Elizabeth: March 1560, 26-30

Pages 476-496

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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March 1560, 26-30

[March 26.]
R. O.
900. The Queen to Count Mansfeld.
1. She has received his letters from Christopher Hartman, as also a despatch containing various intelligence, (with a document signed by the Count,) of which the greater part was already known to her. She intends to hold a convention next month in London, for the purpose of settling her disputes with the Hanse Towns, whose lawful privileges she has no wish to infringe.
2. She has for a long time known of the French proceedings that he wrote about, but has hitherto borne them patiently, desiring nothing more than the continuance of peace. They have offered explanations, in which she has little faith; but she is not unprepared, nor need she dread any sudden invasion. The issue will soon be known. She has directed that the portion of his pension that is due shall be paid by Gresham at Antwerp.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
March 26.
R. O.
901. Draft of a portion of the above in Cecil's writing.—Westminster, 26 March, 1560.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
March 26.
R. O.
902. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Has despatched by Francis her courier on the 21st, the answer that he had from the Cardinal of Lorraine, touching the Queen's demands from the King, with other occurrences. M. de Vielleville has been sent to appease a stir in the Beauce and M. de Vassey, another Knight of the Order, to Maune near Angers to pacify a commotion there. Certain of the chiefs of the conspiracy have been executed; one, named Rannay, and his secretary Ranaudiere, have accused divers gentlemen, some of whom are courtiers.
2. The bearer, Florence Diaceto, repairing into England, she is informed of the cause of his sending. He is to use the same offices that others have done for offers to be made, and to cause her to stay her doings between time; then to go into Scotland and practise there; to travail to decipher the disposition of her Council and realm; and generally for knowledge of all things that may serve their turn in England or Scotland. The French think he will be the more able to do this from his acquaintance with the language, and experience through his former service in England. The plat of his legation being such, it will be meet during his abode to make much of the Ambassadors of the Emperor and King of Spain, so that the French may suspect their friendship towards them, and their liking towards the Queen's proceedings. The doings with the Duke of Finland are to be eyed, as he is a man able to serve the French turns there.
3. The writer takes it necessary that somewhat were cast in the way of Diaceto to stay his doings and blear his eyes, so it were well for her, out of hearing of the Ambassador, to profess her esteem for him and praise his zeal for religion, and trust that he will do nothing to its prejudice, and to say that she understands that he has somewhat to say to her, and appoint a private audience, and assure him that what he says he will not hear of again. He trusts that the Queen, weighing whose minister he is, will proceed accordingly. The information from England should be stayed, as the French get intelligence from England or Scotland every other day, greatly to their advantage.
4. On the 24th Lord Hume had assignation given him to the Treasurer of the Espargne for 10,000 francs, being five years arrears of pension, and also confirmation of the same for 2,000 francs per ann.
5. On the 23rd came an Ambassador from the King of Algiers, named Catanea, who had audience on the 25th and was received very magnificently at Court; in the afternoon there was a triumph with running at the ring in masking garments and vizards. He has presented the King with six Turkish horses, whereof it will be well to advertise the Ambassadors of the Emperor and King of Spain. It is said that the truce between the Emperor and the Turk is broken, and that the Sophy and the Turk are like to fall to composition, wherein is no stay, save that the Sophy will not give up the Turk's younger son, having undertaken his defence, for whose resistance men are levied in Cleveland, like as the other Princes of the empire have accorded to do according to their estates. The great execution here and the coming of the King of Algiers' Ambassador will not be acceptable to the Princes of the empire.—Amboise, 26 March 1560. Signed.
Orig., portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
March 26.
R. O.
903. The Names of the Scottish Pledges.
1. The Duke of Châtellerault's fourth son, Lord Claude, aged 14; Canterbury.
2. The Earl of Argyll's father's brother's son, Mr. Alexander Campbell.
3. The Lord James's brother uterine, Mr. Robert Douglas, both at man's estate; and both in some college at Cambridge.
4. The Earl of Glencairn's son, Mr. James Cunningham, a man grown; with Lord Wharton.
5. The Earl of Menteith's son, George Graham, 5 years old; with the Dean of Durham.
6. Lord Ruthven's son, Alexander Ruthven, aged 14; with the Dean of Westminster.—Dated 26 March 1560.
Orig., in Railton's hol., the additions in italics by Cecil. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 27.
R. O.
904. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 26th inst. Florence Diaceto came to his lodging and told him that the cause of his going to Scotland was chiefly that he might salute the Queen in passing and tell her of the King's desire for amity and readiness to put aside his preparations, if they caused her to suspect his friendship, and that the chief point of his commission was to satisfy her demands made to the French King through Throckmorton. He further desired the writer to recommend him to her and that he should be conducted by a herald through England, which was promised him. This was what passed between them.
2. Nevertheless the writer does not think that this is the cause of his going. He was told by Diaceto that the French hope for King Philip's aid; they use the pretence of repressing religion as a means to make him jealous of the Queen and her ministers. She has more reason to haste than stay her preparations, weighing their indirect dealings here. As he is greatly suspected in these garboils, he begs to be recalled. M. Villebon has the charge of making the ships ready, but because the Admiral is absent, they will not be ready these two months.
3. The Vidame of Amiens, Counts de Bussy and St. Maure, and M. du Pont are ready to go into England instead of the hostages at present there; he has not accepted them, and thinks none of them except the Vidame meet to be accepted. Besides, since the Marquis de Neles would be of great assistance in any enterprise against Brittany, it will be well to keep him in England. The Counts de Bussy and St. Maure, being insufficient, may be returned with M. de Candall.
4. The Duke of Nevers is about to marry the Duke of Guise's wife's sister; Don Luigo d'Este, the Duke of Ferrara's brother, refuses to be of the Church and will leave his Cardinalship and marry the Duchess of Tutteville, which is not grateful to the Duke, as Don Luigo has an income of 20,000 crowns. The Duke, in order that it should descend to his own heirs, makes all expedition to cause Luigo to be a Cardinal. These marriages show what alliances the house of Guise seeks for its own aggrandizement.—Amboise, 27 March 1560. Signed.
5. P. S.—As the bruit is that King Philip will assist the French, it will be well for her to make good countenance to his Ambassador so that the French may mistrust him, and to make much of Diaceto in his presence, so that he may suspect the French; and after his departure to tell the Ambassador that she may make any end with the French for her advantage, and that she has cause to suspect King Philip's friendship from his behaviour to the French. And he should be told, but so that he may perceive no practice, that the French have offered the marriage of the Count d'Eu, the Duke de Nemours, or Don Lodovic, the Duke of Ferrara's brother; by this means she may learn the King's meaning and make him afraid of doing anything against her for fear of the alliance with France.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
March 27.
R. O.
905. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. In his letter of the 21st he announced the intended departure of Florence de Diaceto for Scotland. The French are better served by not employing common couriers. He urges Cecil to stay the intelligence from England, as nothing advances their service so much. All these sendings to the Queen's Majesty serve for nothing else but to win time, and "so with their gay and simple speech to enchant Her High ness," till they provide for the worst and calm these garboils here. He trusts this shall be the last warning if (as he wrote on the 7th) the Duke of Norfolk begins to march on the 26th.
2. The people here will be content to agree to all the Queen's demands, but because they are loath to bear the whole burden, they wish that the necessity which should drive them thereunto should come from their ministers in Scotland. Nothing, therefore, hinders Her Majesty from shortening her charges by pressing her proceedings to the uttermost.
3. Although the French arm and rig, and fortify themselves as for a long war, still this is useless unless they are furnished with men; and though they can levy men indeed, the humour of France is so feared, that they are loath to assemble any number lest they should turn to other purposes. These are great occasions to move these men to agree to the Queen's satisfaction.
4. With respect to their vaunting that the King of Spain will aid them in the matters of Scotland, they having made religion their quarrel, it were very necessary to know through his Ambassador whether he intends to aid the Queen, or this side, or to sit still; whereof he may have some knowledge from the Spanish Ambassador. In case the King should be more addicted to this side than to the Queen, the writer wishes that Cecil would seek "a Rowland for an Oliver" in time. If the Queen intends to break with the French King, and perform intents and enterprises in Brittany, the Marquis de Nele must be kept; of the other hostages Du Pont has but 7,000 francs of revenue, and St. Maure not much more. It were well, in respect to this service in Brittany, that the Queen should find means to keep De Nele in one of their places; howsoever he has turned his coat to become of an Englishman a Frenchman, yet an evil countenance should not be made unto him. The miracles that he thinks to work in Scotland are at the hands of Balnaves, some of the Melvins, and the Lord of Grange, whereof it were not amiss to let some of them be advertised.—Amboise, 27 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
March 27.
R. O.
906. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to the Cardinal of Lorraine and Duke of Guise. (fn. 1)
1. This is the fourth despatch which she has sent since the receipt of two of theirs, viz., on the 19th, the 23rd, and 28th ult. Is sorry that the preparations for the coming of their brother the Marquis have not succeeded. Has day by day advertised them of the Queen of England's forces in the Frith, which hourly increase, and doubts not but that the Sieur de Montignac has made ample declaration thereof to them.
2. The Ambassador de Sevres has very evil understood the blank sealed by the Duke [of Châtellerault]. Having sought every means she could to reduce him, and he advancing from evil to worse, and she seeing that he was ready to accord with the Queen of England, in order to bring him into suspicion, the said blank was sent and a letter filled up, whereof the said Duke has no manner of knowledge, she having gotten them into her hands, (with another blank which she has yet,) by one of her servants here to the late Bishop of Ross.
3. She has spared no means to bring the Duke and the others to the King's obedience. Weighing the empeachment on the sea, the best way to succour them is to send by the west to St. John Dair [of Ayr], and to the house of the Earl of Cassilis named "Denevre" [Dunure], which is within two miles, and to advertise the said Earl, without putting anything on land until they hear from her whether she will send force for the conduct of the same; and therein can be nothing hazarded but the money, with two or three ships well victualled and furnished, especially of meal, which shall serve for "letage," and to nourish the force which she will send thither. If the English should be here by land, and she unable to send, then the ships would return. Though not without danger, still this way seems to her and the Council to have the least. Begs them to send, as the writer is in great necessity of money, and all their credit is lost. M. de Ville Parisis writes to them touching the fortifications, munitions, and garrison of Leith.
4. She never saw anything so shameful as the Articles, as well for the honour of God as the reputation of the King, and in according to them there will rest no more but to render obedience to the Queen of England; the Ambassador has sent her word that it was the King's pleasure. She has seen nothing on this side which has given her more torment than that, and would have been sorry if the letters which he wrote had been surprised, which were part written out of cipher.— Edinburgh, 27 March 1560.
5. P. S.—She sends enclosed the translation of a letter.
Copy, in Throckmorton's cipher, deciphered, and translated by him into English. Pp. 2.
March 27.
R. O. Wright, 1. 25. Stevenson's Illus. p. 79.
907. M. de la Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens to the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise. (fn. 2)
1. Writes briefly, as the Queen Dowager has answered at large the two letters, (which are the only ones she has received from them since the coming of Octavian,) and as M. de Ville Parasis writes at good length of the state of the fortifications and of the victuals. La Brosse trusts to depart within four days, according to what they have written by one of their letters; and although he has the Queen's conduct, he has sent to the Duke of Norfolk, who is on the Borders, to be assured of his passage. Still he has thought good to advertise them particularly that nothing possible has been forgotten for putting the Queen of England out of suspicion to enter into the war, and to satisfy the rebels, who have ever stood stiff as they do now, to see the French King without fortification or men of his nation in their realm.
2. The Queen Dowager has written to the Cardinal and Duke for the expedition of the bishopric of Ross in favour of the Dean of Glasgow, President of the Session. His age and deep learning certify enough for him; also he is well affectioned and necessary on that side. The bishopric is yet whole.
3. Since writing this the trumpet has returned from the Duke of Norfolk, who refuses to give him surety of his passport, without first advertising his mistress thereof. Knows not what will come of it.
4. Was assured by the Cardinal, that his nephew should have an office of a counseller, which he has not yet had.
Copy, in Throckmorton's cipher, deciphered and translated by him into English. P. 1.
March 27.
R. O.
908. D'Oysel to the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise. (fn. 3)
1. Necessity is great amongst their men, but they want not courage. All that they can do for their sustenance is to lend them eight or ten sous a-week, which means they fear will fail by the end of the month, when they will be constrained to eat their victuals, which he has spared till now. The soldiers endure much, all things being dearer by one half within these two months. Their said victuals will last two months and a half. They will have bread so so reasonably; very little wine and drink of the country but for the chiefs; and some ease of fish and salt flesh. They use all diligence in fortifying Leith, not forgetting Dunbar. They have enough artillery, if the same were well mounted, and of gross powder; but of the 6,000 weight of fine powder brought by Octavian, they have but 2,000 weight left, having delivered the rest among the bands for business, and fourteen barrels being taken by the English in the Frith. It is a thing of which they can find none in Scotland. All their captains and soldiers, even to the meanest, are of good devotion. They have lost some men through desertion, from poverty and fault of heart. As for prisoners there are very few, if it be not of such as were taken upon the frontiers by the English.—Dunbar, 27 March 1560.
Copy, in Throckmorton's cipher, deciphered and translated by him into English. P. 1.
March 27.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 713. No. CCXXXII.
909. Circular of the Congregation of Scotland to the Adherents of the Dowager. (fn. 4)
1. It is not unknown to them with what cruelty the French pass through diverse parts of Scotland, not only harrying and murdering the poor, but further have sought the conquest of the same, and in this respect the person addressed and their faction would not assist the writers, but have shown themselves plain enemies to the Commonweal. And although letters were directed to them charging them to be in Glasgow on the 26th inst., they in no wise came. The writers intend to join the English at Achison's Haven in Preston Pans, next Saturday; and desire the persons addressed to assemble on that day at Linlithgo, with their friends, tenants, and servants, well armed, (with thirty days victual,) for the purpose of expelling the French. If they fail herein, they will be reputed plain enemies of their country and assisters of the French.— Glasgow, 27 March 1560.
Copy, in a Scottish hand. P. 1.
March 27.
R. O.
910. W. Maitland to Cecil.
1. Although since his coming in these parts he has not finished any great work yet he has so travailed with the Earl of Morton by letters and messages that he is in some assurance of his joining them with all his friends. There are some particularities betwixt the Duke of Châtellerault and the Earl for lands and civil causes, wherein if he have good security there will be no more delay. The writer has advertised the Duke what is demanded, and doubts not but that he will agree to the whole. The issue will certainly be known within these eight days. He fears not that any Scotchman will show his face against them. As soon as they meet in the fields order shall be taken to induce the whole of the neutrals to a manifest declaration, the number of whom he thinks will shortly be few.
2. The Laird of Ormiston assures him that the four Scottish ensigns that are with the French are reduced to fewer than six score men, and that before the siege there will not remain with them ten of the whole. He thinks that the whole number of the French does not exceed 2,200, whereof there be two ensigns come to Dunbar, for they look to be there besieged upon the entry of the English. Some stratagems are in working for destroying the French powder and victuals. He hopes that the Queen will see her support so embraced by all Scotland that she shall think her charges the better bestowed.
3. The young Lairds of Cessford and Farnihurst are already gone to the Duke. He has not as yet spoken with Lord Home. He prays Cecil to let no suspicion of their untruth enter his head. Will not cover or dissemble anything that is to be misliked. He trusts that to-morrow he will enter Scottish ground. Professes his good will and affection to the common cause.—Berwick, 27 March 1560. Signed
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
March 27.
R. O.
911. Fredrick Spedt to Cecil.
1. The writer has informed the Queen's Ambassador, Brigantine, of what has been done in her affairs. The Count (of whom he knows) is ready to do what is required. The Count N. and the Countess of Oldenburg, (the Lady of Friesland,) will provide places convenient for assembling and transporting forces into England or elsewhere; and will have such colonels that she may always count upon having 6,000 horse and sixty ensigns of foot prepared. Suitable pensions should be appointed for the Count and the three colonels, as soon as possible; and a sum of money should be made ready for any emergency, which may possibly arise very speedily.
2. The others will not serve the Queen, if she appoints the Duke of Holstein General of her army, as he boasts she is about to do. Nor is there any need for his services. It would be difficult and very expensive to transport an army from Holstein into England; and the colonels who would refuse the Queen's service, might serve the French King, which would make it impossible for the Duke to take any forces out of Holstein. Moreover, it is said that he will be King of England, or at all events will remain there, as he has little to care about in Germany. And lastly, treaties must be considered. Asks to be informed, as to the new King of England, or the Commander-in-Chief, if Cecil has anything to communicate.—Osnaburg, 27 March 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—Bids him beware of those whom God has marked with spots on their faces. Desires him to show this letter to the Queen. Apologizes for his Latin, which he writes in the military style.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
March 27.
R. O.
912. John Brigantine to Cecil.
1. Great preparations are being made for the wars here. The Count of Arenberg has given prest for four regiments of foot, and to each regiment 1,000 horse. The Duchess of Lorraine intends to invade Denmark; her General is thought to be Duke Hans William, the second son of the late Duke of Saxony, who has in readiness a great army. If the Duke does not invade Denmark it is thought he will invade the Elector, Duke Augustus, who married this King's sister. The Elector foresees the same, and has of late entertained George von Holl, and other worthy colonels. The King of Denmark makes great preparations by sea and land; he of late desired the Duchess in marriage, which she refused.
2. He finds Count Mansfeld's words at his last being in London true, who said that to the young Duke of Saxony had been appointed 200,0000 crowns by the French and King Philip to move war against Denmark and Sweden, on the behalf of the Duchess. Count Christopher of Oldenburg, of whom he wrote on 17th inst., is a valiant old soldier and earnest Protestant, and looks for answer out of France; if the Queen bestowed a pension on him it were well. He will not take less than 2,000 crowns a year, and the Bishop of Osnaburg as much, in whom most of the German noblemen have affiance; he is a man brought up in Italy, France, and other places, and who understands foreign practices right well. The writer had audience with him yesterday; and was requested to remain with him two or three days. There is a great assembly of noblemen and the Ambassadors of the Duke of Cleves, the Landgrave, and the Countess of Emden, "to agree the Earl of Benton and his wife." The authority of the Countess of Emden (to whom he shortly returns) will not be so great when her eldest son comes out of Sweden; he will look for a pension if the Queen enjoys the commodity of his country. There are here three colonels; Frederick Spedt, Herbert von Langen, and Fritzberg. Cecil knows what Spedt is. Langen is a man of great modesty, valiant, and a gentleman of fair possessions. The writer has been informed that the third is not inferior to the other two. So there are three noblemen and three colonels who will not do any enterprise against the French without pensions.
3. If the Queen agrees she will have Emden and East Friesland to embark her soldiers; the counsel of the Count of Hoye, the Bishop of Osnaburg, and Count Christopher of Oldenburg, who will be taken from the enemy; the three colonels, who can appoint their captains and officers accordingly, and so the French will not be able to embark any troops.
4. He desires that Gresham may have warrant to send 7,000 crowns to Bremen to be distributed in pensions. The writer has not delivered his letters to Count Albert of Hoye, or to the Count Anthony of Oldenburg, as they would only be a further charge and of no great service. He despatches a post to-morrow to Count Mansfeld, requiring him to be in readiness if the Queen shall further require. There are few men of war of any degree but are entertained of one or the other. Though the Queen has entrusted him with talking to these noblemen about their pensions he will not conclude anything with them until he has been advertised by Cecil. For the more expedition he has despatched a servant with these letters. The Lady of Embden has told him that there has been none as yet out of France to sue for the commodity of her country, and that the gentleman she sent to the French Court was for the purpose of recovering three ships that they had taken. He has appointed the Colonel Herbert von Langen to receive the 300 crowns at Antwerp, as he is very earnest to advance the Queen's proceedings, and has aided the writer with his horse and servants to avoid the suspicion of the French party. Intends shortly to write of Count Mansfeld and the Countess of Emden.— Osnaburg, 27 March 1560. Signed.
5. P. S.—Desires information on the following points:
6. The amount, etc. of the pensions to the noblemen and colonels.
7. Whether the 7,000 crowns will be ready.
8. Whether he shall pass forth according to his instructions when he gets his next letters.
9. The Ambassadors of the Duke of Cleves say that he provides for war, which has made him send to the Count Mansfelt to be in readiness, with no charge to the Queen.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 7.
March 27.
R. O.
913. The Garrison at Berwick.
1. "Debt to the old ordinary garrison at Berwick to 27 March, 2 Eliz." Sum total, 10,948l. 7s., whereof paid in prest 1,697l. 5s. 4d., remaining due 9,251l. 1s. 8d.
2. Remaining due for the munitions and victuals for the soldiers and labourers, 3,474l. 18s. 2d.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
March 28.
R. O.
914. Norfolk to the Queen Dowager of Scotland.
1. He has received her letter of the 25th by her trumpet, James Drummond, wherein, although she alleges that the attempts of Winter in the Frith are too notorious to be unknown to him, nor do they require any delay in making redress, yet the writer understands that upon examination it will appear that the same has proceeded upon just occasion ministered to the Admiral by the French in Inchkeith and Leith, and by the injury done to the Queen by using her arms, style, and title. For redress hereof fair promises have been made by the French Ambassador, but without fruit of any good success following the same in deeds.
2. Wherefore, understanding the great number of men of war in Scotland, and the preparations to send a greater force from France, which by their derogatory attempts against the Queen's title and style seems to be chiefly intended against this her realm, the writer, for the discharge of his duty and for the safety of the parts entrusted to him, must endeavour to empeach these great forces prepared against the realm, unless she speedily remedies it by withdrawing the French out of Scotland, and permitting that realm to remain in quietness. If any move against their just obedience to the Queen of Scots, he will be willing to convert all his force to aid her; for he means nothing but the surety of England and the good quiet of Scotland.—Berwick, 28 March 1560.
Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd. by Cecil: 28 March 1560. Pp. 2.
March 28.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 712. No. CCXXXI.
915. Randolph to Sadler. (fn. 5)
Since last writing to the Duke of Norfolk nothing of importance has happened. The Duke of Châtellerault and his son have written to the Duke of Norfolk, and are determined to meet him on the last day of the present month. As the French are still at Linlithgow and Stirling, the Duke will be obliged to come with the company now with him, and leave his friends to come after, and in all they will amount very nearly to 8,000 men; the water has so grown between them and Fife that it will be longer before Lord James and his friends can join the rest; but it is hoped the French will depart to-day or to-morrow. It is said the Dowager will to-day enter either the castle of Edinburgh or Leith. He sends the copy of a letter sent to twenty-six or thirty Lords, Lord Montgomery being one, who lie by, or show themselves enemies. The Duke leaves on Saturday, and will meet the English army on Sunday. Wrote to the Duke of Norfolk on the 22nd and 25th by the post of Carlisle.—28 March. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 28 March 1560. Randolph to Sadler, with a copy of a letter from the Lords of the Congregation to the Neutrals. Pp. 3.
March 28.
R. O.
916. Charges of the Army in the North.
"The charges for the army entering at Newcastle at several days from Dec. 16, 1559, to 24 March next," viz., 65,872l. 12s. 1d., of which 36,000l. has been sent by Valentine Brown. Owing to the garrisons and workmen at Berwick, 10,600l.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 28 March. Pp. 2.
March 28.
R. O.
917. The Army in the North.
1. "A brief declaration of the charge of the army in the north, from the first entry of the same unto 28 March, 1560," viz., from 16th Dec. 1559, the date of the entry of the Duke of Norfolk and Lord Grey.
2. Sir Francis Leek and others entered in December with 1,400 foot. The Duke and others entered in January with 3,800 foot and 700 demi-lances. The various charges for the army and navy amount to 30,879l. 19s., of which 6,843l. 12s. 4d. was due.
Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
March 28.
R. O.
918. Gresham to Cecil.
On the same day that the writer departed from Cecil he was told by Mr. Bromfield that eighty lasts of powder were to be provided, for which Gresham asks for a warrant. Asks that a licence for twelve tuns of beer may be delivered to his servant, and that the licence for Lady Dormer and Mrs. Clarencius for their abode there be remembered, the delivery of which he desires that he himself may have.—London, 28 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
March 29.
R. O.
919. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Whereas he wrote in his last that King Philip would assist the French, the writer is now assured by the Spanish Ambassador that Philip will aid them neither with men or money; and that if they levy men in his country, it must be at their own charges; that he does not like their sending a reinforcement of 8,000 men into Scotland, nor that they should have more than 3,000 there, which number they have at present, nor that they should enter England, and that he would be friends to the French usque ad aras, but no further. It is therefore now a good time for her to make a good end for Scotland, and have again her town of Calais, and money towards the charges she has been constrained to hitherto. If this intelligence is confirmed by the Spanish Ambassador in England she will be able better to decipher King Philip's meaning. He beseeches her not to let it be known that he has used the said Ambassador's name, as the Ambassador has already laid to Throckmorton's charge that the French learn from England what he has said to him.
2. On the 27th in the afternoon were beheaded M. de Rannay and Captain Masselle, and on the 28th Captain Castelnovo was condemned to the galleys for three years.
3. On the 27th a post arrived from the Bishop of Valence and De la Cievre, whereupon Mr. Florence was stayed until this day. One Visieres, a lieutenant to M. de Lorge, captain of the Scotch Guards, is fled, after whom there is a great pursuit; as has also M. de Maleney, the Prince of Condé's lieutenant. The Prince himself is greatly suspected and watched, and on the 27th inst. one of those condemned was confronted with him; as he is a good personage, the writer beseeches her not to seem to have any knowledge of the Prince from him [the writer]. The Duke of Aumale goes into Scotland either to appease the garboils there or hasten the preparation of ships. If the Queen's army has entered Scotland, Mr. Florence must not be suffered to proceed. They are so busied and troubled with stirs from every part that she never had such a time.—Amboise, 29 March 1560. Signed.
4. P.S.—A captain has lately come from Scotland, through England, who described the order and state of the English forces and camp on the frontiers. If it be true, it is strange that these men's ministers should be suffered to come so near. M. de Glaijon is said to be in England.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 3.
March 29.
R. O. Haynes, p. 271
920. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 6)
1. Sends letters received yesternight from Randolph. Yesterday the trumpet which he sent to the Dowager returned, and one of her trumpets with him, with letters, which he sends to Cecil. This day he has returned her trumpet, and sent with him the pursuivant at arms of this town, with his [the writer's] letters, copies of which he forwards, thinking it good to write to the Dowager, now that Lord Gray with the army is to enter Scotland.
2. The army could not set forward until this day, in consequence of the late coming of the treasure, which caused two days' hindrance; but to night they encamp at Dunglas, and he trusts they will keep the day appointed with the Duke of Châtellerault, who he understands is coming forwards. Whether the Earl of Huntley be arrived with them or not he cannot tell; some say he has sent his son with his power, and will come himself afterwards.
3. Mr. Winter is appointed to receive the hostages and send them hither in one of the Queen's ships; if the weather had been more favourable he thinks they would have been here by this time. The writer has taken order with Lord Grey to receive of the said Lords the confirmation of the Articles signed and sealed by them; and thereupon to deliver unto them the Queen's confirmation under the Great Seal, which could not be done before the entry of the army, in consequence of its late despatch from Cecil.—Berwick, 29 March 1560. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 29.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 711. No. CCXXX.
921. Sadler to Cecil. (fn. 7)
Cecil may justly blame him for not writing a private letter; the reason was, that he had no news but what were contained in the common ones. Trusts things will go well as with them; there are divers opinions among themselves, but Leith is not thought to them inexpugnable, though it may take time. The greatest want of the chieftains here is want of money. Commends Croftes, who, he doubts not, will show himself a serviceable man, being right honestly determined so to do, notwithstanding his late warning. Prays God will send a good ending to these things.—Berwick, 29 March 1560.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
March 29.
R. O.
922. Confirmation of the Treaty of Berwick. (fn. 8)
An army of Frenchmen having sought to subdue and conquer the realm of Scotland from the royal blood of that nation and to knit it perpetually to the crown of France, the Queen has given ear not only to the voices of her natural subjects but also to the earnest supplications of the chiefest of the nobility and other estates of Scotland, complaining how it is afflicted and almost utterly oppressed. She, seeing plainly that this conquest of Scotland is the only gate to lead the power of France into England, and considering the costly preparations out of all parts of France devoted thereto, has appointed the Duke of Norfolk her Lieutenant General in the north, who, having consulted with the Lord James Stuart and certain others of the nobility, authorized in the nameof the rest, entered into a mutual accord for a present delivery of the said kingdom for danger of conquest and for the mutual defence of either kingdom from the enmity of France, as is contained in a particular writing hereunto annexed. This account she confirms.—Westminster, [blank] March, 2 Eliz.
Draft, corrected by Cecil, and endd. by him: 29 March 1560. Pp. 8.
March 29.
923. Another copy of the above, with the corrections introduced into the text.
Pp. 4.
March 29.
R. O.
924. Another copy of the above, with the corrections introduced into the text.
Pp. 3.
March 30.
R. O.
925. Albert, Marquis of Brandenburg, to the Queen.
When the exile, Peter Paul Vergerius, was with the writer (by whom he is much beloved,) he spoke of the Queen in honourable terms, not only in respect of her holy zeal for the propagation of the pure doctrine of the Gospel, and her desire for the rebuilding of the Church of Christ within the realm of England, but also because (as he affirmed) she did not object [minime abhorrere] to the Confession of Augsburg. As Vergerius is now setting out on his journey, the writer forwards by him this letter to congratulate her upon what she has done for the extension of Christ's kingdom, (the example of which he hopes will extend into neighbouring realms,) and to express the wish that all men held the truth as it has been taught by Christ. Is persuaded that she will accept that agreement which has been adopted, not only by the States of the Confession of Augsburg, but also by the kingdom of Poland, through God's special blessing, by the great duchy of Lithuania and by the neighbouring provinces; the doctrine of that Confession being in perfect accordance with the Holy Scriptures. Urges her to give her open adhesion to that Confession, which, after examination, so many Kings and Princes have accepted, a measure which will tend to the peace of her realm and bind all Germany to her.—Königsburg. 30 March 1560. Signed.
Add. Lat. Pp. 5.
March 30.
R. O. 171 B.
926. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 30.
R. O.
927. Lord Grey to Norfolk.
1. Alarm was given them this night by the folly of some lewd body in their own company not yet known to them, in the midst whereof came a servant of the Duke of Châtellerault with letters here enclosed; which the writer has opened, together with a letter to himself, a copy of which he sends. The messenger reports that the Duke has driven the French out of Stirling.
2. They find themselves hitherto welcome to the Scots; provisions are brought to the market-cross as good cheap as in Berwick. This morning by six they intend to remove towards Dunglass, where he purposes an attempt with the light horsemen and 500 or 600 foot planted in ambush to give their neighbours of Dunbar a good morrow the Sunday morning if they issue forth.—At the camp, Saturday, 30 March 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—Desires to be commended to my Lady's grace, Mr. Sadler, and Sir Francis Leek.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
March 30.
R. O.
928. Remonstrance of the French against the Queen's Proclamation.
"Declarations made by the Bishop of Valence and the French King's Ambassador to the Queen, upon certain points contained in the Proclamation which hath been of late published."
1. The Queen having given knowledge to M. de Valence and the French Ambassador through Mr. Wotton and Mr. Cave, of her late proclamation, they find it greatly prejudicial to the honour of their King and the realm of France in the points following:
2. In saying that the French have given occasion to England to fear an invasion by way of Scotland, although they had divers times declared that they had not dreamt of such a thing; besides, the number of men sent into Scotland is so small that the least child could not be afraid thereof, whereof also the Queen has always been advertised.
3. The King has the same right to send into Scotland what men he pleases as the Queen has into England; she cannot therefore lawfully enter Scotland and expel the King's soldiers and ministers, especially as they have promised to punish any of the King's subjects breaking the treaty.
4. It is strange for her to meddle in the affairs of France, like as the King would not meddle with her government.
5. It is well known that he is not under age, and needs no governors or tutors; but of his obedience to the Queen, his mother, he commits the care of the realm to her, and such as she has chosen. The house of Guise comes of so high a race, and has given such faithful tokens, both in matters of the realm and in feats of arms, and has been so long used in council and handling the affairs of the realm, that there is no Prince but would think himself happy to have so great and worthy ministers.
6. Touching the right of the Queen of Scots to transport the Crown out of the realm or to marry a stranger; her marriage was made at the request of the Estates of the realm, of whom the Earl of Arran was made Duke of Châtellerault.
7. As for the clause saying that the French King meant to invade England, he who indited it could persuade no man who was not mad with passion.
8. As to the Scots seeking only to preserve themselves from oppression and conquest, it is well known that the French have never attempted to do so, but have preserved it from the hands of those who sought to have usurped it. The Queen Regent has been chosen by the three Estates, and therefore they that seek to deprive her of her right do contrary to their obedience. Besides, it is a controversy between the Princess and her subjects, wherein no other Sovereign ought to meddle. If it is said that they cannot be abandoned because of their treaty of alliance, it is well known that the alliance has always been joined with that of France, and not otherwise; as may be seen by the treaties made for 100 years past. Besides they have always depended solely on the King or Queen for the last 1,000 years. If the Queen of England would think it strange if her subjects should call the Scots or French to their succour without her authority, even so she must regard the Scots calling on her subjects without the authority of their Queen. If the King and Queen of this realm have alliance with the Scots, so have they also with their Sovereign, so that they can only intermeddle as neutrals and mediators. And if they should favour one party by force of arms, then they should declare themselves enemies of the other, and not mediators. Therefore it ought not to have been published that the Queen took upon her the protection of the Scots against their own King and Queen.
9. As to the clause that the French men of war should retire out of Scotland; the Queen ought not so absolutely to command a King, even if he were but King of Scotland, though she had brought him so low that she could dispose of his life and goods. It is a matter to be brought to pass by treaty, and not to be published by sound of trumpet as if it were an ordinance made for her own subjects.
Endd. Pp. 9.
March 30.
R. O.
929. A translation of the above remonstrance into French.— Dated by Cecil: 30 March 1560.
Endd. Pp. 6.
[March 30.]
R. O.
930. Francis Edwards to Cecil.
1. Has put neither place or date to his last letter, fearing it should be intercepted, wherefore he wrote "like a Welshman's hose," referring to the bearer all matters to disclose. Men think that M. d'Elbœuf shall tarry at home, such news having come from Romford. The Cardinal of Lorraine has written to Dieppe to lay their merchandise on land, "good store there was of blanche po and pippins, with all such like appertaining," laid up in store until they shall know more. They say that M. d'Elbœuf will return to the place he came from; the people are not sorry, "they love so well the name, that they care not for the same." By news from Newhaven the ships are still stayed there, but now M. d'Elbœuf's voyage is put off they hope to be released. It is reported that the Cape merchants there lack peace; they would have meat and drink without money, wherefore the townsmen and they can scant agree. The ships appertaining to the French King are there unrigged without any shrouds; there are three well appointed and in readiness to come to Calais, who shall convey victuallers to the coast of Flanders, to speak with some of our merchant men, as they come homewards. Men say that victuals begin to wax scant about Calais, and between there and Dieppe. He has warned Cecil to have a respect to the Isle of Wight, for the Cardinal of Lorraine and his partners would gladly keep a mart there; and also to remember the Isles of Guernsey and Jersey, for the Cardinal and his company will be there if they can.
2. The process that men said should be at Brest, his friend thinks will be stayed until men be better at rest. The fruits that he wrote of are sent back again and remain at Dieppe; it is reported that the same process will be followed ere long, and finished before Midsummer, and that ten hulks shall be stayed; and that if the ships at Newhaven are released the process at Brest will be ceased. The merchants and others have sent to the Anchor, and every day look for his answer.
3. They say that if the ships proceed not before Easter, their voyage will be done for this year; men think they will be shortly satisfied whether the ships will go from Newhaven or not. Men say that before the King of France is cleared and the people pacified, the matters aforesaid cannot fully be determined. He will advertise Cecil of any alteration. More of the affairs of England and Italy he has not at present to enlarge upon.
4. On the 25th inst. the Cardinal of Bourbon came to Rouen; on the same day there was a sermon in a wood without the town to above 2,000 people. The Cardinal might well perceive this, as 300 came in his sight to the town. As part came into the suburbs a priest and a clerk called them Lutherans, and cast stones at them, and were well beaten. Two days after the Predicant was taken and is since burnt. Men said he was a libertine, and for that opinion banished from Geneva. The people in thousands sing every night between 9 and 10 o'clock the Psalms of David, and the men at arms dare not touch them.
5. On the 26th M. de Froesse, Captain of Dieppe, came to the castle of Dieppe and proclaimed that no one should call the people there Lutherans on pain of death. The people of Dieppe every night in the market-place and afterwards, going through the streets, sing the Psalms of David, and some days have sermons preached to them in the fields; in most towns in Normandy and many country places they do the same things.—"From where I wrote last," 30 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: Edwards to Mr. Secretary. Fr. Pp. 3.
March 30.
R. O.
931. Guido Gianneti to Cecil.
Has written to the Earl of Bedford in Italian, which has probably been communicated to Cecil; he has also caused John Sheers to write to the same effect in English. He recommends Captain Palazzo as a distinguished soldier, but hopes that they will not require his services in war, especially as there are movements amongst the French to overthrow the power of the Guises. Besides which, France will have enough to do at home in the religious wars that have just sprung up, and which he thinks will be worse than the civil war called "Le bien public" in 1465, under Louis XI.—Venice, 30 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
R. O.
932. Angelo Mariano to the Queen.
Asks her to continue a provision granted for life to himself and his son, by her father, and confirmed by her brother, but which her sister not only restricted to himself, but withheld payment thereof for four years and a half. His son is a prisoner in France, having been taken while serving King Philip. Signed.
Add. Endd. Ital. Pp. 2.
March 31.
R. O. Haynes, p. 274.
933. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 9)
1. The army lay at Dunglas last night, and they hope to meet the Scots at the appointed day. Cecil would have pitied the Queen's lieutenant could he have seen him compelled to stretch the money out so as to content all, for he was fain to promise the captains of Berwick that if they forbore the money at this pay they should be the first to be paid at the coming of the next treasure, by which means he paid all the captains aforehand to the 16th April.
2. He sends a brief declaration of the expenses here since his coming; for foraging, robbing, and wasting the country is not to suffered, unless they make enemies of friends; and Englishmen are mutinous when they cannot have their ordinary necessaries. Here was a bruit upon Lord Hume's coming from Edinburgh, that when the army was entered he would set fire in England, but they have provided sauce for him, for "if he do fire but one haygoff, he shall not go to Hume again without torchlight, and peradventure may find a lantern at his own house."
3. For this consideration, as well for convoying of convoys, the Duke has levied certain light horsemen in the wardenries, which will keep the English in quiet. He would be loath to be left at home without some man able to take a charge, so he has stayed Sir F. Leeke and Sir John Foster, the only man to serve in Northumberland, with whose help he will be master of the March and all their friends. For knowledge of the country and experience otherwise, he could not have spared Mr. Leeke here.
4. His duty to the Queen bids him ask for the displacing of Lord Dacres, (who is the most undutiful of subjects of England,) not only for having continually disobeyed the writer's commandments, but for the quieting of the whole wardenry, which by his unaptness is much disordered. The Master of Maxwell, at his being here with the Lords of Scotland, would not speak openly against Dacres; the Duke thinks Maxwell is allied to him, but he requested the writer to appoint some one to be joined with Dacres, for the Queen's better service, and their furtherance in this journey. Is here in the rule of their new captain, whom the writer dares in no wise displeasure, for that he is so brag of his new office. —Last of March, 1560. Signed.
5. P. S.—The English will do nothing here now but hearken for news of their enterprise northwards, and for the coming of the treasure from the south. If Cecil places an officer in the West Borders, he should in no wise select Lord Wharton, although wise and experienced; for the Master of Maxwell and he are at deadly feud. Yesterday the writer received a letter from the camp, which he sends herewith. Sir Nicholas L'Estrange told him that Cecil had written to Brown concerning Norfolk's request, but he denies that he has received any such letter; the longer it tarries the more the Queen loses.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
March 31.
R. O.
934. Lord Grey to Norfolk.
1. Would have written from Dunglas but that their haste from thence was sudden. This day passing by Dunbar, he sent fifty or sixty footmen with part of Sir Henry Percy's light horse that he had appointed to keep Dunbar occupied whilst their carriages and the last of their army was passing. The French had put forth fifty horse and 200 foot into their trenches, out of which they would not issue. The writer's son with thirty of his company discharged their pieces almost in their beards; and one of the thirty was stricken through his jerkin, doublet, and shirt, and his skin not pierced. "That tyrevollant" they liked not, and retired to their strength. Eldercarr, seeing one of the enemy at advantage, charged him and lighted in a stale laid of purpose, but was rescued by Tremaine, Peter Mynns, and three or four others; Peter Mynns was shot through the bone of his right knee. They have arrived at Linternbrigs without the loss of man, woman, or child, horse, bag, or baggage. The Laird of Grange has distressed twenty or thirty of the French foraging the country between Leith and Musselburgh, and taken the lieutenant of M. la Berouche. Desires to be commended to her Grace, whom he might present with two or three saker shot of the French, but that he takes them no meet balls for ladies to play with.—Linternbrigs, last of March, 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—Encloses letters which he has received. Sends commendations to Sadler and Leek.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
March 31.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 715. No. CCXXXIII.
935. Sadler to Cecil. (fn. 10)
Considering that the army is now in Scotland, and the time of their stay uncertain and the lack of money is great, he writes privately to Cecil to travail that this be no hindrance. What is 20,000l. out of a Prince's purse, when employed so well? Begs him to consider what disgrace it would bring on the English army to have to return re infecta, for lack of money, and that they will thus leave the Scots a prey to the French; or else oblige them to become their friends, and consequently enemies to England. Begs him, then, to travail that money may be speedily sent. Assures him that it is his zeal which causes him to write thus earnestly.— Berwick, last of March, 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.


  • 1. Another copy of this letter exists in B. M. Calig. B. ix. 96, b.
  • 2. Another copy occurs in B. M. Calig. B. ix. 95.
  • 3. Another copy exists in B. M. Calig. B. ix. 96.
  • 4. Another copy of this letter is to be found at Burton-Constable.
  • 5. Another copy of the above exists among the Sadler Papers at BurtonConstable.
  • 6. Another copy of this letter is found in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 7. Another copy is among the Sadler Papers at Burton-Constable.
  • 8. Another copy is contained in B. M. Calig. B. x. 74 b.
  • 9. Another letter occurs in the Duke's letter-book.
  • 10. A duplicate occurs at Burton-Constable.