Elizabeth: April 1560, 1-5

Pages 496-505

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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April 1560, 1-5

April 1.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 397. Labanoff, 1. 72.
936. Commission to the Bishops of Valence and Amiens, and M. de la Brosse. (fn. 1)
Francis and Mary, the King and Queen of Scotland, wishing to bring back their subjects of Scotland to obedience by clemency and to employ kindness to those who have rebelled, for this purpose have chosen the above persons to advise them of their duty, and have given them full power and commission to assure them that if they return to their obedience they will be pardoned and the past forgotten. If it be necessary for the better establishing of this peace to treat with the Queen of England, their deputies will meet those of England to grant what is proposed, if it be reasonable and convenient, and will confirm the same.—Amboise, 1 April 1559, before Easter. Signed: De l'Aubespine.
Copy. Fr. Pp. 2.
April [1].
R. O.
937. The Lords of the Congregation to the Queen Dowager of Scotland.
Not being able to make her agree to remove the French from Scotland, they have obtained the help of the Queen of England (a Princess next unto them placed by God) for expelling them by force, if their removing by gentle means cannot be brought to pass. Nevertheless, for the reverence which they bear to her, and to avoid the effusion of Christian blood, they pray her again that they may be undelayedly removed; for which purpose the Queen of England will not only give them free passage through her realm, but also cause them to be safely transported in her ships to France. The writers certify that if the French do not depart without delay, they will endeavour to expel them. Nevertheless they do not mean to subtract their due obedience from the Queen, or the King her husband.—Dalkeith, [blank] April 1560.
Copy. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 1 April 1560. Double of a letter from the Lords of Scotland to the Queen Dowager. Pp. 2.
April 1.
R. O. Haynes, p. 275.
938. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 2)
1. Received his letter of the 28th of March, on the last of the same. He has not only written to the Dowager, but has also given orders to Lord Grey to offer courtesy and reason to her and the French, as was advised in Cecil's letters. He understands they care not to accept these offers, but to keep their forts at Leith and Dunbar and to abide the extremity thereof; which will require longer time to expel them out of Scotland. He has informed Grey of the coming of the Bishop of Valence, that he may understand the opinions of the Lords of Scotland for his usage when he arrives. He thinks the Bishop will have a hard passage to Edinburgh or Leith, the Lords being now in arms in the field, especially if the French shall stand to their defence. Would be glad to be advised how to use him in case he would adventure unto Scotland, where the writer cannot assure his passage in safety.
2. Sends letters which he has received from the camp, by which it appears that the hostages are in Mr. Winter's possession, and will arrive here as soon as the wind will serve, which has been contrary these eight days. It would be much to the Queen's honour to have them, being children, well brought up, where they may have school and learning, either at Cambridge or Oxford, which their parents have earnestly required.—Berwick, 1 April 1560. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. P. 1.
April 2.
R. O. Haynes, p. 276.
939. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 3)
His letter of the 29th of March, arrived here the 1st April. They perceive the Queen's desire to have this matter accorded by treaty, so that Scotland may be free and the force removed from thence; if the same be not accepted, to delay no time whereby expense and charge may increase, which are very great. In these points they have done as much as they can do, and have written again to Lord Grey trusting he will ensure the same. If the French will accept such offers as he [Cecil] has prescribed, the matter should be componed without force; if they refuse, the extremity must follow; and as far as they can learn, the French are determined to abide the same. The pursuivant whom they sent to the Dowager has not yet returned, from whom they expect to hear somewhat of their disposition therein. They have no advertisements from the camp since their last despatch; but they hear that the English and Scotch are joined together, and trust that if the French will not come to reasonable terms, Grey will use no delay to end the matter otherwise. The battery pieces with other munition which was shipped at Newcastle are already in the Frith; but as yet they hear nothing of the battery pieces, nor of the armour which was shipped at London.—Berwick, 2 April 1560. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, R. Sadler, F. Leek.
Add. Endd. Orig., in Railton's hol. Pp. 3.
April 2.
R. O.
940. Mundt to Cecil.
1. In his letter of the 19th March he wrote that some of the Bishops after having levied soldiers had disbanded them; the towns of Augsburg and Nuremburg have done the same. Last week the envoys of the Emperor, Count von Eberstein and Zasius, came here, who delivered to the town council the Emperor's commands that they should allow the priests to celebrate their superstitious and idolatrous ceremonies in this city according to the imperial decrees, under pain of being placed under the ban of the empire. The magistrates answered that they would reply to the Emperor by their deputies, and asked him in the meantime not to condemn them unheard.
2. The same Commissioners invited Mundt to dinner, and after dinner they made a long oration, setting forth the advantages which would accrue to England from the marriage of the Queen and the Archduke Charles, asking him to forward it, and promised that both Maximilian and Charles would give their promise that Charles should never meddle with the religion now established in England, though, as far as regards himself, he could not change his faith so suddenly. Mundt replied that he had no commission to treat of these matters, which would be better arranged by the Emperor's Ambassadors, but that in his opinion diversity of religion would be a great impediment; and that, if for the sake of a kingdom Charles should pretend to believe in a religion, and swear oaths with his mouth and not with his heart, he would entail upon himself perpetual trouble and disaster, for that the religion was established through the whole kingdom by the authority of Parliament. The Commissioners have departed for Spires, where the Catholic and Protestant deputies are engaged in settling the quarrels and complaints on either side.
3. Should it seem good to the Queen to treat with the persons who have been the prime movers in the French plots, he can get good persons for that purpose. Some of the Protestant Princes a short time ago sent to certain persons urging them to throw off the yoke of the Guises. It is to be feared lest diversity in religion amongst some who move in this matter may be a hindrance, like as ploughing was forbidden with an ox and an ass.
4. The Elector Palatine, the Duke of Wurtemberg, the Landgrave of Hesse, and Wolfgang Duke of Deuxponts, lately met at Worms to settle the boundaries of the Palatinates; they did not remain more than ten days. Hears that the marriage between the Elector Palatine's eldest son and the Landgrave's daughter will take place after Easter.—Strasburg, 2 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 4.
April 3.
R. O.
941. Grey to Norfolk.
1. Has received his letters of the 1st inst., along with two copies of letters from Cecil to the Duke, and one from Cecil to Lethington, and according to his Grace's pleasure he has conferred with Croftes, Howard, and Lethington. He thinks that two things are chiefly to be considered, namely, the offer to be made to the Regent, and the coming of the Bishop of Valence into Scotland. Harry Barwick has already declared his Grace's mind to the Regent, which the writer will also do by a herald. Considering the answer that she made to Barwick, it is not like that she would fall to a composition till she have authority out of France. Nevertheless he will seek to bring the matter to the effect mentioned in Cecil's letter.
2. If the coming of the Bishop of Valence into Scotland shall rather do harm than good purpose, then it were meet that he should give him knowledge that his passing towards the Regent must be upon his own adventure. As the Duke of Châtellerault and the English army lie in his passage, there is no more to be granted on the Duke's part but post horses and carriages, and letters (if he require them) in his favour, which will stand him in small stead, as the proceedings of the writer are guided by the advice of the Duke of Châtellerault.
3. He conferred with the Lords yesterday concerning the treaty, which shall be delivered as soon as the counterpart is made. The ordnance and munitions from Berwick are arrived, and this day he ordered them to be landed, which being done he will march towards Leith. Till the other ordnance is come they have not sufficient for battery; he causes this to be landed, trusting to hear of the rest shortly. The Scots having put away a great part of their cattle and victuals for fear of the French, it was with great difficulty that the English got any relief, and that was so dear that the poor soldiers had to spend two or three days' wage for one day's provisions. Now, if money may be had they will have reasonable good provision brought to the market.—Salt Preston, 3 April 1560. Signed.
4. P. S.—These people inland are not acquainted with the English silver money, wherefore if gold could be had it would be more passable and current.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
April 3.
R. O.
942. Speech of the Swedish Ambassador.
1. Present: The Marquis of Northampton, the Earl of Pembroke; Lords Clinton and Howard; the Treasurer, Controller, Vice-Chamberlain, Secretary, and Mr. Sackville.
2. The Swedish Ambassador, Dionysius Burræus, urged the marriage of the Queen with his master, the King of Sweden. He recapitulated the steps which had already been taken in the matter. Rosenburg and Helsing on their return from England three years ago reported the difficulties which they had experienced in Queen Mary's Court in the prosecution of their master's suit for the hand of the Princess Elizabeth, who was treated by her sister with the utmost harshness, and was so closely guarded that it was difficult to obtain access to her. Still the King's interest in the Princess continued, and he was willing to endanger all his prospects for her sake. He despatched the present speaker into England at the very time when it was currently reported that Queen Mary after having given birth to a son was about to have a second child. On his arrival he was denied an interview with Queen Mary, because she was so near her delivery. Discussions were at that time going on as to the succession to the throne, from which it was proposed that Elizabeth should be excluded. The speaker was at that time furnished with letters to King Philip, which he still holds, to the Queen and the Princess, in furtherance of the marriage. He was authorized to offer her an annual allowance of 25,000 thalers in the event of the King's death, although she should bring no dower with her, and to promise that the King would come over for her in person.
3. He answers the objection that Sweden is merely an elective monarchy by giving an account of the succession of the different Kings and their relationship to their predecessors, to prove that the nearest heir is always chosen, provided he is competent to govern. He then enlarges upon the advantages which would accrue to England by a union with Sweden, recounting the extent of the country, its resources, its population, and its favourable position for carrying on a trade with Muscovy and the East. He mentions the intercourse that has always been carried on between the two countries; the affinity of their inhabitants and their languages, and the similarity of their religion. These two Sovereigns are of a suitable age to marry each other, and are similar both in their minds and bodies, the beauty of the Queen being matched by the strength and agility of the King. The navigation between the two countries is short and easy, and the union of their forces would render them formidable to any enemy. For all these reasons the Duke of Finland has been sent to endeavour to conclude a treaty of marriage with the Queen, which he begs them to forward.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 3 April 1560. Lat. Pp. 20.
April 4.
R. O. Haynes, p. 277.
943. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 4)
1. They received this morning letters from the camp, which they send herewith enclosed. It appears by Lord Gray's letter to him [Norfolk] that the answer made by the Dowager to Henry Ray, pursuivant at arms of this town, was that she would fall to no composition, till she had authority from France. The said pursuivant on his return homewards is stayed at Dunbar by the French, whether by the direction of the Dowager he cannot say; consequently the Duke cannot tell what answer he [Ray] received from her. All that may be honourably attempted to induce them to end this matter by amicable treaty shall not be neglected, according to her letter of the 30th March sent to the Duke. If necessary the writer will send Sadler to the camp, according to the Queen's pleasure.—Berwick, 4 April 1560. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, R. Sadler, F. Leeke.
2. P. S.—The Duke has sent copies of Cecil's letters to Lord Grey, but left out all touching that nobleman. The pledges were yesternight in the Gennet at the haven mouth, and by weather again driven out to sea. Desires to know quickly what order to take with them, as it is a pity they should lose their time, being but boys.
Orig., in Railton's hol. excepting the P. S., which is in the Duke's hand. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 4.
R. O.
944. Grey to Norfolk.
1. Perceives from the Lords of the Congregation that, their companies having been levied for twenty days whereof twelve have expired, there will remain in eight days no number of their power other than their household servants; wherefore, seeing no trust but of the force of the English and considering the large circuit of Leith and the want of ordnance, he has with consent of the Council intercommuned with the Lords of the Congregation for their advice to besiege Edinburgh Castle first, believing it less difficult to win, and the Dowager being there. Finds many of them agreeable thereto, saving the kindred of Lord Erskine; wherefore they are not yet determined thereupon. Desires to be advertised of the Duke's pleasure herein. Finds marvellous want of the miner who was promised to him.
2. The Lords have been in hand with him for the loan of money which he cannot spare, and whereof he beseeches supply, and also that the Duke will hasten the 2,000 soldiers as they will have to trust to themselves when any assault shall be given, for the Lords of the Congregation will not think it meet that they be put to any assault. They remove on Saturday towards Leith. Has unshipped the light ordnance, the rest they will land in havens near Leith.
Copy, in Railton's hol., and described by him, as written in cipher from the camp at Salt Preston, and deciphered. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 5.
R. O.
945. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
Oath of Louis de Luxembourg, Count de Roussy, Baron of S. Martin d'Abloys, Sieur de Vandenure, and of Charles de Queverlet, Baron de Pont, and De Rostrenan, Vicomte de Queluet, Sieur de Pont Tour, hostages sent by Francis II., to the effect that they will observe all that is required by the treaty of 2 April 1559.—Westminster, 5 April 1560. Signed.
Orig., on vellum. Endd. by Cecil.
April 5.
R. O.
946. Another copy of the above. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. P. 1.
April 5.
R. O.
947. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
Memorandum to the effect that on 5 April 1560, Louis de Luxembourg, Count de Roussy, and Charles de Queverlet, Baron de Pont, were received as hostages in the place of the Count de Candale about to return into France. Signed by Cecil.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
April 5.
R. O.
948. Grey to Norfolk.
1. Has received his letter of 4th inst., whereby, together with those which came this day from the Queen, he finds such contrary matter that he knows not which way to turn; for the Queen directs that Sadler should confer in especial communication in these affairs, and the Duke exhorts him both in that sort, and in further order of expedition. Meanwhile he will do his best.
2. As they must of likelihood besiege Leith, which is manned with 4,000 men at the least, it were expedient that their strength were increased, since the Scots depart after the twenty days' service, excepting the families of the noblemen. The lack of the battery from London will be a great weakness in their enterprise against Leith. The 2,000 men are not yet come. Through the extremity of cold and sickness the men drop away daily, and their horses for lack of forage decay in strength. If the navy is sent away it will not be for the army to remain, but of force to retire, as well for the strength it stands them against the adversary, as also for the conveying of ordnance by sea. Wherefore, by the advice of others, he has stayed, though willing to go forward.—Salt Preston, 5 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
[April 5.]
R. O.
949. Memoranda concerning the Scottish Expedition.
Questions to be considered.
1. It is doubtful whether Lord Grey can proceed with the siege of Leith, as his ordnance has not yet arrived.
2. His force is 2,000 footmen short.
3. The power of the Scots is not so many as was promised, nor can they remain long in the field, as they live without wages; therefore it is desirable that the Queen retain so many of them in wages as are necessary for the support of the siege.
4. How far the treaty with the Dowager may extend to the safety of the Queen's honour, how far to the safety of Scotland, and consequently to that of England?
1. To the first, it is hoped that the ordnance will have arrived ere this to the Lord Grey, it having been kept back by contrary winds.
2. It is certain that the numbers are now gone from Berwick.
3. It would have been well to have charged the Lords of Scotland to understand the occasion thereof, as without their answer it is hard to judge thereof; and for the entertaining of them it were better to take 2,000 or 3,000 of them than to send into England, choice to be made of the best able to serve, and that none of the Lords or their trains who ought by compact to serve be any of those numbers. The Scots are not to be made privy to this, but upon necessity, lest gain cause them to slack. Their wage need not be so great as that of the English.
4. The Queen means to send some express man with the uttermost of her mind, yet it is meet that both the treaty and the siege should proceed, that time be not gained by the treaty and lost in the siege, which the French will endeavour. In the treaty it is to be considered that the French force be either totally removed, or only so many remain as may serve to keep Dunbar; the fortifications of Leith are to be demolished, good assurance made for pardoning all things past, and that the government of Scotland be committed to certain of the nobles of Scotland jointly with the Queen Dowager.
In Cecil's hol., with several disconnected notes on the back. Injured by damp. Pp. 4.
April 5.
R. O.
950. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. Have received his letter and the Queen's, both tending to one effect. She seems desirous that this matter might be ended with the French without bloodshed, and that they should not spend any time in vain, as the navy cannot be suffered long to remain, and that Sadler should be sent hither to confer. By the advice of the Council Lord Grey signifies that at his coming he met the herald, Berwick, by whom he understood that the Dowager little esteemed the courtesy offered by the Duke of Norfolk; nevertheless on the receipt of his other letters he sent a trumpeter to her to require her to license a personage to come to her with offers in the Queen's behalf, who returned with the answer that she would send a messenger of her own with the same.
2. They send a copy of the letter of the Duke of Châtellerault and the Lords to her, which is not yet answered. Have caused the town of Leith to be viewed, and intend to encamp near the same to-morrow. The matter is something confused by proceeding in this manner, partly by force and partly by treaty. They ask that Sadler may be sent, as he [Grey] and the rest with him are much cumbered with martial affairs. If the navy depart it had been better that the army had never come, as it must then of necessity retire, from want of aid and means to bring the ordnance. They are informed that the navy have not victuals for six days. Have advertised him of the small number of Scots that will serve after the twenty days, and therefore pray him to forward the rest of the soldiers; upon whose arrival, and that of the other battery pieces from London, they will use his best endeavour to forward matters. Desire more money and wish to know how long the navy is to remain, as they must embark all the battery pieces.
3. Whilst writing this a trumpet came from the Dowager to know the names of such persons as Grey would send to speak with her. He has named Croftes and Sir George Howard to speak with her to-morrow where she may appoint.—Salt Preston, 5 April 1560. Signed: W. Grey, J. Croftes, H. Scrope, G. Howard.
4. P. S.—Desire to know when and in what manner the Bishop of Valence comes hither.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
April 5.
R. O.
951. John Brigantyne to Cecil.
1. Has further discoursed with the Bishop of Osnaburg, who has refused to be entertained by the house of Burgundy and the French, and is resolved to serve the Queen with his territories and castles. He is a Protestant, and gives his subjects great liberty of the Gospel.
2. Concerning Count Christopher of Oldenburg, the writer has practised with the Chancellor of the Countess of Emden, who does all with him and the Countess. Finds great towardness in him to serve the Queen. If it take effect, he desires the Queen to extend her friendship to the Chancellor for his diligence.
3. Concerning the two letters he had to deliver to the Count of Hoye and Count Christopher of Oldenburg, the latter sent two of his Council to say that he could not speak with the writer, having such business, (notwithstanding he saw the Count walking up and down idly,) and requesting Brigantyne to declare his cause to the messengers; whereupon, perceiving that he was unwilling to hear him, he departed. He will deliver the Queen's letters, if it is her pleasure, but thinks that they will not be of much effect.
4. Sends a note of their pensions estimated by Frederick Spedt, which may be qualified; he is departed to the Landgrave, who sent for him, and intends to move him to encourage other Princes of the empire for the recovery of Metz, and other imperial cities. Wrote in his letter of March 27, as to the service of the Bishop of Osnaburg, Count Christopher, and the Treasurer of Emden, and of the three colonels Spedt, Langen, and Fritzberg. Desires to know whether he shall practise any further in these parts, or go towards Saxony, where he has been with Duke Otto of Lunenburg. Duke Hans William of Saxony (to whose brother, Duke John Frederick, he has letters,) is greatly entertained by the French, who being in the Court of his brother will seek for intelligence what Brigantyne is, which may be dangerous. Has written to Gresham where to forward his letters, and also for the 300 crowns for Colonel Langar. Has not so practised with the nobility that they are in hopes of any pension, but to understand their good wishes. They seem to bear no great affection to the Duke of Holstein.—Cloppenberg, in Westphalia, 5 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Injured by damp. Pp. 4.


  • 1. Other copies exist in B. M. Cal. B. iv. 225 and Cal. B. ix. 53, which is dated by Cecil, but erroneously, 1 April 1559, under which date it is entered in the former volume of this Calendar, No. 472.
  • 2. Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 3. Another copy of this letter occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 4. Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House, omitting, however, the P.S.