Elizabeth: May 1560, 1-5

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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, 'Elizabeth: May 1560, 1-5', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561, (London, 1865) pp. 1-24. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol3/pp1-24 [accessed 30 May 2024].

. "Elizabeth: May 1560, 1-5", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561, (London, 1865) 1-24. British History Online, accessed May 30, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol3/pp1-24.

. "Elizabeth: May 1560, 1-5", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561, (London, 1865). 1-24. British History Online. Web. 30 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol3/pp1-24.


May 1560, 1-5

A.D. 1560. May 1.
Haynes, p. 301.
1. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 1)
By a letter from Grey sent herewith, Cecil will perceive the forwardness they are in, and also how they think good to defer all things until Leith is taken. Grey writes that he has not been answered concerning the relinquishment of the Queen's league and pledges of Scotland, to which the writer willed him in no case to deal with the matter, till they know the Queen's pleasure, yet he would be loath to hear that the Queen would give place to their request. The Bishop of Valence arrived here yesternight, and infringed his safe conduct; for his passport extended but for eight or ten days, and he did not return before the 11th. If he be as choleric at Court as he has been here he can soon be put to silence by Cecil saying if extremity were taken he might be a prisoner. He refers the whole matter to Killigrew's report, who he thinks will so prolong the journey that the Bishop shall not arrive there for three days. When Chaperon comes the writer will stay him four or five days, "and yet it shall be cleanly handled." Lord Hume with others of the Marches have come in to the number of 300 horses. He thinks the last mass of treasure will not make full pay for two months, considering the charge that will arise by the bands that are entertained of the Scots, and also that Grey would in no case grant the dismissing of any of the horses.—Berwick, 1 May 1560. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 1. 2. Norfolk to Cecil.
1. Encloses a letter from Grey which has arrived this morning announcing the sudden breaking out of a fire in Leith. Whether it chanced with or against the will of the French it skills not; for if they do it "for the nonst," thinking to go to the citadel, they mind nothing but to put off their caps and yield.—Berwick, 1 May 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—The Scots Lords marvellously come in upon this sudden fire.
Orig. Hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 1. 3. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. Have received his letters of April 30, encouraging them to hasten the enterprise. Whereas they wrote that their pieces should be planted this night past, their trenches were so drowned with rain, which made the earth so deep and dirty that it would not sustain the weight of the pieces, as Sir Richard Lee can witness. But this night there is no doubt of the placing of their battery ready to execute at the dawn of day. Trust that they will be ready on Saturday next for the assault, the order whereof they send in a schedule herewith. Lord Grey thanks the Duke for his honourable remembrance of his son Arthur, who is past the danger of his hurt.—Camp before Leith, 1 May 1560. Signed: Grey, Scrope, Sadler, Croftes.
2. P. S.—They ask him to write to the Lords of the Coun- cil in favour of Captain Vaughan for the suits that he has of them; he has shown himself a worthy valiant soldier and wise gentleman.
Orig. Add.: Delivered at the camp at 8 p.m. May Day. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 1. 4. Clough's Memoranda.
Heads of a "declaration unto Cecil by Richard Clough" respecting the seven ships in Zealand, the 4,300 soldiers at Arras, Douai, and S. Omer's, the levying of money in Flanders and Holland, the death of the Prince of Pied- mont, the provision of wheat at Bremen for King Philip, the examination of the friar, "the party" of 300,000 guil- ders made by Hans Keck with the Duchess, the 25,000l. to be received of the English merchants, the shipping of 3,000l. from Hamburgh, the making of five or six mills for powder, the payments by Jasper Schetts, of 20,000 [?] bow- staves to be delivered free in England, the sending of one into Holland, the state of King Philip in the Netherlands for money and munition, the scarcity of munition in the Netherlands, Eastland, Hungary, and Bohemia, and the muni- tions taken out of the King's armoury.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 1 May. Declaration of Richard Clough. Pp. 2.
May 2.
Forbes, 1. 419.
5. The King of France to the Queen.
Letter of credence for the Sieur de Randan, a gentleman of his chamber.—Chenonceau, 2 May 1560. Signed: Francoys, —De l'Aubespine.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Broadside. Fr.
[May 2.]
Labanoff, vii. 288.
6. The French Queen to Elizabeth.
Letters of credence for the Bishop of Valence, who is coming to treat of certain matters connected with the preservation of peace. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: May 1560. Fr. Pp. 2.
[May 2.] 7. The Queen Mother of France to Queen Elizabeth.
The Bishop of Valence being about to visit the Queen, the writer has entrusted him with certain matters to be communicated to her; she asks credence for him. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 2. 8. Commission of Francis and Mary. (fn. 2)
Commission to the Bishops of Valence and Amiens, MM. de la Brosse, d'Oysel, Charles de Rochefoucauld, Seigneur de Randan, instructing them to go to Scotland and negociate for the restoration of amity between France and England.— Chenonceau, 2 May 1560. Signed.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 3.
May 2. 9. Another copy of the above.
Fr. Pp. 2.
May 2. 10. Throckmorton to the Council.
Knows nothing of the stay of the French King's couriers, and complains of the capture of his servant and letters at Rue, neither of which have been returned to him. Has been fain to send Francisco Thomaso to the Queen by the long way of Flanders. Thinks that if the taking and killing of his first man had not been so lightly passed over, they would not have used this one so. Doubts, whatsoever be said by the Cardinal for his setting at liberty, that he is not so well used as they would make believe. Is informed that the greatest at the Court say that the English are easy enough to deal with, and that there are practices for stealing away their hostages, which they hoped to do before this; and this made them bold to take his servant.—Amboise, 2 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. A few passages in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 2. 11. Norfolk and Sir Francis Leek to Cecil.
The fire that he wrote of yesterday, which was in Leith, is quenched, and as it can be judged happened by chance. Hopes that it is a sign of good luck. Cecil may perceive by Lord Grey's letter that on Saturday next they mind to give the assault, a copy of the order whereof he encloses. Prays him to further Mr. Vaughan's suits at the Council board, as he has well deserved by his great travail.—Berwick, 2 May 1560. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 2. 12. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. They perceive by his letter of the 1st of May that the Bishop of Valence is arrived at Berwick, and how he will entreat Chaperon at his coming. Desire to know some part of the purport of his commission before his arrival. The Master of the Ordnance and his lieutenant, Fleming, have not used such diligence as they might in planting the pieces. whereby this day is lost. Howbeit in their excuse, the rain has made the ground marshy and rotten, which (with the weakness of the limmer horses) was the chief cause of their disappointment. This night, rather than fail, Grey will help to draw the pieces himself, yet he trusts to keep the appointed day of assault. This night or to-morrow they are promised to have some power of Scotchmen.
2. The Earl of Huntly shows himself in words forward in this matter, but though he be here himself yet he has no power of men with him. What Earl Morton will do and the other with him they know not; but what they have pro- mised, his Grace shall understand by the Laird of Lethington's letters sent herewith to Cecil.—The camp before Leith, 2 May 1560. Signed: Grey, Sadler, Croftes.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 2. 13. Valentine Brown to Norfolk.
In reply to his letter touching the estimate of the charges for the army for two months, by his last estimate he has shown it to be 17,600l. odd monthly, and now is to be added the 1,200 Scots taken into the Queen's service, the navy, and the provisions of match, powder, and other things for the ordnance, so that the whole charge for two months will not be less than 40,000l. As the present mass of money will not set all things even, up to the 24th inst., there is more speed required for the further mass; for the abatement of the charges by cassing some of the horsemen and carriages is not agreed unto, nor yet the mustering of the bands. The Eng- lish are occupied diligently, and yet the bravery of the French is smally abated, for they annoy them marvellously with their ordnance and shot. He trusts when the battery is placed this night he may send good news.—The csmp before Leith, 2 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 2. 14. Maitland to Cecil.
1. Now that all communication is ended, and all men per- ceive that the Dowager means nothing but to drive time, that she may have support from beyond, the neutrals become partakers. The Earl of Huntly has devised a new bond, in more strait form than any before, which he has sub- scribed. The Earl of Morton, with all that will do for him, will be in the camp to-morrow at night, because they believe that the assault shall be given shortly afterwards. Lord Home, after he had spoken with the Lords, went home again, unresolved what to do; the Earl of Huntly holds that he will return on the 5th inst. The Laird of Cessford has promised to come, whether Lord Home comes or not. The Laird of Blackadder has promised to come with the Earl of Morton. They hope to give the assault within four days, and are in good comfort therein.
2. The writer has a suit for the Laird of Ormiston, whose son is at Bourges in Berry, whom he would be glad to have home. Desires Cecil to write to the Queen's Ambassador in France to essay to convey him from thence, and to furnish him with 150 French crowns, which upon the next writing to Sadler or Croftes shall be delivered to either of them in Scotland. They have no other means by which they may send money thither.—Camp before Leith, 2 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 2. 15. John Waddington to Gresham.
1. The 1st of May in Amsterdam there are hired six plats of fifty and sixty tons burden by certain French gentlemen, whereof two are laden with fir or deal boards, small masts, and great cables of seventeen and nineteen inches, and appointed for Dieppe. The other four are appointed to go to Newcastle for coal and from thence into France, as the French give out by the brokers, besides that the masters must be foreigners, that in case any men of war come aboard they may swear that they have no goods aboard belonging to Frenchmen.
2. On further inquiry he finds all the said ships are laden with fir boards, small masts, great cables, bacon, and gunpowder, and such like, and will be ready within six or eight days. They must depart out by the Texel and thence what way they can; Waddington thinks to Dunbar or thereabouts, or else to victual some ships. They say the cables and fir boards shall go towards Dieppe. The Prince of Orange left Amsterdam on the 25th April for Utrecht, five Dutch miles from thence. Has been informed that he has been secretly in post at Bremen with M. d'Aremburg, and has had communication there with captains to take up men in Guilderland and Cleveland. They may not serve any strange Prince. They say it is the Emperor who does this, or else the empire, to recover Metz again of the French King; but if it is true, it is King Philip who works this against England. In coming to Antwerp this day he met towards Olden six waggons laden with chests of money, there were only two men to each waggon; and some of them were appertaining to Lazarus Swynzell.—Antwerp, 2 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 1 May 1560. And by Gresham: Advertisements by my servant Waddington out of Holland and those parts Pp. 3.
May 3.
Forbes, 1. pp. 421, 424. (fn. 3)
16. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Having understood from Cecil's letter of the last of April that a servant of the writer had been stayed at Rue, whom he despatched to her with letters, he sent to the Cardinal of Lorraine to remind him that two or three days back he had sent to him about certain packets which were stayed and in his [the Cardinal's] hands; and begged to have them. On the same day the writer heard from England that Stephen Davy, a servant of his, was stayed at Rue, and his packet taken from him. He knows not whether this man was killed or not, as already one of his men has been by the Grand Prior's men. This he thought was strange dealing, especially as the like had not been used in England upon the French Ministers; and therefore he begged the Cardinal to make good account of his servant and packets, or else he would not find it strange if the same or worse were used towards their Ministers in England.
2. The Cardinal answered that he had heard from the Governor of Rue, four days past, that he had stayed an Eng- lishman there that came thither with two or three suspected persons of Abbeville, heretics, and of the late conspiracy, whom, (because he hid himself, and would not declare him- self, and viewed their fortifications there,) he stayed; adding that he named himself the Ambassador's servant, and said that he was sent from him with letters to the Queen. When the King understood that this person was Throckmorton's servant, order was taken the same day that letters should be written to the Governor of Rue for his servant's liberation and the restoration of his packets, and added that had he kept the highway he should not have been stayed.
3. The Cardinal was answered that it was his highway from the place from whence he came; for finding no passage at Dieppe he went towards Boulogne along the coast, and that the Governor could pretend no ignorance in him nor his packets, for they were directed in French. The Cardinal said that it might be so, but he saw no packets, and that though it was the first beginning of the French to take packets, it was not the first time that the English had taken theirs; mentioning the late outrage on the sea upon the Frenchmen and packets. Throckmorton answered that the sea is free to all, and that it was done by pirates, which the English could not help, and that the Queen was displeased thereat, for their ship is stayed at Dover and the malefactors imprisoned. The Cardinal said that it was done in Dover Haven, and their men were slain, and others robbed, and the English not touched, and that it was done by Englishmen. And as the writer wished to know whether the King meant peace or not, it was strange, for the King has often declared his meaning to peace, and that his Ambassador in England has said divers times to the Queen, that he will give his head to be cut off if the King begins to break; and "so say I," quoth the Cardinal, "and that if the Queen offer one finger to come to peace, the King will offer two and a half." And now the English ask whether the King means peace or war, when they have besieged his towns and taken daily of his ships; for within these eight days they have taken sixteen or eighteen French ships. The Cardinal added that he knew the Queen's intent, however much she disguised the matter; and that at present it was honour enough for a Frenchman to know that he had an Englishman for an enemy. He said it was a poor revenge that was used of late by their proclamation in England against his brother and himself; but he took it as not the Queen's doing but the persuasion of two or three about her, and he hoped she would soon be better advised, and ere long will punish them, and wished she had followed the council of elder in government. He wished that Throckmorton were at home to counsel the Queen to the preservation of peace; and added that De l'Aubespine had charge to make a despatch to the Governor of Rue to liberate his man, and for this end he desired his name. This discourse the Cardinal made on the last of April to Mr. Somers.
May 3.
Throckmorton to the Queen.
4. The Cardinal was required to send the letter to Throckmorton that he might send it to Rue by one of his own people to have seen the delivery; but the Cardinal refused, seeing he was so far upon his journey and his stay was made upon good grounds. The Cardinal's countenance and gestures in this talk were so demure and grave, mixed with a kind of pitiful plaint, that they would have persuaded a man that did not well know him, and known also what a Frenchman is in a little adversity.
5. Herewith he sends the minutes of such letters as since the 6th ult. he has written to her, that she may perceive how he has been used by the late staying of his servant Davyes, and also because he doubts the like may happen to Mr. Tremaine, by whom he wrote also to her, and Francisco Thomaso, whom he sent by Flanders to her on the 28th ult.
6. He thinks that as they have thus begun to use the Queen's packets, they will stay others when it serves their purpose. If she sit still his being here stands her in very small stead, such weight being laid upon him and his doings as there is. He doubts much they have misused the packet, and fears for his servant. Seeing himself thus used he begs to be revoked.
7. They are so slack in their preparations, that they will not be ready till the 15th of July. On the last of April came news that there was an insurrection in Bretagne of 5,000 of their people, and that letters were written to the Duke d'Estampes for the appeasing thereof, and that the King himself goes shortly into Normandy. On the same day the King of Denmark's Ambassador was despatched from this Court, who has been well entertained, of whose doings he thinks the Duke of Holst will presently inform her. The Count Rhinegrave is now upon his despatch and divers cap- tains also for levying men of war. In July there shall be but twenty-five men of war and fourteen galleys.
8. On the 2nd inst. there arrived at Chenonceau, (the Court being there,) a Frenchman dwelling in Abchurch Lane, who passed at Rye and landed at Dieppe. He is a black man of complexion, burly, with a grayish beard, who has spoken with the Cardinal of Lorraine, and has seemed to put him in great comfort of things on that side. Before his arrival were certain triumphs at Chenonceau, wherein was set forth on the water a show of the Queen's ships in the Frith, and her army about Leith, and their winning thereof; yet the pageant ended in the French King's ships and force overcoming the English. Throckmorton had on the same day sent Mid- dlemore, a gentleman of his, to the Court, who, finding the said Frenchman there, took upon him to be one of Dudley's company. Wherein the Frenchman being persuaded, told Middlemore that he was come over to bring here as good news for France and as evil news for England as ever was heard of. What this may mean he knows not. As the pageant of the winning again of Leith was played, there came news that the same was won by the Queen; and yet the news which the Frenchman brought revived them again. The writer thinks that the circumstance of the matter tends to rebellion in her realm; the particulars whereof the French- man will only declare to the King, the Cardinal, or the Duke of Guise.
9. M. de Randan, brother to Count Rochefocault, shall be sent into England to treat with her further for peace; or else M. de Lansac, a gentleman of the King's chamber, lately come out of Spain. The writer hopes that she, seeing all they have done hitherto is but wind,—will repose no other trust in the French Ministers than shall tend to her satisfaction in deeds, Within these eight miles there are arrived, out of Piedmont, 300 footmen, who report that there are already in France 1,000, and that 2,000 come after them; he therefore advise her to cause the Lord Admiral to have an eye to their doings on the sea coasts on this side, for he doubts that the French have some secret and sudden enterprise.—Amboise, 3 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 8.
May 3.
Forbes, 1. 427. (fn. 4)
17. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Has by this bearer received his letter of the 26th ult., on the last of the same and another of the same date by M. de Sevre's secretary, with the good news of Leith. Touch ing Davyes and Beaumont, he thinks the using of the one on this side strange, but marvels what the other does there with Cecil. It was he [Beaumont] at whose hands the writer had that wherewith he sent his servant Daveys, as may appear by the Queen's letter sent by him, and that Cesil may better judge of Beaumont he will declare his usage here towards him and his opinion of him, his state here, and how he would have him to be used.
2. After he had laid wait for the letter of the Regent of Scotland sent hence, with answer to her's "sent by a maronier," the same happened to be delivered to Beaumont, who sent it to him [Throckmorton] secretly, declaring that he was appointed to carry it to Dieppe, and to deliver the same to Davy Hume, or Harvy the monk, and that it was in cipher. Having it in his hands it was used as signified to the Queen, and within two hours despatched. Which being done by Mr. Somer, and the same made cunningly up again, Throckmorton went out and spake as a private man with Beaumont, and said that as it was in cipher it could stand him in no stead, and that he had not looked upon it; praying him at his arrival at Dieppe to help his man, who should meet him there, to pass with him that should carry the same, which he promised to do, saying that he should go no farther. The writer marvels why Beaumont should deliver the packet to his [Throckmorton's] servant to be conveyed over, seeing that it was to be conveyed into Scotland and was his [Beaumont's] special charge, and more strange that he himself is there. Knows not whether to suspect double dealing and dissimulation, or else simplicity or ignorance. If Cecil had written somewhat more at large of him, Throckmorton could have gone near to have guessed what the matter meant. He advises that Beaumont be kept very secretly in some place where he be not known to the French Ambassador, and much made of and well used, and that he be questioned how it was that the letter was delivered by him to Throckmorton's man, why he came, and where he took shipping. Since Throckmorton's coming over he has given him at divers times advertisements, and always showed a good affection to the Queen's service. He should be used well. Cecil should see if he will do service in Scotland for these men and so return into France, where he may serve the Queen and her Ministers, for having his wife here of the French Queen's privy chamber he may be able to serve some good turn and give advertisements from time to time. He should be well used with words, and the Queen should give him 100 crowns at the least.
3. As for Throckmorton's servant Davyes, he shall be sent into England without returning to him or restoring the packet. Begs to be revoked, as the longer he continues the less service he is able to do, and also falls farther into sickness. He wishes to hear as soon as may be touching Beaumont, Davyes, and himself. All means should be used to continue the Queen's force; nothing can hinder her service so much as to be too hard in money matters. In the late Queen's time in sparing a penny, they caused afterward a pound to be spent to no purpose. Beaumont is a gentleman archer of this King's guard, and has for that place 800 francs, he has also a lordship during his life of 800 francs named Fimis, and has had the charge of 100 light horse. His wife has also an estate of 400 francs; he therefore thinks that without certain cause he would not hazard so good a living for a man of his calling and that there is "some packing." He begs that Davys may be the next messenger. Warns Cecil of a certain Frenchman whom he has written about in his other letters. Recommends to him the bearer. The ordinary has been used to be 30l. to Blois and back again, and this is two posts farther and is thirty-three posts from Boulogne, for which the bearer has had but forty marks.
4. Recommends (fn. 5) Messrs. Jones and Somers for their pains. Is certain that he will not recover his health till he drinks ale or beer in England, which if Cecil provide not for, the Guises (when they are ready) will provide for the contrary. Bids him have an eye to the Spanish faction.—Amboise, 3 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 6.
[May 3.] 18. Message brought by Hans Keck.
The sum of the message brought by Hans Keck.
1. An offer of 100,000l. upon assurance of the Steelyard.
2. 50,000l. upon 12 per cent., to be delivered by certain noblemen in Almaine upon such assurance as the Queen uses to give. Upon 10.
3. That certain of the Princes of Almaine shall meet shortly, to whom the Queen shall send some personage. It is good to send some thither.
4. Offer to serve the Queen with silver and copper for lead, upon reasonable price. It is good that it be under- stood.
5. To declare there be stayed certain of the best Almaine men of war whom the French would have had, and therein to know the Queen's pleasure, whether she will have them proceed or no. To stay them.
Orig. In Cecil's hol., and with marginal notes by him, here printed in italics. P. 1.
May 3. 19. The Queen to Count Mansfelt.
She has received his letters of the 6 April by John Keck, with whom, being unable to conclude any thing, she has sent him to Antwerp to Gresham, who has full authority to settle the matter, provided he adheres to the former terms. She cannot at present write anything certain about the prospects of a peace with France, as she may possibly come to terms with that realm. In the event (by no means improbable) of trouble arising from matters of religion, she trusts to him for procuring for her the assistance of the Evangelical Princes.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 3 May 1560. The Queen's letters to the Count Mansfeld. Lat. Pp. 2.
May 3. 20. The Queen to Gresham.
Has heard what Hans Kecke has to declare from Count Mansfeld, and perceives that in the matter of the money he has instructions to demand 5 per cent. interest, and 7 per cent. in name of entertainment of the Princes to whom the money belongs. She cannot allow the same but remits him to Gresham, and is willing for him to conclude on the terms of 5 for interest and 5 for obligation. Perceiving the scarcity of money she urges him to be more speedy, so that part may be bestowed in paying what is due this month. Gives him the choice of Antwerp, Emden, or Hamburg for receiving the money.
Copy. Endd.: 3 May 1560. The Queen to Sir Tho. Gresham by Clough. Pp. 2.
May 3. 21. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Wrote last on the 30 ult. On the 2nd at 7 p.m. came hither the Regent with a great train of gentlemen, the Bishop of Arras, Count Egmont, M. Barlemont, and divers other counsellors, it is said for the provisioning of money, and that after remaining one month she will go to Ghent. On the same day at 8 p.m., he received Cecil's letter by the order of the Bishop of Valence, signifying that as yet there has been no arrest of ways. The merchants as they went greedily to work, so the matter is over blown and all their business set in very good order, especially to those indebted here. Will kiss the Regent's hands to-morrow and welcome her and the Bishop of Arras to the town. Encloses advertisements from John Waddington of 1st of May from Amsterdam. Has sent a man of the country to buy up all the powder that can be gotten or made between this and the last of June, only to prevent them and the Court, for this provision cannot pass from thence without their licence, which causes him to mistrust their doings. The sending away of the 4,400 Spaniards will reveal all. Mislikes the Prince of Orange being at Bremen and Friesland, where is M. de Erenburg, Governor of Friesland, a noble captain and one of the Order of the Toison, who may there presently levy 10,000 horse and as many foot, for he aided the French King with as many this last war, which he called Swartzritters.
2. This day he received a letter from Sir Frederick Spedt, with one to the Queen and another to Cecil, having matters of great importance from certain Princes and Dukes in Ger- many. The messenger assured him that the King of Der- mark, the Duke of Saxony, the young Landgrave, with other great Princes, and the Count Palatine, meet at Marpburg in Hesse on Trinity Sunday, and that his son shall marry the Landgrave's daughter; and the second brother of the Duke of Saxony, Duke Hans William, shall marry the daughter of the Count Palatine. There shall meet above 6,000 or 7,000 horsemen, and it is agreed that the King of Denmark and all these noble Princes shall come to serve the Queen to win Calais, or any other exploit she will have them do against the French King. Has given the messenger ten crowns and sent him back.
3. Sends these letters by his servant, James Brocktrope. Encloses a letter from Richard Payne out of Zealand, of the 1st of May. There are laden in four ships which depart home to-day [ten] pieces of velvet [powder] of two piles and [ten] pieces of a pile and a half, which is excellent good as ever one did wear.
4. On the 2nd inst. the deputy and company of merchants kept a court at Barowghe at which court there came the Marquis of Barowghe and required the cause of their sudden despatch from his town, alleging that his town had such privileges of the Prince to defend them and their goods Likewise the matter was moved by the deputy to the com- pany for the payment of the 25,000l. sterling; they will not proceed here, but refer the matter to the ancients in London. This payment made at the present time will more redound to the Queen's credit than ten times the said sum is worth. And for payment he does not doubt to furnish her with as much again next mart if need be. If she proceeds in Ger- many as she is like to do she will not lack either men or money.—Antwerp, 3 May 1560. Signed.
5. P. S.—Has just received his letter of the 30th ult. by John Brickandine's servant. The matter of Cleveland hath been long spoken of and they have been warned of the coming of certain number of soldiers. Knows nothing of Maximilian, he could not be at "Holstrate" [Hoogstraten], or Gresham would have had some advertisement, being within twenty English miles of Antwerp. The French King makes great preparation to the siege of Leith, and his power is sixty ships of war and twenty galleys, besides victuallers.
Orig. Hol., with fragment of seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
May 3. 22. Richard Payne to Gresham.
1. Has been on board all the hulks, and they have no more ordnance than when he wrote before. The Admiral, (that is the master,) that was at Camfere, is now come unto the castle of Sandenborough that is by the Rammekens, and there rides at anchor, and has taken in brass pieces, two that are double sakers more than he had; and there lie the rest of the ships tarrying for the Spaniards.
2. Has seen a letter that came unto a merchant of this town, Anthony Villers, from his brother at Seville; there are come seven great ships from the Indies with gold and silver, and they look for two more. King Philip lets the merchants take it into their own hands, which he was wont to reserve in his own custody. There are come in three hulks laden with salt from St. Tuein's in Spain. There is laden in a hoy of Flushing forty tuns of Gascoine wine, of a Scotchman, but it goes in a Dutchman's name to Leith or Dunbar, if they may escape the Queen's ships; the Dutchman of the hoy says that if her captains will pay him his freight he will deliver it to them; before he depart hence he will have a security for himself, his ship and mariners. There are no Scotchmen come of late to Camfer, wherefore they marvel, for they look for six sail which were lading when the last ship came from thence, and fear that the Queen's ships will not let them pass.—Middleburgh, 3 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add.: To be delivered in the Long new street, Antwerp. Pp. 2.
May 3. 23. Norfolk and Leek to Cecil.
Send letters from Lord Grey and Lethington showing the state of things, and how the neutrals begin to seek favour and become plain partakers. If Leith is won there will be few Scots but that will be open enemies of the French. Some rain that fell two or three days ago has prolonged the time; there has been no lack of good will in Lord Grey to hasten this matter. Encloses a letter from Valentine Brown showing the state of the Queen's charges. Whereas Lethington writes of a new bond devised by the Earl of Huntly, the writer has sent for a copy, which he will forward with speed.—Berwick, 3 May 1560. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal, in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 3. 24. Grey to Norfolk.
Perceives by his letter of the 2nd that Lord Erskine's man is stayed with him for good consideration. They minded none otherwise in sending him but that both he and his letters should be ordered as to the Duke should seem requisite. They have planted their battery. The gunners have not yet found the just proportion of their mark. His advertisements must now be short and sweet.—Camp before Leith, 9 a.m., 3 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 4. 25. The Queen to Throckmorton.
Having heard by this bearer matter of importance, she has sent him with a copy of the French Ambassador's protestation of the 20th ult., and also copies of her answer thereto in Latin and French, which he said he had no commission to receive. Throckmorton is to consider them, and briefly collect the summary of the arguments, and declare the same as an answer to the French Ambassador's tale; but is not to deliver it in writing except he be pressed, and then to deliver the Latin rather than the French, as she likes not to contend with them in writing. Is sorry for his ill health, and will remember his relaxation as soon as she may con- veniently.
Draft, in Cecil's hol., and endd. by his secretary: 4 May 1560. Pp. 2.
May 4. 26. Cecil to Throckmorton.
1. Is not much disposed to credit the bearer hereof, (fn. 6) De Favoris, whom he recommends as worthy making much of. The Bishop of Valence has been long occupied in treaty with the Scots, and when things were grown to some good towardness, it was found that he had no other commission but a letter of credit to the Queen Dowager, whereby the talk broke off on the 28th of the last, and the same day Lord Grey approached the south-west side of Leith, slaying to the number of 200 Frenchmen who were secretly laid without. He planted a battery of eight pieces within nine score yards, which began to play the same day. [Winter] has handled the town very hotly, and has offered [if the sailors may have] the spoil, to take it with his own numbers, but Grey may not permit it. There has been hitherto no English cap- tain slain, only Maurice Berkely taken, Arthur Grey hurt, but not with danger; young Knyvett hurt in the hand, with more danger, and Brian Fitzwilliam in the leg. He knows the manner of his countrymen, ready to report the worst of themselves.
2. On the French part these have been distressed by a stratagem in Dunbar, Captains Perrot and Hayes, with fifty- eight of their numbers. Of the bands of Leith there be distressed young Charlebois, Captains Pyemot and Pyers, one Mons. Lorgée; these were slain on the 20th April, seventy-four slain of the bands of Captains Harbierges and Rycarvile; Captain Lagard was mortally hurt. Marvels at the Queen's backwardness and fear in this matter, which are strange to see. The Scots are lusty and keep all promises; the Earl of Huntly is very forward. The communication has hindered many of the Scots from joining. The Queen Dowager remains in the castle, which if the Queen pleased might be taken in four days, for so it hath been offered.
3. The Duke of Holstein departs next week; Cecil thinks that Maximilian and he shall be of the Order. King Philip's answer was, if the Queen do not invade the French then would he aid her; if she did invade them, then the treaty betwixt him and France compels him to aid them.
4. Is devising how to revoke him upon pretence of sickness, but no man will allow to be sent there in this difficult time.
5. On the 20th the French Ambassador made a protestation here to the Queen in presence of her Council, where he would have had the King Catholic's Ambassadors, but they refused; he had it ready in writing, and signed, and so delivered it. In three days answer was made briefly in words, but afterwards it was put into writing in both French and Latin, both of which he encloses, wherein Throckmorton may perceive the Queen's meaning, that if it were not looked for to be delivered in writing it should not be done; and if in writing, rather in Latin than in French, for he knows how busy these men be in their words and writings.
6. Has given this bearer 100 crowns. Begs him to inquire what two Irishmen named O'Brien lately did in France; they are returned into Ireland with great bravery of succour of French power by sea, and it is doubted of a conspiracy by land. The Earl of Sussex is made Lord Lieutenant, and goes over with 800 men more, (indeed he shall have but 300, (fn. 7) ) he carries with him 20,000l. To-day Florence takes his leave of the Queen and returns thither.—Westminster, 4 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. hol. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Mutilated and in a very fragile condition. Pp. 4.
May 4.
Forbes, 1. 432. (fn. 8)
27. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 3rd inst, despatched letters to her and duplicates of those which he had written since the 6th ult., which he did thinking that his messengers might have been stayed. M. de Randan repairs presently to her; he is brother to the Count Rochfoucault and to the Abbot of Cormery, (who rules the Cardinal of Lorraine,) a good courtesan and of the faction of Guise. The cause of his coming is upon the news that Leith is won, to treat with her touching the same. He has a commission among other things to offer to her Scotland to be annexed to England if she marry the Earl of Arran; in which case they will cause the French Queen to renounce her title for ever to Scotland, in recompence whereof they will require to have the renunciation of her title to France, Calais, and to all pensions and arrears due to her realm by France, and to make a treaty and alliance with her; and for satisfaction of the French Queen, to grant that in case the King die, she shall have as much dowry as the revenue of Scotland comes to. Does not believe that the French will offer anything so much to her commodity, but if they do, he advises her to keep the same from the knowledge of the King of Spain's Ministers and favourers there. Hopes that as she has well begun and driven them to the point to offer, so she will continue. France is not in case to do any hurt, wanting all things necessary and desiring specially to be quiet.
2. The Frenchman dwelling in Abchurch Lane lay on the 2nd inst. in the Duke of Guise's chamber, and this day sets forward to England. Wishes her Court to be as well furnished as possible when M. de Randan visits her.—Amboise, 4 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 4. 28. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. Yesterday the battery was applied with diligence to make a breach; whereupon the French reinforced, and filled the places battered with so great travail that they seem rather to have put themselves in more strength than before. No assaultable breach has yet been made. Therefore yesternight he took order that their ditches might be tried, their flankers discovered, and themselves occupied, whilst Mr. Pelham with the pioneers approached the citadel on the north-west part of the town, by trenches. For this purpose he appointed Captain Vaughan to give an alarm on the side next his fort; and Norton (the Provost Marshal's lieutenant), and Burchall (lieutenant to Yaxley), to assail their trenches lately cut under the wall, and search the flankers; and the Admiral to keep the side next the haven occupied, all which was executed, and Vaughan measured the ditch and rampart, which is more than a pike's length high. Norton and Burchall have likewise served his expectations. The French scouts were chased home and many of them slain in their ditches; three or four English were slain and divers hurt, Captain Vaughan's ensign-bearer and Norton also hurt.
2. This instant Mr. Pelham with his pioneers cut the trenches, according to Grey's direction, in which is placed a sufficient guard. The battery does yet this day execute, and if it does not prevail, they will be forced to use the spade and mattock. Their power is far too weak; if they give the assault and have the repulse, they will not be able to give the second. They cannot get past six score Scots in wages.—Camp before Leith, 4 May 1560. Signed: Grey, Scrope, Croftes.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 4. 29. Norfolk to Cecil.
1. Perceives by Lord Grey's letters that he has good hope of success. If anything has not been so well ordered as might have been wished, the fault has rather proceeded through ignorance than through lack of good will to accomplish his duty. Encloses a letter from Lord Grey.
2. (fn. 9) Expresses his gratitude for Cecil's friendship.—Berwick, 4 May 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—Sends herewith four letters in cipher directed from them in Scotland to the Duke of Guise and Cardinal of Lorraine, with a copy of the contract made between the Queen and the Lords of Scotland. They should have been conveyed by one of Lord Erskine's men.
Orig. Written partly by Railton, partly by the Duke. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 4.
Stevenson Illust. p. 82.
30. Assault of Leith. (fn. 10)
1. "Orders for the assault. Upon Saturday in the morning at 3 of the clock, God willing, we shall be in readiness to give the assault in order as followeth, if other impediment than we know not yet of hinder us not."
For the first assault Capt. Rede, &c. 3,020 men
For the second assault Capt. Wade, &c. 2,240 men
To keep the field 2,400 men
2. Item, it is ordered that the Vice-Admiral of the ships shall, when a token is given him, send 500 men out of the navy into the haven of Leith to give an assault on that side the town at the same instant when the assault shall be given on the breach.
3. It is further ordered that Capt. Vaughan shall at the time of the assault of the breach, attempt an assault unto the side of the town that lies next to the foot of Mount Pelham.
4. And the Scots are ordered with such number as they can make to attempt an assault upon the west part of the tower towards the sea.
Pp. 2.
May 5. 31. The Queen to the French King.
Has heard this bearer Florence in certain matters on his part, who can disclose her good meaning to make an accord of all differences betwixt them. Wishes for nothing but peace, and does not desire that Scotland should be drawn from its due obedience. As for this bearer's passage into Scotland, it appears to her more profitable for the accord of their differences for him to repair back to France. Nothing has more separated the band of amity than the uncertain proceedings of his Ministers both in England and Scotland.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd. by his secretary: 5 May 1560. Pp. 2.
May 5.
Forbes, 1. 420.
32. A Memorial for the Queen.
1. The French Queen has all this last year borne the arms of England as Queen of England. She has also entitled herself Queen of England by her own speech, by her ushers, by writings, and seals, and by inscriptions in all her triumphs by her heralds. The French King has also dated his commissions, "Anno Regni nostri Angliœ et Hiberniœ primo." All these things have been continually used the last year, and increased after complaints made. And even since it was declared by De Sevre and the Bishop of Valence that these innovations should be redressed, triumphs have been made at Tours and Chenonceau since Easter.
2. Perceiving these things so manifestly tending to the eviction of her crown, and finding that the French had brought new forces into Scotland, she sees not how she could preserve her kingdom if she should permit these French proceedings, and specially that their power should take root in Scotland. Then should the realm have felt such danger by them as neither the power of England or the aid of the King of Spain could have resisted.
3. For remedy whereof she has done all that she has done, and for no other purpose, whatsoever the French bruit abroad to slander her.
Endd. by Cecil: 5 May 1560. A memorial for the Queen. Pp. 2.
May 5. 33. The Count of Mansfeld to the Queen.
1. She having requested daily intelligence concerning matters in Germany and especially the wars, will learn from Hans Keck (who by the writer's request in March last was at Frankfort) how the French continue to raise troops and to buy horses and ammunition. Many Protestants, invited to serve France, have been persuaded by us not to serve such a tyrannical persecutor of the Christian faith. Possibly these preparations are being made against the insurgents in France, but it is doubtful whether, under pretence of aiding Scotland, they be not intended for the destruction of Christians, and of those who love the truth; as may be gathered from the disposition of some of our prelates towards the French party. She should therefore be well informed of the progress of the French in arming, and what they intend.
2. On the other hand, as she has ordered the enlistment of soldiers (which has been done) she should provide for their maintenance, by a portion at least of their pay, in order that they may not enter the service of the French or their allies.
3. Being informed that she would explain her will more fully in the above matter, for which the time is now favourable, she should begin by granting to them full power to give earnest money to each of the soldiers according to his rank.
4. Having thus secured the most expert soldiers, both horse and foot, all of whom have been brought up in our faith, they think that many of them may be hindered by the delay of payment; they therefore pray her to preserve their reputation with the soldiers by a gracious answer, with a determination of what they are to do.
5. The French are making great offers to the places on the coast of the Hanse in order to close the sea passages against her, and the Ambassadors of these countries were to arrange a favourable treaty and to renew their ancient friendship with her. He is likely to procure a large sum of money, concerning which they had no orders to inform her until now.
6. The agreement for the money is to pay 50,000l. sterling in two or three months, and as much more at the end of next December (at the rate of 12 per cent. per annum) (fn. 11), understanding that Gresham has bargained for a large sum at the same rate in Antwerp, although proper security was given. This security, in the writer's opinion, the Ambassadors of the maritime states might easily obtain, and the owners of the money would be satisfied with their promise, and the agents of the said countries in England could be well assured in London.
7. A larger sum of money could be raised, the owners being more willing to lend it to her than to the French, who are opposed to them in religion, even at less profit. Some friends have offered them from 75,000l. to 80,000l. at the same rate, viz., 12 per cent.
8. A German captain named Reiffenberg, with others of the French faction, are collecting troops in Germany with the intention of dispersing the Queen's levies. Certain Princes, such as the Dukes of Saxony and Wurtemberg, the Palatine of the Rhine, Baden, the Landgrave of Hesse, and others of the Confession of Augsburg, have assembled for the purpose of settling certain articles of their faith, and establishing union in such a way as to oppose in every respect the impious Papists and their confederates. The said Dukes and others have thought it a Christian act to declare by the writer their intention to her, especially as they know her to have many secret enemies who are continually employed in hindering the truth.
9. The said Lords assembled therefore think that she will deign to comply with their request to send a learned representative to their conference, more especially seeing that such an intervention will tend greatly to discourage the enemies of the Word of God and of herself.
10. They pray that the person or persons whom she will send may be learned, especially in theology, and capable of taking part in so pious and divine a conference. The said personages assembled hereby declare that they have no other object in view than the well being of herself and of her kingdom and the salvation of their own souls. Signed: Volrad, Count of Mansfelt.
Regarding the Mines and Money.
11. The amount of silver they procure every year is about 60,000 marks of 8 ozs. each, and 30,000 quintals of copper, of which two-fifths, viz., 24,000 marks of silver and 12,000 quintals of copper, are her share; this they will consign to her wherever she chooses at a fair price. In return they ask to raise from her dominions a quantityof lead necessary for the working of the mines, in part payment of the above consignment. They also ask for a letter of mark for the recovery of 30,000 ducats of gold due to them by Henry II. of France.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: Instructio de Joh. Keck misso a Comite Mansfeldt, 5 May 1560. Ital. Pp. 8.
[May 5.] 34. Answer to the Commissioners of Hans Keck.
1. The chief points are, That they may have money for the soldiers.
Answer. What promises have been already made to them? The end is that they may have the fingering of money; for let them say what they will, they will serve where they may have money, without respect of religion, as appears even in the Protestant wars. If you refuse them, what harm may they do you? If you keep them, how many? At what charges? How shall they be employed? If they should bring many into the realm, it were not only perilous, but also there appears hitherto no great cause. It had been good that a regiment had been in Scotland to have spared the English. Knows not how their charges shall be maintained, not being privy to the enemy's treasure. If the Queen have no other treasure but only on the interest, it is not possible long to maintain the wars, where in short time a great deal will be consumed, and daily she will be compelled to borrow, and in the meantime the interest, like a mole, will eat up much. The treasure were better employed to make hot war by the Almaines by invading France; for if they use them not they shall make rich captains, and the common soldiers shall be at liberty to go where they list.
2. For the Steelyard how necessary they are, and how the French offer them great privileges because they would let the traffic of the English; and for the sea cities' bond?
Answer. It seems that he who wrote the letter is required to prefer their cause. It is small benefit that they should be surety for 80,000l. and have counter surety here. Great prudence must be used, lest by granting them too much they undo their own subjects, and by granting them nothing they alienate them.
3. To the fourth, for the sending learned men to the meeting of the Princes of Dutchland?
Answer. It is not amiss to send thither both learned men and gentlemen of knowledge, that might confer with them, and see their inclinations. So is it the manner of the Dutch Princes in such matters to join of both sorts together; the nobility keeping the state, and the learned men being troubled with nothing, but only to apply their study.
4. Of the gain of his mines, and how much silver and copper he can serve the Queen with?
Answer. This needs no discourse, because it is but an advice.
5. For a letter of marque against the French for the recovery of 30,000 crowns.
Answer. Experience will declare what has been done in like matters in times past.
Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
[May 5.] 35. Cecil's Memoranda.
Various memoranda, among which occur some having reference to foreign affairs, as, the Bishop of London and Sir William Pickering [to] Count Mansfeld; Duke of Holst, 500 horsemen.
In Cecil's hol. P. 1.
May 5.
Haynes, p. 303.
36. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 12)
1. If he had not sent Grey's letters to him, but had written his own opinion of them, Cecil might have thought the changeableness to have proceeded from him, for when he shall see Grey's letters he will find great alterations. If the writer had been there he would have gone through with all, or else have lain in the ditches, seeing they have set their hands to sundry letters, that they made no doubt of the winning thereof. "The service is my mistress's and therefore I may not be silent, whereby the fault may be hereafter laid in my neck." Out of doubt Grey's service consists but upon a courage without any conduct; "every man that can lead a band of horsemen is not meet for so great an enterprise; and to abate his forwardness there be that be as backward."
2. Prays him to confer Valentine Brown letter with this of Grey's for the number of the Scots, and then judge whether Brown would deceive the Queen of the pay of so many hundreds or no: prays to God to send him more quietness with their letters there than he has here.—Berwick, 5 May 1560. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 5.
Wright, 1. 27. Stevenson's Illust. p. 80.
37. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to D'Oysel. (fn. 13)
1. Has heard nothing from him since the arrival of the enemy at Leith. Has sent divers to him, and has learnt that they have all been taken, if a gentleman of Lord Seaton's has not arrived, by whom she has written largely to D'Oysel. The negociation is broken off upon the coming of the Duke of Norfolk, because the Scotch will not or cannot leave off; it is eight days since they left.
2. The Queen of England continues her dissimulations; the King does not trust her, and has told the King of Spain thereof, who has promised him ships and victuals. The King, in the meantime, has caused twenty-four great ships to be armed and sent hither with other force, which is preparing. This is the substance of a letter sent by her brothers. She finds the cipher very dangerous; for two days ago she was shown a translation into English, word for word, of the letter which she received on the 19th February, where so much is said of the castle, and of temporizing with the rebels.
3. What was written by M. Baptist was in good earnest, and she prays him to send her the remedy. Has twice, within the last ten days, sent four hundred crowns to Sieur Sarlabos. Sends a memorial lately forwarded to her, touching the enterprise of the enemy, who yesterday evening purposed to begin their trench on the north side of the water near the citadel, to undermine it.
4. A man who has lately arrived from London, has promised Lord Grey, in three days and nights, to separate the new bulwark of S. Antoine from the town, so as to make it easy to assail the rest of the town; he should provide for it on that side. Lord Grey vaunteth that by Monday or Tuesday night, (the 6th or 7th of May,) he will enter into the town, meaning to give the assault at day break. It is required that the Lords, Lairds, and Scotch gentlemen, shall each take an English gentleman of like degree by the hand when they go to the assault. (fn. 14)
Copy, in Throckmorton's cipher, deciphered, and translated. P. 1.
May 5. 38. Grey to Norfolk.
1. Caused trenches to be cut on the north-west side for the destruction of the mills that grind their corn, and yesternight caused two pieces to be planted in one trench for that purpose, but the French, fearing the ordnance, abandoned them this morning, so that the English found no resistance, and burnt the mills. The French have lost many men in skirmishes lately, and the English have had some hurt and a few slain, but nothing in comparison to their number. He shall understand the order and the instant of the assault beforehand.—At the camp, 7 May 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—This letter should have been early with the Duke, but that he wanted a convenient messenger till 7 p.m.
Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 5. 39. Killigrew to Cecil. (fn. 15)
1. The Bishop of Valence arrived here yesternight, where he understood that M. Chaperon was passed by to Berwick and had made great inquiry for him, wherefore he sent after him to Berwick a man in post, minding to remain here himself, until the messenger return, who is Killigrew's man directed to the Duke, whereof the writer advertises Cecil, that the coming of the Bishop and the writer may not seem over long. The Bishop is very sorry that he cannot carry peace home, and would be glad to have good occasion to return for that purpose. The Queen Dowager was nothing so well inclined thereto, she hoped so much that Leith would not be won.
2. Killigrew thinks that the Bishop would now be contented that the castle of Dumbarton should remain in the Duke of Châtellerault's hands, and would require no pledges from them for obedience, nor that the league betwixt them and England should be broken, but only modified in some points; also to have all the French out of Scotland unto 200. It is too late, as the soldiers will either have concluded a better or a worse bargain. Has heard that the Queen Dowager has begun a new overture of peace through Lord Erskine.
3. The Bishop judges the only let of peace to be in the Queen of England and her Ministers, who had too great advantage to grant unto any such peace as might stand with his honour to make or his masters to receive; which minded him not to offer such good conditions as otherwise he intended to have done. Killigrew answered that the Queen desired nothing but peace. Since which time he never saw him quiet, nor merry, but a man the most wayward and full of extreme passion. Wishes he were well delivered of him.— Darlington, 5 May 1560, 9 a.m. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.


  • 1. Another copy of this letter occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 2. Another copy occurs in B.M. Cal. B. x. 90.
  • 3. Printed by Forbes from two drafts in the hand of Throckmorton's secretary.
  • 4. Printed by Forbes from a draft in the writing of Throckmorton's secretary.
  • 5. The remainder of this letter was not in the draft used by Forbes, and has not been printed by him.
  • 6. This passage is in cipher, deciphered.
  • 7. This passage is in cipher.
  • 8. Printed by Forbes from the original draft among the Throckmorton Papers.
  • 9. From this point to the end is in the Duke's hand.
  • 10. Another copy occurs among the Talbot Papers in the Herald's College, vol. E., p. 97.
  • 11. This clause is struck through with the pen.
  • 12. Another copy is at Hatfield House in the Duke's letter-book.
  • 13. The original of this letter, much injured by fire, is in the B. M. Cal. E. v. 80, a French decipher in Cal. B. ix. 98 b, and an English translation in Cal. B. x. 91. From the last of these sources Mr. Wright's text mentioned above in the margin has been taken; the French text given in the Illustrations of Scottish history is from Cal. B. ix.
  • 14. Throckmorton has added the marginal note, "This is the extract of the letter burned."
  • 15. The Earl of Arran to Cecil.
    May 5.
    MS. Hatfield House. Haynes, p. 302.
    1. He cannot find praises enough to thank the Queen for the pity she has bestowed upon their miserable country, who with infinite charges seeks their relief, and hazards the displeasure and enmity of divers mighty estates and Princes. When he calls these things to his remembrance, "who can say but that God has framed her in the shape of a woman, to excel any of her progenitors, and that He of His infinite wisdom will show what He is able to work, to the manifestation of His glory in such a vessel and kind as has from the first been repute fullest of imperfection compared unto man." The good success that is like to ensue of this noble enterprise, what glory of any Prince could be compared to this, or could be thought more perfect? Besides the benefit his country has received, he oft calls to mind the private cause that moves him to have her in remembrance, until he finds himself in such perplexity that he knows not where his wits are become. She may vaunt that she has delivered his life, (destined to tyrannical death,) to his father, friends, and country, that long thirsted after the same. Requests him to recommend his services to the Queen, and to receive this bill signed with his own hand, for perpetual allegiance unto her and continuance of service to his life's end.
    2. Touching the affairs here he has often requested Lethington and Randolph not to be negligent in reporting them; in doing whereof, for their duty to the Queen and good will to him, he trusts they have not failed. Recommends Grey, and in the rest of the noblemen and others he finds no less diligence. The doings of Sir Harry Percy are according to the Queen's expectation and Cecil's opinion of him. The arrival of Sadler has restored them to spirits again; confesses they were more afraid than hurt; but knowing with what personage they had to do, they thought they could not fear over much. Trusts that Cecil is not ignorant of the Bishop of Valence's doings here, or he will at least know by Mr. Killigrew in what sort he has dealt with them. His countrymen are too evil disposed to hear any talk, seeing how little good can ensue thereof, for he trusts they will be willing to try it with them by the teeth; the time also is now too late. The cannon and good courage, he trusts, shall give a happy and short end to this matter. His duty to his country and service to the Queen admonishes him where he ought to be.—From the camp, 5 May 1560. Signed.