their power to meet the English, and do now what they can to disturb the same, for which purpose they have repaired to Glasgow, being the place of assembly of the Lords of the west parts, or it may be they have some enterprise on Dumbarton.
3. Sends herewith the copy of complaints made by the French Ambassador against Winter, and the answers he has made thereunto. The writers intend to repair to Berwick tomorrow, and have ordered that on Monday night the army shall encamp in the bounds of Berwick and shall march forward on Wednesday.—Newcastle, 21 March 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, R. Sadler, G. Howard, F. Leek.
Orig., with armorial seal. In Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
March 21.
R. O.
887. The Lords of the Congregation to the Duke of Norfolk.
Wrote before of the coming of the French into these parts. At the Lords' departing from Glasgow they left certain soldiers in the Bishop's palace and steeple to drive time for forty-eight hours, that the writers might get their friends together. Nevertheless immediately after the coming of the French the said soldiers rendered the same; and one company of the French remaining to spoil "the graith" being in the same, as they passed to a tower of the palace where a barrel of powder was hid, by chance the powder fired through one of "their lunts" and killed thirteen, one of them a principal captain. The French horsemen charged about thirty of the Scottish soldiers in the town who remained behind, and who had retired to the bridge, where they slew eight of the French, of whom part were defeated and part escaped. Shortly afterwards the French, knowing the Lords were determined to fight, retired out of the town to pass to their strength without sound of trumpet or tambourine; wherefore the Earl of Arran with the best horsemen followed them to Callandar Wood, where they remained two hours, and the French durst not break any of their company, fearing an ambush. The French horse and foot marched in order of battle, nor durst they pass out to do any skaith to the country. The Earl came back to provide for the army, leaving a company of horse to deal with the French and keep them from scattering and destroying the country. The Lords have appointed to their folks the 26th inst. to be in Glasgow.— Glasgow, 21 March 1559.—Signed: James Hamilton, Arch. Argile, Alex. Glencairn, A. Boyd.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 21.
R. O.
888. The Earl of Arran to the Duke of Norfolk.
1. Perceives by his letter, dated from Newcastle the 14th March, that he "hastes direction" of Lord Huntley's servant, of which the writer is glad, as he believes that Huntley will do conform to his former promise; and further that it has pleased the Duke to advertise the writer of the French practice towards his father and the rest of the Council. He assures the Duke that they will in no ways go back from their promise to the Queen. They consider that the "pretent" of the French is but only to put both the consciences and country of the Scots in thraldom, which they intend to maintain to the death.
2. He thinks that the deferring their meeting of so much time will do but little skaith; he travails in the same that the country take no discouraging of their long tarry.—Hamilton, 21 March 1559. Signed.
3. P. S.—Refers him for the further proceedings of the French to his father's writings, and sends a letter which he begs to be delivered to the French Ambassador. Encloses a copy of the same, whereby the Duke may see why Châtellerault desires that this matter may come to light, to the rebuke and shame of the inventors thereof.
Orig., in Maitland's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
March 21.
R. O. Haynes, p. 267. Teulet, 1. 566. L. Paris, p. 220.
889. The Duke of Chatellerault to M. de Seurre. (fn. 3)
Having been informed that he has told the Queen of England and her Council that the writer and the other Lords have sought pardon for their rebellion, he denies that he has ever done so; and if M. de Seurre or any other Frenchman (the King excepted) maintains the same, it is false. The Duke has a hundred gentlemen of his family, the least of whom is M. de Seurre's equal, and who will, when he is discharged from the office of Ambassador, avouch body to body in this quarrel that he has falsely and maliciously lied.— Hamilton, 21 March 1559. Signed.
Copy. Add. by Cecil's secretary. Fr. Pp. 2.
March 22.
R. O.
890. The Council in the North to Cecil.
1. They have received out of Scotland the enclosed letters this morning, by which he may see how the Scotch Lords seem determined to give no ear to the French practices, and how loath they be that any time should be protracted.
2. There also arrived letters from the Queen of the 19th, with the articles of the treaty with the Lords of Scotland and Cecil's letter to the Duke of Norfolk. They are now ready to horseback to take their journey towards Berwick.—Newcastle, 22 March 1559. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, W. Grey, R. Sadler, G. Howard, F. Leek.
Orig., in Sadler's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
March 23.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 390.
891. The Privy Council to the Queen. (fn. 4)
1. They have thought it convenient to declare the accord of their opinions touching the attempts of France, not only against this realm, but specially against her person.
2. The Queen of Scots, her husband, and the house of Guise are mortal enemies of her person, and of such as will maintain her estate and continuance. They think they do not bear any such mortal hatred to this realm for itself, but their malice is bent against her person, and that they will never cease as long as she and the Scottish Queen lives.
3. They think she should take hold of the opportunity now offered, which if she do not they fear the realm will be in some great danger, and principally her own person.
4. To rehearse some of the dangerous proceedings of the French, these they are in part:—The foul dishonourable peace they made with King Philip, whereby they lost honour, countries, people, treasure, etc., and the fruit of many millions of gold spent in three Kings' ages, saving nothing but the possessions which of late years they got from England and the realm of Scotland, leaving themselves no occasion of war towards any part of the world, but this realm. When this was done they published openly their pretended title to this kingdom. At Rome they practised many ways against her. In France they took her arms and added thereto the style and title of the realm of England and Ireland, numbering the year of their reign from the death of Queen Mary. They dispersed this abroad in France by great number of grants made both to vulgar and noble, to King Philip with confirmation of a treaty, into Scotland also by many manner of ways, to make a preparation to their further proceedings. Whatever is said by the French to colour this, the Council does utterly disallow, as false, foolish, absurd, and not worthy the hearing. Now followed the continuance of all their forces in Scotland, which they should have revoked from thence had they meant good peace there, as they revoked them out of other places. "But this we well saw, they revoked not one man thence." A discord followed between the ministers and men of war of France and the nobility of Scotland, and thereupon great numbers were provided in France and part conveyed there and part on the way by tempest put back for the time, and afterward the rest were stayed for fear of the Queen's ships which were sent northward. Also the preparation of great ordnance for battery, which only is to serve against England, being useless in Scotland, where they have already no small quantity, the Scotch having not one piece of brass.
5. The following impediments have occurred, without which they had ere this day reduced Scotland, and would have been ready to put Berwick in some hazard, which being as yet imperfected cannot be saved from any mean force but with an army:—
6. The death of the French King, "a man of great activity and courage. With him fell the fame and courage of war in France for a season. With him decayed the wise councillor, the Constable, and such others as depended upon him; matters of no small consideration for the hurt of France, remembering therewith what manner of person succeeded for their King."
7. The alienation of the minds of the people of Scotland from the manner of governance of France, and the more part of a year spent in hostility betwixt them.
8. Impediments staying the force of France out of Scotland, which, if they had not chanced, Scotland would surely have been conquered. Wherefore they think it just, honourable, necessary, and in some measure profitable that she should aid the people of Scotland to remove thence the force of France.
9. They think it just, because the proceedings of the French would endanger England.
10. Honourable, because she would thereby relieve a realm oppressed, being not only next to her but also of ancient time held of this crown, and not denying their lawful obedience, but seeking to preserve their ancient rights and the succession of the crown in their natural lineage.
11. Necessary, because, if Scotland be conquered, (that is, if its crown be knit to France and the men of war of France be brought in thither,) this kingdom must also keep a continual war upon the north parts, and be at a continual charge of great power of men to keep Berwick, though the French would profess peace, and as soon as a power be brought in thither there might be an invasion made by land.
12. Profitable, because, if deferred, all the treasure of her land cannot do this afterwards. They trust also that she shall be more able and with less cost to defend the malice of France in assailing her realm only by sea; and besides it is profitable for her to transfer and divert the war of France into Scottish ground, and to overpass time and abide it until it come to English ground.
13. Next, they will show her their opinions to some things objected. For the mistrust of the Scots they think there daily appears cause to the contrary. They have stood hitherto in hostility with the French; they have refused to hearken to offers of peace; they have wasted their blood and substance therein; they offer her hostages; they have no sure way but through her protection. As war is a dangerous matter, they think that it should be notified that she desires no other than peace towards France, and in no wise to invade any territories of the French King, and that she means only to procure for her own preservation that the men of war brought into Scotland should not tarry there so nigh her realm; nor that she will permit that the house of Guise shall exalt their own house by attributing to their niece the title of her realms. They think the deferring any more days very hurtful; it is dangerous to the Scots, and profitable only to the French. To her numerous complaints no answer is given, except that two persons of no estimation are sent hither to abuse her with dilatory answers. They think her former determination for putting the French out of Scotland and fortifying her realms should be followed without delay, and hope that things tending to the execution thereof shall follow orderly. They offer to do any service she commands them at the expense of their lands, goods, and life.
Copy. Dated by Cecil: 23 March 1559. Pp. 8.
March 23.
R. O.
892. Killigrew's Journey into Scotland. (fn. 5)
Receipt given by Henry Killigrew to Roger Alford, for 26l. 13s. 4d, received for his charges in his repair with the Bishop of Valence to Scotland.—23 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 24. 893. [Francis Edwards] to Cecil. (fn. 6)
Sent letters on the 7th and 13th, signifying the departure of D'Elbœuf and his company from Dieppe, and that their appointed shipping should be at Newhaven. Perceives by Cecil's letter of the 21st inst., that his letters of the 20th and 28th ult. have not come to hand. D'Elbœuf's proceeding is not known, by reason of a storm which of late has grown about the King, and is like to be worse and worse. The partners cannot get their merchandise together, by reason of ill weather. The Cardinal of Lorraine repents that he has begun a bargain that he cannot perform. Such stirring is there in many a place that the partners dare not go far from home; they are afraid of their neighbours, who are in readiness, and more of other practices. Men think they will discharge part of their merchandise. A friend writes from Newhaven that they have already thereby gone. The fruit has been sent back again; the pome rose has been sent to Charles, with advice, and sent back to the Cardinal. The party by whom he received Cecil's letters will declare more.—From the place accustomed.
In Edwards' hol., but unsigned. Add., with seal. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 24 March 1559. Fr. Edwards to my master. Pp. 2.
March 24.
R. O. Haynes, p. 268.
894. The Queen's Proclamation concerning Peace. (fn. 7)
A Proclamation declaring the Queen's purpose to keep peace with France and Scotland; and to provide for the surety of her kingdom.
1. Although it is evidently seen, not only by the Queen's subjects but also by many strangers in all parts of Christendom, what occasions have of late been given, and continued by the French, that she should fear the invasion of this realm by way of Scotland, yet she notifies her intent herein.
2. She thinks that the injurious pretences made by the Queen of Scots to this realm proceed from the principals of the house of Guise, who now have the chief governance of the crown of France, and that neither the French King (who by reason of his years is not capable of such an enterprise) nor the Queen of Scots, his wife, (also being in her minority,) nor yet the Princes of the blood royal and other estates of France, have imagined such an unjust enterprise. The house of Guise, for their private advancement exalting their niece, the Queen of Scots, have thus injuriously set forth and in time of peace continued in public the arms of England and Ireland in the name of their niece; and have used the authority of the King and Queen to enterprise the eviction of the crown of Scotland out of the power of the natural people of the land, and thereby to proceed with force, meaning to invade England. The Queen takes these insolent atetmpts to be but the abuse of the house of Guise during the minority of the King and Queen, and without the consent of the greater states of France; and being desirous to keep peace with all Princes, and also with France and Scotland, she notifies that she is forced to put in order, to her great charge, certain forces by sea and land for the safeguard of England. Yet she intends not any hostilities, as she has required of the Cardinal of Lorraine and his brother, and by means of them, of the French King, that these insolent titles and claims might cease and be revoked; and that there might be a natural governance granted to the people of Scotland, that they may live in their due obedience to their Queen without further oppression and fear of conquest; that the men of war of France in Scotland might be revoked, being, by reason of the French in their claims against this kingdom, dangerous to be so nigh. It has been offered that they should have safe conduct by water or by land, or both, for their departure; and that, according to their ceasing from arms, the Queen's power by sea and land should accordingly cease. To these requests the Queen can get no answer, although much time has been spent, to her excessive charge, and to the delay of concord.
3. Finally, she declares she will keep peace with France and Scotland so long as no invasion be made upon her countries, dominions, or people; and will procure by good and fair means that concord may be had in Scotland, and the French men of war depart without harm and in surety; if they will not, she must of necessity attempt to compel them.
4. She therefore charges her subjects to use with friendship all the French King's subjects, as in times of peace, except they, be provoked by any hostility; and although of late intolerable injuries have been committed in France against the crown of England, yet to judge thereof not otherwise than the Queen is pleased to think and judge. They shall make no other preparations for war, but for defence of this realm. For better intelligence hereof she was willed this to be proclaimed in English and French, although the same has been declared to the French King, the principals of the house of Guise in France, the Queen Dowager of Scotland, and all the Ambassadors of France here resident, whereunto no answer can be obtained.—Westminster, 24 March 1559, 2 Eliz.
Copy. Injured in the margin. Fr. Pp. 5.
March 25.
R. O.
895. The Dowager of Scotland to Norfolk.
1. She has received his letters by the trumpet named Medcalf, wherein he writes that he intends to take information of the attempts of Admiral Winter. The matter requires no further delay, and cannot be misknown.
2. The garrisons which departed from Edinburgh, Leith, and Stirling to Glasgow and other parts, were sent because of a proclamation which the rebels made on the 21st for usurping against the authority; they have also invaded the persons and besieged the houses of divers true subjects of the realm, especially Castle Semple. As to the promise he alleges to have been made by the French Ambassador in London, that the French garrisons should make no offence against the Scots, or the English ships, the Ambassador has made mention of no such promise to her; nevertheless she would have acted so but for the proclamation, and the besieging of the house. She does not think that the Queen would be content if any other Prince assisted her subjects being rebels, and does not believe she will do so herself. She begs for a free passage for this bearer to go towards the Ambassador to learn concerning the aforesaid promise.—Edinburgh, 25 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
March 25.
R. O.
896. Randolph to Norfolk.
1. Trusts that his last letter reached the Duke safely, by which he advertises that he found the Duke of Châtellerault, his son, and others willing to perform their promise, and in none of them any kind of alteration, though the Dowager does not lack her ministers to practise with them. There arrived yesterday the Lairds of Drumlanrig, Garlies, Lochinvar, and Applegarth, who have joined themselves to this cause. Messengers have come here yesterday from the Dowager and the Lords Erskine and Home to entreat that the matter might come to communication; the copy of whose letters with the answer he sends. This matter must be debated at the point of the sword. The Lords are determined not to fail, at the day and place named, to meet their friends.
2. He wrote somewhat of the French doings in Glasgow in his last letter. They were so intolerable that the French engendered unto themselves much hatred of many who otherwise favoured them. The country gathered so fast upon them that they departed both sooner than they determined and in better order than they came, for fear of being fought with. They left also their purpose intended towards Hamilton and went to Linlithgow. M. d'Oysel on the 23rd departed towards Edinburgh and sent sixty horsemen to Stirling, as is supposed, to convey the rest thence. The Lords determine to put them out before their joining with England, which is in two days.
3. That the Duke may know the nature of a well disposed Prelate, the writer sends him a copy of a letter privily sent to Gavain Hamilton, Abbot of Kilwinning, but intercepted by the way, to cause the Duke to fear of the issue of this matter in hand.
4. The (fn. 8) Duke was so much offended with the bruit that was of his revolt that he caused a letter to be written in French to the French Ambassador, which he [the Duke] now thinks it would have been better to have sent by one of his own servants.—Glasgow, the 25th, at 6 in the morning. Signed.
Orig. Add. Pp. 3.
[March 25.]
R. O.
897. Lord James to the Lords Erskine and Alexander Home.
1. He perceives by their letter (which he received at St. Andrews on the 20th,) their compassion upon the miseries of the country, brought on by the French faction and the Queen Dowager; that they are troubled at any army coming forth of England, and that they are desirous of having a place of meeting appointed.
2. "The rest of the letter for lack of time could not be sent."
Copy, unfinished, in a Scottish hand; the concluding memorandum by Randolph. P. 1.
March 25.
R. O.
898. Extracts from the Instructions (fn. 9) of the Bishop of Valence.
1. To the Queen Dowager of Scotland.
That she shall do her utmost in order to bring back the rebels, promising them that the King will pardon everything if they return to their obedience. His only object being to pacify affairs, he is willing to withdraw the greater part of his forces from Scotland, if the Scots will return to their allegiance.
2. To the Queen of England.
That he shall assure her of the King's amity and his intention to pardon the rebels if they return to their obedience, and that he is willing to withdraw the greater part of his forces from Scotland.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 25 March 1560. Fr. Pp. 2.
March 25.
R. O.
899. Cecil to Gresham.
1. A bargain has been offered by Count Mansfield and other noblemen of Almaine to send the Queen a great quantity of money at ten per cent. per ann. (whereof five to be for interest and five in the name of a pension for such noblemen as shall lend the same,) binding themselves to serve her as any other pensioners ought to do. Although she does not know the names of these noblemen, yet the commodity of the bargain is such that Gresham is to learn who they are at Antwerp, and not to fail to conclude the bargain for one year; adding that as soon as he knows the parties he doubts not to conclude it for more time.
2. Whereas the Queen was indebted for money put out in May and November last to be paid in May next to the sum of 93,000l., which she cannot wholly do, he is to take up by way of exchange from time to time to the amount of 40,000l.; and if there appear any increase of commodity by way of exchange, he shall take up 10,000l. or 13,000l. more, so that the debt shall remain but 40,000l., which he shall put over for six months longer at easy interest.
3. He shall be licensed to go to Hamburg, for the better despatching away of such armour and munitions as is there by him provided.
4. The Queen authorizes him to adventure fifty corslets and fifty couriers from Antwerp in one ship.
5. He shall present 500 French crowns at Easter to Volrade Count Mansfield, the Queen's pensioner, then due.—25 March 1560.
Orig. draft in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him. Pp. 3.


  • 1. Forbes prints the following letter from the original, which in his time was in the State Paper Office, but which does not at present appear to be preserved:—
    March 21.
    R. O. Forbes, 1. 376.
    Throckmorton to the Queen.
    1. The 16th inst. in the morning he despatched letters to her. The 14th inst. there came to Tours a captain named Castelnovo, a Baron of Gascony, of 10,000 francs revenue, accompanied with five other captains named De Ronnay, Garreau, Masere, Lavignac, and Ydron, all of them of very good skill in the wars, with thirty others in their company, who were lodged in an inn of the town named the Galley. The Count Sansar, a Knight of the Order, was sent with a band of horsemen to Tours, to prevent any great assembly, and also to take heed what men resorted to the town and where they lodged. Understanding of the lodging of Castelnovo at the inn, he sent to have it for himself. Castelnovo refused to dislodge, and demanded of the Count whether he had a commission from the King, and if he had he would dislodge; but else not. The matter of reasoning passed so long that he with his thirty men set upon the Count and his fifty, and compelled him to retreat to get more force. In the meantime Castelnovo and his men got themselves out of the town and repaired to Noysay, three English miles from Amboise, where they were taken by the Duke of Nemours and brought to the Court. They said they minded no hurt to the King, and that they had another King whom they sought to serve and have his law established.
    2. On the 16th about fifty persons more were taken, for the most part artificers, who were dismissed and pardoned, except four of the chiefest; to every one of whom (for that they were spoiled), the King gave a crown apiece; and to one who was hurt in the head five crowns. Hereupon a declaration of pardon was made to all such as were up, if they would retire and disperse, except to such as were preachers and came in armour towards the King; for it was said that there were great numbers ready to assemble in four quarters of the realm which were in small companies; by means whereof sometimes more and sometimes less were taken by the King's scouts, the chief stayed, and the others set at liberty and pardoned.
    3. It was thought that this was but a popular commotion and not to be feared, when, unlooked for, on the 17th a company of 150 horsemen well appointed approached the Court gates and shot off their pistols at the church of the Bonhommes. Whereupon great alarm continued; the drum was stricken; and the horsemen, seeing they were too few to resist the King's horsemen, fled away, leaving two behind, whose horses had been slain. This caused upon a sudden a sharp determination to minister justice, and the two last taken were hanged, and two others for company, and afterwards divers more were taken and nine men hanged; all of whom died very assuredly and constantly for religion in singing of psalms. Divers were drowned in sacks, and some appointed to die on the wheel. M. de Sansar found twenty-five in a house together, and because they would not come out, he set fire to it; whereupon they issued, and one of them, seeing his fellows taken, returned back and burned himself. The 17th twenty-two of these rebels were drowned in sacks; and on the night of the 18th twenty-five more. Among these that are taken there are eighteen of the bravest captains in France. As they are taken they are questioned and condemned to die.
    4. News arrived of a worse matter. There is a stir of Gascons, who are ready to repair hitherward; the like in Bretague and Normandy, where they have assailed the Marquis d'Albœuf and his company, who is either hurt or slain. Whereupon they here have consulted to fortify and intrench the castle.
    5. The Queen may now see what advantage she has over the French, who are so troubled that they know not where to levy any force. He has often called upon them for answer to the Articles; it is easy to perceive they do nothing but to win time. It will be to her advantage to have gained somewhat of the French, before the King of Spain interposes himself in these matters, rather than to come barely thereto, having done nothing; whereby he shall have less regard to her than shall be for her honour and commodity. Begs her to have him revoked, as he is in much danger of his life. The French practise the stealing away their hostages in England, in going about to change them for others on this side, whom he has not allowed, nor can allow, but the Vidâme of Amiens. On the 18th inst. the Duke of Lorraine arrived here in post with thirty horse.
    6. Having sent to the Cardinal this day to know the reply to the Articles, he answered that the King had concluded thereupon and had determined to send the same in writing to the Bishop of Valence with commission to proceed thereupon with her; and that the writer should not need to look for any other answer. He thinks it a strange kind of dealing that he should tell them what he has to say, and should receive no answer; if they meant plainly they would not use this sort of proceeding. He does not believe that the Bishop has power to determine anything, but only to practise so as to win more time. He fears that whatever the Bishop does they here will say he has passed his commission. He trusts she and the Council will require to see his commission. They have said that they know how to handle her, which makes them bolder to presume. Let her beware that their wiles cause her not to forego her occasion to provide for her honour and surety for ever.
    7. On the 20th, La Renaudiere, surnamed La Forest, a captain among these rebels, being before killed by such as went to take him, was hanged on a gibbet before the Court gate. This day was proclaimed a general pardon for all men in this conspiracy, with order to repair to their dwelling places not above three or four in company; and if they assembled in greater company they should be exempt from the pardon. Castelnovo confessed that he should have conducted such as stirred in Berry; that Masieres should have led them of Gascony, and Ranaudiere them of Provence; and that the cause of their haste was to kill the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine; and then to have sent for the rest of the conspirators to assist them. They are here in great fear and know not what to do.
    8. John Ribaud has prested and stayed sixteen hulks at the bay, the least of 500 and some 600 tons apiece, and is repaired to this Court to get money to put the same in order. They mind to furnish forth in all seventy ships of war as soon as they can get them. An Italian, named Attilio Trento, (who was with her at Hatfield soon after her trouble, and about the time that King Philip departed out of England for Flanders,) bears her such affection as to offer her his service for her better intelligence how things go on in this Court, whereunto he has very good means. Throckmorton begs to know what pension she will appoint him if she entertain him. He has already devised the means how he shall serve.—Amboise, 21 March 1559. Signed.
    Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered.
  • 2. Another copy is in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 3. A copy in MS., endorsed by Cecil, exists in the collection at Hatfield House.
  • 4. Cecil's original draft of this paper occurs in B.M. Cal. B. x. 81.
  • 5. The Queen to Norfolk.
    March 30.
    MS. Hatfield House. Haynes, p. 274.
    The Bishop of Valence, who was sent hither about thirteen days past from the French King, to treat of matters wherein she showed herself offended, and therein for lack of authority, or such like, has proceeded to no purpose but delay of time, is now desirous to repair into Scotland; alleging that he has commandment from his master to the Queen Dowager and Scots for an accord of their griefs. The Queen has licensed him to do so, and has sent with him Henry Killigrew to conduct him to the Duke, in order that he may be safely conducted to the Queen.
    Cecil's draft.
  • 6. In this and the subsequent letters of Edwards' it has been considered unnecessary to preserve the terms under which he seeks to disguise his meaning.
  • 7. A draft of this Proclamation, in English, the joint production of Cecil and Petrie, is preserved at Hatfield House, and is employed as the basis of the abstract given above. See also B. M. Harl. 293, 121 b., and 1244, 249, and MS. Béthune (Paris), 8666, 43.
  • 8. From this point the letter is written with a different ink.
  • 9. The Council to Norfolk.
    March 22.
    MS. Hatfield House. Haynes, p. 267.
    1. For the purpose of inducing the Queen to suspend hostilities in Scotland, the French King has sent hither M. Monluc, Bishop of Valence, whose excuses for injuries done to her in assuming her arms and usurping her style and title are vain and evil grounded; and they seek nothing else by their talk than to gain time, which has been lost on their parts, and now with more speed must be recovered.
    2. The Queen is determined that the Duke shall proceed according to his former instructions, and at the time appointed the Lord Grey shall enter Scotland with the army, and with the aid of the Scotch expel such forces of Frenchmen as are there, and such Scotchmen as take their part against the liberty of their country. For speedy execution thereof, the Queen sends by Lestrange the ratifications of such articles as were agreed upon by the Duke and the Lord Lieutenant of Scotland, the same to be signified to them with all speed, lest any doubt be conceived by them through slackness; and upon receiving the hostages into his hands he is to deliver the ratifications to the Lords of Scotland.
    3. If after the entry any Frenchman would depart out of Scotland, the same is to have safe conduct, and by some convenient means he shall notify to the French and Scotchmen that such of them as will not continue in their obstinacy against Scotland shall have safe conduct to pass safely from thence; but such Scottish men as shall continue to oppugn the liberty of their country shall be handled with all extremities and be counted as traitors.
    Copy. Endd. by Cecil.