Elizabeth: July 1588, 11-15

Pages 26-50

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 22, July-December 1588. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.

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July 1588, 11-15

July 11. Crofts to Burghley.
Did not answer one point in Burghley's letter of the 4th, where Burghley supposed him to be acquainted with Andrew de Loo's project: admits that he and de Loo have conferred in this great cause more than others, but at that time he knew only de Loo's English letter, with whose phrasing he helped. Did not see the other letter, though de Loo told him that he had written it.
Disagreement between English and Spanish civilians here. The Spanish Commissioners "have great care that nothing contained in former treaties be now confirmed that may be prejudicial to her Majesty, and especially in the point of religion; which manifesteth in them to be a direct intent to proceed honourably." Thinks, therefore, that his lordship and the Council might now direct them "to use familiar colloquy with them [the Spaniards] and to set down articles that may be meet for both the princes and their states." Knows the other side much desire it, but cannot persuade his colleagues, "for there is no allowance by them of anything that I move."
After writing thus far, was called with the others to lord Derby's lodging to hear Dr. Dale's report on his return from the Duke. Complained to them that they had not acquainted him with the cause of Dr. Dale's going, as if he were not to be trusted. The lords answered that they were commanded to open it to Dr. Dale alone and that he too was to keep it from Crofts and Dr. Rogers. Held himself satisfied so as to avoid disagreement. The lords then desired him to obtain an answer in writing from the Spaniards conforming to their declaration to Andreas de Loo. So is ready to lay aside the unkindness he had conceived against Dr. Dale, whose discreet proceeding with the Duke of Parma he commends, "in that he hath not precisely insisted upon punishment to be inflicted upon the printer of those seditious pamphlets, which commonly are said to be printed in one place when indeed they are printed in another. And it is commonly reported here that these libels were printed at Aras."—Borborough, 11 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 12/3 pp. [Flanders IV. f. 225.]
July 11. Lord Wyllughby to the Privy Council.
Received on the 5th their directions for the return of 2000 men from hence, and at once propounded them to the Council of State, who informed the General States. Last Saturday night he was requested to set them down in writing, which he did, "with such further reasons as I supposed fit to induce them thereunto; whose resolutions. with my proposition, I have herewith sent to Mr. Secretary." Finding their answer unsatisfactory, he stated his objections to the Council of State, and after great debating, "their advice upon the said first resolution was set down," copies of which, and of the General States second resolution, he has also sent to Mr. Secretary. Desires to know their lordships' further pleasure what course to take for the transport of the said 2000 men.
"For the stay your lordships wished me to make of the Scottish companies here, I had, long before I received your lordships' pleasure therein, taken such a course as the same was brought to pass even so well as your lordships could desire it."
"The twenty ships which her Majesty demanded to join her fleet for guard of the Narrow Seas from hence, left long before I received your lordships' letters; but by reason of their old date (19 June) it seems you had not heard thereof. Likewise, the 7 of this instant, the Admiral departed from the Haghe towards Zeeland; who with 24 ships more and 1200 men, promised forthwith to take the seas, ready also to join with our fleet if need shall require."
"Gertrudenbergh (notwithstanding the last agreement) because the time wherein they have expected their money hath seemed long, stood in some hazard to have been gone. Yet have I found means once again to hold them in some good terms; but if the States will not have better care and regard to hold their promises, I doubt they will utterly fall away . . ."—Dordrecht. 11 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XXV. f. 58.]
July 11. Lord Wyllughby to Walsingham.
Encloses the answer of the States General and Council of Estate to his proposition, made according to directions received from the Privy Council. Whereby he hopes that they will be fully satisfied, not only for the 2000 men demanded, but for the shipping desired hence, and for the stay of the Scottish companies serving here. Desires to understand the Council's pleasure for transporting over the said companies.
"I received yesternight the letter and articles (whereof I send you the copies) from a gentleman whom I had dispatched toward my lord of Derby . . ."
"You write about Anthony Wingfield, whom you wish me to tolerate for his absence. He knoweth himself that of all the servants I ever had, I was always careful to do him good, and that his greatest living proceeded from me, which (besides the regard of his charge) might have persuaded him to have attended me . . . But now it hardly resteth in my power to revoke that which his unkindness, the necessity of her Majesty's service, and the States' dislike for the absence of the captains hath urged me to, because I have given my commission for his company to the Sergeant Major, who well deserveth a greater favour from her Majesty, in regard of his faithful care in her service here . . ."— Dordrecht, 11 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 2/3 p. [Holland XXV. f. 54.]
(1) Proposition of the Baron de Willughby on behalf of her Majesty, to have the assistance of her succours of 2000 English soldiers. Exhibited [to the States] July 8, 1588, stilo Anglico. (fn. 1)
By letters of June 19, her Majesty's Council has informed him that if the King of Spain and the Duke of Parma should carry out their attempt against England, it would be advisable at once to send thither 2000 experienced English soldiers and that meanwhile he should consider how Bergen-op-Zoom and Ostend might be put into the hands of the States for protection and defence.
By letters of June 16th, Secretary Walsingham wrote that her Majesty continued in the preceding [sic] resolution for the recall of these 2000 troops.
The States may find this rather unseasonable at this conjuncture, yet if they will consider how important the safety of England is to these countries, he doubts not that they will not only approve of her Majesty's desire, but in case of need would be ready to send yet more. Prays them to consider how much it imports to their State that the realm of England should be defended from the common enemy, who, once possessed of some port and strong towns there, could not only trouble them by civil wars, but also hinder the passages so that their whole trade would be brought to ruin.
If they say that they cannot consent without the approbation of their principals, he replies that the urgency of the matter does not allow of delay. Whatever is resolved in so important a matter will be pleasing to all the provinces, seeing that it is for the good of the common cause.
It is also the opinion of the said Council that in these dangerous times, when the enemy will practice all means to injure and ruin them, there is great need for good correspondency and expedition on both sides and that they should give to those who are entrusted with the government of their State more ample authority than they have had, to resolve upon and put into execution such things as the exigencies of the time make requisite; otherwise, good opportunities may be lost while they are assembling, or referring to the chief men of the provinces, either generally or severally.
On all which points he prays them to take a profitable resolution, such as may both please her Majesty and redound to the welfare, safety, and service of their own country.
Copy. Endd. as above. French. 2¼ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 56.]
(2) A letter of Advertisements, July 8. [Probably enclosed in the above letter.]
Has been becalmed two days and now driven back to Vlishing. Met a Breton at sea who said that he spoke with the Spanish fleet, numbering 200 sail, on Tuesday, 2 July, at the Groyne. Intercepted letters show that the Duke of Parma fears all these preparations will turn to smoke owing to the taking of the Scots who were in arms to receive them, and to mutinies among his own troops. They expect some notable service from the Grave Hollock. Sends copy of 13 articles intercepted on their way to Spain, but suspects "they are rather thrown abroad by some seditious heads to no good end, than likely to be true."—8 July, 1588.
Copy. No signature or add. Endd. "Propositions made by her Majesty's commissioners to the King of Spain's commissioners." [Treaty Papers XXXIII. f. 307.]
(3). Extract of proposals made by the English Commissioners to the Spanish, with the replies, sent recently to Spain. [Probably enclosed in the above.]
Demands. Replies.
1. To see the King's power to his Highness. 1. It has been shown.
2. Cessation of arms. 2. Strong and pregnant reasons for their inability to grant this have often been given.
3. Renewal of treaties between England and Spain; other places, which so desire, to be comprehended. 3. Satisfaction promised when they meet.
4. Withdrawal of foreigners. 4. The King cannot withdraw them, his neighbours being in arms. This point cannot be granted at present.
6. Continuance of the former confederacy with Portugal. 6. The King desires it as eagerly as his predecessors in that realm.
7. Liberty of conscience. 7. The King feels sure she would not seek to impose laws upon him in his countries, any more than he would seek to do in hers.
8. The Inquisition not to be brought in here. 8. His Majesty has no desire to do so.
9. All governors to be natives. 9. The King cannot be prohibited from choosing whom he will.
10. Repayment of money disbursed in maintaining this war. 10. The King says that these debts were contracted without his consent: he might more justly claim restitution of his daily expenses in recovering his countries.
11. Offer to yield to him all the places which she holds. 11. It is only reasonable that the places unjustly kept from him should be restored.
12. Offer to aid the King with all her power and her army to reduce the rebel countries. 12. Further detail required as to the manner, means, and forces.
13. What assurance will be given her for the maintenance of this treaty? 13. Can only give the word and signature of the King and his Highness.
Undated. Endd. French. 1½ pp. [Treaty Papers V. f. 102.]
Another copy of the above, French, 1¾ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. 1.]
July 11. Thos. Brune to Walsingham.
Has by Mr. Doncombe received his honour's letter, commanding him to pass account with Mr. Treasurer's deputy, who, not being authorized to give him a discharge, would not meddle therein. Wherefore he means to repair into England, bringing with him bills of captains in her Highness' pay which will balance the sums he received. At present he is under an arrest, and though by means of sureties he is at liberty, he may not leave the country until he has satisfied the sum of 150l., which he has no means to pay unless he may have some of that which is owing to him. Prays his lordship to aid him herein.—Flushing, 11 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland XXV. f. 60.]
July 11. "Captain Buck's declaration touching the question between the Lord Willowghbie and Sir William Russell for the placing of a captain at Flushing."
Captain Bannester three months ago made offer to the Governor of Vlushinge of his company, to dispose of it at his pleasure, whereupon (after procuring the Lord Steward's letters) he gave it to Mr. Fulford, his lieutenant. On hearing this, Bannester brought letters from Sir William Read to the Lord General desiring him to make stay of the commission till the matter might be settled at the Council of War, as the said Bannester denied having ever made any such offer. This the Lord General did, writing to the Governor of Vlushinge of Bannester's denial. The Governor however took it very ill that his word was not thought as good as Bannester's, and so the matter rested.
There was one Lieut. Chrissenmas recommended to the Lord General by the Governor of Vlushinge, for Shearley's company, but his lordship did not think him sufficient, and would not give him commission.
After this, Captain Blunt (captain of the Earl of Leicester's company) and Captain Anthony Shearley came as suitors for Mr. Savaige (lieutenant of the earl of Leicester) to have the company. The Lord General was willing, and (Saváige having returned to him with the Lord Steward's letters) gave him commission for Anthony Shearley's company, but the governor of Vlushinge would neither accept him or his commission, saying that if the Lord General would let Fulford have Bannester's company, Savaige should enjoy Shearley's; else not.
"The Lord Governor of Vlushinge standeth upon six companies in the town to be at his gift. If Captain Shearley's were one of those, I marvel that his lordship gave not Chrissenmas his commission either before or after my Lord General had refused." There are twelve companies in the town, five old and seven new; viz.:
Old. The Lord Governor's, and Captains Richard Wingfield, Hynder, Browne, and Randall.
New. Captain Denis (sergeant-major); Captains Sir Thomas Shearley; Thomas Maria Wingfield; Hart; Lyttelton; Anthony Shearley; and Darsye.
"If any of these seven companies be chosen to make the six companies in the town, the Serjeant-Major is likest, for he is an officer of the town and the Lord Governor's kinsman."
Endd. as above. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 66.]
[July 11 ?] "Mr. Colman's declaration touching the controversy for placing of a captain at Flushinge."
Although the Governor of Vlushinge may meddle with the absolute government of the town and the six old companies (as is alleged) yet none but an absolute prince and a lieutenant-governor to a prince (unless by special words allowed) can give commission to make a captain, or warrant for payment of money.
For the matter of Sherlie's company, it having grown to that point that his lordship [Willoughby] is utterly overthrown in honour if Savadge (according to his lordship's commission) does not enjoy it, having protested, upon some "overthwart" speeches of the Governor of Vlushinge, that he would never more bear a sword in these wars if his commission were made frustrate, "your lordship" should look into the same, to prevent a further mischief.
"Your lordship may be pleased to remember that when I was before you, Mr. Secretary said it was another matter that made pique betwixt the two noble gentlemen, about certain speeches my Lord General should use to the captains of Camphire, in disgrace of the Lord Governor of Vlushinge. Which matter my Lord General hath disproved, and sent to Mr. Secretary under the captains' own hands."
Copy. ½ p. [Holland XXV. f. 62.]
[July 11 ?] "The manner of Mr. Savage his proceeding for the foot company of Capt. Anthony Sherley, as the same is set down under his own hand."
Was lieutenant of a double company of horse of the Lord Steward, and when it was divided was left without employment. His lordship heard of this and promised Savage his favour. When Capt. Anthony Shearley's foot company became void, his lordship gave him letters of recommendation to the Lord General and the Governor of Vlishing. The Governor said that he had already passed his promise for it to Mr. Fulford, though he held a high opinion of Savage whom he had known in Ireland and in these wars. The Lord General commanded that he should forthwith have the company and gave him letters commending him to the Governor, who answered, however, that he could not yield to this appointment "unless his lieutenant might be otherwise satisfied."
Undated. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holland XIX. f. 312.]
July 11. William Borlas to Walsingham.
This gentleman, one of Walsingham's men, will inform him of the news of these parts touching Gettryngberg which is said to "stand still in some ill terms, for that the States doth not keep promise with them for their payment. Here cometh daily from the enemy many Italians that run away. Most of them be Neapolitans and of Corsica; likewise his mariners doth run away daily." Master Borneham "hath been so ill of the stone since his coming hither, that he was not able to go into Holland, but sent presently one thither to Mr. Killegrew..."—Flushing, 11 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 63.]
July 12. The Commissioners to the Privy Council.
Dr. Dale reports that the Duke of Parma complains that, whilst he has "forborne to attempt anything against any of the towns in her Majesty's possession during the time of this treaty, yet, notwithstanding. certain of the garrison of Berghen-up-Zoome have of late attempted an 'escallado' against the castle of Vau." Dr. Dale answered that her Majesty had prepared letters to the governors in case a cessation of arms was agreed upon; but the Duke considers that there is a cessation tacite during this treaty and requires some demonstration of her Majesty's disapproval of the breach. Cannot indeed charge the Spaniards "with any such thing attempted by them upon any of those towns during this treaty." The Count of Arenberghe also desires them to secure the immunity from 'spoil' of his lands in Brabant in 'la Campagna,' he being a principal person in the treaty. Would be glad thus to pleasure him. The Spanish Commissioners say that they have letters sent to Bruxills by those of Berghen-up-Zoome requiring of them a contribution to the soldiers of that garrison, threatening otherwise to burn and spoil all places and bridges on the Sas between Antwerp and Bruxills. "It may please your lordships that some satisfaction may be given in these points for the better correspondency."
Have done nothing in the principal treaty since Dr. Dale went to the Duke.—Bourboroughe, 12 July, 1588.
Signed by all five. Add. Endd. 1p. [Flanders IV. f. 229.]
July 12. Dr. Dale to the Queen. (fn. 2)
Upon receiving her Majesty's letter of the 1st, he at once set out to Bruges to the Duke, so secretly that only the Earl of Derby and Lord Cobham knew the real reason of his going: pretended to the others that he went to get from the Duke himself satisfaction of points in difference between the Commissioners.
Reached Bruges on the 7th and had audience the next morning. After compliments made, said that her Majesty, fully trusting to the Duke's sincere and honourable dealing, had sent her Commissioners hither contrary to the opinion of many: that she desired to assure him of the baselessness of the suspicion, apparent in certain writings which passed between her Commissioners and the Spaniards, that she intended, regardless of any promises, to keep the towns now in her possession: her Majesty's recent declaration, published in English, French, and Italian, expressed her true intentions. Desired the Duke now to command his Commissioners to proceed for her Majesty's assurance, etc.
Dale paused, and the Duke asked if that were all he had to say: he answered that, in return for her assurance, to the Duke, her Majesty looked for his assurance in another point, which she communicated only to himself. Seeing him in expectation to learn what this was, Dale proceeded. "There was a book printed at Antwerp, and set forth by a fugitive of England which calleth himself a Cardinal (wherewith he began diligently to listen). This book (said I) is an admonition to all the nobility and people of England and Ireland, touching the execution of the sentence of the Pope against the Queen, my sovereign and mistress; the which the King Catholic hath embraced (as this Cardinal writeth) and hath appointed your Altesse for the chief of the enterprise. There is also a bull set forth by this Pope Sixtus V, whereby the Pope doth pronounce a sentence to declare my said sovereign and mistress illegitimate and an usurper, with other matter too odious for any prince or gentleman to name or hear, and not to be tolerated. In which bull, the Pope saith that he hath dealt with the King Catholic to employ all the means that he hath to the deprivation and deposition of my said sovereign and mistress, and doth charge her Majesty's subjects to assist the army appointed by the King Catholic for that purpose under the conduct of your Altesse." Her Majesty's subjects could not endure this, nor would they treat of any peace with any so evil affected. Desired him to deal plainly and tell her Majesty the truth hereof.
The Duke in reply thanked her Majesty for her trust in his sincere dealing. He referred the matter of the treaty to the Commissioners, but offered to answer anything Dale laid before him in writing. "For the book he had never read it, nor seen it, nor did take heed to it. It might be your Majesty might have understanding of it, whom it concerneth, but for his part he had not to do with it, nor could not 'let' men to write or print at their pleasure; and was at commandment of his master only and had regard to the commandments that he should receive of him and not otherwise."
"Then, because he answered nothing to the bull, I replied that if it were so there were a war 'purposedly' taken in hand at the instance of the Pope, this treaty were but vain, and then your Majesty should be constrained to revoke your Commissioners, not doubting but they should enjoy the benefit of their safe-conduct as occasion should require."
"Yea, God forbid else, quoth he; and said further that he did not know nor esteem what bull the Pope had set forth nor did undertake anything for him, but only for the mal entendu that hath been between his master and your Majesty, as a soldier must do at the commandment of his master," with compliments and assurances of his desire to serve her Majesty above all others except his own master. Had urged his master to conclude peace and end "the bloodshed and 'brenning' of houses and such other calamities as do follow the wars"; but felt that England had more reason than Spain to desire peace, as a lost battle would not greatly affect the King who was so far away, whereas one lost by the English might bring loss of the kingdom as well.
Dale replied that the Duke should have learnt from the difficulty of recovering the King's own patrimony that he could not invade a realm and conquer it in a single battle.
"Well, said he, that is in God's hand. So it is, quoth I. But make an end of it, said he, quietly, and if you have anything to put in writing you shall do me pleasure."
Dale said that he was sent only to satisfy the Duke of her Majesty's sincere meaning, and to obtain satisfaction from him in the other point: he could not deal without his fellow-Commissioners, and so desired to be allowed to depart the next morning.
After this audience the Duke called to him Andreas de Loo and, after telling him of the speeches Dale had had with himself, affirmed upon his honour "that he had never seen nor heard of the book, nor did know of any bull, or had any regard thereunto, but only to his Master's particular." This de Loo told Dale immediately afterwards and has since affirmed to the other Commissioners of her Majesty.
In the afternoon, since the Duke desired to have something in writing from him, Dale took with him the articles which had been proposed by her Majesty's Commissioners at Bourborough, "not reading, but showing them unto him, and declared that his Altesse might perceive by those articles that your Majesty did not take those towns for any commodity to yourself, but for your safety only; and for your part required only but the renewing of the treaties, assurance for the continuance of the peace, and repayment of your money according to the King's own promise by his edict of Bruxells. The rest were only for the quietness of the King's own country and for the contentment of his subjects." Dale thereupon took his leave.
Hopes her Majesty will accept his service: was never so careful in any matter since he entered her service.—Bourborough, 12 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 4¾ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 231.]
Draft for the above letter.
Endd. 15¾pp. [Flanders IV. f. 235.]
July 12. Dr. Dale to Burghley.
"This journey hath been a full careful voyage unto me, considering the tickleness of the point of my message, and so great forces in a readiness before mine eyes, and so furnished, and such demonstration of willingness and desire to be marching spe predae without any dissimulation whither, but professing it as openly as if they were to go to a fair or market... The Duke himself doth no more hide it than did King Henry the 8th when he went to Bullein; and so called on by English fugitives, qui classicum occinunt quotidie."
"Their only care is for their passage, and yet the Duke, that is put to the charge, could be contented with all his heart to be well rid of it, and so I perceived both by himself and other good advertisement."
"I thank God . . . that I left omnia integra; and now it is in her Majesty to advise what way to take."
"The truth is these messages should be done by personages of greater quality or else expressly coming from her Majesty, yet with your lordship's good word I hope her Majesty will take it well . . . Truly these voyages are chargeable. I was fain to keep 20 lances four days at my charges for my convoy, besides my horses, carriages, and rewards."
"The day that I came to Dixmuth there was a muster of an hundred ensigns of Spaniards, as well in order as hath at any time been seen, which they account 10,000 complete: unto whom Sir William Standly joineth himself with his Irishmen. Three days before the Italians mustered 60 ensigns. I saw 5,000 Almayns that are come with the Archduke in a squadron. There was not one man of the pikes and slash swords that had not his corslet complete with 'tasses' and 'vambrases,' yet were they arrived but the day before from about Tyrolles, '22 days' journeys continuante.' There are besides three other regiments of Almans in a readiness."
"This next week the Duke himself mustereth his companies of Wallons, being an hundred ensigns, whereof he maketh himself colonel very politicly to win the country. He appointeth a pilgrimage to Notre Dame de Halle, being in the frontiers of Hennalt, three leagues from Brussels and mindeth to go from Brussels thither on foot, and maketh general procession, as it were for peace in show, but in truth for the success of his voyage."
"The greatest expectation of these men is from the King's navy of Spain, and if they either pass or be fought withal by the way, it is thought that the party that hath the better will not hearken to peace. Their navy here are not above 18 mean ships of the common sort. Their flat-bottoms are all in readiness for transportation of men and horses and are brought some from St. Omers to Graveling, some to Dunkirk from Newport, and from thence are appointed to be brought likewise to Graveling. They know not how to pass but either by stealth or to be received by the navy out of Spain."—Bourborough, 12 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal. 1¾ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 260.]
July 12. Dr. Dale to Burghley. (fn. 3)
"I have been and am very pensive for the event of this my message, ne quod temere admitterem quod infectum fieri non potuisset. If any man do not like of it, it may please your lordship to help it. If it should have been broken off by any rashness of mine, woe had it been to me! Now her Majesty may advise for the best, and break off at her pleasure upon the matter of these preparations into England... better than for punishing of a printer. Licet enim tecum libere loqui. I have written two or three verses out of Virgil for the Queen to read, which I pray your lordship to present unto her. God grant her to weigh them! If your lordship do read the whole discourse of Virgil in that place, it will make your heart melt how it is discoursed by the report of the ambassadors that were sent to Diomedes to make war against the Troyans for the old hatred that he, being a Grecian, did bear unto them, and by the answer of Diomedes dissuading them from entering into war with the Troyans, and by the perplexity of the King, and the miseries of the country, and by the reasons of Drances that spake against them which would have war, and by the violent persuasion of Turnus to war: wherein I pray you note one word nec te ullius violentia frangat [sic]. What a lecture could I make with Mr. Cecil upon that place of Virgil!"
"... I must beseech your lordship to excuse me from such journeys. Truly I have had a great distemperature, not without a spice of a fever, going and coming, all these 12 days, augmented with divers pangs of the colic, the remedy whereof is the increase of my distemperature. I doubt the ending of it in a quartain."— Bourborough, 12 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders IV. f. 227.]
Virgilius, libro undecimo Ænæidos. [ll. 252, 292].
"O fortunatae gentes, Saturnia regna antiqui Ausonii, quae vos fortuna quietos sollicitat, suadetque ignota lacessere bella.
Coeant in foedera dextrae qua datur, ast armis concurrant arma cavete."
[Flanders IV. f. 262.]
July 12. Dr. Dale to Walsingham. (fn. 4)
"I have had a careful journey and a tickle message. Truly, such things should be done by men of great quality or by some directly from the Queen's own person. I have framed myself the best I could: I pray you make the best of it... They had yesterday, by a post out of Spain by land with great diligence, that the King's navy was, at the parting of the post from thence, in Galicia. Whether he hath brought any word of their speedy coming or of the contrary, I have not learned."
"Their army here attendeth with great devotion. There are an hundred ensigns of Spaniards unto whom Sir William Standly joineth close with his regiment; 60 of the Italians already mustered; 3 regiments of Almans, besides 5000 that arrived at Dixmude, upon the 5th of this present, of pikes and slash swords, all with corslets complete, besides 500 harquebusiers, whereof there are some musketeers, whom I saw myself in squadron."
"There are an hundred ensigns of Wallons, whom the Duke taketh for his own regiment to get the goodwill of the country. The flat-bottoms that are to transport their horses are come down from St. Omers to Graveling: the rest shall be brought from Newport to Graveling also."
"Their ships at Dunkyrk are not past 18 and they but mean, such as are many in our ports. Their hope is either to steal over or else that the King's navy will come to fetch them. If they may set foot a-land animo devorarunt Angliam, by God's grace reckoning without their host. They have many companies of horsemen, well furnished, much after the roll I sent you, by the report of Garnier at Ostend. They make none account of our harquebussiers. Our fugitives do solicit them daily. The Cardinal Allin is looked for. The Duke maketh solemn processions, as it were for peace, but in truth for his voyage. He goeth within these two or three days to Bruxells, and from thence afoot in pilgrimage to Notre-Dame de Halli. The soldiers profess their voyage into England as openly as King Henry did when he went to Bullein."
"I send you a copy of our privy seal with the words of substance interlined to be added thereunto and the bill engrossed withal as cunning suitors are wont to do. I beseech you let the clerk of the Signet subscribe it, and to get it to be dispatched, if it may be, for it importeth me in good earnest."—Bourborough, 12 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Flanders IV. f. 248.]
July 12. Lord Cobham to Burghley.
Received his letter of the 5th. A man's meaning is better judged by actions than by words, although he should be able to maintain his causes by argument. Discreet and willing persons may by conference draw the matter in hand to more equality, but those with whom they now deal are for the most part touched in their freehold, whilst the rest dare say little.
While awaiting answer from England, met together again and they explained point by point their mislike of the other side's articles. The others in their turn replied "calling still upon the principale negotium which they term to be the delivery of the four towns."
Her Majesty's instructions to them are that if the King will yield an assured peace and withdraw his foreign troops, the towns will be kept only until she is satisfied for the charges for which the States are bound. The other side press them to make more plain the words, quod attinet ad presidia locave aliqua ab illis possessa serenissima regina ad omnes aequas conditiones facile descendet, etc., in their demands of 17 June: how that may be done, being beyond their instructions, leaves his lordship to judge. Find them most unwilling to put away their foreign forces. The motion to put the demands and replies into writing was due to the others' manner of treating, since that which is in writing cannot be denied; and because most of her Majesty's Commissioners have been charged by them with words which they never spoke. The tongues that they treat in, also, do not come so readily to the English as to those who daily speak them.
These wars seem hardly due merely to a malentendu or for a restoration of towns, but for religion, as their forces are paid by the Pope and clergy.
Dr. Dale returned on the 10th at night.
Encloses relation of the Spanish armado [not found].—Burburow, 12 July.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 263.]
July 12. Lord Cobham to Walsingham.
The Master of Requests returned on the 10th at night, having had two audiences last Monday. Observes that the Duke "can so leave it doubtful, sed non quicquid tibi audire utile est id illi dicere necesse est." Await her Majesty's pleasure for their revocation, as they can do little good here, unless "her Majesty will deliver their towns, which they call their principale negotium"; peace would then be easily made, "but yet her Majesty not freed of wars, and practices at home. This war is for religion and maintained by the Pope and clergy."
He and his colleagues lack provision, "and here there is nothing to be had for money, the soldiers have consumed it": does not wish to send for more into England.—Burborow, 12 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Flanders IV. f. 243: the cover, f. 247.]
July 12. The Earl of Derby and Lord Cobham to Walsingham.
Desire to know her Majesty's pleasure concerning the request of the Count of Arenbergh.—Bourbourgh, 12 July, 1588.
Signed by both. Add. Endd. ¼p. [Flanders IV. f. 254.]
[July 12.] Instructions for Robert Beale and Richard Salkenstall, governor of the Company of Merchants Adventurers, sent to Hamburg. (fn. 5)
They are to repair to Hamburg to procure a residence there for the company "for the better uttering and venting of the woollen commodities" of England. They shall receive from the Secretary copies of the last letter from Hamburg to her Majesty and of the letters from John Shult, a senator of Hamburg, to the Treasurer and Secretary. Upon their arrival they shall deliver her Majesty's letters and declare that, as the former treaties are reciprocal, her Majesty (in spite of their complaints against her to the Emperor, the late King of Poland, and others) can be contented, upon assurance that her subjects shall be so used among them as theirs shall be in England, to yield to them so much as is contained in a certain Latin note under her hand and signet. They may impart the contents of this note to them, but are to retain it in their own hands until the residence in Hamburg is finally concluded upon, when they may deliver it to the magistrates who apparently desire such signification. If there is any objection concerning the general character of the words "to be restored to so much of their privileges as they have at any time enjoyed since our coming unto our crown," they shall answer [blank in MS.]. Should any precise number of unwrought cloths be insisted upon, they are to say that, in respect of the laws of the realm for setting the poor on work, it is impossible to allow any such large number as might be required, but that her Majesty will, if the general agreement is made, grant them yearly licence for [blank] thousand white or unwrought cloths, to be brought over upon payment of the same custom as her subjects pay. The payment may be divided equally by themselves or by their alderman amongst the Hanse merchants trading into England. If the agreement is with Hamburg only, [blank in MS.] white cloths must suffice, for to grant more would be harmful to England and would hinder the general agreement with the whole 'Steades.' It would also inspire greater envy and hatred of Hamburg. If this does not satisfy those of Hamburg, they may say that although they have no commission to exceed that number, yet no doubt by intercession with her Majesty and good usage of her subjects a larger number may be obtained.
For other special points of conventions to be made between Hamburg and the society, they are referred to those formerly contracted, which they shall seek to have confirmed in perpetuity. If there is any attempt to restrain them to a term of years, they shall say, as of themselves, that this would cause her Majesty to think that no final composition of their controversies is intended; and that the former strifes will be renewed, affording the rest of the 'Steades' and other adversaries of the agreement good occasion to infringe it, which they could not do were it made in perpetuity. As the former privileges of the Merchant Adventurers at Hamburg were revoked because of an inhibition from the general society of the 'Steeds' of the Hanse at Lubeck, they shall, if possible, secure a special provision that no such order shall impair the agreement they shall make. If this cannot be obtained no agreement should be made for less than [blank in MS.] years.
They are to be guided by the Merchants Adventurers, to whom the Council referred the matter, as to the toll upon English goods, and in all other things relating to the residence and government of the company there. Her Majesty, however, thinks it not convenient that her subjects should be constrained to utter all their commodities there, and not be permitted to repair to other markets in Germany as they have been wont. The restraint should apply only to places near Hamburg.
The agreement is to be made between the city of Hamburg and the company, and not in her Majesty's name, as that might hinder the general agreement. If those of Hamburg insist upon her sanction being given to the agreement, they may include some such words as that this is made de consensu nostro. Any further treaty should be considered first by the general 'Steeds,' and then be made between her Majesty and them or Hamburg.
They are to assure John Schult of the performance of the promise that he should have licence to transport 1000 unwrought cloths paying only 5s. each as custom, as soon as the agreement is made. The company should secure his good offices by some reasonable arrangement, and her Majesty at the next licence will allow them 1000 white cloths above the usual number.
Minute. Undated. Endd. 11 pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. 10.]
Copy of the above. 5½ pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. 10a.]
[July 12]. The Queen to the Magistrates of Hamburg.
The answer to their letters sent almost a year ago by John Shult, a senator, was delayed by the pressure of more urgent affairs last summer, and during the winter the journey was too dangerous for the envoys whom they desired her to send. Her Majesty now sends Robert Beale, a clerk [secretarius] of the Privy Council, and [Richard] Salkinstall, governor of the company of the Merchant Adventurers, to inform the citizens of Hamburg (and, through them, the Hanseatic league) how ready she is to lay aside her grievances and, in spite of the complaints made against herself and her subjects in the Empire and elsewhere, to extend to them such favour as is reasonable and useful. The great obstacle hitherto has been the refusal of such a residence for her merchants as they enjoyed for some time and as the Hanse had formerly in England. There seems now, from their letters, some assurance that the matter may be concluded by friendly negotiation. Credence for the bearers.
Minute. Undated. Endd. Latin. 2¼ pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. 11.]
July 12. Sir Edward Norreys to Walsingham.
"Since my last, we have had divers bruits of the Duke's altering his purpose from England towards these parts, and the Governor hath told us that he had assurance thereof from the Duke's court; whereupon, making plain unto us many wants and weakness in the town, said he would write unto your honours about it, which he hath done."
"Notwithstanding this, I understand that the Prince continues his preparation for the sea, and makes wonderful means to get his shipping that is yet at Bruges and Anwerpe to pass towards Donkerk, and makes all haste to ship his army within these few days. How this can agree with his coming hither I see not, for methinks this should not be a morsel for a week or a fortnight... Yet because I find all is not so well as it should be, and that I fear more than I must speak or write. . .. [I] beseech your honour that some few men more might be put in beforehand, that we may be well able to defend it till her Majesty shall send sufficient supply to discourage the Duke from getting it, and us from thought of yielding it,—which how far I am from shall better appear by the effect than by my letter."
"One thing I must complain to your honour of,—of the baseness of our countrymen's minds, that now they hear the enemy is said to intend to come hither do run away daily five and six together: which, if it continue unpunished in England, will grow an ordinary thing, for here there is no means to remedy it; and never soldiers did live better, nor were better provided for."
If they are besieged, desires that some surgeons and store of stuff may be sent to them. The engineer here is an excellent man, and Captain Sudderman also is worthy of favour. Compliments.— Ostend, 12 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland XXV. f. 68.]
July 12. Thomas Webbes to Walsingham.
Wrote recently to his lord and master of a muttering report amongst the Papists here of some practice against her Majesty, "to shorten her days." Being uncertain whether he is at court, writes a duplicate thereof to Walsingham, hoping that it may not be lightly passed over. Chiefly understands it "by the report of a great Papist wife, who is of my wife's kindred, and knoweth the bottom of their intents from her husband." Something thereof is now said to be discovered, and that some near her Majesty are the instruments of it. Also that the Prince of Parma waits on the coasts of Flanders to hear of the effecting of his devilish practice and then to direct himself towards England, where they say he has friends enough. The priests and the rest assemble daily, expecting news to their liking. The Count of Moeurs, with the best affectioned to her Majesty and the Religion, earnestly request Webbes once again to write to her, and "to wish her to be very careful for this summer season in what company she cometh."
Desires to know if he cannot be employed in these parts, so that he may then return to his own country. Some companies here are so weak that, by the lieutenant's report, the captains receive 30l. a week, and do not allow 20l. thereof to the company and officers.—Utrecht, 12 July, 1588.
Postscript. Sir Thomas Morgaine is much ashamed of the weakness of these companies and the abusing of her Majesty. He grieves to see "how her service will take effect" if anything has to be put into execution, of which there is great likelihood.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 72.]
July 12. Edward Petvyn to Walsingham.
Desiring Walsingham to have him in remembrance for a company (not so much in respect of preferment as of his country's service at this time when soldiers are likely to be needed). Will beg this of no one else, but will rather follow his friend Captain Vere, of whose calling he has no doubt. "I had rather live at Barghen-up-Zome, where wars are in practice,—considering it is my profession, and being a poor gentleman it must be the living I must only depend of,—than to come over and live idly in England."
There is little news here, for the enemy's forces draw nearer France, presumably for their attack upon England.—Barghenop-Zome, 12 July, 1588.
Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XXV. f. 70.]
July 13. Walsingham to Sir Edward Norris. (fn. 6)
Since the departure of Sir John Conway's servant. nothing has fallen out. saving that it seemeth by letters from Sir William Russell that the States have advertisements that the Duke's intention against this realm is altered, finding many things to fail that were to accompany his purpose. Whereupon they doubt his meaning is against some of their islands. and desire that both their own ships and her Majesty's may be appointed to guard their coasts; which for my part I do not like of, for if by such a colour our shipping should be drawn that way. and in the mean time the Duke put over hither, it might prove over dangerous. And for the danger that impendeth to any place of their dominion or to that town, so long as we continue strongest by sea, as hitherto we are, we shall be able at all times to rescue them and to send assistance of men and victuals . . ."—The Court at Richmond, 13 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland XXV. f. 74.]
July 13. G. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Thanks for his care in granting an allowance for his entertainment, wherein the Lord Steward has also assisted. Only necessity forced him to be so importunate.
"The General States are still assembled here, busied chiefly about . . . their state of the wars, vizt., how many men they can keep and what means to pay them, duly reserving some part of the contributions towards the extraordinary charges for wars; and this they cannot yet agree because they are not assured of the contributions . . ."
"The Council of State continueth in business as heretofore, answering all matters they deal in with ink and paper; for other means and authority have they not as yet, neither is it likely that they shall have other, unless from her Majesty it be urged and the meaning of the treaty explained, which now those that would alter the authority belonging to her Majesty's Lieutenant and the said Council of State do expound for their vantage." It is therefore very requisite that the instructions given to the Council and sent over by Willoughbie, and his notes thereupon, should be perused, her Majesty's pleasure be set down, and so returned hither. It is important to have the authority contained by the treaty thoroughly maintained, and it is thought that if her Majesty would certify how the said treaty is to be interpreted, it will be yielded unto. And the sooner the better, both for her service and the good of this country, "all matters of war, both by sea and land, being to be directed by the said Lieutenant and Council. For if this government continue and be not brought to other terms it cannot endure, but divisions will fall out and so the ruin of the whole State follow. For the provinces will never yield to be commanded or directed by each other, neither abide that one should have any superiority over the other. . ."
Count Mures, the Chancellor Leoninus, and Valcke, are still at Utrecht, "labouring to end the differences between them, but [we] do not hear as yet that anything is effected. The boors that were up there in arms, denying to contribute any longer (with the which those of Goylande, being under Holland, did also join), are now appeased, and put the fault of their rising the one upon the other. But all must be forgiven and forgotten."
The States of Overysell have gone home, desiring agreement and quiet rather than the terms they stand in. The garrisons in the towns strengthen the better sort in religion and the worst affected are kept under. There is difference amongst them about the choice of their Counsellor of State, the gentlemen and towns wishing for Dorium, that served before, while those of Swoll would have another. "The Lord Willoughby hath written earnestly to persuade them to agreement and to continue him that served before, being experimented in matters past, and so the abler to deal in that charge." (fn. 7)
Friezland has not yet chosen its counsellors, though his lordship has again written. (fn. 7) Their general meeting at Lautsdach has lasted long, by reason of the debate about sending commissioners to the treaty of peace, "the hope whereof, which moved the differences amongst them, hath made the enemy to prevail so far as to bring all the country under contribution, even to the walls of the towns; yea, many of the gentlemen make promise to the enemy not to annoy him anywise . . . and undoubtedly if the towns were not provided with garrison, that country would make some composition, at least to remain as neuters."
"In Gelderland also, most hearken for peace, the garrisons being the only means to keep them thus long in other terms. But this will have an end if some other government be not established, for the frontiers be chiefly paid and provided by Holland, and that so slenderly as of necessity if the enemy should come down thither all that quarter would be in danger."
Victuals and ammunition are being sent for Berck, Doesborch, Deuticon, and other places, forts, and houses of garrison; but there is short means of money to content them.
"There is a state for the wars set down, and of every province's contribution and what number of men each of them shall pay, but it is not yet resolved on, and how it will be or can be kept when the enemy shall make his approaches, that is the doubt and difficulty."
Bonn is still besieged by the Prince of Symaie's men, who are so few and poor that 3000 good men might easily raise the siege, his men being so evilly paid "and in such bad order, and he so slenderly respected, that if the place hold out but awhile, they will be forced to break up, and, as the speech cometh from those parts, are already parting and bend their course towards Gelderland. They of the towns make sallies daily, and Skencke doth here solicit hard for aid, which is in some sort promised, and would have been given him ere now, if the Prince of Parma his forces were not expected in the islands of Zeeland or these parts. Besides this, a principal difficulty [is] that the men that should be sent to that service must be strong and fight it out; for there is no retreat nearer Bon than Bergh and Wachtendonck . . . If any should be lost, they would greatly be missed here, upon this doubt of the enemy's invasion and this state's weakness, the alterations and mutinies of soldiers having fallen out very costly and troublesome. But God hath done much, to keep the enemy all this year so quiet."
"Also in Doesburch, Deuticon and other like [places] the men grow discontented for want of pay, maintaining themselves chiefly on the booties and spoils they fetch daily on the enemy, and now and then borrow of the Duke of Cleave his subjects, who of late hath complained greatly of them." It is hoped, better payment being made as is promised them, all will be well, and straiter military discipline may be kept.
"The enemy thought to have surprised Deuticon at the opening of the gates, but were prevented. The soldiers of Tiel, Bommell and Huesden are still very disordered, and will suffer no ships nor passengers [to] pass without exacting [toll] or ransacking of them. Besides, notwithstanding the safeguards given to such as contribute, they cease not to misuse and spoil them . . ."
"The money for the men of Geertruydenbergh is ready, and the Count Maurice with commissioners gone thither with it. We hear that they mean not to part from the money unless they be fully assured of the town . . . And the garrison that is in it will not depart nor have to do with the States, but keep it as for her Majesty, or else, as they do say plainly, can tell what they have to do; so as the end of this matter is still doubtful."
"The Lord Willoughby was there on Thursday before the gates, desiring to speak with the committees of the garrison, who, coming to his lordship, [it] was told them the money was ready and on the way thither; but they, impatient to hear the rest, burst out in speech that the States did mock with them, seeking no other than that they should kill each other or run to the enemy; concluding, if all the money were not afore the town by Saturday in the forenoon, and committees to conclude with them, they would presently take another course, so as they should not need to send any more unto them. And so in a rage drew Menyn away with them into the town (who was come there with his lordship), saying they would keep and use him as such men deserved . . ., and so brought him into an inn, not without danger of life as he passed." Willoughby insisted so earnestly that at length they consented to release him.
At Breda it is published by the bellringing that they of Geertruydenberg may enter and depart their town at their will. Count Hohenlo is thought to be by this at Hamborrowe and of his return no mention or speech used. Paul Buys is in Leyden, "lurking in his house, altering nothing from his wonteth nature and so will continue until the end."
"At Embden are three commissaries come from the Prince of Parma, and is thought—under colour of composing the question between the Count and the Count of Oldenburgh—there are other matters a-practising."
"Count William mourneth the death of his lady and seeketh to impeach the enemy, who is busy to make a bank near Otterdom to stop the passage of that garrison into Grœningherlandt."
Justinus of Nassau, Vice-Admiral [sic] of Zeeland, is or will be at sea, with fifty good ships, to keep the Prince of Parma from coming out of the Flanders ports.
Colonel Sonoy is here, soliciting his discharge and contentment for his services; "for commission such as he would desire those of Holland will never grant him, and they of North Holland oppose still against him. But the day will come [when] such men as he will be sought for, and haply then go without them." Count Maurice has showed himself most earnest for him, but he is ever ruled and dare not displease the States; with much ado his captains continued in pay, "and yet are not so well used as in times past. . ."—The Haeghe, 13 July, 1588, stylo angliœ.
Add. Endd. Seal. 6¼ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 82.]
July 13. Sir Thomas Morgan to Walsingham.
Must plainly declare his griefs at the slender rewards of his long service, hoping by Walsingham's means to have remedy.
After twenty years' travail in these country wars in her Majesty's service, he sees himself abandoned and forced to seek service in foreign courts. Does not altogether complain of her Majesty, but of those who execute her commands. Her favour to him at his departure has greatly comforted him. Was then assigned two several places, but her letters "were not in any sort regarded, myself is frustrated of both, and upstart soldiers are maintained who cannot govern themselves in martial affairs, much less others . . . The places I know I can discharge as well as any in these parts, if not better, although I cannot dissemble or flatter, or have my experience by reading histories of wars. Moreover, sithence her Majesty entered into these actions I am as ill seconded by the States, so as I am through necessity enforced to crave your honour's favour . . . to request her Majesty in my behalf to grant me her most gracious passport to seek service where I can find means to be maintained. And so will willingly depart, both discharging the country of my debts and service, and will not doubt but to find sufficient place where I will be entertained, neither carrying arms against her Majesty nor my conscience . ., being enforced to seek to relieve my age by better means than hitherto I have done, for that in seeking experience I have both consumed my time and wealth. I do determine, if shortly I receive no answer of my former letters, to go up to Skincke's sconce," and there will attend Walsingham's answer and her Majesty's passport. Will never carry arms as a private captain, having so long served in better place. Has no means to continue any longer in these parts.—The Hage, 13 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 76.]
July 13/23. Christopher Roels to H. Killigrew.
Surprise at Killigrew's report that there is little hope of the prompt payment of the small sum which would so greatly benefit her Majesty. Regrets being importunate, but has now to redeem the promises made at Killigrew's instance. The wretched man fled hither with his wife and three children and Roels has kept them for eight days already: he presses for the payment of the 15l. sterling promised to the church of Antwerp. Accordingly beseeches Killigrew and Willoughby to send the small amount required. The enclosed [not found] shows his own zeal in the common service. Her Majesty may by these means catch many spies, and perchance through them others, traitors plotting against her life. Again prays for his acquittance that he may dismiss the man.—Middelboro. 23 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Latin. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 86.]
July 14. Sir James Croft to Walsingham.
Hopes that, upon Dr. Dale's report of his negotiation with Parma, her Majesty will now resolve on the course to be taken in this treaty, wherein, being encouraged by her gracious goodness, he [Crofts] has done his uttermost to further her service. Remembers Walsingham's friendly counsel not to allow himself to be deceived by the Spaniards; "whereby you meant the Commissioners on the other side (for with Spaniards I have had no manner of dealing), who, although they be this country born, yet are perhaps affected to the Spanish proceedings, wherein I will not excuse them. I assure you, by often conference I find the most part of them to pretend a great zeal and love to her Majesty and desire an honourable peace to be concluded between the two realms, wherein I the rather believe them for that their commodity shall be no less increased thereby than ours. And I can but praise an answer of theirs, which of late they gave to me in excuse of their not peremptory answering the article concerning the confirmation of the ancient treaties. They said the cause . . . was for that when those treaties passed between the said Princes, both sides were thereby holden to maintain the Romish religion, which they said her Majesty intended not, and yet should she be bound thereunto by the general words of the said treaties." Believes they would yield a like conformity to other points. Their sincerity should at least be tested, lest when the treaty be broken and, as Richardot said, the proceedings published, "the world should see where the fault remaineth." They say that they answer reservedly because the English do not reveal their full demands, and say, hiis concessis regina descendet ad aequae conditiones, without specifying those conditions. Commends himself to his honour's "loving friendship," and desires to know how the Lord Steward accepted his letters.—Burborough, 14 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1½ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 265.]
Copy of the above.
Endd. 1½ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 269.]
July 14. Andrea de Loo to Burghley.
Is glad to learn from his lordship's letter to Mr. Comptroller that her Majesty is not averse from the settlement of this affair. Need to act resolutely upon this meaning, lest some mischance should lead to great bloodshed, both sides being so fully armed. As the Spanish proverb says, victory is never sure and never impossible, for Fortune is never more fickle than in war. Accompanied Dale to Bruges. As Dale was leaving after his audience, the Duke of Parma called de Loo to him and protested that he had no knowledge either of the book or of the bull of which Dale had complained: that he could not prevent the Pope and the English cardinal from publishing such things, for the army was his sole concern, adding that if the King his master bade him lead it into England, he must obey. He urged that peace should be made while it was possible, for the heavy expense of such great forces would make it impossible for him to delay action much longer. Haste is therefore necessary. M. de Champagney believes nothing will ever be done with the present [English] Commissioners. The affair would be really quite clear and not unduly difficult if only those Commissioners would state their demands plainly and in due order. The Duke professed himself to be almost without hope and said that the delays made him almost suspect their sincerity.—Bourborg, 14 July, 1588, stilo vechio.
Signed. Add. Endd. Italian. 1½ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 267.]
July 14/24. The Princess of Orange to Walsingham.
Monsieur; Je vous envoye une lettre de M. de la Noue qu'il me prie fort de vous fayre tenir surement. Il me donne par les sienes un moyan de luy escrire souvant, par voye asseuree, de fason que s'il vous plaist m'envoyer des vostres pour luy fayre tenir, je n'y feray point de faute. Il recommande tousjours son fils a tous ses amys, et s'asure fort, Monsieur, que comme jusques icy il vous a pleu luy estre lyberal de votre faveur et ayde, que vous luy continueres ceste mesme bonne voulonté, et mesmes a l'endroit de Monsieur le Conte de Lestre, qui m'a assuree, comme il a fait aussy M. de la Noue, par ses lettres que le Sieur de Thorese seroit gardé pour M. de Theligny. Je vous suplye donc, Monsieur, de vouloir soliciter mon dict sieur Conte de fayre que le dit Sieur de Thorese recherche sa delivrance par le moyen de celle de Monsieur de Theligny. Croyes, Monsieur, que l'est un estreme dommage que ce jeune homme passe tant de ses jours en lyeu ou il ne peust fayre paroistre sa vertu, qui sans doute est telle qu'elle ne pouroit estre que tres utile pour le general de tous les gens de bien, et pour le particulyer service de ceus qui l'ont tant oblygé comme vous, Monsieur, que je supplye aussy de me vouloyr tousjours conserver vostre bonne grace: et croyre, s'il vous plaist, que n'en favorises personne qui la tiene plus chere que moy, qui vous honore et desire de vous obeyr comme mon propre pere."— Middelbourg, 24 July.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 91.]
July 14. Sir William Russell to Walsingham.
Has received his of the 11th, and thanks him for his news. Since last writing, has had certain intelligence from Sir Edward Norreys, Captain Sudermann, and others, that the Duke of Parma has made proclamation at Dunkerke, Newport, and amongst his people and soldiers thereabouts, to send away all their women, boys, and children, and be ready to go on board at an hour's warning. All kinds of store and munition, scaling ladders, and other instruments for surprises, lie ready shipped, and without doubt the Duke means to come into Zeeland. Sends a copy of the demands and answers of the English Commissioners and those of the King of Spain, (fn. 8) "being dispersed abroad by great numbers, as I take it, by the States and evil disposed people, to stir and incense the people in all places against her Majesty and our nation . . . I hope the substance of our propositions are otherwise, and that these are devised by evil minded people, but howsoever it is, the people conceive of it very hardly . . . and do allege, both here and at Midelborgh, that the Queen seeks to deliver all the towns under her custody to the King, and that she will join with him for the recovery of the rest. It is also given forth that her Majesty should term them not otherwise than rebels." Knows not whether this be a device of the enemy or of the States, but these people are so hostile "that upon a very small occasion, or none at all, they have begun to enter into terms with us."
Therefore beseeches him to have this town strengthened with more forces, for the townsmen were never so unfriendly, nor made such show of their discontentments as of late. Also, that when things here are well pacified, he may come over immediately. —Vlishing, 14 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1¼ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 78.]
July 15. Edward Burnham to Walsingham.
Immediately after arriving here, he was suddenly taken with his old disease and was forced to send on his honour's letter and his own dispatch to Mr. Killigrew, as well as that which was to be imparted to Count Maurice. Colonel Morgan has sent a trusty man hither, to whom Burnham has imparted his honour's mind. By this man Burnham "received letters, how hardly the Lord General dealeth with him [Morgan], showeth him a fair countenance, but underhand dealeth altogether against him with the States; and complaineth very much of Charles, that was your honour's page, who hath brought divers letters from Sir William Drury to the States, and hath solicited each of them severally, as also in their general assembly, using unto them your honour's name in the behalf of Sir William Drury in such sort as if he had a commission or special charge from your honour to do the same . . . If I were certain that he had no such order . . . [I would] make him remember another time not to use your honour's name, except it were with your privity."
Finds M. St. Alldegonde very willing to go into Holland to do any good offices he can; but "he is grown odious to the States, who have him in great jealousies. He hath written very earnestly to his wife, who is now at Andwerp, to have one of those books that have been written, intending to have perused it and to make some answer to it," but there is not one to be got, and the printer is in prison. St. Alldegonde seems to have no great favour with Count Maurice, which he thinks is because he always persuaded him to a reconciliation with the Earl of Leicester, and to submit himself to her Majesty. So long as Villiers the preacher has credit with the Count, it will be hard to reconcile him and Sir William Russell, as Villiers nourishes this dislike; "who cannot away with our Governor, for that he had given order to have had him apprehended. If your honour would use St. Alldegonde's services in anything, I think he would be very ready, so he might receive some benefit of her Majesty," for he is needy, considering his calling.
"Adrien the armourer is gone to Utrecht and Amsterdam to get your honour's armours done." Has received the letter of credit for 200l. for the same, "upon the company of our merchants." Yesterday, received his of the 11th and will not fail to certify him what all sorts of armour are worth here, as also the price of powder, and what quantity there is here to be had.
With his honour's letter there were divers letters for Holland which he has forwarded. Amongst the rest one to Colonel Scink. Sends an extract [not found] of certain propositions made by her Majesty's Commissioners to the King of Spain's Commissioners, which has been found by the garrison of Bergen upon some prisoners taken between Andwerp and Brussels. Whether this is done by the enemy, of policy, to bring this people in dislike of the English or not, he refers to his honour. It has bred no small impression "in the jealous heads of this wavering people."
The Governor here receives daily advertisements that the enemy means to bend his forces towards this island or the land of Tourgou. Sir William Russell has sent ten of each company in this town to Ostend. During this bruit he will send no more men out of this garrison.—Flussinge, 15 July, 1588.
Postscript. This bearer 'Cutburd' Eringhton, nephew of Captain Nicholas Eringhton, and his lieutenant, is "a very proper and tall gentleman, whose father is lately deceased, and [he] cometh to see into his own estate, and desired me to make him known to your honour . . . He is one that will seek to deserve well. A very honest and valiant gentleman and one that will prove a right soldier."
Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XXV. f. 93.]
July 15. Edward Burnham to Walsingham.
Since his last (by this bearer), hears that they of Gentrubergen continue in a mutiny "and have sent word that unless they may have their money from the States by Wednesday at night last, which was the 10th of this month, that they should keep it, and they would dispose of the place as they thought good. My lord Willoughby about the same is come to Doort." It is credibly reported that they of Husden will do the like. Yesterday a galley came out of Newerhaven by Ysendyck, with twenty oars of a side, but the States' hoys made them retire in again. It is daily reported that the enemy's preparations will light upon some of these islands. The people (by reason of those articles of which he has sent a copy) daily augment their dislike of the English, and the burghers here begin to grow more froward. So to draw more forces from hence cannot but breed great inconvenience: 10 of every company have already gone.—Flussinge, 15 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. ¾p. [Holland XXV. f. 95.]
July 15. Colonel Bax to Walsingham.
Instead of the recommendation of her Majesty bringing him favour and advantage, by the means of certain base fellows who dare to defy her (as well as the Earl of Leicester) his troop of horse has been disbanded, in requital, as they say, for his journey into England. Finds himself left in very evil case, as he gave up his patrimony for the service of God and of the late Prince of Orange, and has since pledged the lands and effects of his wife in order to raise a company of horse, by commission from the Earl of Leicester. He did not doubt—Leicester being the Lieutenant-General of so powerful a Queen—that if the Estates should fail him, he would be supported as being known for a devoted servant of her Majesty. Feels therefore that he may justly have recourse to her, humbly praying for his honour's favour to this end. His Excellency himself can testify to Bax's humble, constant and devoted good will towards her Majesty, which he prays her to consider of. Has never been wanting in fidelity to her Lieutenant-General, in accordance with his oath. The Estates pursuant to her recommendation would then replace him in his government and restore to him his regiment.—Utrecht, 15 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal. French. 1½ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 23.]


  • 1. Cf. H.M.C., Ancaster MSS., pp. 159 160: Japikse, Resolution der StatenGeneraal, vi. 76 seq.
  • 2. Cited by Motley, United Netherlands, ii. 383–5, as addressed to Burghley.
  • 3. Cited in Motley, United Netherlands, ii. 381–2.
  • 4. Cited in Motley, United Netherlands, ii. 381.
  • 5. Cf. Cotton MSS., Nero, B. ix. 139, 144.
  • 6. Quoted in Conyers Read, Walsingham, iii. 308.
  • 7. Cf. H.M.C., Ancaster MSS., pp. 155, 157, 159.
  • 8. Possibly the copy calendared at p. 29, above.