Elizabeth: April 1560, 16-20

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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'Elizabeth: April 1560, 16-20', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, ed. Joseph Stevenson( London, 1865), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp543-571 [accessed 15 July 2024].

'Elizabeth: April 1560, 16-20', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Edited by Joseph Stevenson( London, 1865), British History Online, accessed July 15, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp543-571.

"Elizabeth: April 1560, 16-20". Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Ed. Joseph Stevenson(London, 1865), , British History Online. Web. 15 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp543-571.

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April 1560, 16-20

April 16.
R. O.
1010. The Queen to Gresham.
Having heard by his letter of the 12th, that she can have a bargain with the merchant adventurers for 25,000l., to be made next May to such as she is indebted, she may easily do it, as the merchants upon report that the King of Spain will aid the French King in Scotland, whereof more may follow, do what they can to put over their money and substance there. It not being wisdom to disfurnish herself of treasure, she is in doubt what to do, although she would be glad to preserve her credit; and since he writes that if she will in May next pay parcel of her debt that it will be so advanced that he will be able to obtain for every 1s. 3d. he may take up as much as to proceed with the merchants for so much money. Thomas Marsh, the governor, in the name of certain merchants being desirous to help themselves by these means, she has remitted the matter to him, and they are to be payed according to the exchange here, which is at 2s. 11d. or 3s. He is to take good regard to the munitions, as there are many beholders of his doings.
Draft, in Cecil's hol Endd.: 16 April 1560. Pp. 2.
April 16.
R. O.
1011. Gresham to Cecil.
1. He signified on the 12th that he had taken up 2,501l. 6s. 8d. sterling, making 2,826l. 13s. 7d. Flemish, and of the great scarcity of money, wherefore he will not be able to make any worthy payment for the Queen; therefore she has no other way of preserving her credit than to make a bargain with her merchants for 25,000l., to be paid here at usance, or at the furthest by the 25th of May, as the exchange goes in Lombard Street, which they cannot refuse. Trusts ere this Cecil has concluded the bargain, and that with this payment of 40,000l. If he may be able to receive in the next payment 100,000l. If the 25,000l. be paid it will be spoken of through all Christendom to the Queen's honour, considering she is entering into wars.
2. Herewith he sends a general account of all receipts and payments since the Queen came to the crown, and as the payments are more than the receipts, there must be made provision for the difference, as he will be charged by exchange out of Germany and other parts where he made the provisions.
3. The Queen has at Hamburg at last 25,000l. worth of provisions; therefore he is to persuade her to venture in a ship from Hamburg at least 2,000l. or 3,000l., and to assure them of 1,000l., otherwise it will be more than twelve months before it is transported, as there come not from Hamburg to London above ten or twelve ships a year; besides he has but commission to ship 1,000l. worth in a ship, whereof 400l. must be assured. It is not meet that so great a mass of armour and munitions should remain in one place, which is much spoken of. On the 20th March three ships departed out of Hamburg, wherein the Queen had laden in a ship 1,000l. of saltpetre, sulphur, and dags.
4. He has received letters from his factor in Frankfort of the 7th inst., who has been in Bohemia and Hungary for the provision of saltpetre and other things, where there is nothing good to be had. He had made a goodly provision of armour and munitions; he has written to him only to make provision of corryne and serpentine powder, as none is to be got here for money by reason there is no saltpetre. The Queen has more saltpetre than is to be had in all Germany and these parts, which he wishes was safe in England. She could make good store of powder if she had mills; he therefore advises that she should make three or four out of hand, as no kind of powder is to be bought here.
5. This day Hans Keck departs to the Count Mansfield to accomplish the bargain of the 2,000,000l., who affirms still that it would take place with time. He encloses a copy of his answer to his letter. His factor writes from Frankfort what great estimation the Queen is in there, and that most part of Germany is at her commandment; that the Princes Protestant are in readiness of horse and foot, which many here judge to be for the Queen. The ships in Zealand are rigging still, but have not yet one piece of ordnance in them, or victuals, which are to be provided in Holland. The saying is here that the 4,000 Spaniards will in no wise serve the French King in Christendom. News comes out of Zealand that the Duke of Norfolk has won Leith by assault, and that the Scottish Queen should render herself unto him.
6. Has received a letter from my Lords for the sending home of John Burney, wherein he has conferred with Mr. Fitzwilliams' deputy, wherein there can be nothing done, the laws being such here. He is a crafty knave, given to much ill rule; the next way were to practise with some ship master to allure him into his ship when he is going away, and so to bestow him under hatches till he come to England. It may not be done by Gresham, or any of the company, for if it were known, they must bring him back again, the laws are so strait here for such matters. Encloses letters from William Curlle from Hamburg.
7. This day Paulus van Dall conferred with him and doubted that the King of Spain would help the French King secretly; he also warned the writer of the man of law whom the writer wrote to Cecil about, from Dunkirk, whose name is Nicholas, in Dutch, Cloyes; he has talked very large of the Queen and the ports, and the weakness of England. Van Dall thinks him a spy, and that the knave should be banished England, "for a comes in and out every month, and from thence to the Court, with many lies at Brussels, and as crafty a knave as any in Christendom." Paulus van Dall uttered this matter for the good will he owes to the Queen; he is a man of much honesty and wealth, and the Queen owes him 40,000l. The villain friar that so irreverently preached against the Queen dares not come abroad, for that the commons will despatch him. There are many English Papist knaves here, and it is thought that some of them set this friar to work; the writer will hearken further of this matter and advertise. Cannot come to the knowledge of the party that sought his undoing for the conveying of the 100 harness he sent home; begs they may be received with secresy. Robert Hogan is in this town and purposed to depart for Spain within these fifteen days. He takes him to be a true man.—Antwerp, 16 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 17.
R. O.
1012. The Queen to her Ambassadors in Spain.
1. On the 8th inst. M. de Glassion came from the King Catholic. His message was that his master, having heard sundry complaints from the French King of her aiding his rebels in Scotland, had very friendly answered by charging the French with such their doings and tokens as might he said give her good cause to put herself and realm in convenient strength; but hearing nothing from her he had devised a mean for an accord between the French and her. The effect whereof was, that she should cease from hostilities, and that he would provide that no greater number of French should come into Scotland than are presently there; and if the French King should need any further force for the subduing of the Scots, he [Philip] would lend him a sufficient power of his subjects, who being in Scotland should give no cause of mistrust; and the realm being thus brought into obedience, he would travail to make such an accord as should be to her surety and satisfaction, or else would take part with her against the French.
2. This was the substance of De Glassion's report, who, because the end of his legation was to prevent her from entering into hostilities, when he found that her army had already entered Scotland, moved that it should be revoked for forty or fifty days till he might advertise his master, and understand how he should further proceed.
3. To this she answered by thanking the King for speaking so friendly to the French for her, and she believes that when he should be informed of the occasions that had moved her to these proceedings he would think his device to be far unfit to conduce any accord between the French and her. For the better understanding whereof she has caused the whole matter between them to be at good length opened to M. de Glassion. And therefore if they shall, by the King of Spain's means, bring Scotland into subjection, then by joining theirs and the Scots' forces together, they will have a ready way of invading England, which is the only mark they shoot at. Consequently she could not simply allow this device, and much less M. de Glassion's request of withdrawing her army, unless the French would cease in the meantime from preparation, and executing any force. She therefore required M. de Glassion to devise some more reasonable means, and moved that general commission might be given by the French to some of their Ministers to treat with others to be authorized by her, and that both parties should be heard and directed by the King of Spain's Ministers, and in the meantime a general abstinence of arms should be agreed to on both sides. Glassion said that he had no commission to accept any treaty, but only to declare his master's mind; but that he would advertise him of her answer. Her pleasure is that they shall declare this to the King Catholic, praying him to consider the importance of this matter, and not to judge her to have any mistrust of his friendship. They shall desire him to think of some device which may put her in assurance to be out of the danger of the French, who also seek the overthrow of both realms.
4. And because the King may object to them, as his Ministers have already done to her, that she takes upon her the direction of another Prince's realm, and also allege some unkindness that she has not all this while imparted her doings in this behalf to him; they are to answer, first, touching the sending the army into Scotland, that the French have since Christmas last, from time to time put her off with fair words, promising to avoid their forces out of Scotland; they have meant only to make her lose time, whereby they might have the commodity this spring to transport their forces into Scotland, thus to invade her realm this summer. She has thus been driven for the safeguard of her realm, and especially of Berwick, lying yet open, to send her army into Scotland, and not for any care of the Scots.
5. To prove this, she offers to help to compel any person in Scotland to come to their due obedience if they shall refuse to do the same; but she dares boldly say that there is no person of any behaviour within that realm but will show himself an obedient servant to his Queen; only do they seek to avoid the oppression of the French.
6. As for the communicating her affairs to the King of Spain, they may say that she has from time to time caused the Bishop of Aquila, his Ambassador resident, to be made privy to her meaning and proceedings in this matter, and requested him to advertise the same to his master, and in the end she sent Ambassadors for the same purpose. She has at better length advertised them by letters sent from the west parts.
Copy. Endd.: 17 April 1560. Pp. 10.
April 17.
R. O.
1013. Ingleby to Cecil.
Has lately seen a letter from the Queen to Mr. Auditor Brown for the executing of the office of Treasurer in the army only, in which are some general words by which he challenges to have the payment of the fortifications, and also the fees appertaining to the writer by special warrant. On the arrival of Sir Richard Lee with 4,000l. for the works, he has striven with him before the General for the receipt and defraying of the same. As he has received no other orders from the Queen but that he should exercise his office of Treasurer of Berwick, he has received the same from Lee, and given him quittance. He hopes that he may be allowed to enjoy his office, the pay of which only amounted to 20l. per annum. Begs that he will move the Queen in his behalf.— Berwick, 17 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 17.
R. O.
1014. Maitland to Cecil.
1. Men have moved many doubts anent the winning of Leith, which is made more difficult than it is indeed. The insufficiency of their numbers is not so great that any man of reason could charge them with breach of promise. Their mind is always constant. The Earls of Huntly and Morton, Lord Home, and other neutrals, at the first entry of the English army were in good forwardness to declare themselves; but seeing a treaty so suddenly propounded they became cold, doubting what should follow. He can perceive no likelihood of good issue from a treaty. Mistrusts that the messengers have not made the first report, and yet no Scottishman has shown any kind of hostility since the entry of the army. The enemy are shut up in Leith, Dunbar, and Inchkeith. The Earl of Arran has found means that the Blackness is rendered to him. The castle of Edinburgh fears to offend them. All that will not take part with them are glad to show some friendship. No camp was ever better furnished with victuals, and the longer it continues the better it shall be furnished. He thinks that the French shall not be able shortly to send any great force.
2. Thinks that the King of Spain rather means by threatening to withdraw the Queen's army than otherwise earnestly to enter into the matter; and though he should do so when the French are clearly removed, he would more hurt himself. Has oft touched on the points of necessity to be required in a treaty, the removing of the French, and the governing of the realm by born men of the land. For satisfying of the Queen the Bishop of Valence is suffered to pass. Since these matters are so far proceeded there is no backgoing, therefore he prays him not to faint but to go through. The Congregation is minded shortly to direct an Ambassador to the Queen to thank her for her honourable and liberal support. In matters of such consequence he would not have them too scrupulous.—From the camp, 17 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 17.
R. O.
1015. The Siege of Leith.
Lord Grey's Answer to the Duke of Norfolk's Articles.
1. It is fulfilled according to his expectations, and so shall continually.
2. The first part shall be followed according to the Queen's instructions, and the second part upon consideration had of the answer made to the third Article. In the mean season no time shall be lost.
3. Leith is difficult to approach; but if there was power to make three camps the enterprise were feasible. If there were two, sufficient to maintain two batteries, there were good hope; but having but one, the matter seems not feasible. The number requisite for two new camps is at least 3,000, with 1,000 pioneers.
4. Answered by the Admiral.
5. There has been some disorder in the soldiers frequenting Edinburgh, but not so great as it is made. Signed: William Grey, H. Scrope, James Croft.
Copy, in Railton's hol. P. 1.
[April 17.]
R. O.
1016. Admiral Winter's Answers to the Duke of Norfolk's Articles.
1. Inchkeith has 140 soldiers and 70 women, boys, and others. Drink they have none but water, wheat they have to serve for ten or twelve days; other victual little or none. Their great relief is oysters and periwinkles, which they get at low water mark about the isle, and fresh fish with angling rods. He thinks it takable, if they might lie at it with 600 men, three demi-cannon, three culverins, two sackers, two falcons, with 150 shot for each piece, and five lasts of serpentine powder. If there should be any sudden command to resist enemies by sea, or to help the land army with men against Leith, he cannot promise to bring away the ordnance and men once landed in the isle within six days. The wall and ramparts are fourteen feet of stone and sixteen of earth thick.
2. The Bull has arrived, with thirteen sail of victuallers laden with thirty days victuals for seventeen ships, that is for thirteen of the Queen's and four of London.—Signed: W. Wynter.
Copy, in Railton's hol. On the same sheet as the following number.
April 17
R. O.
1017. The English Fleet off Leith.
List of ships and crews:—
Total of ships 29
" of men in them 3,712
" of men that be by land of the said number 1,128
Signed: W. Wynter.
The twelve captains which are crossed, are appointed to lead the soldiers, and Robert Constable to have the chief command.
Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd.: 12 April 1560. Pp. 3.
April 18.
R. O.
1018. The Queen to Throckmorton.
1. On the 7th inst. M. de Glassion, being sent with letters of credit from the King of Spain, had access to the Queen in company with the Bishop of Aquila. He informed her that the King his master, having heard complaints from the French King of wrongs done to him by her, especially in aiding the rebels in Scotland, had charged the French with giving divers occasions of evil meaning, and said that she had good reason to put her realm in strength. Having heard nothing from herself, he had devised (in order that there might be concord betwixt her and the French,) that she should abstain from all hostility, and that he himself would provide that the French should not increase their force in Scotland, and that if the French needed to the subduing of their rebels, he would lend them some power of his own subjects; and the realm being thus brought into subjection, he would help to make a good accord betwixt her and the French. Glassion further moved of himself, that her army might be revoked out of Scotland and remain on the Borders for forty or fifty days, whilst he advised his master of the alteration of things here.
2. To this she answered that his device was dangerous unto her. In order that Glassion might the better understand this, the whole process of the matter between her and the French was declared unto him. (fn. 1)
3. The Spanish Ambassadors did not seem to mislike this answer, but said that they had no commission to accept any treaty, but only to show their master's mind. Glassion was sorry that his commission extended not further; and like a good minister and true Burgundian appeared very willing to yield to anything that might tend to the safety of herself and realm. The Bishop of Aquila seemed least satisfied, sticking upon the point that they had no further commission but to declare their master's mind. His talk and manner of proceeding appears to show that the King means, if his advice is refused, to go forward with his determination to aid the French. Which if he will do, she must and will by God's help provide thereunto, as becomes one of her sort and stock, like a Princess of honour that depends not upon any other to maintain her just quarrel, and defend herself the best she can, committing herself and cause to Almighty God. Howbeit she has good hope that Philip will have heed to these reasons, and by the good advice of his Council in the Low Countries devise some other means for an accord between her and the French than to follow their devices, which seek the overthrow of herself and realm.
4. Her army being entered into Scotland, the Dowager there has moved commissions of treaty, which are now in hand. The point that is chiefly sticked at is that the Scots require to have all the French clearly avoided out of that realm, and the regiment thereof committed to the nobility of Scotland. The Dowager will in no wise yield thereunto, but presses to have the government in her own hands. Of what shall follow thereof she will advise him, and will be glad to further any reasonable accord. She sends herewith letters for Montague, and Chamberlain, her Ambassador with the King of Spain, containing Glassion's message and her answer, the doubles whereof are also sent by sea. Throckmorton is to find some safe and speedy way of sending them, even though he has to bestow some convenient reward.
5. On the 15th Florence [Diaceto] was presented by the French Ambassador, who seemed to have but a forged tale to give him opportunity to ask for a safe conduct into Scotland. He only said that the King was sorry to see her preparations for war, to which she replied that she was first sorry that the French King gave and continued so many occasions. Then the Ambassador said that he had now matter to declare, which was written to him after Florence's departure from the Court. Upon the return of the Bishop of Valence from his conference here, finding that they could not persuade her to their purpose by reason of the multitude of "doleances" on her part, the French King was disposed to send commissioners to treat thereof. To which she answered that she had ever notified them of her accord to such proceedings, and it might have been done ere now, and that she should not forbear until the treaty was ready to be in hand, as by these many dealings she had lost much time.—Westminster, 18 April, 2 Eliz. Signed.
Orig. Add. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Endd.: By Francis Thomaso: 22 Aprilis.
April 18.
R. O.
1019. Draft of the above.
Portions underlined to be ciphered. Partly in Cecil's hand. Endd. by Cecil: 18 April 1560. Sent by sea into Spain. Pp. 11.
April 18.
R. O.
1020. The Queen to the English Ambassadors in Spain. (fn. 2)
1. She understands of their arrival by their letters of the 13th March, brought to the Court on the 10th inst., and desires some advertisement from them after audience given. She perceives that their journey has been long. In all this time she has had no express matter to signify unto them, but now she thinks it necessary to send these double letters both by sea and by France. She gives an account of the audience of De Glassion and the Bishop of Aquila on the 10th inst., and her answer to their demands given on the 11th. (fn. 3) As (fn. 4) they did not mislike it, so she thinks that the King will not disallow it, but will give commandment to his ministers in England to treat betwixt the French and her, in such sort as she may not be endangered or entrapped during the treaty, or afterwards brought into worse case than she was before.
2. To the objection that might be made that whilst her army is in the field there can be no treaty, she answers, that so soon as she may see assurance of authority given to treat and conclude, and that the French and Scots will surcease during the time of treaty, she will be content, and otherwise not; and to the reply that the French may do what they will in Scotland, the same being their own, she will not reason what they may do, but she must provide that they shall not so by her sufferance proceed in Scotland as thereby to be further able to invade England. Therefore as long as she cannot find any other way by any friend how she may be out of this great danger, she cannot but look for the continual malice of the French; and therefore she is compelled to prohibit this conquest, not for any care of Scotland, but for the preservation of England.
3. She perceives from the words of the Bishop of Aquila, that the King of Spain thought it unkindly done of her that she forbore to certify him all the last summer, when she found divers likelihoods of the French evil meaning towards her; and that also it was so late ere her Ambassadors were sent to him. It may be answered, that until August she only perceived their evil meaning towards England, but saw not any their dangerous proceeding by any plain deeds, other than the usurpation of her arms and title; to advertise him whereof had been superfluous. Indeed, she always was jealous of their proceedings in Scotland; but as long as their power was but small there she did not much regard it: but when in September she understood that they began to make greater preparations to send more force thither, she caused her ships to be put in towardness, and imparted the matter to the Bishop of Aquila, who always seemed to have the French suspected, and allowed well that she should have regard thereto. She thought surely he would have advertised the King. And in October and November continually appeared such preparation of men, victuals, and munition to be sent into Scotland, as that she saw that they would conduct such a force into Scotland as should prosecute their purpose against England; therefore she found it convenient to send victual and munition to Berwick by sea; and thereof she informed the Spanish Ambassador, that he should make his master privy thereto. Finding the preparations to increase in France and Almaine, she also increased her provisions; and in December she thought it necessary to prevent the surprising of Berwick, by sending ships into the North Sea to impeach the entry of such forces as were in readiness to be sent out of France, under the governance of D'Elbœuf, notwithstanding which they were upon the seas, and certain ships under the conduct of Martigues (who was sent to be chief colonel of footmen,) arrived with 1,500 soldiers in Scotland, and the others with D'Elbœuf were by tempest dispersed, lost, and returned, and partly for doubt of her navy retired into France. All which she also informed the Ambassador, and that she meant to impeach the transportation of any more soldiers into Scotland; and that she trusted her good brother would have friendly regard thereto, and that she would also send him specially some of hers, which he liked well. And because the journey by sea was uncertain, and it might be two or three months ere her Ambassadors arrived, she required to inform him of all her meaning, and thereof to require his counsel and advice, which was allowed of him; whereupon she wrote about the 13th Dec., and doubting that she would be able to send any embassade to be with him in convenient time, she desired him to advertise her of his mind, in the words following; Et si accidat, etc. After this letter she required of the Ambassador by what time her letter would come to the King, who said within ten days; and so she trusted within twentyfive or twenty-six days to have some answer, either to herself or to the Ambassador; and in the meantime she determined to send her Ambassadors. The cause why she made not more expedition, was because she had a great desire to have some intelligence of the King's disposition before she would send them away, for that thereupon their commission might have been otherwise formed to his satisfaction; and as no answer came, she despatched them; and for the time between their departure and arrival they can best answer for their own doings and let. The Bishop of Aquila says that they were purposely retarded by the sea side, whereof she is ignorant.
4. After their departure the French doings increased daily, and they vaunted that they would not only subdue Scotland, but also enterprise their intent upon England. Besides sure intelligence given from France, she has their very instructions sent to Hamburg for presting a great number of hulks, and also a great power of Almains, both horse and foot; and the very words of the instructions to encourage the Almain colonels were "to transport soldiers into Scotland, or into the places near thereunto, where there is plenty of plunder, and in which no German soldier has set foot."
5. At this time the French Queen altered her manner of writing in the claim of England, and sent divers public writings in this manner into Scotland: "Franciscus et Maria, Dei gratia Franciœ, Scotiœ, Angliœ, et Irlandiœ, Rex et Regina;" and at the end of all commissions, "In cujus rei etc. sigillum nostrum fecimus apponi. Dat. etc. A.D. etc. Regni nostri Scotiœ decimo septimo, Angliœ vero et Irlandiœ primo;" and so it seems their conclusions were fully made that they were possessed of England, adding thereto the declaration of their reigning. The Queen not having heard during the whole of January from the King of Spain, in the beginning of February made declaration to the French Ambassador that these wrongs and challenges made against her by the French King and Queen were not to be quietly borne, nor the forces that were carried into Scotland, especially the sending thither of such quantity of munitions, they having laden at one time sixty pieces of ordnance of brass, whereof twenty were cannon and demi-cannon, pieces of no use in Scotland, but only to serve for the town of Berwick.
6. Reciting all these things, she required that the French King would be content to stay these great occasions, and first cease the title and bearing of her arms, and next receive the Scots to an accord, and remove his forces. Otherwise she declared that for her own surety, she would not suffer any more force to pass into Scotland, nor permit those there to make any such conquest of Scotland as might endanger England. This her Ambassador signified to the French in the beginning of February, but could get no direct answer; but after a long time, in the end of the month, De Sevres, a Knight of the Order of St. John, was sent with pretence of a full satisfaction for redress of all things amiss. He took the best way to beguile her, for he was content in a private conference to show himself to mislike the house of Guise, the regiment of Scotland, the governance of the Dowager, and the tyranny and avarice of D'Oysel, and so was disposed to speak worse of the French in Scotland than she heard of any. And having made this passage open in the beginning of March, he said that all things should be amended; that the King would leave off her title and style, and command the Queen to do the same, and if she would not, would sent her home into Scotland; and the arms should not be borne except it should appear no offence to have them with some difference, noting the Queen's cousinage to the house of England; and that the forces should be removed, save four or five ensigns, which should remain but for a season for the honour of the King. To all this he pretended to have commission, and spake this not to one or two but to all the Council at several times; whereupon she liked his proceedings, and put these things in Articles, as demands to be performed by the French King.
7. In conceiving the Articles, the difference between her Council and the Ambassador was but in the numbers to be left, he requiring four ensigns and they that all should be revoked, as may be seen by the copy sent herewith; and in the time, which she pressed to be short, because she coveted to see the matter ended before the season of the year, and because of her charges. Hereupon the Ambassador concluded to write, which was the 2nd of March, but trifled so as it was the 10th ere he would send away his post, and so it was the 13th before the matter was declared to the French King; and then the Cardinal said that he perceived that he had so much goodwill to the peace that he had exceeded his commission; nevertheless answer should be reasonably made by the Bishop of Valence. He at his coming gave good words and desired that he might go into Scotland, alleging that he had no commission to treat in England with her; and knowing that he had received from the Cardinal of Lorraine a despatch, he denied that he had any answer to the Articles. Thus she saw herself too much abused, and perceived to what end it was done; for she understood certainly that there were two practices in hand; one to accord suddenly with the Scots and join their forces against her; the other was the hope they had of their labour made to the King of Spain for succour, and generally to win time.
8. Seeing the peril so nigh, she had no remedy but to comfort the Scots to stand to the defence of their liberty, and enterprise by fair or foul means the putting out of the force in Scotland. Hereupon, being most in doubt of the commotion of the strength of Scotland and the French both against her realm, she caused the Scots to be communed withal, and agreeing on both parts with the right and superiority of the French Queen, and affirming their obedience, she promised to aid them from conquest, to help them to their just and lawful governance, and to remove the force there entered, for which they should give six hostages. This being communed upon, she offered again a treaty, and yet none would be taken; and at the end of March the Duke of Norfolk passed a contract with the nobility of Scotland, and received their hostages. Having first sent to the Dowager for a treaty and receiving no answer, he sent the last of March into Scotland, Lord Grey, with 8,000 foot and 2,000 horse; and yet before any approach he sent to her again, who, until the army came before the town, would not accept any communication, but she then very willingly seemed to accept a treaty, using therein so many delays that from the 6th of April to the 13th the persons were not fully agreed upon; and now there are eight, two English, four French, and two Scots, who are now entered, and if the French mean well there will be good accord. In the mean time M. de Glassion came and (as is before written) so proceeded. Thus they may perceive the whole discourse and progress of the French cartels, and of her necessity to do as she has done. If by any persuasion before the matter is ended, she should revoke her army, no man is so simple but he can judge the danger following.
9. One other objection is made by the Bishop of Aquila that the King of Spain has often given her warning of these matters of France. It is true that the Count of Feria, Juan of Ayala, and the Bishop have in general words said, as from the King, that she had great need to look to her realm; but when she inquired the particularities she never could learn of them any certainty, but at one time the Count of Feria said that the French had their practices with the last Pope to work matter against her, so that she could only understand of any of them a general cause to doubt, which was so commonly bruited that she could not think herself better advertised by them than by common report of the world. If they see cause they are to say she only seeks the surety of her country against both French and Scotch; and if any good way can be devised for the French to cease their claims and have no force in Scotland, she will be fully satisfied, and most glad to leave her arms. Otherwise, considering this new malice by the Scottish Queen's claim, and that no war can be so dangerous as that by Scotland, she sees no surety to her realm during the French Queen's life as long as they shall have force in Scotland, or be able to procure it to make war with her, which, if it be conquered or its liberty lost, the French will forthwith by that way most annoy her. Trusts that the King of Spain will not permit the French to have their full will in Scotland to her danger.
Orig. Draft, partly in Cecil's hand. Endd.: Sent by sea into Spain. Pp. 18.
April 18.
R. O.
1021. Cecil to the English Ambassadors in Spain.
1. After so long a letter from the Queen he need not dilate any matter. Since their departure, they never heard word of King Philip's mind until the 7th of March, by M. de Glassion, and on the 8th they received the letters of the Ambassadors of the 18th, signifying their arrival before the coming of De Glassion. Since their departure Cecil has been continually longing to hear of King Philip's mind, and yet did not think to have heard such a message as De Glassion brought. The Queen and her Council, finding so many dangerous delays of the French tending to win the advantage of the year, and so to possess Scotland and consequently invade England, of mere necessity by common consent of Council it was resolved to be of all things best to procure the departure of the French out of Scotland, and thereupon rather to treat with the French either by themselves or by means of King Philip for some good accord, that the French should have no force in Scotland and should redress the injuries done to England. Before that resolution should be put in force it was thought necessary to notify both to the realm and to all other Frenchmen, what the Queen's purpose was, which they will perceive by the enclosed proclamations in French and Italian.
2. After this, about the latter end of March, the Duke of Norfolk made an accord with the Scots, conditionally, that if they would freely acknowledge their due obedience to their Sovereign, and the French would not withdraw, in that case they should have aid of England to expel them; and no accord should be made by them without the Queen's assent, nor by the Queen without theirs, and hereupon they delivered six hostages. Many means were made to the Dowager by the Scots to acknowledge their duties, and have the French force removed, and also by the Duke of Norfolk to the Dowager, with offer of help to punish any that would deny their due obedience to the Scottish Queen; but nothing would serve. Time only was sought by the French; and thereupon Lord Grey made his entry the 30 March, and by the 5th of April they came nigh Leith, where on the 6th for the approach there was a hot skirmish, wherein fifty French were taken and thirty slain, and of the English ten hurt and slain, whereof was young Knevett hurt in the hand with a hagbut. On the 7th the Dowager entered into communication, which they think will prove but to win time, because they are not without intelligence of the hope of King Philip's aid. In this sort things stand doubtful of the King of Spain's amity, and sure of the French enmity.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd. by his secretary: 18 April 1560. Pp. 3.
[April 18.]
R. O.
1022. Cecil to Roger Alford.
1. Prays that such money as is appointed by the Queen's warrant to Francis, the bearer hereof, for his journey into Spain may be paid unto him in gold, to the end that his journey may be kept as secret as may be, which otherwise would be known to many if he were constrained to make exchange.—The Court, Thursday night, 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—"Despatch this with speed."
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 18.
R. O.
1023. Courier for Spain.
Receipt for 66l. 13s. 4d., given by Roger Alford, one of the tellers of the Exchequer, to Francis Pitcher, the Queen's courier into Spain.—18 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 18.
R. O.
1024. Courier for France.
Receipt for 30l., received of Roger Alford by Francis Thomasseo, expended by him in his charges, etc., in conveying the Queen's letters into France.—18 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 18.
R. O.
1025. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Wrote last on the 16th with certificate of his account. On the 17th he received Cecil's of the 13th, whereby he perceives that King Philip's preparations are now apparent to the Queen, by which he will aid the French King to subdue the Scots; whereof the merchants had intelligence as soon as he. The most part of the merchants of this town are ridden to Barrowghes to pay themselves with the English commodities; and some are gone to see if they can set over the Queen's bonds to the company for cloths and kersies, all fearing that the Regent will make some sudden arrest. The Queen's credit is at a whole stay. King Philip's proceeding is nothing liked. The Queen must prolong, whether they will or not. Tomorrow he will persuade her creditors to content themselves with this prolongation, if possible. He will take such order for the bullion and money that he has in hand for the payment of the provisions and debts that she shall be no loser. The 400 corselets and 500 courriers must remain in his hands till opportunity serves. Trusts that the things at Hamburg and in Germany will be well enough conveyed without the Emperor's let. All being ready at Hamburg, he would persuade the Queen and Cecil to bear 3,000l. venture in a ship for its speedy despatch, being special harness, saltpetre, and sulphur. Wrote in his last of the great scarcity of powder; the Queen would do well to make out of hand four or six mills. Will certify him of the quantity of their preparations, and by what time they will be ready; and for the surer intelligence has sent Waddington into Zealand to visit all havens and ports to ascertain what preparation of ships of war they make, as also victuallers and ordnance, and the time of their readiness; and there to remain till further orders. There is much powder bought up, which bargain must be kept.
2. King Philip is here wholly unprovided of all armour, munitions, and money, and it is judged here that the States will never consent to have war with the Queen, which is not to be trusted. Is glad that the Dowager has entered into communication, and that the Queen's army is at Leith. Thanks him for writing with his own hand, and has commanded his factor, Candler, to attend on him every morning to learn his pleasure. The man who makes Cecil's clock is out of town for the Easter holidays; he trusts to send him it within ten days.—Antwerp, 18 April 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—Will take up as much money as he can amongst the English, to discharge part of the Queen's debts. His factor will attend Cecil by 6 in the morning. Desires that he may have his answer, as he has no man else to do his business and keep Lombard Street.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
April 18.
R. O. IIaynes, p. 294.
1026. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 5)
1. Wrote this morning, that there was a skirmish on Monday last; Mr. Leeke has arrived here, who saw the whole, and certifies it to be one of the hottest he ever saw. There were killed and wounded of either part between 140 and 160. It was hard to tell who had the best of it; there was none above the degree of a lieutenant slain on our side. Captain Barkeleye was hurt and taken; Mr. Arthur Gray shot through the shoulder, but is in no danger; Bryan Fitzwilliam shot through the leg; and of the French one of their chief captains slain, called M. Chepper. He hopes this will be a lesson to them that have charge there to keep their men out of Edinburgh. By report, he thinks there was about one half of the footmen engaged. "Restalrig Deanery is so sweet, that the camp lies not within half a mile of the trenches." He thinks all the fine armed Berwick men be not the best furnished of their men. Captains Reede and Vaughan showed themselves very valiant at the skirmish.—Berwick, 18 April 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—The gain has been so sweet that their old Treasurer makes much ado to part with his office. Hopes his messenger will meet with no comfort at Cecil's hands.
Orig., in Railton's hol., the P.S. in the Duke's. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 18.
R. O. Haynes, p. 293.
1027. The Duke of Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 5)
He hopes when Cecil has weighed the writer's letters he will not think that the Lords lack information of the discourses here, as he did in his last letters of the 13th inst. The Duke, as well in his general letters to the Council as in his private to Cecil, certified all he knew; and for the better satisfaction of all things has sent his cousin Howard, who was better able to certify Cecil than the Duke's rude pen. He would not have written this letter but for fear of slackness being imputed to him. He has had no messenger from Gray since Monday morning, but he hears from some Scottish espials, that there was some great skirmish there that same day. He hopes to hear of the whole this night, which he will haste to the Court. Hopes that howsoever things go every man may bear his own burden.—Berwick, 18 April. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 18.
R. O. Tytler, vi. 463.
1028. The Archbishop of Athens to the Duke of Norfolk.
Whereas the Queen Dowager said lately to divers English in the castle of Edinburgh that the Earl of Huntly, his brother, would never assist in this godly action, he assures him of the contrary, notwithstanding the great policy and craft used by her to impeach the same. She has done her diligence to break the whole nobility of his country against the said Earl. He will be in the camp on the 20th or 21st of this present.—Edinburgh, 18 April 1560. Signed: A. Gordon.
Orig. Hol. [?] Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
[April 18.]
R. O. Tytler, vi. 463.
1029. The Requests of the Earl of Huntly to the Lords of the Congregation.
1. He desires that they should give him a promise under their hands to maintain him, his friends and partakers, in their lives and possessions, and assure him of the Queen of England's aid and support.
2. Understanding that they are disponing certain "rowmes" in the north parts, he desires that they shall only be disponed to such as be his concurrents.
3. He desires that he may have such authority as his predecessors had in times past; that in case any refuse to join in the cause he may dispose of their estates and "rowmes."
Copy, in a Scottish hand. Endd. by Randolph, and dated by Cecil: 18 April 1560. Pp. 2.
[April 18.]
R. O. Tytler, vi. 465.
1030. The Answers of the Lords to the Earl of Huntly.
1. The Lords are bound to defend each other in case of attack, and if he joins them they will defend him, and if he desires it they will give him a reasonable bond. He will also participate with them in their treaty with the Queen of England.
2. They have made no disposition of any thing but to those who are participators, and if the Earl joins them will only do so by his advice.
3. They have not as yet taken upon themselves to appoint lieutenants; nevertheless they will be content to grant to him whatsoever they can to further the cause consistent with their duty as subjects.
Copy, in a Scottish hand. Endd. by Randolph, and dated by Cecil: 18 April 1560. Pp. 2.
April 19.
R. O.
1031. Sir Richard Lee to the Council.
1. Encloses a note of what the labourers wrought here the past winter, how many were prest and sent hither this year, and how many he found at his coming. A further supply is needful, as it is very expedient to go through with all during this summer.
2. It behoves 1,000 labourers to be sent at the least. 2,000 would be all employed. The monthly charge for 1,000 more than those already there will be 5,000l. or thereabouts. If it likes them to supply this want he begs to be advertised, so that he may provide for them in time. The new cut is undetermined, because there is none here now but the Lord Lieutenant, which occasions the stay thereof till others return from the camp.—Berwick, 19 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 19.
R. O. IIaynes, p. 294.
1032. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 6)
1. The Queen's and Cecil's letters of the 16th inst., were the best welcome that came since his arrival here. They now know that the Queen will go through with it, either by fair means or foul. He has despatched this night her letters to Gray, "in whom, of any there, there lacks least good will of forwardness; there be others that cast perils. If the sky fall we shall have larks." Hopes that Cecil's letters will remedy this long slackness. With time, men's minds alter; the Lords of Scotland and theirs are agreed, chiefly by the Scots' desire that if the Queen would that Edinburgh Castle might be taken, it would advance the expedition of the taking of the other, for they think the Dowager does more harm than 500 Frenchmen. She sends continually up and down, which cannot be remedied without a siege. (fn. 7) This may be done and no slackness used towards Leith; they assure Norfolk they would have it in four days. She were better to be at the Queen's courtesy, than the English at hers; and the demolishing of it would do the realm no hurt.
2. Cecil will understand the state of Inchkeith by the Admiral's letters, which he [Norfolk] sends herewith. Of "Inchkith" and Edinburgh they want speedy answer. He has no other news, but that the French have gained but little.—Berwick, 19 April 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—The Bishop of Valence journeys to morrow into Scotland; the Scots would not agree he should enter before now, nevertheless, now they are contented. He has leave to tarry there these eight days in going and coming. He looks for neither good nor bad by his going, and yet he is accounted amongst the Lords of Scotland that know him, one of the finest engineers in Christendom.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 19.
R. O.
1033. Norfolk to Grey.
1. Has received at the hand of Sir Francis Leeke, Grey's answer to the articles sent by Sadler and the said Sir Francis, and as he may see by the letters of the Queen and Council sent herewith, that it is her pleasure to prosecute the matter to the end, so he is immediately to entertain 2,000 footmen of the Scots, and as many pioneers as he shall think convenient, and expedite the approaches to the enemy. The writer touched in his letter to the Court the desire that the Scots have to the taking of the great crag and of Inchkeith, whereunto he hopes soon to have answer.
2. To-morrow the Bishop of Valence takes his journey hence, lodging at night at Haddington that he may be in the camp on Sunday. Grey is to speak to the Congregation that he may be well used. Has granted him eight days for his coming and going. Grey shall send some gentleman to meet and conduct him. He desires to talk with the Dowager but one hour, and then he promises to return to the Lords of the Congregation, which the Duke desires he may be suffered to do.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 19.
R. O.
1034. Sadler to Norfolk.
1. The Laird of Lethington has written to Cecil and desired Sadler to forward it to the Duke in order that he may peruse it. Forwards also a letter from the Bishop of Athens, brother to the Earl of Huntley, in excuse of his brother, being very sorry that the said Earl has so long protracted his repair hither according to his promise. The said Earl has sent his man to take up lodgings, and to-morrow he is looked for here; but his wiliness is such as none of his countrymen will assure it till they see him here. Since Leek's departure there has happened nothing worth advertisement. Their neighbours in Leith have been very quiet since the skirmish on Monday last, and though it was thought that the loss was on the English side, they have certain intelligence that they had almost eighty slain and 200 hurt, and that a man of good reputation amongst them was so hurt that he died on Wednesday, for whom much moan is made, but who it is they keep secret.
2. The chieftains here seem to hope better of the success of their enterprise than heretofore, and think to plant their battery within eight or ten days; against which time the Lords of Scotland promise to have here at least 2,000 men more than they now have to attend upon the assault, for which they have already taken order, and will maintain the same at their own charges. They have also promised to furnish 500 or 600 pioneers, whereof there are already thirteen score, whom they have this night set to work with the English. All the armour that is now arrived is taken on land and the soldiers well armed. To-morrow the other battery will be landed,—Edinburgh, 19 April 1560, at 10 p.m. Signed.
3. P. S.—The Earl of Monteith is a suitor to the Duke that his son, for his tender years' sake, may remain near the Border, so that he may have the better opportunity to send some of his to see him and to hear the oftener from him.
Orig., in Sadler's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 19.
R. O.
1035. Randolph to Norfolk.
1. The manifold difficulties in this enterprise move him rather to leave the report of the whole case to men of more skill. He daily hears it spoken by men of judgment that if due diligence be used and men determined to adventure their lives in the ditches of Leith rather than contrive long time in vain talk, it were easy enough in a few days to make such an indissoluble bond of amity between the two nations that neither the French, or whosoever is deemed most to take part with them, could set foot in this land. Must confess that his zeal in this matter is greater than his experience.
2. In his last letter sent by Killigrew he wrote what was reported of the Earl of Huntley's coming. To-morrow is the day that he is appointed to be here with 300 horse. His requests and answers Randolph has sent. The suspicious men fear that he has obtained something, such as the earldom of Murray, from the Queen Dowager for offering himself as a peace maker. Dares not write what some men doubt of the Bishop of Valence if these two meet.—Holyrood, 19 April 1560, late in the night. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
April 19.
R. O.
1036. Gresham to Cecil.
1. He wrote on the 18th of the rumours here that King Philip would aid the French King to subdue the Scots; believes that in case of war the Queen would be more assured of friends here than he. All say here that the States will never consent to war with England, and that this is the practice of the Spaniards and priests, as well in England as otherways, which matter has clean altered the Queen's credit. All her creditors seek to be paid; to whom he answered if this had not chanced they would have been, but now they must have patience for six months longer, by which time he trusted to see them paid here or at Hamburg, whither the Queen would send as many cloths and kerseys as should answer her whole debt. This the Germans specially liked, that place being more commodious to them than this is.
2. Having entered into bonds apart with divers of the Queen's creditors, he has sent Richard Clough to Burrowghes to take up all the money he can come by of the English, having been informed that on the 18th the merchants sold 20,000 cloths amounting to 200,000l.; and if the Regent stays the arrest this day, the company will make a clean despatch of all their commodities. All the wise men say here that it is but a "bracke" of King Philip to fear the Queen, to make her call her army out of Scotland, and that if he makes war, all the noblemen Protestants in Germany will rise against him. Considering what she is at, she will not call her army out of Scotland, which if she could get, she need not fear either Philip or the French King. He perceives King Philip is clean out of money, armour, munitions, and credit, wherein the Queen has prevented him.
3. By a practice Graham fetched out of the King's armoury at Mechlin 2,000 corslets, about which there has been no little ado amongst the officers and M. de Glassion, Master of the Ordnance, who is now in England, which barness he sent last Christmas. He has no other news from the havens of Holland. He has received Cecil's letter by the Count of Mansfeld's man, who shall be despatched to-day. By reason of this bruit Hans Keck is in doubt whether it will not stay the bargain Cecil wots of. The friar who so irreverently preached against the Queen has made means with Lazarus Tucker to speak with the writer, to move the company that he might safely go abroad, and says he is sorry for what he has said. Gresham will not meddle therein, trusting if he come abroad he will be bastinadoed. Begs that his commission may be enlarged to send 3,000l. venture in one ship from Hamburg, for otherwise it will be two years before he can transport the provisions, as there lade not for England above ten ships in the year. It were expedient for the Queen to make four or six mills, as there is no powder to be got here, which will be the first thing required. This instant news has come that all Dutch ships and hoys are arrested at London, which will cause all here to be arrested.—Antwerp, 19 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
April 19.
R. O.
1037. Flanders Merchandise.
Receipt by Anthony Le Rouge and Nicolas de Codequoste for 17 livres 10 sous gros money of Flanders, received from John Grenger of Antwerp, in the name of John Late, treasurer of the marine, to be by them expended in the manner which he had commanded them.—Antwerp, 19 April 1560. Signed: Le Rouge, Neaudecaste [?].
Orig. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
April 19.
R. O.
1038. John Bricantyne to Cecil.
1. Has received the following intelligence from Herbert von Langen and other gentlemen:—
2. The house of Burgundy has a great practice in these parts of Germany, and has given forth money in prest for 4,000 horse, and that many gentlemen are appointed who have already money in their houses.
3. Lutzelburg and Paulus, two colonels for the French, and Maurice Homson, George von Holle, the Earls of Swartzberg, Schönberg, and Rhinberg, were twelve days at Osnaburg and have passed towards Brussels, to fetch money.
4. Certain of the principal clergy boasted to Frederic Spedt and Langen that they be well provided for, and would be this year the first in the field.
5. There are levied many soldiers at Neuss, and it is thought that they are appointed for the Rhinegrave.
6. The Emperor has proclaimed that no gentleman or soldier shall depart out of the empire to serve any foreign potenate, and has also sent for his colonels.
7. It is thought that these practices will touch England, Scotland, Denmark, and Sweden, and other evangelical Princes and states, but not under colour of religion.
8. Also that Denmark and Holstein shall have much to do shortly.
9. If the Queen intends to aid, money must be provided to be given out in prest, otherwise the flower of all degrees of soldiers will be lost.—Emden, 19 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 20.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 410.
1039. Protestation of the French Ambassador. (fn. 8)
1. The present King entertains for England the same amity as his father did, and has left nothing undone that could tend to the same. The Scotch have rebelled against their Sovereign, it is necessary therefore to reduce them to order. The force which the King raised was only to quell that rebellion, nor did he ever intend to infringe the treaty, or to attempt anything prejudicial to the Queen and her kingdom. And the more to show his sincerity, he has kept back some other forces which he wished to send into Scotland, and has attempted the reduction of the rebels by kindness. He has also offered to the Queen to remove his forces after peace was restored, leaving only a small force for the safety of his rights, which from the smallness of their numbers could excite no suspicion; and that for the other differences between them, he would appoint deputies if she would do the same, to decide them.
2. To these offers the Queen would take no further notice than to prescribe to the King how she chose that he should decide all the said differences, demanding among other things the total revocation of his forces from Scotland. Moreover she has not ceased sending to Scotland her ships of war, which have been employed against the subjects of this King.
3. In order still further to show his sincerity, the King, after having reiterated his good intentions, sent M. de Valence to repeat his desire for a continuance of friendship between the realms; and then, if any disputes remained, to proceed into Scotland and endeavour to quell the rebellion by clemency. Also the Catholic King sent M. de Glajon to her, with the same purpose. Yet their good offices have not deterred the Queen from marching her army towards Scotland to drive out by force the ministers and subjects of this King, which she has declared by a printed proclamation. The King remonstrated with her and her Council through his Ambassador on the 15th inst. (in the presence of Florence d'Adjaceto) begging her to withdraw her army, and commit her differences to persons chosen from both sides. And when her army had been twelve days at Leith, and was ready to expel the French, the Sieur de Sevre and the King's Ambassador at her Court having been charged to protest at this infraction of the treaty, begged M. de Glajon and the Bishop of Aquila, Ambassador of the Catholic King, to satisfy the Queen, in their present, in what she desired; and thus avoid all differences between their Majesties. This they refused to do, not having commission for the same. The Sieur de Sevre then committed to writing and protested before her and her Council against the infractions of the treaty, affirming that all the preparations made by France were solely to reduce the Scotch to obedience. This proposal the Queen refused to accept, or withdraw from her enterprise. The Sieur de Sevre then left a copy of this with the Queen and her Council.—20 April 1560. Signed.
Copy, with a few marginal notes by Cecil. Endd. Pp. 7.
April 20.
R. O.
1040. Answer to the French Ambassador's Protestation. (fn. 9)
An answer to a certain protestation made by the French King's Ambassador, on the part of the King, his master, to the Queen, the 20 April 1560. (fn. 10)
1. Although the Queen gave the French Ambassador sufficient answer at the time of his audience, still since he has drawn up his protestation in writing, she deems it meet to answer him again, so that he may not pretend ignorance.
2. The meaning of the French towards the Queen and crown of England was manifested by their practice and labour at Rome, during the late Pope's time, to disprove the Queen's right to the crown; and also at the treaty of Cambray, when they demanded to whom they were to deliver Calais, meaning the Queen of Scots as Queen of England. She also complains of the assumption of the arms and style of England by the Dauphin and the Queen of Scots during the late King's reign, especially at the jousts where he was wounded, and also continuing the use of them after his death. She complains that she could obtain only three out of the four hostages for Calais, stipulated for by the treaty of Cambray; that justice is refused to English merchants; also, of the injury done to Lord Grey at Paris, and of the detention of Mr. Cotton's son as prisoner in time of peace.
3. She complains further of the taking away the English Ambassador's servant, and using him in his lodging with divers shots of ordnance; as also of the maintenance of certain privateers when the Queen in June fitted out certain ships to apprehend pirates, who robbed French and Portuguese, and who were comforted in France. Upon this manner of dealing, both before and after the King's death, cannot be gathered such a meaning as the Ambassador would persuade.
4. The Ambassador next proceeded to the Queen having sent forces to Scotland, to which it was said that she could not do otherwise, the French Queen claiming her crown, and so great forces being levied in France and Almaine for the invasion of Scotland, or some country near Scotland, rich and full of spoil. Complaint was made of the breaches of peace by France, and their seizure of Boulogne and Calais. Looking at all these things, the arming by land was put off till very late, whilst the navy was sent to carry provisions to Berwick, and to stay the further sending of forces from France; the only hostility showed was the staying of a few merchants, who, however, were set at liberty again.
5. The Ambassador then said that the forces were only sent to subdue a rebellion in Scotland, and the King always gave her notice of the numbers, so that she might have no suspicion; but such provisions both of men and of great ordnance could not be to any use in Scotland but to invade England.
6. As the Ambassador has charged her with aiding the rebels, she assures him that she abhors and condemns all rebellion; but they who call the Scots rebels forget how they deserved the contrary for seventeen years of their Queen's infancy. The Duke of Châtellerault, who is most charged, though declared next heir to the throne, governed the realm for her for thirteen or fourteen years; and how many thousands were slain in her behalf in a battle is well known. The continuance of this was constant until the marriage of their Queen into France, when the governance of the land was altered; their Sovereign was out of the realm, their country wasted with men of war, their laws and liberties perverted, their chief offices and forts placed in French hands, their money debased to the gain of the French Ministers, who were given to avarice and extortion and the universal pressing of the realm; the French soldiers, living long without pay, taking what they would by force, and at length only partly payed with coarse money of France, being decryed and unvalued in France two whole years before, the same being put into a forced value; their rich abbeys and livings bestowed upon French lords and gentlemen. All these things they sustained, and only humbly complained to the Queen Mother, by whom no answer was returned, but only force offered against them.
7. Considering, therefore, that their Queen was married in France and had no issue, and being uncertain what should become of the kingdom if God should call her away, the chief nobility and estates were compelled to assemble for defence against the French men of war. They requested the Dowager to accept their obedience and send away the French men of war, to free the kingdom from invasion and restore its former liberties. Notwithstanding this, it must now needs be granted to the French to convey a force into Scotland under the pretext of subduing a rebellion, although they publicly claim the realm of England. From all parts of Christendom the Queen has been admonished that the purpose of France was invasion.
8. As for the staying of D'Elbœuf and his forces, that was done by the tempest and not by the King's revocation, and his further stay was through fear of the English navy in the Frith. As to the proposition that the Queen should aid in pacifying Scotland, and that the King should then withdraw most of his forces, she had always proposed the same thing, being put to great charges in keeping up a force. And though this proposal was made to M. de Noailles last January, and likewise complaint of the wrongs done, yet he would not agree, but said that the Duke of Châtellerault and others had made means for pardon, and so the affair would end, and that he would address the King, which he did, and M. de Sevre was sent over to satisfy the Queen's griefs. These were finally brought to three points, the bearing her arms, the using her style, and the revocation of the forces out of Scot land. To these he answered that the Queen of Scots might have reason to bear the arms with a slight difference on account of consanguinity, but that his master would order it otherwise. As to the style, his master never used it, and would command the Queen to cease it on pain of being sent back to Scotland; and lastly, that the King had written that he would remove all his forces except five ensigns, which he hoped to have reduced to four. It was provided that these matters should be put in writing in Articles, which was done on the Queen's part; but the Ambassador kept not his promise in writing, notwithstanding he was shown and read the said Articles, in the which it was proposed that the forces of the French King should be withdrawn between the 20th March and 2nd April, the Queen being desirous to disband her army. These were not sent away till the 10th March, when answer was made that the Ambassador had exceeded his commission, and that the matter should be answered by the Bishop of Valence, who came on the 12th; but he said that he had no commission to answer the Articles, and pretended that the arms were assumed solely in honour of the Queen. But this could not be so, as the style was also placed in gold letters under the pictures of the King and Queen on their entrance into Châtellerault.
9. From the 13th of March till the 20th no answer came, and then the Bishop said that it was not the custom of the French Court to answer before they heard from their Ambassador. But from the 13th to this present no direct answer could be gotten, either in France or England; and thus the matter was apparently handled so as only to win time and increase the Queen's charges, and make the French army ready. To obtain this they sought aid from the King Catholic, who when he has heard of their proceedings at length from M. de Glassion and the Bishop of Aquila, will therein judge of them as all his progenitors have had cause, and will understand that the Queen has been wronged by the French.
10. To sum up the matter, the Queen, although she charges the French with violating the treaty, yet if the French King will appoint commissioners to meet her commissioners, will agree to an abstinence of arms; and meaning to put her right and title to her kingdom out of dispute, is content to refer the grievances to the King Catholic. She is fully determined not to break any part of the same treaty, and desires to be at peace with the French King. If this her purpose cannot take good effect, and war should break out, then she calls all the world to witness that this will be the fault of the French, and not hers.
First draft of the above in Cecil's hol. with numerous subsequent corrections and additions. Pp. 12.
April 20.
R. O.
1041. Copy of Cecil's first draft of the above.
Corrected throughout by him, and endd. by his secretary: 25 April 1560. Answer to the French protestation made by M. de Sevre, 20 April 1560. Pp. 27.
April 20.
1042. Translation of the preceding into French, 20 April.
Corrected draft. Endd.: 25 April 1560. Pp. 27.
[April 20.]
1043. A few passages of the preceding in French.
P. 1.
[April 20.]
R.O. Teulet, 1. 438. (fn. 11)
1044. A translation of the preceding into Latin.
Endd.: 20 April. Pp. 18.
R.O. 1045. The last paragraph of the above Latin translation.
Lat. P. 1.
April 20.
R. O.
1046. Gresham to Cecil.
Since his letter of the 19th there arrived on the 20th at four p.m. his friend out of Zealand, with intelligence that all the provisions for the 4,000 Spaniards had arrived there on the 18th, and that the seven ships of which Cecil wrote will be ready to depart on the 22nd. They are of from 600 to 1,000 tons burthen, carrying from fifty to eighty mariners and 500 to 600 soldiers each. They are provisioned for three months, and ordnanced with half and quarter slings and basses, from thirty-two to forty-eight in each vessel. As yet none of the soldiers have arrived in Zealand; he fears they will be sent from divers places; there are in this town 200 or 300 horsemen. A French ship which arrived in Zealand on the 19th reports that the French King has taken up in the bay ten great hulks to convey soldiers into Scotland. There are in Scotland six French ships full laden, ready to depart with the first fair wind; also five hulks laden for Spain and Portugal. Gresham has despatched the party again to Zealand for better advertisement. This man writes him that he has taken up about 7,600l. sterling at Barrowghes, and that the English merchants have despatched all their commodities.—Antwerp, 20 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 20.
R. O.
1047. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
£ s. d.
1. A declaration of such sums of money as Gresham has received in Antwerp for the Queen since 1 Oct. 1558, viz., 310,458 14 0
Paid in Antwerp since 21 Dec. 1558, viz., 319,968 3 7
Balance due to Gresham 9,509 9 7
This is exclusive of the expenses of transportation of armour, etc., which will amount to 6,000l. or 7,000l.
2. A note of the Queen's debts in Antwerp, 15 April 1560, viz. 279,565 10 0
Whereof were owing at her accession 65,069 17 4
Orig. Hol. Signed by Gresham. Endd. by Cecil: 20 April 1560. Pp. 14.
April 20.
R. O.
1048. Grey to Norfolk.
Since he wrote by Sir Francis Leek with report of the Monday's skirmish he has received intelligence that at the same enterprise Captains Sharlebois the younger, Piemont, Pyeres, and De Lorges were slain, Captain Lagarde sore wounded, and thirty of the bravest gentlemen of their band slain; besides whom seventy-four were slain of the companies of Captains Harbierges and Rycarville. The number slain and hurt amounts to 250. This is very likely, by the lamentation of the Dowager, and the quiet of their neighbours of Leith. Requests that as much corn powder as is ready from the mill at Berwick may be sent with speed, and that it may be well occupied in working of a good proportion to be sent. The great mass of powder here is all serpentine, wherefore the writer asks Norfolk to send corn powder in exchange. They are almost destitute of match.—Lestarrick [Restalrig], 20 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 20.
R. O.
1049. Killigrew to Cecil.
1. Since his last he has been both with the Dowager and also with the Lords, who were very loath that the Bishop should come in, as men who would abide all kinds of dangers rather than trust those whom they had no cause to trust. Nevertheless it has been granted upon consideration of Cecil's letter, written since M. de Glassion's arrival. Thinks the Scots mean not to draw back as long as any friends will stay by them. He never saw people so content to please and obey the English; they have not broken their promises, but rather amplified them. They have taken a new order for their doings, which is to have a certain number of men to continue as long as the Queen shall command at their own charges, amounting to 1,200 chosen men. If that is not sufficient, the Earl of Argyll has promised to bring, besides those he has already, 1,000 more by the 6th of May, to remain thirty days at their own charges. The writer thinks that, rather than this enterprise should fail, they will spend lands, lives, and all. There have been great faults committed by the English in this enterprise, which some of them that rule impute to many wants and lets they had, but some of the best soldiers assure him the contrary.
2. On the 17th inst. Mr. Thomas Ker came to the Lords from the Earl of Huntley, to excuse his tarrying and assure them he would be there on the 20th. The Earl of Morton and Lord Hume have tarried for his coming only. The Lord of St. John's will be sent shortly to the Queen from the Lords of the Congregation, whom he takes to be one of the properest men in all Scotland for the English Court. Sends the Laird of Lethington's letter. The copy of the Bishop of Valence's safe conduct he has left with the Duke to be sent. The Bishop is suffered to go, that all the world shall not say but that he was heard. If the fear of his coming has staid Lord Hume, who is yet neutral, his short abode and departure without doing good will bring all things out of suspicion. Doubts not of success, if Cecil will consider the money matters according to the importance of the cause. If the proportion of men had been sufficient to have guarded two batteries, and the pioneers sufficient to have trenched, the town had not been now to win. This is the only excuse to be made for the slackness of the proceedings. The Bishop departs hence this morning towards the camp. Winter, on the 17th, gave the town so hot an alarm by sea that the cry was heard in Edinburgh. Does not know what hurt it did them, as he left before news came from the ships.—Berwick, 20 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.


  • 1. The letter proceeds nearly in the same terms as in that to the English Ambassadors in Spain, April 17, No. 1012.
  • 2. See B. M. Vesp. C. vii. 145.
  • 3. See the Queen's answer to the Spanish Ambassador, No. 984, 11 April 1560.
  • 4. The remainder of the paper is in Cecil's hand.
  • 5. Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 6. Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 7. The Queen to Norfolk.
    1560. April 23.
    Hatfield House.
    Haynes, p. 297.
    By his letters of the 19th hereof, she perceives that it is agreed by the Lords of Scotland and her Ministers, that if she would be content, the Castle of Edinburgh might be taken and the taking of Leith advanced, which enterprise may be done in four days; to which proposal and the surprise of Inchkeith (which by Winter's report seems to be in a hard case for want of victual,) he desires speedy answer. He will understand, that by advice of the Council, she thinks that the matter of Edinburgh Castle shall be circumspectly considered; and that nothing necessary be omitted that may tend to the accomplishing of her purpose. The Queen will be contented,—if it shall appear to Gray and the Council with him that the accomplishment of her purpose against Leith cannot be otherwise with expedition obtained, neither by treaty and accord, nor by force,— that then they shall use their discretion to attempt Edinburgh, as shall seem most necessary for the service. Before force be showed against the Castle, they shall make some honourable offers to the Dowager, which, if she will not accept, then they may proceed to the enterprise as the case requires, and that with honourable considerations towards her person. As for Inchkeith, it seems their lack of victual is such that it cannot long endure, being well kept from replenishing their store; but therein the Queen remits the matter to the discretion of Gray and the Council with him, and the Admiral; so as the prosecution of Leith be not neglected. He is to advertise Gray and the Council her pleasure in the premises. The Queen marvels that she never heard of any communication betwixt the Queen and the English since the coming away of Howard thence, considering there was an appointment of six to communicate thereupon.
    Draft, in Cecil's hol.
  • 8. Another copy (a corrected draft) is contained in B. M. Cal. E. v. 72, much injured by fire.
  • 9. A corrected draft of a portion of the beginning of this paper occurs in B. M. Cal. E. v. 105, but it is much injured by fire.
  • 10. A.D. 1560, April 20. A protestation made in French by M. de Sevre, to which answer was made in Latin, printed, April 20, 1560.—Cecil's diary, Haynes. p. 750.
  • 11. From the MS. Paris, Angl. Reg. xxi.