Elizabeth: April 1560, 21-25

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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, 'Elizabeth: April 1560, 21-25', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, (London, 1865) pp. 571-587. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp571-587 [accessed 30 May 2024].

. "Elizabeth: April 1560, 21-25", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, (London, 1865) 571-587. British History Online, accessed May 30, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp571-587.

. "Elizabeth: April 1560, 21-25", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, (London, 1865). 571-587. British History Online. Web. 30 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp571-587.

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April 1560, 21-25

April 21.
R. O. Haynes, p. 296.
1050. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 1)
1. Cecil will receive herewith such letters as came this morning from the camp, whereby he will perceive that although it was thought that our loss at the skirmish on Monday last was great, yet now it appears the loss of the French was greater; and the enterprise to Leith is supposed to be more feasible than before. He has already sent part of the corn powder which Grey desired, and will send the rest with speed. Leviston, the Scot, whom he stayed upon certain suspicions, he intends (according to Lethington's advice) to send to the Duke of Châtellerault and the Lords with him, at the next convoy with treasure, which he trusts will be within three or four days. Randolph's letters addressed to the writer, with the Bishop of Athens, the Lord Huntley's brother, written in his excuse, he has included in this packet, with the Earl of Huntley's requests to the Lords of the Congregation, and their answers to the same. Asks Cecil to send the cipher, which was lately deciphered by Sommer; for certain letters in cipher were lately intercepted which came from Leith to the Dowager, which he might decipher. Trust Cecil will send the Queen's resolution touching the besieging of Edinburgh Castle, and Inchkeith; which is thought easy to be done, without hindering their purpose at Leith.
2. About 3 p.m. yesterday the writer's cousin, Sir George Howard, arrived here, whom with the next convoy he will despatch to the camp; in whose company (to know the better the state of Leith, Edinburgh, and Inchkeith, and prick the Englishmen forward to the enterprise there,) he will send Sir R. Lee, whose advice will be a great furtherance to the service.—Berwick, 21 April 1560. Signed: Tho. Norfolk. G. Howard, F. Leek.
Orig., with armorial seal, in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 21.
R. O.
1051. Norfolk to Grey.
Sends letters from the Queen and Council. Perceives by the Queen's letters sent by his cousin, Sir George Howard, (who arrived here yesterday) that she would that at his [Howard's] coming to the camp (which will be in three or four days time, with the next convoy of treasure,) the siege of Leith should be more earnestly and hotly prosecuted than before, and the treaty less regarded; and that the Lords of the Congregation should be advertised that she is fully determined rather to augment her army both by sea and land than that for lack of force the exploit should be prolonged. He urges Lord Grey therefore to lose no time. Understands that the great number of cart horses, limber horses, and others, not only are an easy prey for the enemy, but also have brought all forage to great scarcity, and that many die, so that shortly of necessity the armed and light horse must be discharged from thence. The writer requests to be advertised what number of armed and light horsemen, cart horses, and limmer horses, should be kept there, and how provision can be made for them. Has already embarked for the pioneers 3,000 spades, and sent four grand barrels of corn powder.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 21 April 1560. Pp. 2.
April 21.
R. O.
1052. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Recapitulates his letter of the 19th inst. On the 21st at noon received by John Spretwell the Queen's letter and Cecil's, of the 16th and 17th, by which he perceives that she is content for him to make payment of the 25,000l., if he can make sure of as much if she shall have need hereafter. As he cannot do so, he will only meddle for the preserving of his own credit, which he has endangered for the Queen, whereof he can write no further as his factor is at Barrowghe.
2. Having heard from Spretwell that he met at Newport with a post sent from the Court to stop the passages at Newport and all other ports into England, and that he met the post with Gresham's letter of the 20th at Eccloo, at 3 a.m. on 21st, and fearing lest it should be stayed at Dunkirk, he has sent Spritwell back into Zealand for Cecil's better advertisement.
3. This day the Burgomaster of this town sent for the Governor and Deputy to advertise them that they had letters from the Court from the President Viggelus [sic], that they much marvelled that the English transported their goods, as there was no such cause; and that M. de Glassion was only sent to the Queen that if the French King should wax stronger than [was necessary] for the putting down the rebellion in Scotland, Philip would assist the Queen in putting down the French King, which message was sent into France likewise. This is but a cloak to satisfy the commons, as they take this matter wonderfully against the King and the priests, so that if there come a breach of war, the States will not consent thereunto. He is credibly informed that the Prince of Orange has secretly practised in Brabant and Holland to come by a great mass of money at the commons hands, and Count Egmont likewise in Flanders; but they will grant to none. There is such a bruit and rumour amongst the commons of this town that he would not have believed they had borne such goodwill towards the Queen. His factor writes from Bremen that Philip has bought there about 10,000 quarters of wheat, which they will not let pass unless it be laden in ships of their own town. Will follow the order in Cecil's letter for the transportation of provisions; it is requisite to enlarge the commission for the shipping of 3,000l. from the place Cecil wots of. The [4,000] persons may be sent down in a tide to Zealand, ready to take the first fair wind out of hand. As they have stopped the passages, they should be interrupted by the way if possible.
4. Hans Keck has come back again; he met with letters from the Count that he had in readinesss T.C.M. dollars and R.C.M. gold guilders, and he had commandment to repair into England for other matters on the Count's behalf. Gresham has told him that the passages are stopped; he will not be persuaded, but will tarry his opportunity to go. He has no order to whom the bonds should be made for the aforesaid sums. Told him in case of war the money would be paid in Hamburg. He would not go with Gresham's servant by Zealand, but overland. The writer has spread all over the town that the Queen is agreed save on one point, and that the English army shall be at home within thirteen days.— Antwerp, 21 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
April 21.
R. O.
1053. Captain Ost's Declaration.
1. If the Queen is desirous of levying troops, the following are those with whom it would be desirable to practise. The writer will be glad to act as her agent in the business.
2. The Duke of Saxony.
3. Der Lemberch Eyngher, Westwalden, who resides near Homburg [Hamburg] on the river Helst. He has served King Edward in Scotland.
4. The Duke of Lunenburg, who resides at Horburg [Harburg] near Hamburg, on the river Helst.
5. Duke Frank of Lunenburg, who resides in Gueldres.
6. The Count of Emden in Friesland, who is in the town, and has the best passage for the Queen.
7. Count Waldeck, who generally resides on the Rhine and who was formerly in the service of the King of England.
8. Count Mansfeld, who is at Mansfeld.
9. Count Mansfeld's son.
10. Several other lords, and colonels, captains, gentlemen, and soldiers.
11. He himself desires to serve the Queen as he has always done, according to the pleasure of the King of Sweden, his master, and the Duke of Vinde [Finland], his son. Begs that Cecil will answer him as soon as possible.
12. List of armour and arms requisite for 3,000 men at arms of three sorts, besides the ensigns of footmen, for 4,000 men with long pikes, for 4,000 harquebusiers with their bandoliers, also 4,000 morrions for them like the Spaniards wear; 4,000 "hanses" for the calvalry; sleeves of mail for 4,000 men.
13. These can be delivered to the Queen at any place in High or Low Germany, for the same price that the Kings of Spain and France pay; the colonels and captains are to guarantee that they are in good order, and they are to be paid for in three monthly instalments. If the captains are unable to pay the merchants for these munitions, the Queen shall be held bound to pay them within four months after delivery. If the merchants deliver more arms than necessary, the Queen will be pleased to accept the same and pay for it within six months. For his part he will have ready a regiment of 3,000 men, tall and short, "Hallemans" soldiers, if the Queen will allow him a pension of 200l. per annum. "Par le Capitaine Ost."
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 21 April 1560. Fr. Pp. 4.
April 22.
R. O.
1054. Grey, Croftes, and Sadler to Norfolk.
1. They perceive by the Queen's letter of the 16th and others which his Grace has addressed to them that she has been informed that by reason of the late treaty had with the French by Croftes and Howard, the Lords of Scotland have been much perplexed and in some despair, that for lack of money this matter would not be carried to an end. Understanding that the Queen would rather have the matter ended by treaty than by force, they proceeded to some treaty with the Dowager; and finding the execution of the enterprise against Leith not so easy as was supposed, lacking sufficient power of men, they pressed the Scotch Lords to be content to fall to some accord. They are very well satisfied and content with the English proceedings.
2. Yesterday Sir Henry Percy with 300 horse conducted the Bishop of Valence from Haddington thither; who, without showing himself to the Lords, repaired to Edinburgh Castle to the Dowager, which nevertheless was done by the consent of the said Lords. In the afternoon he returned to the camp to confer with them, and delivered to the Duke of Châtellerault, the Earls of Arran and Glencairn, and Lord James, sundry letters of credence from the French King and Queen, and then made them a long discourse of the displeasure that the King and Queen had of the troubles and discords in Scotland, for the pacification whereof he had been sent with ample commission; but because his tale was told in French and somewhat long, they refer the Duke to the Laird of Lethington's letter. This day the Lords of Scotland will let him know their petitions for pacification, which he thinks will be for the removing the French out of Scotland, and the committing the government there to some of the nobility and a national council. They may be contented that some small number of French remain at Dunbar, so that the Dowager be utterly deprived of the government.
3. "But hanging their treaty," the English intend to proceed, and lose no time in the execution of the enterprise to Leith; for the better achieving whereof, as they have not enough men to make two camps, they have devised a fort upon the furthest part of the high ground within 600 yards of the town, where they have already planted certain artillery to beat the steeple, whereupon the French have made a platform, which has done much annoyance; but he trusts to take away the said steeple ere it be night. When the fort is in some strength (which they hope it will in five or six days,) they intend to put a convenient number of men into it to besiege that side of the town, and to remove the camp to the south-west side of the town, (which is the weakest, as they are informed), and on that side also they intend to employ "your man at his feat." So that if the Bishop makes not haste with his accord, they may end the matter in a manner not pleasant to the French. They have already entertained a number of Scotch pioneers.
4. When the treasure arrives they will take into wages such number of soldiers of Scotland as shall be expedient, without putting the Queen to too much charges.
5. P. S.—Since the writing hereof, the steeple above specified is put out of all order to do any further annoyance. —Lestalrick, [Restalrig], 22 April 1560. Signed: William Grey, James Croftes, R. Sadler.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 22.
R. O.
1055. Randolph to Norfolk.
The Lords desire that whatever report the Duke may hear of the nonperformance of their promises he will suspend his judgment. The writer is daily present in all their devices and consultations, and is curious to understand their meanings. He sees no cause to speak in this matter affectionately. Never saw men better willing or more earnestly disposed than they are at this present, nor loather to commit any offence against the Queen. They now doubt no more, but are resolved to spend land, life, and goods both presently and ever hereafter in her service. Whatsoever shall be thought most honourable to her in the treaty they will accord unto the same, provided the late treaty made with England may remain in force. The arrival of the Bishop contents them the better, because it seemed good to the Queen, otherwise it had hardly been obtained; his doings in times past caused them to be the harder at present. He has notwithstanding received as great honour of the Duke of Norfolk and the Lords of his Council as they could show him. He takes no less liberty than they grant him, for where he misliked his appointed lodgings he had others; he lay that night (without the Lords' advice or any request made to them) at the Castle. It is suspected that he bears another face than he shows. Unto the Lords he never heard man talk wilier or with better affection. In his private talk whilst conveying him from the camp his nature appeared in one or two words, as well as what mind he bears towards the Queen and the Lords, saying that the forces here defending a rebellious people might do better in a short time in defending their home. It is thought his letters from the King and Queen were blanks. He has brought letters of credit to the Duke, his son, and the Lord James. The Earl of Huntly is not yet arrived; it is said that he is at Stirling. His brother the Bishop of Athens and Thomas Ker, his trusty servant, are gone to meet him.—From the camp, 22 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 22.
R. O.
1056. Randolph to Cecil.
1. Professions of devotion to the furtherance of the cause in hand. The arrival of Sadler was acceptable to the noblemen, and gave them new minds and courage. They wonder at the Queen's power and good will, and doubt rather of their own insufficiency. Whatsoever Cecil may hear, they pray him to suspend his judgment and that trial may be made according to their goodwill. Is not able to write more than he is sure will come to Cecil's knowledge from Sadler and Lethington. Was so bold as to write his opinion to the Duke of Norfolk touching the Bishop, the Ambassador. Trusts that the men are sufficiently armed against any assault. But that it stands with the Queen's pleasure, the Bishop would be evil welcome to some here; whatsoever he says, his trust shall be as his deserts require The last day of the Earl of Huntly's tryst is Tuesday next. The Bishop his brother is gone to meet him. Does not know what to make of Mr. Thomas Ker. "Domino similis est," his privy practices with the Dowager are discovered and he much ashamed. The Dowager makes daily means to speak with the Lord James, which he will not consent unto; to whom there came this day a message from Lord Erskine, that he should beware what end he took with the French, and rather doubt the danger to come than that which was present. Of men who so hate the French government, he wonders at the feebleness of their hearts that lay so long by to their utter confusion. In no other country were ever seen so many particular quarrels, which daily cause many to keep off who mortally hate the French. It is great discontentation for a man to travail where so little love to God is, or zeal to their country.—The camp, 22 April 1560. Signed.
2. P.S.—The Earl of Arran begs to be held excused, as the time is short to govern in good order half the affairs that pass through his hands; if there had been greater matter in the enclosed writings he would have revealed it. Is sent to convoy the Bishop to the Castle.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 22.
R. O.
1057. Spedt to Cecil.
1. Thinks that Cecil will know sufficiently well what is going on amongst the Princes and colonels, from the letters of the writer and Brigantine. The Queen may get many experienced soldiers from Germany. There is a report in Germany of the marriage of the Queen with the Archduke Charles, or with Eric, the eldest son of the King of Sweden, or with Adolph, Duke of Holstein.
2. The Protestant Princes are desirous of entering into a treaty with the Queen, by which she will be able to preserve the Christian religion in her kingdom, more easily recover Calais, render her kingdom safe from invasion, and obtain the most honourable conditions from the French respecting Scottish affairs. Desires that Gresham or Brigantine may be sent to confer with him, and conclude the business with the Princes. They had better abstain from treating with other Holsteiners; for through the persons mentioned, the forces will be quickly assembled and the best leaders provided. Desires that a speedy answer may be sent to Haslemunde, "zum Rosskam," or to the care of the Bishop of Osnaburg, for with him the Envoys will always find carriages and horses ready.—Osnaburg, 22 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 3.
April 23.
R. O.
1058. Norfolk and his Council to Grey.
Perceives by his letters of the 22nd how forward he is in his proceedings, and of the Bishop's arrival, with his long protestations and painted tales. Judging from the plat, no place is so meet for approach as the south-west side of the town. Would wish nothing amended but to hasten the matter. There is no way so preferable for them as to win it by force. If the Scots suffer a few French in Dunbar, he judges that within a year they will be all brought into thraldom, and England in as much danger upon the northern frontier as ever it was, or rather more, being so near Eyemouth, Berwick's chief enemy. Though their power be never so small, they will soon augment it. Is often blamed by the Council for that they have so slow advertisement. The news of Monday's skirmish was at London before Grey sent him any advertisement. Urges him for God's sake not to neglect to write daily, or at the furthest on every second day.—23 April 1560. Signed: Thos. Norfolk, Geo. Howard, F. Leek.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 23.
R. O. Haynes, p. 296.
1059. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 2)
1. They have received this day from the camp letters which he forwards. The Duke will tell his fancy in one thing, viz., that if the Scots should relent in any part of their demands (as Grey writes) they would soonest give place to have a certain number of French left in Dunbar, which he thinks would be too near a neighbour to Berwick's chief enemy, Eyemouth. If Leith be taken shortly, (as by Grey's letter it appears likely,) there would be no way so sure for the safety of the English and Scotch as to win it [Eyemouth] by force. Two things in Randolph's letter are to be considered, viz., Lord Erskine's warning to Lord James, and the dissembling Bishop's venomous words. He hopes to write shortly of some good success.—Berwick, 23 April 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—In honour of the day (fn. 3) he has made Mr. George Bowes, Marshal of the town, a George Knight. Marvels that he has been so long unknighted. Will not forget Cecil's request that he would make no Knight but such as were able to maintain the degree. Bowes' land is accounted better than 600 marks a year. Would have written with his own hand, but that he is sore troubled with a quinsey under his ear.
Orig., the letter written by Railton, the P.S. by the Duke. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
[April 24.]
R. O.
1060. The Queen to Cecil.
She authorizes him to adventure the armour and munitions at Hamburg to the value of [blank] in one ship, as there scarcely come thence ten ships in one year.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 24 April 1560. Pp. 2.
April 24.
R. O.
1061. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Sent letters on the 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st, the last by John Spritewell, the Queen's post, who brought him the Queen's letter of the 16th, and Cecil's of the 17th, whom he has sent back by way of Zealand, the Court having made a stay at other ports. It appears likewise by letters from Dunkirk of the 20th, that divers posts and merchants who have been on the sea two days have put back there; therefore he suspects all his formal [sic] letters remain there. For the better satisfaction of the Queen he has sent this bringer, his factor, Richard Clough, (who is to be credited as though Gresham came in person,) who has taken great pains in the Queen's service during his absence. The writer is obliged to stay for the preserving of the Queen's honour and credit. Has appointed Hans Kecke to come with Clough, sent from the Count, for money matters. Begs that Clough may be sent back with expedition, as Gresham intends to go himself or send him to Hamburg for the better despatch of his great charge there.—Antwerp, 24 April 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—Cecil will receive a letter from John Bringentin by this bringer.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2
April 24.
R. O.
1062. Croftes to Norfolk.
1. After the Bishop of Valence had proponed to the Lords on Sunday last the cause of his coming, a time was agreed to meet him on Monday, at which time the matter fell out so as the Lords determined to hear him no more, but yesterday he sent certain articles to Lord Grey, whereupon they intend to enter again in communication. Of the two points of the treaty the Scots seem to be content to qualify the first, so that a small number of French may remain to keep Dunbar and Inchkeith; but they determine to stand fully upon the Regent's deprivation, and seem more desirous that the treaty should break than any conclusion should be made, except it be such as by all appearance the French will not agree unto.
2. It appears by letters from the Court that the Queen would be contented that these matters were ended with some reasonable qualification, so that the same may be to the contentation of the Scots. Wherein if she do not restrain them of some part of their will, he perceives little care will be had of her liberal aid and great charges, but they will procure for their private affections that the wars continue upon her charges, with the blood of her subjects, whereunto how little aid shall come from them daily appears; and when all is done, he sees no assurance of their amity except the Queen will marry the Earl of Arran. The writer suspects (not without good cause) that if it were not to enforce that matter, the Scots would not stand so precisely to have the treaty of peace broken as they now do.—Camp of Lestarrick [Restalrig], 24 April 1560. Signed.
Copy, in Railton's hol., and endd. by him. P. 1.
April 24.
R. O.
1063. The Army in the North.
The charge of the army in the North from March 28 to 24 April 1560; showing the payments made for the officers, horsemen, footmen, carriages, ordnance, pioneers, officers at arms, tents, corporals, gentlemen, and coal and conduct money; amounting for the month of April to 17,366l. 16s., which will be the least for the monthly charge during the entertainment of the army. A further sum of 10,600l. was still due to the garrisons and workmen of Berwick, being the arrears of eight months and twenty-two days.
Pp. 4.
April 25.
R. O.
1064. Valentine Brown to Cecil.
1. On the 18th inst. received letters from the Queen and the Duke of Norfolk to take charge of the receipts and pay ments of the army in Scotland and all other extraordinary charges in those parts, formerly ordered to Sir William Ingleby, Treasurer of the ordinary crews and soldiers in Berwick. Sends herewith the view of the several accounts of Ingleby, whereby his estate for his offices of Treasurer of Berwick, Paymaster of the extraordinary crews and works there, and Treasurer of the army, being all distinct, may be understood. Notwithstanding that upon the end of every of the said accounts there rest great sums of money, yet he does not make payment of such as are behind in the extraordinary crews, amounting to 10,200l., which with a little help might be cleared, and thus stop the exclamations that are made for lack thereof. Has referred him to other auditors to determine his accounts, when there will be found a greater sum in his hands, but will give instruction when he is called to his full account. Seems to take no knowledge, to the end to bring him the more willingly to pay all this now. He alleges that he has already defrayed 2,000l., but shows no proofs thereof. There are divers other sums in his hands (which Brown mentioned in the end of his view), victuals, armour, and munitions, which should have been defalced from the wages of sundry persons, a great part whereof are desperate from length of time, many of the captains being discharged a year since, and many having not wherewith to pay. The Captain of the town and Sir Richard Lee have each at least 700l. or 800l. of the Queen's treasure, which shortly may grow out of their great allowances, and such other demands as they allow themselves, which causes the exclamation made for want of pay and great loss to the Queen, by reason many times sick persons are kept without doing service, and never discharged till a general pay day comes. A good Comptroller of the works is requisite, to see the entry and discharge of every workman, and be continually amongst them in the works. And also to take the order of the provisions that be made, for wage has been paid to many that never served, and provisions paid for that never came hither. Therefore he wishes Mr. Lee to have only to do with the setting forth of the device; and the surveyor and comptroller to do with the provisions, munitions, and labourers, seeing they do their duty and keeping a money book of the same. He writes to have the abuses amended and not for the ripping up of things past. For surveyor and comptroller he recommend Johnson and Overton. They will need some increase of their entertainment, having already the least with the most travail of any officers. By the service of these two the Queen will have more work done for 20s. than hitherto has been done for 30s. The army being augmented by 2,000 Scots amounted to a greater charge by 2,200l. the month. By his next will send a declaration of the monthly charge of the old garrison and the new crews.—From Berwick, 24 April 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—Since the writing hereof Mr. Hughes has arrived with the treasure, which by reason of the augmentation of the numbers is ordered to be wholly extended to the army; the payment of the extraordinary crews in Berwick being deferred till the coming of the next; he will in the meantime help them with some small portion to stop their exclamation. The army is well furnished, so there wants nothing except that the executioners take not the opportunity of time. The Duke of Norfolk by the Queen's letters has appointed him Treasurer of the extraordinary crews, wherefore he prays that the treasure from the nearest shires may be delivered into his hands, and the carriage thereof committed to John Fothergill, his brother-in-law.—25 April 1560.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
April 25.
R. O.
1065. Sir William Ingleby's Accounts.
Receipts and payments by Sir W. Ingleby, Treasurer of the Army in Scotland:—
£ s. d.
Money remaining in hand on the 28th March, as Treasurer of the army in Scotland 1,253 19 4
Ditto as Treasurer of the ordinary garrison at Berwick 872 4 1
Ditto as Treasurer of the extraordinary crews there 2,763 12 11
Total £4,889 16 4
Money owing to the Queen by divers captains, soldiers, &c. 5,094 13 6
Pp. 3.
April 25.
R. O.
1066. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Thanks God that she is now rather envied and feared than pitied and contemned; asks her to give order that Mr. Secretary may decipher this letter himself, for the case so requires. (fn. 4)
2. Sends this by Baptista de Favory, who is going direct into England and so into Scotland, as the ports are stayed for the English. On the 23rd instant he received her letters of the 18th by Francisco Thomaso, whom he will return by Flanders. As this bearer is willing to employ himself in her service, he asks her to suffer him to pass through the realm into Leith. He has matters of great weight to communicate to her apart. And one is a pestilent and horrible device of the Guises to poison her by means of an Italian named Stephano, a burly man with a black beard, about forty-five years of age; he has gone hence to Germany and thence into England to offer his services to the Queen as an engineer. This matter must be handled with good secresy; and if she can find any means to discover his devilish intent, she has never had such matter to lay in their light, and many will appear openly what they are. Being forewarned of this danger she need not fear, but in lieu thereof give good order that he may be taken, to the Guises' confusion and example to such hirelings.
3. The bearer promises on his return from Leith to repair to the Queen with advertisement. And as when he returns to the French Court he will be in very good case for means to do service, he wishes she would give him a pension of 300 crowns, to serve her for intelligence, and on his return address him to Throckmorton for the ordering the way in which he shall send it to the Queen in his absence. Has given him thirty crowns, and thinks that 100 more on his return from Scotland were well bestowed. He has told Throckmorton that he knew of secret men about the Queen who had entertainment of the French King, men of appearance, whom he has promised to discover to her. He said that the Bishop of Aquila gave the Guises all the intelligence he could come by, and sends the French Ambassadors packets with his own into Flanders, and so they come hither.
4. Favory desires that none but trusty persons be by when he talks with the Queen. The Guises have confessed that there is not above three weeks victual in Leith. They presently despatch the Grand Prior to Marseilles to bring about the galleys, they cannot be ready for six weeks or two months, nor can their force be ready by sea till the end of July, as he trusts appears in his despatch of the 12th by way of Dieppe, in which he sent extracts of the letters of the Cardinal of Lorraine and Duke of Guise to the Queen Dowager of Scotland, which came to his hands on the 9th and was dated the 8th, which he caused Somer to decipher, and sent it written in the Queen's cipher for fear of any mishap. Is informed that the Cardinal has confessed that there is no hope of men or money from the King of Spain, his debts being 15,000,000, and the siege of Tripoli being a great charge. If this is true he wishes Glassion were more made of in England, and won to be affectioned towards the Queen. Is informed that the Spaniards, who were said to be shortly embarked for Scotland out of Zealand, are meant to go straight into Spain for the war at Tripoli.
5. Has this day sent the Queen's letter to her Ambassdor in Spain by the Spanish Ambassador's courier. Yesterday the Count de Feria, with his wife and son, arrived with a great train, who were going towards Spain and who were well entertained.
6. Will inform her more fully by Francis, her courier, who will shortly depart. Understands that certain packets of his are fallen into the Guises' hands, but does not know which they are. Two, however, they detain from him; he therefore wishes the Queen to ask the French Ambassador the meaning of that and the stay of the ports. Perhaps they will allege the taking of their packet by the Scotch pirate; but that is no reason. She has not much need to fear the Guises, as there are things in hand that shall occupy them. Hears that they have received letters out of Scotland this night which trouble them not a little, as they deem all lost or a dishonourable peace made. On the 20th gave a packet for her to Mr. Tremayne, who come through Bretagne and the Channel Isles to England.—Amboise, 25 April 1560. Signed.
Orig., chiefly in cipher, deciphered by Cecil and endd. by him. Add. Pp. 6.
April 25.
R. O.
1067. Another copy of the above.
Orig., chiefly in cipher. Add. Endd: Sent by Baptista Favori. Pp. 6.
April 25.
R. O.
1068. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. The substance of this letter and Mr. Treasurer's of the same date is all one. On the 22nd he received Cecil's letter by this bearer, as well as his others sent by Francisco de Thomaso, together with the Queen's packet. Finds the bearer desirous to serve the Queen and therefore recommends him to Cecil. Will be able to judge by the intelligence he gives the Queen, whether his deeds are like to answer to his words. Prays Cecil, when he talks with him to let it be secretly. Has given him thirty crowns, and wishes the Queen to give him at his return 100 and such pension as Throckmorton mentioned.
2. P. S.—The letter sent by Francis to be deciphered is the same that he has already sent by Davy; he now sends it again to the Queen, and will send back the original by Francis. —Amboise, 25 April 1560. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal, considerable portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 25.
R. O.
1069. Gresham to Cecil.
1. On the 23rd sent him a letter by Clough; since whose departure the writer has received letters from Amsterdam, where as yet there is no provision of ships, mariners, or soldiers. There are but forty-five ships of from 300 to 600 tons, whereof twelve are in dock and the rest merchant ships. The Prince of Orange, Governor of Holland, is at the Hague, or Harlaem; and on the 28th has appointed to be at Amsterdam for money matters. The Common Council of Antwerp have been secretly called together by certain commissioners from the Court for the gathering a loan for King Philip; they refused to say for what purpose, and the commons would grant to none, but the clergy grants to all things. The villain friar is commanded to Brussels. There is come this day to Antwerp, M. de Meggam, who was Captain of St. Quentin, and one of the Order of the Fleece; he is reputed one of the best captains in the land.
2. There is talk that the French King makes a great army to the sea, and that twenty galleys from Marseilles have come to Newhaven. The 4,000 Spaniards yet remain in their towns and holds. There is secret talk that the town of Leith had given by the English and Scots one assault. when there were lost 1,000 men.—Antwerp, 25 April 1560, Signed.
Orig., with seal, partly in Gresham's hand. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 9.
April 25.
R. O.
1070. The Queen Dowager's Answer to the Lords of the Congregation.
1. Forasmuch as the Lords desire the demolition of Leith and the removal of the French soldiers, it is answered;—
2. That although Leith was fortified for the Queen's safety against the disobedience of the subjects of Scotland, she will condescend to that which is reasonable, provided the advice of the noblemen in the said town can be had, and the said Lords do for their parts as after follows.
3. That they and their adherents will return to their obedience to the Regent, or to any other that shall happen to have commission of their Sovereigns; and be obedient to all the laws and customs of Scotland.
4. That all leagues with foreign powers, especially that with the Queen of England, shall be discharged and revoked, and the pledges given brought home.
5. That such of the principal Lords as shall be named by her, shall give pledges.
6. That all bands be discharged, and the army of England shall presently depart.
7. That all places, such as Dumbarton, pertaining to their Sovereigns as their patrimony, be delivered up.
8. That the said Lords at the next Parliament shall exhort the estates to keep this contract, and any that refuse are to be declared enemies of the realm.
Copy, in a Scottish hand. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 25.
R. O.
1071. Norfolk to Croftes.
Thanks him for writing his mind on the treaty, but is of quite a contrary opinion. He thinks (Leith being capable within a short time, as it seems by Lord Grey's last letters,) that the treaty is most to be eschewed; for they can hope for no long amity if the Scots suffer the Dowager to govern, or leave any number of French in any one fort there; for the French, when they have once footing in Scotland, will soon have out of France as many men as they list. The English should take time while they have it, for they will never have the French at such advantage again. He marvels not at the Bishop's entreaty when he sees no other way to be used. The Queen will in no case deal with treaty, except it be to the whole content of the Scots. The Duke therefore urges Croftes to hasten his business, and to banish himself from that "cursed deanery of Lestarrick," which keeps him so long from coming into the camp, and not to let Martigues brag, and say that the Queen's army is come to besiege Lestarrick. All this he speaks not alone, but Berwick and London too, he is afraid. If they lack more men as pioneers, they may entertain more Scots. Never went there a goodlier battery out of England. For Dunbar he wrote his mind lately to Lord Grey.—Berwick, 25 April 1560.
Copy, in Railton's hol. and endd. by him. Pp. 9.
April 25.
R. O.
1072. Randolph to Norfolk.
Yesterday about 3 o'clock there arrived in Edinburgh the Earl of Huntly, who brought with him not above three score of his own. There is come with him never a nobleman or other. On Randolph's return from conveying the Bishop of Valence to the castle, in company with Mr. Killigrew he visited the Earl, of whom they received many good words and large promises for his assistance in this cause. This day the Earl promised to see Lord Grey and the rest of the Council. His brother, the Bishop, makes great promise of him, and says that he has already refused to speak with Lord Erskine unless he may have two of the Lords of the Council with him. His second son is come with him. Touching the Bishop, no man takes such fear of him being present as before his coming. It is thought that all the French will depart save 100 in Dunbar, Inchkeith, and Blackness; which in the first contract with France was agreed upon; that Leith shall be razed, and the government committed to mere Scotchmen. Touching the continuance of the league with England and the liberty of the Gospel, it is thought that the Lords having the authority may dispose thereof as they think meet. The Laird of Lethington is requested to make report unto the Duke of the talk between the Bishop and the Lords.—25 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
April 25.
R. O.
1073. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. Has received the Duke's letter of the 21st. Some light skirmishing there is daily, whereby the French have had small gain. Yesterday there issued out of Leith a few horsemen and certain harquebussiers for their relief, only to discover the new fort. Whereupon began a skirmish, but they were soon enforced to retire, and divers of them slain. The Lord Seton escaped very hardly, being charged by a horseman who brake first his staff and after his sword upon him, and had him about the neck to carry him away had he not been rescued by certain French harquebussiers. On the English side were hurt one Brown, Sir George Howard's lieutenant, and a pioneer; and a Scotsman slain.
2. They have had much talk with the Bishop of Valence to little purpose, although he shows himself very desirous to pacify these troubles. At the first, (when the Lords had declared unto him their griefs, and required that the fort at Leith and the new fortifications at Dunbar should be razed, and the French forces removed out of Scotland,) he answered that he had no commission to raze or demolish any forts; but when he perceived that the Lords took occasion thereupon to break off their treaty, he began to relent, saying that though he had no commission, the Regent had full power to determine and conclude upon whatsoever should tend to good accord. He therefore desired that he might confer with her, and return to them with answer, which was granted. Yesterday he came again and declared that she was content to remove the French, except a certain number to guard Leith, Inchkeith, and Dunbar; and albeit he thought she would not stand much upon the demolition of Leith in case such other things as might come in question should be well ended, yet she said that it could not stand with the King's honour, nor with theirs who have the charge of it, forthwith to render Leith; and therefore she desired to confer with D'Oysel, La Brose, and Martigues. Considering that they mean nothing else thereby than tract of time and to learn the state of the town, whereby they might make their bargain the better, it was thought good that this should not be granted. The Bishop then desired that some of the Lords would themselves confer with the Dowager; but in the end they committed the charge thereof to him [the Bishop], and they have resolved that after he has spoken again with her, the Lord James, the Earl of Argyll, the Laird of Lethington, Sadler and Croftes shall repair to him in his lodgings at Edinburgh to treat with him; yet they think that nothing will ensue thereupon, and therefore lose no time.
3. The fort is now towards some strength, the charge whereof is committed to Captain Vaughan and twelve score soldiers. When it is put in order, they intend to remove the camp to the south-west side of the town, and proceed immediately with the siege, as they wrote in their last letters. They ask him to hasten the treasure, whereof there is great lack. Yesternight the Earl of Huntly arrived; they have not yet spoken with him, but understand that he will show himself forward in the cause.—Lestalrig, 25 April 1560. Signed: William Grey, H. Scrope, R. Sadler, James Croft.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
April 25 & 26.
R. O.
1074. Grey to Norfolk.
1. Having been informed by a credible Scotchman that the companies of Dunbar used oftentimes to issue and range somewhat far, he conferred with Lord Ruthven and Kirkaldy of Grange, and ordered Sir Henry Percy with his light horsemen to accompany them and their bands; and that their ambush being laid they should put out some carriage horses in sight of the French to procure them forth. Following that direction they have so ordered the matter that they have slain and taken fifty-eight, whereof forty-five are taken, amongst whom are Captains Payrot and Hayes, and many gentlemen and officers of bands.
2. This day also a great number of horse and foot issued forth of Leith, with whom the foot skirmished, and a few of the horse charged them valiantly. One horseman of his band ran a Frenchman through the body, and brake his staff on the ground, a strange and rare chance. The French left a good number of their company slain behind them, without loss to the English, saving two light horsemen hurt. This night they remove their camp. Do not neglect the Duke's command in often advertisement.—Lestarick, 25 April. Signed.
3. P. S.—Yesterday the Bishop of Valence, with certain others, had a conference with some of the Scotch Lords in Edinburgh, and proceeded so far that the matter was in question that if Leith should be demolished and the French removed, what security might be had of the Scots' allegiance towards their Sovereign, and that the English army would not seek to possess Leith. Hereupon the Bishop desired assurance of the things to be done on the other part, with other questions on either side. These matters will come again in question this day.—From the new camp before Leith, 26 April 1560.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.


  • 1. Another copy of this letter exists in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 2. Another copy of this letter, omitting the P.S., occurs in the Duke's letterbook at Hatfield House.
  • 3. Namely, St. George's Day.
  • 4. This paragraph is in Throckmorton's hand. The subsequent portions are written by his secretary.