Elizabeth: July 1588, 16-20

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 22, July-December 1588. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.

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'Elizabeth: July 1588, 16-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 22, July-December 1588, (London, 1936), pp. 50-64. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol22/pp50-64 [accessed 17 June 2024].

. "Elizabeth: July 1588, 16-20", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 22, July-December 1588, (London, 1936) 50-64. British History Online, accessed June 17, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol22/pp50-64.

. "Elizabeth: July 1588, 16-20", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 22, July-December 1588, (London, 1936). 50-64. British History Online. Web. 17 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol22/pp50-64.

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July 1588, 16-20

July 16. The Privy Council to Sir John Conway, Governor of Ostend. (fn. 1)
They are informed that the victuals there will decay if kept longer. He is therefore to give order to Henry Cocke, the victualler, to issue them weekly to the companies in garrison there, and also a weekly imprest in money.—The Court at Richmond, 16 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal. One of the Conway papers. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 102.]
Minute of the above, dated July 14, and certified as compared with the original by A. Ashley [clerk of the Council].
Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XXV. f. 80.]
July 16. Lord Wyllughby to Walsingham.
On the 13th he received, aboard his ship before Gertrudenbergh, Walsingham's letters "to solicit the States for better victualling of their ships sent over, which I immediately communicated to the Count Maurice, who promised that they should still be victualled from one fortnight to another," as they cannot carry above a month's provision at once. Has to stay here to perfect affairs, so has sent Walsingham's letters to Mr. Killigree at the Hagh and required him to get the States' resolution, which Wyllughby will send as soon as he gets it. On the 15th Wyllughby's servant, Buck, arrived with letters from the lords and Walsingham, with answers by way of postilles to his reasons propounded to their lordships, to whom he returns answer herewith. (fn. 2) —"Aboard my ship before Gertrudenberg," 16 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland XXV. f. 96.]
July 17. The Queen to the Commissioners.
Has seen Dr. Dale's account of their proceedings with the Duke of Parma and is in no sort satisfied with the Duke's answer or with their manner of dealing. Thinks it therefore not honourable to proceed in the treaty until a more satisfactory answer is obtained. They shall acquaint the Duke's Commissioners with his "slight and ambiguous" answer, and demand satisfaction on the following points:—
First, touching the book entitled An Admonition etc., contrived by the traitor, Dr. Allen, and the Pope's bull, lately printed at Antwerpe in English and intended to be scattered through England during the invasion. Her Majesty can easily believe that the Duke has not read it, being in English, but she cannot believe that he has not heard of it.
Secondly, whereas the Duke alleged that he had nothing to do with the book, nor to 'let' men from printing or writing as they pleased, her Majesty finds it strange that, having the absolute government there, and all governors being expected, even in times of greatest enmity, to prevent any publication touching the honour of neighbouring princes, he should give so careless and slender an answer, especially after all his professions of good will towards her and of disregard for what the Pope should set forth.
Thirdly, her Majesty expected him to answer plainly whether or not he had any commandment from the King to invade her realm, even in the midst of the treaty.
As no satisfactory answer to these points has been given, the Commissioners shall require the Commissioners of the Duke to seek immediate satisfaction from him under his own hand, firstly that he has no direction from the King of Spain or the Pope to invade her realm and dispossess her of her crown; and secondly that during this treaty and for 20 days afterwards nothing shall be attempted directly or indirectly against her realm by the forces serving under him in those countries.
They may justify these demands by the fact that her Majesty is credibly informed that the plot to deprive her of her crown was agreed upon by the King of Spain and the Pope long before the Duke's commission was signed. If they have decided that she is unfit to reign they cannot honourably treat with her. The following reasons move her to believe in the existence of this plot:—(1) that the Duke had no commission to treat until two months after her Commissioners' arrival, his refusal to yield a cessation of arms in convenient and accustomed sort, the denial to her of the choice of place despite his previous promises; (2) the concentration of his forces on the Flemish coast, and their continuance there without attempting anything elsewhere; (3) the setting out of a great army by sea in Spain to join with these forces in Flanders for the enterprise; (4) the delay, and continual advertisements touching the attempt, confirmed by intercepted letters and the open speeches of his own camp; and (5) the present repair to him of her lewd and traitorous subjects, declared rebels, this being done by the King's commandment signified to them through Mendoza, the ambassador in France.
After this declaration they shall say that the King and the Duke will be much deceived if they hope that fear will cause her to accept any conditions not sufficient and honourable. With the protection of Almighty God and those means which He has given her, she awaits with confidence the outcome of such an assault, being comforted by the testimony of a good conscience— for she has never coveted other princes' dominions, notwithstanding sundry great offers, as her proceedings in Scotland and the Low Countries show. She is also comforted by the knowledge that God will never prosper an enterprise instigated by rebels and traitors, whatsoever show of religion they make. Their false information that they have great parties in the realm and that her subjects are withdrawing their goodwill from her, is manifestly disproved by their great forwardness in preparing both by sea and land to withstand all foreign enemies, being moved thereunto not only by their love for her Majesty but also by the common bruit of the said invasion to reduce the realm to subjection to a stranger, a matter so much disliked that her subjects of all sorts and religions ("yea, by no small number of them that are known to be addicted to the Romish religion") (fn. 3) are resolved to employ their goods and to hazard their lives to avert it. They shall conclude by saying that if the Duke will yield the required satisfaction in all points, her Majesty is content that the treaty shall proceed without further delay; otherwise they shall return immediately. Yet, that the world may see her reluctance to shed Christian blood, her Majesty can be content, when these great forces are dispersed, to renew the treaty of peace, provided the King will then send his Commissioners into her realm, as she has now sent hers into his dominions.
Minute. Endd. "17 July, 1588. M. to the LL. the Commissioners: signed but stayed by her Majesty's order. A." 6 pp. [Flanders IV. f. 271.]
July 17. M. Buzenval to Burghley.
Was prevented by Burghley's indisposition from presenting to him the enclosed letter from M. du Fay and the brief relation [not found] of his proceedings in the Low Countries on behalf of the King of Navarre. Du Fay has treated with the Estates for their loan of 30,000 crowns towards a levy of reisters, which the said King intends to make as soon as possible in Germany. Their conditions are that the loan shall be delivered to agents who have a procuration from the King of Navarre, and can show that some prince or seigneur of Germany is willing to conclude an agreement for the levy. In return the Estates shall be given the King of Navarre's bond upon his lands and lordships in Flanders, as security for the loan; and the King shall promise not to treat of peace in France without their deputies being present, so that they may derive some advantage from the matter for their own affairs. They are not bound by their promise beyond January, and if the conditions are not then fulfilled they need not make the loan, unless by a new treaty.
They have sent Count Hohenlo and two of their own body with M. du Fay to the German Princes, to urge them to join in a counter-league against that of the Pope and the King of Spain, or at least to contribute towards the advancement of the present affair. M. du Fay greatly desires that her Majesty would lend her support to the embassy by sending some qualified gentleman of her own to the Princes. Doubtless, were an ambassador of hers empowered to employ some good sum in the said levy, the journey would yield very apparent safety to the affairs of France, now almost desperate; and bring such despair and confusion to those of the League and the King of Spain as to divert all his enterprises from England in order to support the party on whom he depends so much in France. Wise and well-affectioned statesmen such as Burghley should now put forth the resources of the States in which they hold authority, to prevent the aggrandisement of the House of Guise.
Sent word lately of the peace made by the Guises with the King. It is now published at Rouen. It is great folly to expect from this Prince more vigour in peace than he showed in war against the Leaguers. A Louis XI might possibly have done otherwise, and changed at the last from patience into fury, but this King has allowed the League to turn his fury into coldness. His most powerful servants are, moreover, even more feeble than himself, and most of them devoted to the League. Indeed, some of them use this infirmity of their master (of which they themselves are the cause) as an argument to persuade the King of Navarre to join the Pope's party, since ho sees himself half ruined by the too great trust which he has put in the party of the King—and the rather because he has been abandoned by all foreign princes. If her Majesty continued in the same resolution wherein he found her a year ago, he would have no further anxiety for this Prince or his fortunes. He may perhaps otherwise be tempted to seek new friends, while he still has some little strength left, for when he shall be destitute of all he can expect no better fate than the King of Portugal.
Little is needed to turn a balance so finely adjusted as are the affairs of France to-day, but her Majesty will not always be able with small means to turn that kingdom in the direction which she desires. The retreat or delays of the Spanish army gives her just now a breathing time in which she may use the present opportunity in France, where parties are forming themselves anew, and will gain confidence if they see that she is aiding, however little, the King of Navarre. She will cut out so much work in France for the Pope and the Spaniard, and at so cheap a rate, that the King of Spain will never hazard his forces at sea while he sees his fortune so shaken on land.
Prays Burghley, therefore, to take some fresh course, upon these new accidents. The King of Spain has taken fresh courage from the late occurence at Paris and will be even more emboldened by this disastrous royal peace. But if her Majesty will look to it in time, a little pin-prick given by her will burst this bubble.
Let her only put a little fresh courage into the King of Navarre, who has now the means to employ to advantage a good succour, having somewhat reorganized his forces and recovered his breath during the quarrels of the League.
To this end, the gentleman that her Majesty shall send to Germany should go by way of Rochelle, where he would learn the means and intentions of the King of Navarre; and then he should go into Languedoc where he would do the like as to M. de Montmorenci and the Duke d' Espernon. From thence the way would be short and easy to Geneva, into Switzerland, and so into Germany. The poor Low Countries contribute of their poverty. It may be answered that they are sick, and therefore seek all means to cure themselves; but it is better to purge oneself while in health than to wait until overtaken by illness. Her Majesty has a thousand times more power than the Low Countries to aid them in their present state, and quite as much interest. The will only is lacking, and a consideration of the advantages of such a resolution should remedy this want. With the support of Burghley's sound judgment and goodwill to the King of Navarre, doubts not that her Majesty's recent decision to forget them entirely (nous mettre aux péchés oubliés) will speedily be altered.— London, 17 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley as "with a letter from M. du Fay." French. 2½ pp. close writing. [France XVIII. 129.]
Copy of the above, dated 16 July with an additional sentence that the King of France is to leave next Friday for St. Germain en Laye, where the Queen and the Duke of Guise await him.
Endd. 18 July. French. 2½ pp. close writing. [France XVIII. 128.]
July 17. Willughby to the Privy Council. (fn. 4)
Understands by their last that the captains absent from their charges here "have been employed there for the viewing and training of such forces as for the present occasions were to be levied." Has previously advertised them of the inconvenience that may ensue thereby, "wherein the charge will light upon her Majesty, for that the States (as they made protestation) will never make allowance for any of them. So it may please your lordships . . . to give order that, in case the same captains shall be there employed, their companies may be bestowed upon such persons of desert in these parts as shall be thought most worthy the same; wherein your lordships may be informed by a list from the council at wars here . . . ."
"I have also, according to your directions by the said letters, acquainted the States with her Majesty's pleasure in the behalf of Sir Martin Schenck for the government of Gertrudenbergh, but of such nature and humours are the people there as neither the States nor myself can prevail to draw them to any other conditions than they like of; and the States (for the assurance of the place, which otherwise had been utterly lost) are fain to condescend unto them in all things; as your lordships may partly perceive by the articles which I send herewith. (fn. 5) And when it was but propounded unto them in the behalf of Schenck, they generally made protestation against him that they disliked more of him than [of] Count Hollock, and that they would not in any sort accept of him."
"Yet, nevertheless, that the said Schenck might be the better persuaded how earnestly and faithfully I had dealt in his behalf, I granted him a passport under my hand and seal (yet extant) wherein I made declaration of her Majesty's pleasure to have him governor of the town. But he would not accept of it unless I would undertake to put him into the town, which I could not by any means do . . . . Schenck sent his man thither to be better informed of their meaning, whom they imprisoned and kept in irons seven days, and would then have executed him also, if better means had not been procured for him by some others. And I doubt not but when her Majesty and your lordships shall be well informed of the state of the place . . . it will not seem strange nor give occasion of offence that he is refused. With your lordships' letters I have received answer by way of postiles to my reasons before propounded, whereunto in all obedience I will conform myself." Doubts not that they will allow him to choose a lieutenant agreable to himself.—"From my ship before Gertrudenbergh," 17 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 104.]
(1) "Articles demandez par le garnison de Gertrudenberghe pour leur asseurance, avecq les appostilles appostilez sur icelles par son Excellence de Nassau icy et le sieur Baron de Willughby," 26 July, 1588, stilo novo.
1. A remittal and amnesty of all former doings.
2. The numbers there accorded to be continued under the government of the lord Willughby or his deputy.
3. To be reputed and taken as part of her Majesty's forces, and to be in like sort provided for, for pay."
4. To have passports for such as after six months will depart.
5. To be excused from services abroad under the commandment of the Count of Hohenlo.
6. The violators of this accord to be severely punished by the Conservators.
Endd. French. 4½ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 88.]
(2) Abstract of the above articles, with a clause added that the garrison shall remain in the town unless employed for the Queen and country by lord Willoughby's command.
Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XXV. f. 149.]
(3) Translation of an Act of 16/26 July containing promises by Willughby. The garrison of Gertruydenbergh raised objections at the apostile to their second article given yesterday by his Excellency [Count Maurice] and the Baron of Willughby. Fresh alterations arose, according to the written advertisement of the Commissary Lancelot Parasis and the oral declaration of the garrison's deputies who brought it to his Excellency. The garrison determined to remain together in the town. The deputies of the nobles and towns of Holland who were sent hither, found it difficult to resolve finally upon that point (which concerned the securing of the town for the province of Holland) without first consulting his Excellency, as Governor and CaptainGeneral of Holland and with a great interest in the town, and Willughby, Lieutenant and Governor-General of her Majesty's succours, who, at the States' request, had begun the negotiation with the garrison. His Excellency, his lordship, and the deputies of the Council of State, after due consideration, advise by these presents that:
1. The garrison should remain in garrison at Gertruydenberg under such order and oath as his lordship shall appoint.
2. His lordship shall assure the Estates that he will draw only one cornet of horse from those who present themselves for service at the next muster; and that he will never increase this.
3. Similarly, for only one company of footmen.
4. That his lordship shall appoint loyal and peaceable officers.
5. That they shall take an oath. The payment of the cornet of horse and the company of footmen to be assigned upon the contribution of the countryside [plat pays] of Brabant, as the Council of State shall appoint.
6. That his lordship shall go in person with the commissaries to establish such order as is requisite, both among soldiers and burghers.
7. The garrison to give hostages for the safety of his Excellency, his lordship and others, and for the money, until the payment be made, the companies drawn up, and all brought into good order.
Aboard the fleet before Gertruydenbergh, 26 July, 1588. Signed by Maurice of Nassau and P. Wyllughby.
The deputies of the nobles and towns [of Holland], having received this counsel, have decided—in view of the importance of the matter and the need for haste as well as in regard of the offer of Dordrecht to repay to the other towns their money should Geertruydenbergh be lost after the payment has been made—to adopt the said counsel, and to pay over the money.—Aboard the fleet at Geertruydenbergh, 26 July, 1588.
Copy. Endd. French. 3¾ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 98.]
Another copy of the above.
Dutch. 4 pp. [Holland XXV. f. 100.]
July 17. J. Ortell to Burghley.
Her Majesty having granted licence to those of Middelborowe to buy and transport twelve cast-iron pieces of ordnance for their defence, John Phillips has made ready the mould and arms, but will not cast them without his lordship's warrant. Prays that this may be speedily sent, the work having been already begun by direction of Michael Leeman and others, appointed by the said town to provide and pay for the same.—London, 17 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland XXV. f. 108.]
July 18. Lord Wyllughby to the Privy Council. (fn. 6)
Received news to-day that Berck is blocked up. Two English captains, Blunt and Sherley, are there with their companies. They had refused to go to Berghes and other places, and when Willoughby was at Ostend they petitioned the Council of State and Mr. Killigree to be appointed to the garrison of Berck. Willoughby, being too busy at Ostend to consider particularly of their request, gave his assent when he received Killigree's letters. "Since they first entered the town I have not by letter or otherwise heard from them, either of their estates or what service had been done until now this day, when I am so greatly employed about the full assuring of this place as I cannot yet advise what means may be had to relieve them. Nevertheless I have written to Count Maurice about the same, with purpose to leave no means unessayed which may be found fit to help them, whose forwardness to be in place of service I cannot blame. Yet if the town should be lost, or they miscarry, I hope your lordships will clear me from the same . . ."—Gertrudenbergh, 18 July, 1588.
Postscript.—The bearer is a gentleman Willoughby has employed in Flanders, and can acquaint their lordships with matters of great importance.
Signed. Add. Endd. 2/3 p. [Holland XXV. f. 112.]
July 17. Sir William Russell to Walsingham.
"By reason of the long want of pay, very many honest burghers of this town and of the town of Midelboroughe have this great while forborne such great sums of money due unto them by the captains and soldiers of this garrison and of other places that they are utterly undone. Wherefore, upon their going over, they have desired me to address these few lines to your honour in their behalfs, that it would please your honour to have good consideration of their poor estates . . . . and to yield them your favour and furtherance that either their bills may be satisfied by the Treasurer now at their being there or else that your honour would hasten over pay until the 12th of October. Otherwise . . . [they] shall have just cause to exclaim on us and our nation." Prays him to be mindful of his suit to return over, and "be quitted of this troublesome and chargeable place . . . . "— Vlisshing. 17 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. ¾ p. [Holland XXV. f. 106.]
July 17/27. Paul Knibbe to Walsingham.
Expresses his gratitude for the favour shown in recommending the business, which M. de Meetkerke, his father-in-law, has pursued in his name, for his advancement to the service of some Prince in Germany, or to the syndicate of the English nation trading at Staden.
It is here held for certain that the Spanish fleet has returned to its ports, by ten, twenty and thirty vessels at a time. The enemy in Flanders, however still holds a great armada in readiness, and four regiments of Germans have recently arrived under a noble of the house of Austria. Believes this is one of the sons of the Archduke Ferdinand. This army is lodged in tents along the dunes on both sides of Dunkerke, beginning at Nieuport. They are well supplied with provisions, but no one knows where they are to be employed. Some people in Ostend continually report news of a certain peace, and even spread abroad articles said to have been proposed by her Majesty since entering into the conference. According to these articles she offers to restore the towns belonging to the King of Spain which she now holds; to join her forces with his to compel acceptance of the peace; and, in the matter of Religion, stipulates only for liberty of conscience, without free exercise. This is so against the views of all in this country that they cannot tell whether to believe it or not, and it keeps them in such suspense, that they know not what to decide. Has seen letters from Aix, which state that the Duke of Lorraine had blockaded the towns of Esdan and Jamais, and that those of Esdan had in a sortie lost 80 men, and as many prisoners, but that the horsemen escaped into the town. Also that those of Bonn often make sorties against the forces of the Prince de Chimay. Common report speaks of the imprisonment of the said Prince.
They write from Heydelberg that Duke John Casimir, has ordered M. de la Noue with 20,000 Swiss and other Germans to relieve the besieged towns. There is an unlikely report here, that the town of Metz and other places in the Pays Messin will declare against the Lorrainers, in favour of the King of Navarre, or (as others say) of the Duc d'Epernon. Nothing is done in this country, and there seems to be a secret truce, there is so much coming and going without hindrance from here to Antwerp and into all parts of Flanders. The only war is that of the freebooters, who collect troops from all the garrisons, sometimes carrying off good prisoners, often also remaining to their own sorrow.
Hears that Count Maurice has gone towards Gertrudenberg, to take the money promised to the garrison there, and to make them evacuate the town. This has angered them again, for by the capitulation they were promised that they should remain there two years. Does not yet know the outcome of it, but expects that it will quiet down. Means in two days to go towards Holland and from thence to embark for Bremen or Hamburg. Offers his services there.—Flushing, 27 July, 1588, stilo novo.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. 2½ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 110.]
July 18. The Deputies of the States of Friesland to Walsingham.
Were sent by the States of Oostergoe and Westergoe and the Ommelands with letters to her Majesty, touching her ambassador's propositions upon the treaty of peace. They were to assure her of their desire to conform themselves to her pleasure. Upon their arrival here they presented letters to her Majesty's Lieutenant desiring his recommendation to her Highness. They now learn that there is practically no hope of a peace, that her Majesty's Commissioners are returning, and that the war-preparations on both sides are so great that a more bloody war is the most likely outcome of the treaty. Presumably the King of Spain and the Duke of Parma were using the negotiations only to amuse her Majesty until their preparations were complete. Accordingly they think it best to return and report to the said States, rather than to cross the seas in a time so dangerous to travellers. To inform her Majesty of the said States' resolution they send the enclosed letters [not found], which they pray Walsingham to communicate to her and to beg her to continue her favour towards their province and the common cause.—The Hague, 18 July, 1588.
Signed. Sixtus Dekema and Goslich Hiddas. Add. Endd. Seal. French. 2 pp. [Holland XXV. f. 116.]
July 18/28. B. Combes to Walsingham.
His obligations to Walsingham compel him to write.
Bonn is now blockaded so closely that none can get in or out. Colonel Sinquer [Schenck] is at the Hague urging the Estates to relieve it, but help thence is unlikely, for they are themselves so ill-agreed that, unless her Majesty bestir herself, all things will go badly. No one could better reconcile them than Walsingham, if her Majesty would send him over for a month or two.
The Prince of Parma still pursues his design of attacking the islands of Zealand and Holland. Colonel Senoy is here at the Hague and intends to resign his government to the Estates. Count Maurice went this morning from hence to Gertrenberghen to pay 200,000 florins down to the garrison there: this greatly hinders their preparations against the enemy
A merchant from Cologne told Combes that if her Majesty does not withdraw her ambassadors, they will be made to retire as ignominiously as possible, or else held prisoners by the Prince of Parma, as the Prince of Liege has suggested doing—The Hague, 28 July, 1588, stilo novo.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. 2 pp. [Holland XXV. f. 118.]
July 19. Lord Wyllughby to Burghley.
Introducing the bearer, a gentleman whom he has of late employed into Flanders, and who can deliver to his lordship matters of importance which he has there observed. Doubts not, if he will hear the said gentleman in private, that his lordship "will conceive that his good carriage and endeavours have deserved well."—Gertrudenbergh, 19 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Endorsed by Maynard, "By one who hath lately been in Flanders, named Wyat." ¼ p. [Holland XXV. f. 120.]
July 19. H. Kyllygrew to Burghley.
Enclosed in his last, of the 2nd inst., letters from M. d'Aldegonde and Roells, both signifying "the mishap fallen out in the search of that traitorous pamphlet whereof I sent your lordship before a copy; and withal desiring to have the money disbursed by the church of Antwerpe paid back again." The Pensionary Roells now insists on it more earnestly. Knows not what answer to return him and therefore desires direction from his lordship. Encloses "certain notes [not found] to conjecture the spreaders of that libel; and the pictures of the Cardinal Allen's factor, and the Jesuit by whose means the books are to come abroad . . . ."
Margin; holograph. "I would have sent the like to Mr. Doctor Dale, if I knew how, but since the Commissioners parted from Ostend I could neither send to them safely nor hear from them."—The Haghe, 19 July, '88.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland XXV. f. 122.]
July 19/29. Newsletter from Salzburch.
The wars are altogether intended upon England, and no appearance of any peace. The Pope's bull against the Queen has been published in the church in the presence of the lord of Saltzburg, depriving her of all her titles and granting them to the Spanish King, with conditions that he shall accept the said dominions and people, make war upon them and subdue them. But with the condition that his Majesty, after he shall have incorporated the said countries, shall yield to the state of Rome a yearly pension and be tributary and feudatory as is the kingdom of Naples. To prosecute this war the Pope has yielded a million of ducats, one half payable at the departure of the army, and the other when it shall be arrived in England and have taken some principal haven there.
11/8 pp. [Newsletters XXVII. 24.]
July 20. Stafford to Walsingham.
The Queen Mother, who went to Mantes with promise to this town to bring the King hither, returned on Thursday having (contrary to her promise) so much altered him that whereas he had tarried 14 or 15 days at Mantes, the next day but one after she came thither he departed for Chartres, there to tarry till midAugust, expecting his mother's return, and the coming of the Duke of Guise and of the provost, merchants, and eschevins of this town. "But for to come to this town, he both earnestly requested her not to move him in it, and also hath openly declared it that he will never take them to love him that speak unto him of it."
"The Queen Mother came hither marvellous shrewdly against her will, for she had carried all that she had away, and all hers, and never meant to come to the town again without the King: but the King would needs have it so, and that she having been the dealer in all, the Duke of Guise and they of this town would carry themselves more confidently with her," so she was forced to obey his will.
Yesterday she went again out of this town, and the Duke of Guise and Cardinal Bourbon with her. The eschevins and provost of merchants went yesterday morning, and all are to arrive at Chartres to-morrow, "the Queen Mother still keeping them in assurance that, acknowledging themselves dutiful subjects and that they have faulted, that she doth assure herself the King shall return presently amongst them." On Friday she made them resolve to go, and all the captains "have signed in her hands in the King's name their union with the King, and taken their oaths anew again unto the King to acknowledge nobody but him, and to be directed and follow his commandments and nobody's else."
"The priests and preachers of this town and the mutinous number have been greatly against the Duke of Guise's going unto the King and have been importunate upon him with prayers and supplications not to go, and his own followers have provoked it, and are gone with no stomach at all." He and the Cardinal of Bourbon have not 60 horse in all their train.
The Count Soissons arrived at Mantes the same day as the Queen Mother. He has desired pardon of the King for going away without his leave, and the King has both pardoned him and used him with all courtesies and show of love. "Besides, the Queen regnant refusing to see him because of the death of M. de Joyeuse (whom, was told her, was cause he was killed) the King made her to see him and to make much of him, and instructed the Count Soissons what language to use unto her about Joyeuse's death. He parted from thence the same morning that the King did depart to come to Chartres, the King continuing his good usage unto him and having made him promise to come to Bloys."
"At the Queen Mother's coming, they made Monsieur Mompensier to sign the Union, but with two protestations: the one so that it touched nothing to the hurt of his house; the other reserving the help of his niece of Bouillion for Sedan and Jametz, whom, being appointed by the dead tutor, he would not abandon, promising notwithstanding to do what he could to bring both her and her States by good means to the Catholic Religion. The Count Soyssons signed it also, with the same protestation for his house."
The King has sent Miron, his physician, to M. d' Epernon to have him sign these articles and to demand the resignation of his places of chief gentleman of the Chamber, of the Admiralty, of the government of Metz and of that of Boullen. However as the man is one that the King trusts as he does himself and whom the League hates, it is thought he carries rather instructions to Epernon how to refuse, than commandment absolutely to grant these demands. Espernon is now in Angoulesme, having left Loches greatly fortified and furnished. He was there when Count Soyssons passed and had conference with him. He has three prisoners "that should have enterprised against him; the one, the King gave him notice of."
"What will come of these meetings at Chartres, which nobody looketh any good of (but for my part, I do not think will at this time breed any alteration) I will send you word very speedily," having sent one purposely thither. "In the mean time I can assure you that though there be an union made in protestation and writing, I never saw minds more disunited, nor anything more laughed at. There is one thing here marked, . . . that at the very instant when these articles were signed, where there was continually afore the fairest weather that could be, there began the 'boisterest' storm that could be, and perpetual foul weather, without any fair day, hath continued ever since."
The Spanish ambassador has as yet had no courier, but says he has news that it [sc. the Armada] is still at the Groyne. Two days ago Stafford received letters from Rochelle of the 12th, French account. M. de Plessis writes that they have certain news that the Spanish army had been sorely beaten, but did not say whether by fight or weather; "that they were retired, dispersed, into the havens of Biscay and Galicia, that most of their furniture was landed, evil handled, and not possible that it should set forth again this year." From Nantes, letters of the 21st, received yesterday, say that they are retired into divers havens, and have lost a great galleass and six other great ships.
Sends such news as he has from Sedan, but knows not how true it is. Especially doubts that of the matters of Lorraine.
"We have promise, as the King parteth from Chartres to Bloys, that we shall follow him, which he saith will be the 16th of this [next] month.—Paris, 20 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [France XVIII. 131].
July 20. M. De Chasteauneuf to Burghley.
Praying that a letter may be written to the Admiral of England for the delivery of a Scottish ship laden with corn, which was met at sea by her Majesty's fleet, and carried into 'Derthemouth,' where it now is. The goods belong to two merchants of Paris, Valentin and Nicolas Targer, who loaded the corn in the port of Dieppe, for transport to Lisbon.
Unsigned and undated. Endd. by Burghley's clerk "20 July, 1588, The French ambassador. For the release of a Scottish ship at 'Plimmouthe'" [sic]. French. ½ p. [France XVIII. 132.]
July 20. Buzenval to Walsingham.
Has read and considered the articles of peace which his honour sent him by M. Geoffrey.
It is very needful (as wisely advised by her Majesty) to watch the business of Boulogne. Knows from a good source that they have their eye much upon that place, and that they are in communication with the Prince of Parma concerning it. They will do their utmost to change the Governor, and put in one who is at their devotion, which they may easily do, seeing that they have made the King accept many more unreasonable conditions.
Thus the bearer, M. Papillon, has come very opportunely to be sent at once to the said M. de Bernet, for he is very faithful and secret, and has managed several such matters without being suspected. He must, however, be able to show M. de Bernet that he speaks by authority of the Queen of England as well as of the King of Navarre, for the Sieur de Guyselyn, who is already there, desired such credit.
Sends M. Papillon to his honour that he may give him the addresses and tokens by which he may prove to the Sieur de Bernet that he is acknowledged by the Queen, and that her Majesty sends him in favour of M. d' Espernon. Desires that he may have these credentials.—London, 20 July.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. ¾ p. [France XVIII. 130.]
July 20. George Gilpin to Walsingham.
Immediately after writing his last, lord Willoughby sent for him to come to the 'float' before Geertrudenberg. When everything was to all intents agreed upon, he went with him into the town to see it carried out. "Before they would yield unto any order whatsoever in respect of government or commandment, they would be paid, and that upon such rolls as by themselves was set down; every one to be paid the twenty months that had served the States so long in any place, and those [who] had served less to be paid according to the time they could prove to have served. And this to be tried by their fellows upon their oaths, or with passports of the captains whereunder they had served. And this course the Commissaries were forced to observe . . . During which payment their government by deputies did still continue, and what question fell out in the payment was decided by them, with interposition of his lordship's authority. They have determined to have over them all English captains, and for the other officers, each company shall choose his own." Is sure his lordship acquaints Walsingham with other particulars, sending copies and translations on which he (Gilpin) has been continually busy.
"For other news, we have here few, being a side town and no passage." Earnestly desires that if possible some small sum may be 'prested' to him for answering the debts he has been forced to make in this service. —Geertruydenberghe, 20 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1¼ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 124.]


  • 1. Printed in Acts of the Privy Council, xvi. 164–5, under date July 14.
  • 2. For this answer see Bertie, Five Generations of a Loyal House, pp. 203–6.
  • 3. These words inserted by Burghley.
  • 4. Cited in Bertie, Five Generations of a Loyal House, pp. 206–7.
  • 5. For these negotiations cf. H.M.C., Ancaster MSS., pp. 162–7.
  • 6. Most of this letter is quoted in Bertie, Five Generations of a Loyal House, p. 207.