Elizabeth: May 1560, 6-10

Pages 24-42

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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May 1560, 6-10

May 6. 40. The King of Navarre to Throckmorton.
Has received a letter from Amboise dated 15th ult.; not knowing him can only conjecture that it comes from him by its enclosing a proclamation of the Queen, in which he sees it intimated that the Princes and estates of France have called her to their aid. As first Prince of the blood he repudiates this, and begs him to inform his mistress that he [the writer] hopes she will not mention him or the others in her proclamations again, as it will only injure them with the King, with whose proceedings they are perfectly contented. Any slight causes of dissatisfaction which may formerly have existed are now removed.—Pau, 6 May 1560. Signed: Antoine.
Modern transcript, together with the two outer leaves of the original, with seal. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 3.
May 6. 41. Another copy of the above, by Throckmorton's scribe.
Endd. by Throckmorton. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 6. 42. Randolph to Cecil.
1. Trusts that such writings as have been sent to the Duke have come unto Cecil's hands. The writer is required that the inclosed letters may be safely delivered with some good word of mouth to supply their default; but that he [Grey ?] is moved with great desire to do his duty, the time would now hardly permit him amongst so many shot of cannon to put his pen to paper; his writings cannot testify his affection to the cause so much as his pains show. All that have seen the difficulties must confess that this is a matter of greater importance than that any at first sight was able to judge. There is no cause to despair of the success of the enterprise within a few days.
2. There have this day subscribed to their common bond Lord Morton, the Lairds of Borthwick, Drumlanrig, Farniherst, the Father Sesford, with twenty-three other men of good estate; and they daily look for more. Of Parry's suit and offer of service the Duke has received some advertisement. Hopes to see this day 4,000 Scots in the field, for they have appointed to show themselves; of which number there shall be 1,000 delivered for one month to be employed at Grey's assignment, and the others to remain for eight days, besides the Lords and their households to continue as hitherto.—The camp, 6 May 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—Other letters that he should have sent cannot be so hastily despatched.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 7. 43. Norfolk and Leek to Cecil.
The slackness of the Master of the Ordnance at Berwick and Mr. Bennet has been such that till by chance they were asked by Leek what store of munition they had, they never complained, although there is not above seven last of powder left at Berwick and Newcastle. He therefore sends Mr. Bennet, by whose means he may (while the sea is open) supply the want.—Berwick, 7 May 1560. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 7. 44. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. They would be glad to advertise him of some good success; but such as it is he must needs understand it. Yesterday, devising all the means they could for the speedy achieving of their enterprise, according to the Duke's often advertisement, they caused the officers of the ordnance to make two breaches: one on the west side of the town, on both sides of the river which is impaled; and the other on the bulwark of the church on the south-west side and in the curtain of the same. Enclose the order of the assault.
2. This morning before day they had all their men in the field, and at break of day they attempted the assault in the several places appointed; but by means of the disorder and cowardice of their men, who indeed (except the small number of the bands of Berwick,) were but raw soldiers and unable to skill of such hot work as appertained to a town so well manned and defended as Leith, they received the repulse, with the loss as they think of 1,000 hurt and slain. The English will be unable to maintain any more assaults, considering their small power; but the writers think they can keep the field. By reason of their chief leaders and best soldiers being slain and hurt, they are in very ill case. They ask to have the Duke's directions. Their men are much wearied with watch and ward, as they are enforced to make it very strong for the guard of the ordnance and the trenches. Would fain be reinforced with a more power of English, as there is no trust to be given to the Scots. Their powder and ammunition are greatly wasted and their sheaf arrows wholly spent. They have done their uttermost devoir and are not the first who have received a repulse.—At the camp, 7 May 1560. Signed: Grey, Scrope, Sadler, Croftes, Howard.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
May 7. 45. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
Since writing their last letter of the same date they have perceived that their state stands in worse terms than they supposed. They have thought meet to address this bearer Mr. Killinghale to him, by whom he may understand thr case more fully, for whom they ask credit, and that he may be directed to the Court to declare the whole to the Queen and Council.—The camp, 7 May 1560. Signed: Grey, Scrope, Sadler, Croftes.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
May 7. 46. Sir George Howard to Norfolk.
1. On Monday were two batteries laid, the one to beat a pale between the citadel and the town, the other to beat the curtain and bulwark of the church; and if they made good breach, then it should be assaulted upon Tuesday morning at 4 o'clock. Also it was appointed that Mr. Vaughan should upon his side give assault, and the seamen by their side, beside the scale round. Upon this resolution the writer went to Edinburgh, where he lay with his horsemen, and was in the field next morning between 2 and 3 o'clock by Lord Grey's command. By the time he came there the skirmish began very hot, and the English approached fast to the assault; but within two hours after daylight all things were contrary, for neither was there breach meet for any man to assault, nor (as he is informed by them that were at it) were the scaling ladders long enough by two yards to reach the top of the wall; no, nor ever a flanker taken away. For want of these things they have sustained a marvellous great loss; not only have almost all their worthy captains been hurt, but they have in killed and hurt he thinks 1,000 men. This has also put such fear among the soldiers, that Mr. Hogan and he are fain to encourage them that every man shall repair to the camp upon pain of death and receive ten days wage aforehand.
2. Beseeches him for the sake of all their honours to devise some order that they may stand to here; as their powse diminishes daily. He thinks they are worse than when they left Berwick by at least 2,000 men; besides all their great and small shot and other munitions are utterly spent. They are so well esteemed here that all their poor hurt soldiers are fain to lie in the streets, and he cannot get house-room for money. Horse-meat is so dear that the soldiers are not able to live on wage.—Edinburgh, 7 May. Signed.
3. P. S.—The gentlemen and soldiers were so wearied with over watching and warding, that they were desirous to make any attempt to be eased of their travail; and now that their numbers are weakened their travail must be greater. (fn. 1)
Orig. Hol.
[May 7.]
R. O.
47. Thomas Hogan to Norfolk.
Has no joy to write these unpleasant news, but assures him that there wants no courage or painfulness in the rulers here, but of good order and discreet direction they have no great plenty. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 7 May 1560. Pp. 4.
May 7. 48. Valentine Brown to Norfolk.
1. Of the last mass of treasure he brought 19,200l. hither, and therewith defrayed the charge of the whole army until the 3rd inst. Has yet 9,150l. left, which (by reason of the employ of Scots) will not suffice to pay above fourteen days' wages. Desires that before that time 6,000l. or 7,000l. of the remainder may be sent, as without that the army will not be able to continue after the 14th; Edinburgh being so nigh, where the soldier spends faster than his wage.
2. Is sure that the Duke is advertised about the assault this morning by the Lord Lieutenant. Must affirm, as well by his own knowledge and sight, as also by the like of the chief and best experienced captains, that their loss has been altogether from want of good order. The number of footmen remaining are scarce able to keep watch and ward; and if they are not supplied from Edinburgh with men, they will be in danger if the French sally in any number. "The loss of men hurt and slain has been much since the beginning, but the want in the numbers which the Queen has paid for hath been greater." This can only be redressed by the chieftains having exact musters, which he fears they will not be brought unto.
3. Has not made any further pay, but has done all by way of prest. There is great lack of corn powder, and specially of bills, bows, and arrows, which he signifies, lest the Master of the Ordnance should forget. A supply of money for the month beginning the 25th inst. requires speed, as without money nothing is to be had.—The camp, 7 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
May 7. 49. Order of the Assault upon Leith.
1. To assault the breach beyond the water; Captains Conway, Sutton, Yaxley, etc., with 2,700 men; Sir James Croftes, with 900 men to attend the artillery or be otherwise employed.
2. To assault the bulwark at the church: Captains Wood and Derrick, with 1,050 men.
3. To assault the curtain of the said bulwark; Captains Carvell and Sturley, with 1,000 men.
4. To attempt the bulwark next Mont Pelham; Captain Vaughan, with 1,200 English and 500 Scots.
5. To keep the field; Lord Grey, with the Scotch lords and their servants and 2,400 men.
6. Sir George Howard, with the armed horse and Mr. Arthur Grey's band, to guard the fields between fort Mont Pelham and the sea westward.
7. Sir Henry Percy, with the light horse, to guard the fields between the camp and the sea eastwards.
8. The Admiral with his men by boats to attack the side next the Haven.
9. The trench master with his pioneers to enter the ditches at the instant of the assault, to sap such places as shall be most convenient.
Endd. by Cecil: 7 May 1560. Broadside.
May 7. 50. The Assault on Leith.
List of killed and wounded in the assault upon Leith; about twenty captains, lieutenants, and ensigns hurt, besides drums and sergeants hurt, "besides many others, and universal spoil of every band."
Endd. by Cecil: 7 May 1560. Die Martis. P. 1.
May 7. 51. Gresham to Cecil.
1. On the 3rd inst. sent his servant James Brocketrope with a packet of letters, wherein was one to the Queen and another to Cecil, from certain Princes out of Germany, and one written to himself from Sir Frederick Spedt, of which, because of their great importance, he makes a relation. Sent likewise advertisement from his servant out of Holland, that he had given order to buy up all the velvets [powder] of two piles and a pile and a half, although they should lie there for a certain time; yet there shall be done what may for their transportation into England. Sent also letters from Payne of Middleborough out of Zealand, how that no part of the 4,400 Spanish soldiers are yet arrived in Zealand the 3rd inst. They tarry for their wages. They say here that the Regent has come hither for their despatch, and for money matters, and to make new Governors of Antwerp. Will not be with the Regent or Bishop of Arras until he has some occasion of access. Sent Cecil's letters to Throckmorton by order of Giles Houseman, who will forward it by express from Paris to the Court. Some say that King Philip will not suffer the Spanish soldiers to serve the French, and that they will remain; the writer takes it to be for lack of payment of their wages, or else because they mistrust the great assembly of noblemen in Germany at the marriage, which is much feared by the nobles of this country. The Emperor has written to the Regent that she need not doubt them for any injury they will do Philip's dominions here.
2. Divers English have letters from London of the 30th ult. that the Queen's army at Leith hath given a great overthrow to the French to the number of 2,000. As he has received no advertisement thereof in Cecil's letter of the 30th, he gives less credit thereto. All nations here rejoice at the news, as it is thought Leith will not hold out any long time. Begs him to have the Queen's creditors in remembrance for some portion of payment.—Antwerp, 7 May 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—Has sent Cecil two pair of black silk hose and [blank] pair for his wife. Has secret intelligence that M. de Erringburgh, Governor of Friesland, entertains divers worthy captains, and especially Colonels George van Holl and Helman Monnychewssone, two men of great power and able to bring into the field of their own charge 5,000 foot and 1,000 horse apiece, and the hardiest and most valiant gentlemen of all that country. The Duke of Holstein first entertained them; this matter and his being in England is much doubted and inquired into. It is to be inquired of him whether he is sure of these two colonels.
4. The Estates of all the land are commanded to appear in this town before the Regent, which is doubtless to come by money; she and the Council will not depart until the King's resolve be known how he will proceed against the Queen. It were well for her to have all her ships ready armed. Cannot see how King Philip can hurt her this year, as he has no money, ships, men, or munitions. Has given abroad that she has 200 ships ready, well armed. All men wish Leith to be taken. All things here with the English pass very quiet. Trusts that he has despatched Richard Clough with the Queen's resolution for the sending the munitions from Hamburg. The ten pieces of velvet [powder] are departed in four ships; begs him to move Mr. Bloomfield to enter them with secresy at the custom house, as there is nothing done in the Tower but that the Bishop of Aquila has good knowledge of. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 7. 52. Mundt to Cecil.
Concerning the disturbances in France he has little to say. The time appointed for action was not kept by the Admiral, whose heart is said to have failed him and to have deserted his companions. It is reported on good authority that in the Holy week a treaty was concluded between the French and Spanish Kings and the Bishop of Rome for the destruction of Geneva, and for invading Berne and those cantons which keep lands belonging to the Duke of Savoy, for which purpose the Duke of Savoy is chosen general. If that war is begun, the Pope will doubtless persuade those Kings to carry it into the remaining Protestant cantons. Germany is quiet, mutual fear curbing the different parties. The French King pretends that he will hold a national council in his dominions, that under that pretext 8,000 Italians may enter France under pretence of guarding the Council. If those Princes who wished to take arms against the Guises go there, they will lose their heads; for the Guises will say that they have conspired against the King and kingdom, and of this they will easily persuade the people. They say that 600 lances are appointed to go from France to Scotland. It would be easy to raise a large body of troops in Germany, for numbers of vagabond soldiers are perishing from want. The marriage between the Elector Palatine's son and the Landgrave's daughter will be at Trinity; it is likely that many of the nobility will be there. They write out of Saxony that Melancthon is dead.—Strasburg, 7 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 8. 53. The Queen to Brigantyne.
Directs him to repair to Count Mansfelt, who is in her pension, and show him that Hans Keck has declared certain matters contained in the enclosed memorial, which with her answer he is to consider and show the Count her meaning. He is to do his best to further the bargain of the 80,000l. mentioned in the said articles, so that it be offered as before for 10 per cent., whereof five to be for interest and five for entertainment. He is likewise to ask at what prices and in what quantity she may look for the bargain of the Count's copper and silver. He is also to tell him that she only requires him to be in readiness and stay such number of men of war as by compact he is obliged, without certain entertainment, until she may clearly see how far the French will proceed, as she is presently in communication with them. He is not to practise with Frederick Spedt, as he is not meet for her purpose; nor until he hears further is he to imprest any captain or soldiers, but preserve them by good words so that they may be free. He is to certify Gresham of his whole proceeding with Count Mansfelt, especially in the matter of borrowing the money.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 8 May 1560. M. from the Queen to Mr. Brigantine. Pp. 2.
May 8. 54. Answer to Hans Keck.
1. As for the practice made by the French to obtain money and men in Almaine under shadow of their matters in Scotland, and the means used by Count Mansfeld to stay them by the evil devotion of the Princes of Almaine to serve any of contrary religion, it needs not to inform him and them that the purpose of the French and others is to extinguish the knowledge of the Gospel in all countries. She will therefore provide for the defence of her own realm, and trusts that they will not neglect the French practices.
2. The Queen is not fully resolved what number of men of war to take up in Almaine, nor when, but will advertise the Count, and will have consideration to charges sustained by him for her over his pension. With respect to the two loans of 50,000l., as the messenger cannot tell the names of the lenders, or the interest, she can make no reply thereto. With respect to the 80,000l. loan, as the messenger is not fully instructed she refers them to Gresham, who knowing the names of the owners shall conclude a bargain with them for 10 per cent. As to the assembly of nobles shortly to be held in Almaine, she would be glad if time and place were convenient for one of her Ministers to be there. With respect to the silver and copper to be sold or exchanged with her for lead, she refers them to Gresham for particulars of the bargain.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd. by him: 8 May 1560. Pp. 4.
May 8. 55. Grey to the Queen.
1. By the advice of his Council he has approached Leith and entrenched round three parts of it, which they have hitherto guarded sufficiently by great travail; and having considered the parts of the town most feasible for entry by battery and assault they planted two batteries. As expedition had been several times enjoined them, they determined to attempt places of the wall, by such order as, if it had been followed, the town had been won; but through disorder amongst the men and the want of courage in some of them, they have been repulsed, a great number hurt and some slain. Hereby they are so weakened that without a supply of a good number they will be unable to achieve the exploit they have in hand.
2. He therefore requests that a convenient number of troops may be sent with speed, otherwise they will be in danger of being defeated, as the bearer, Francis Killinghale, can more fully declare. As for the Scots, he finds their nobility painful and willing, but there is no trust of any help to be given by them in this case.—Camp before Leith, 8 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
May 8. 56. Grey to Cecil.
Repeats the information contained in his letter of the same date to the Queen, respecting the failure of the assault on Leith, and the danger incurred thereby (see No. 55), and request reinforcements to enable them to blockade the town, as the Scots are not to be trusted. Also further supplies of munition to be sent from Berwick for greater expedition. They have done their devoirs to the utmost.—The camp before Leith, 8 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. by Railton, endd by Cecil. Pp. 2.
May 8. 57. Articles for Killinghale.
Articles for Francis Killinghale to my Lord's Grace and to the Lords of the Council.
1. The manner of the assault and of the English trenches, as may appear in a schedule sent by him.
2. Number of men they have to trust unto for this service.
3. Report of the captains and officers hurt and slain, and of the spoil of the bands.
4. How impossible it is for any more assaults to be given with these numbers.
5. How Lord Grey would never have attempted it if he had not been forced thereto by letters.
6. Any more number supplied for an assault must be at least 12,000, and their need requires 20,000.
7. The enterprise is very feasible if they had sufficient men and munitions.
8. How they are utterly destitute of bows, bills, and arrows, and that powder and shot are very scant.
9. How they had won it if the men had followed their directions.
10. It seems there is great scarcity of victuals in the town, so as if they had sufficient number of men to enclose them round they would famish them; for expedition it would be better to send of the bands of Berwick to reinforce them.
11. To declare that if the power of France should come, what danger the Queen's subjects would be in, and what likelihood there is that many of the Scots now friends would revolt upon such occasion.
12. To declare what difficulty it is to entertain any Scots in wages.
13. How they must be forced to embark the ordnance if supply come not with speed.
14. How the soldiers steal home daily by heaps; and if the Duke do not punish some of them according to their demerits for example to the rest they will lose a great number, to the peril of those who remain.
Endd. by Cecil: 8 May, Kinninghale's [sic] memorial. Pp. 3.
May 8.
Haynes, p. 304.
58. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 2)
1. Sends Lord Grey's letters, by which he will not so much understand the truth of the matter, as he will by Howard's and Valentine Browne's letters. The thing was marvellously ill-handled, for there was no breach saultable, no scaling ladder long enough by two yards and more, nor yet any flanker taken away. The matter might have been ordered so that the thing might have been won with much less loss.—Berwick, 8 May 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—The loss falling out as it is, he has sent to levy 2,000 men with all expedition, till he knows the Queen's pleasure, which number (the case being as it is) is too small. Desires both money and munitions, else the matter will quail; and more men, as Cecil thinks good. He has sent 400 men out of Berwick so there remain but 600 footmen. When (fn. 3) he has digested his melancholy and learned further the truth he will discourse at more length.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
May 8.
Haynes, p. 304.
59. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 4)
1. Since writing this morning Mr. Killinghale arrived here, whom for necessity of his office in the camp the writer durst not send to Cecil, but advertises him of the messages that Killinghale has brought from Grey. First, they went out of this town 8,500 footmen, now they cannot show 4,500, and if the Queen wants to take Leith it is not to be done under 20,000 men. The munition and powder are quite spent, they were fain to borrow five lasts of the ships, who could ill spare it. If Cecil levies any more men (as of necessity he must do) they are not to be had within the writer's lieutenancy.
2. Grey having sent the writer word that if it had not been for the hastening he received by letters (by which he means the Duke's) he would not have ventured the assault, Cecil may see how unlikely this is, for of haste he [Norfolk] never wrote to him since he removed from Lastarrick, and then it was by direction; since then he has praised his doings and left all to his own direction, saying that he [Grey] being there could see more than the writer could so far off advise him. Cecil may perceive, by a letter that Grey sent the writer on 6th May, that before he attempted any assault he would advertise him [Norfolk] of the manner thereof and the time; yet he received a letter from Grey on Monday which did not mention it, nor did he hear of the matter from him till this morning, it happening yesterday. It seems Grey meant to go through with all, and thought to speed well enough when he wrote a letter wherein he made no doubt of the matter. Cecil has the copies of those that Grey now finds fault with.—Berwick, 8 May 1560. Signed.
3. P. S. (fn. 5) —After writing the above, supposing that Cecil would be better satisfied if he might speak with Mr. Killingale, who saw the repulse, he thought good to send him. He will depart hence to-morrow morning.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
May 9. 60. The Queen to Gresham.
Hans Keck seeming to agree that the bargain shall be conconcluded for ten in the hundred, Gresham is with all speed to conclude it in like manner and assurance as has heretofore been made by her bond endorsed by the Council and also by the city of London. If needs be he is to send Richard Clough to Count Mansfeld. He is to take as much as can be, with which she may pay parcel of her old debts.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 2.
May 9. 61. Norfolk to Cecil.
Writes by his own man, whom he sen ds along with Mr. Kennynghall. Thinks that Grey and the rest would not be well satisfied with if the Duke wrote their opinions, he sends their own messenger. Has also given some credit to Sir Nicholas L'Estrange, by whom he sends copies of such letters as yet Cecil has not, by which he may judge what occasion Lord Grey has to impute the fault in them.—Berwick, 9 May 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
May 9. 62. Articles for Sir Nicholas L'Estrange.
1. He shall tell Cecil that for that Lord Grey had suffered no muster to be taken he would spare the bearer for ten or twelve days. Cecil will overthrow all Kenynghall's painted tales and letters if he ask him but these questions.
2. Whether the breach was assaultable, or no?
3. Whether they that assaulted it were at any time afore showed the ground, for lack whereof they ran all upon the wall, they could not tell where?
4. Whether the scaling ladders were long enough? and yet Lord Grey writes that the just depth of the ditches had been taken.
5. Whether in his conscience he does not think the town would have been won if it had been followed with the relief, which indeed stood not within twenty-four score yards?
6. To remember the munition's shooting at the ramparts and houses in the town.
7. For the Duke's own accusation, let Cecil when he has read his letters say whether he has over-reached or not.
8. To tell Cecil how the Duke was advertised of the matter by Grey's letters of the 6th. The Duke was passing to it.
9. To remember to tell Cecil for his lieutenancy, Shropshire, Northumberland, Cumberland.
10. To remember the Scots.
Orig. in Norfolk's hol. Endd. by Cecil: 9 May. Pp. 3.
May 9. 63. Munitions in the Camp before Leith.
Report of the quantity of gunpowder, shot, munitions, and weapons, remaining in the camp, the 9th May 1560. Signed: T. Gower.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 9.
Forbes, 1. 439. (fn. 6)
64. Throckmorton to the Cardinal of Lorraine.
1. Has this day received letters from the Queen in which she writes that on the 20th of April the Ambassador de Sevre made a protestation to her and her Council first by mouth and then in writing, to the effect that it was the intention of the King to continue in good peace with her, and that he had not infringed in the slightest degree the treaty between them. The Queen and Council returned their answer in writing which De Sevre refused to receive, not having commission, having however first read and considered a part of it.
2. The Queen, desiring that the King should be duly advertised of what reply she has made to the said protestation, has commanded the writer to notify to the King at greater length her wishes which she has already declared to his Ambassador, and that she uses every means to arrive at peace, which if she prove unsuccessful will be laid at the door of France.
3. This, according to his charge, he wished to declare personally to the King, but is compelled by sickness to write to him thereupon, and begs that the Cardinal will inform him how it can be laid before the King.—Amboise, 9 May 1560.
Copy. Endd.: 9 May 1560. To the Cardinal of Lorraine. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 10. 65. The Queen to the King of Spain.
Revokes Viscount Montague from his ambassadorship, in which however Sir Thomas Chamberlain is to remain.— Westminster, 10 May 1560.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 10.
Forbes, 1. 444.
66. The Queen to Montague and Chamberlain. (fn. 7)
1. Since their departure she has received three advertisements, the first by their letters of the 18th March, the second dated 10th April, by Mr. Culpepper, (in which they mention letters written the 30th March, whereby they signified their access to the King Catholic, which letters never came to her,) the third, dated April 16, came within these two days in the King's packet to the Bishop of Aquila, which was the double of the letters of the 10th April.
2. She sent letters to them by Francisco the courier by sea, and the double thereof through France by means of her Ambassador, dated 18th April, by which they might understand how things had then passed; and now considering that they will not do any further good to treat with the King, who, as the Duke of Alva says, has remitted the negociations hereof to his Ambassadors on both parts, she revokes Montague, and orders Chamberlain to reside for a season, until, at the coming of Montague, she may consider how to send some other in his place. For this purpose she encloses letters to the King Catholic, before delivering which they are to declare to him that she perceives his great goodwill to her, and doubts not that when he is well informed by M. de Glassion how fraudulently and dangerously she is used by the French, he will allow that she is earnest in removing such manifest dangers to her realm.
3. First, in case it is objected that 3,000 French need not be a terror to England, yet considering their having in their hands all the forts and havens next to England, they might induce the rest of Scotland to join with them and recover the favour of France by invasion of England. The French Ministers say that they mean no hurt to England, yet she cannot trust their speeches. When their Ambassador affirmed that the French King would cease all his injuries, and forbear the taking of her style, and that his wife should rather be sent into Scotland than use the same, and that he would revoke his men of war save four or five ensigns, and would receive his subjects in Scotland into favour, and for perfecting hereof required that persons might treat, she was so contented as forthwith to send to her army that they should not march near the Borders, for that she hoped to have all the dangers removed by treaty. Hereupon she sent into France to understand the very disposition of the French King, where it was affirmed that their Ambassador had exceeded his commission, and after more delay it was said that they had sent the Bishop of Valence with full authority by whom she should have a resolute answer to her contentation; which delay she bore, and was content to rest in expectation, to her great charge, what the Bishop would do. He pretended great authority, but being conferred with he could show no commission at all to treat or accord, and would never make any answer, saying he had no direction thereto. In the end he desired to go into Scotland, where he said that he would pacify all things, but could show no commission, but a letter of credit from the French King to the Queen Dowager, having no letter or writing from the Scottish Queen, in whose name all things are governed in Scotland. All this time she stayed her army, causing the Dowager to be gently required that she would come to some accord, and, receiving the obedience of her daughter's subjects, would remove the forces, whereunto no direct answer could be gotten. Then perceiving the year entered into spring, the preparations of the French, her great charges in keeping her force; understanding of the new trophies of the French Queen in usurping her arms, and being certified out of Almaine what practices were made near the coasts for ships and men of war to be transported in the beginning of summer;—she could not devise how these doings could be avoided, but by removing the men of war out of Scotland, and yet not thereby to withdraw the right of the country from the French Queen, as the French would have many to think.
May 10.
The Queen to Montague and Chamberlain.
4. After this came M. de Glassion, to whom she made answer as she before signified unto them. If there could be any surety for her, considering the greatness of the French preparations to revoke her army, she would be glad to do so, and also if there may be a general revocation. Where the French pretend the necessity to keep their army in Scotland, it is manifest that it needs not, if they will receive the nobility of the land into their favour and obedience, which they humbly seek, so as they may be out of danger of the men of war; and for the manner of conclusion hereof they offer to appoint men to treat, and will be glad to have the advice and aid of the Spanish Ministers. But still the French delay; for about the 16th of April they sent Florence Diaceto thither, a man of small weight to deal in those cases; who came with a message of no value, requiring that he might also pass into Scotland, and could show no commission to treat, but of himself began to devise new matters of marriage between France and England, and would needs return into France with an opinion of himself to do great things to make an accord betwixt France and England, wherein she would not deal with him but left him to his own devices. Whilst he was busied in these things the Ambassador came to her with great solemnity, and made a long harangue and delivered the same in writing, a copy whereof she sends with her answer thereto.
5. Within four days after this there came another gentleman from France, who said he had large commission to the Queen Dowager from her daughter, whereupon the Queen gave order that he should be safely conducted, and that if the Dowager would come to any reasonable order whereby she might preserve her frontier out of danger there should be an accord made. What comes of this she does not yet know.
6. As for the Bishop of Valence, when the Scots desired to see his commission he was forced to confess that he had only a letter of credit to the Dowager, who would not be induced to make any qualification of her former authority, or of abating of the French force, although he much intreated her thereto. Thinks that the delays and courtesies of her ministers in the field have been the occasion of the stay of the French from reasonable accord, wherefore, if the French come not to accord, they will do their best to take the town of Leith, wherein are 3,500 men of war. Understands that M. de Randan, brother to the Count Rochefaucault, has come to the sea side with a new commission for a full accord. She likes good offers, but when she sees so many messengers and so little end thereof, she mistrusts their doings; she therefore means not to neglect her surety.
7. They are to remind the King of Spain and his Council how far it is beyond example that France has ever had comfort by him or his progenitors against England, how often has England aided them against France, and in this last age spent treasure and blood, both for service done in Spain, Terouaine, Tournay, Landrecy, and St. Quentins.
8. P. S.—Since signing this, their other letters of 30 March were brought, having made a long voyage by way of Flanders and elsewhere; nothing in them moves her to alter this letter.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 10 May 1560. M. from the Queen to Montague and Chamberlain. Pp. 8.
May 10.
Forbes, 1. 437. and 449. (fn. 8)
67. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 3rd and 4th inst. he despatched letters to her by an express messenger and M. de Randan; the minute whereof (because De Randan's going over depended on the news he should hear at Boulogne from the French Ambassador on that side,) he has despatched to her. Though the writer sent to Randan yet the latter did not visit him [the writer] nor participate any part of the cause of his going to him. Owing to her success upon the sea and in Scotland, the Spanish Ambassador used towards him more courtesy than he expected in visiting him when sick. On the 3rd inst. the Spanish Ambassador sent his secretary, with whom Throckmorton was somewhat plain in declaring his intelligence here of the King of Spain's doubtful and unkind dealing with her, and the next day he sent Jones on his behalf to visit the Ambassador, who on the 5th inst. came himself to the writer, and in speaking of the matters of Scotland said that the Cardinal of Lorraine, talking with him of the Queen's doings in Scotland, declared that when the marriage between the Scotch Queen and the Dauphin of France was perfected, (for which the Duke of Châtellerault was Chief Commissioner,) the nobility of Scotland by a writing passed among them, whereunto the Duke's hand was, declared that the very crown of Scotland (and not the matrimonial crown) should be delivered to be kept at St. Denis, and that when the Dauphin should be crowned French King he should also be crowned King of Scotland; and whereas the late King Henry desired that Scotland should fall to a second son to come of that marriage, the Scotch nobility desired that though there was no issue at all yet the crown should fall to the Dauphin, who should have Scotland for ever, one Dauphin after another, as a thing incident to him depending upon the crown of France. The said Cardinal also said that among other things the Duke desired the King to keep among them French governors, because they would not accord if any of themselves had authority above the rest. The Ambassador seeming scrupulous to believe this, the Cardinal promised him a copy of the compact signed by De l'Aubespine. Will she command a copy to be obtained in Scotland and sent to him to show? If the Cardinal's report be false he advises her to inform M. de Glayon and the Bishop of Aquila thereof, to cause them to conceive better of the reason of her doings in Scotland.
2. The Ambassador of Spain, having knowledge of the strange communication used by the Count Feria, told Throckmorton that he marvelled that the Count did so overshoot himself, and that whatsoever they reported here the King his master had great estimation of her amity and would do nothing that should prejudice her, setting forth some reasons to persuade him to think so. She may thus see the advantage of a good countenance, accompanied with force indeed, over present friendship or ancient alliance, neither of which would have served her had she been determined to be ordered by Spain or France. Trusts she will continue in care how to bring these things to a good end, and thereby to have a long peace, which cannot be had "if the iron be not stricken and ployed now it be hot." As the house of Guise has begun these matters, at their hands is perfection to be sought for her satisfaction, whereunto of themselves they have small good wills. Nevertheless, as their chief mark is to govern in France, there is nothing good for them but peace; therefore it is judged, after the French are driven out of Scotland, if she continue her force and stomach the matter, she may cause them to come to reason and she has no need but to ask and have: and whatsoever she can honourably devise they will find means to grant.
May 10.
Throckmorton to the Queen.
3. In his letters of the 3rd he advertised her of the coming of Randan or Lansac. The chief cause is upon occasion of letters sent hither by M. de Sevre, whereby he signifies her success in Scotland is evil and that she is afraid of Philip, or not able to go through with her matters, and therefore has written supposing she will fall to composition.
4. If she uses the French as they have used her by fair tales and promises, and use notwithstanding the advantage she has, her wisdom were therein greatly to be esteemed. Is sorry that before things be brought to perfection on her part, they should still abuse her with deceitful words and have thereby leisure to work their wills with the time. Assures her that for these 300 years France was not in so evil a case as it now is, and therefore mere necessity and not goodwill or desire for peace drives them to these points. They make as much preparation as possible for ships, horsemen, and footmen, and all things necessary for the war. For putting things in order there are presently at Dieppe the Dukes d'Aumale and Boullion, and the Marquis d'Elbœuf and M. de Villebon. There are arrived at the coast four companies of men at arms and the Marquis's men prepared for Scotland, and they daily expect their men from Piedmont and Metz. Though their force will not be ready till the end of July, yet they have some enterprise in hand which they mean to execute before. Trusts that through their troubles at home and the state of the finances they will not at least this year be able to impeach her.
5. One Vincent, a captain of the sea, has taken upon him the charge of conveying three ships laden with wine and powder into Scotland, and to discharge the same at Leith or Dunbar. Notwithstanding the inhibitions that no man shall keep any of her proclamations, he has caused them to be printed in France, and made them current both in Normandy, Brittany, Paris, and other places. Sends her two of the same, and also the proclamation against the house of Guise, together with an answer to a publication for the induction of a provincial council here in France for reformation of matters of religion, whereby she may perceive how her adversaries stand.
6. On the 9th he received a letter from his servant Davyes, taken at Rue, who signifies that, arriving on the 14th ult. at Dieppe, he sought to have passage there, which the Governor denied him. After having stayed there two days he was told by the Governor that if he tarried five days longer he should depart. Doubting somewhat was meant towards him he went towards Boulogne to take shipping there, and so passing by Rue on his way there he was stayed by the captain of the town; his mallet, letters, and all that he had taken from him, and he himself committed to ward. Notwithstanding his declaration that he was the writer's servant, and the endorsement of the letter he carried proclaimed it was for her, he was conveyed to Crotoy, a prison near St. Valery, where he writes he is so miserably handled that unless soon relieved he will die. If it be passed over he may meet the same lot as his other servant did by the Grand Prior's means. These men are glad to understand that the Dowager is in the castle at Edinburgh, supposing that however things go at Leith they shall be able to retire to that fort, which is what the French have chiefly desired in their letters to the Queen. Advises her to speedily put her out of possession there, and to account her and the French there as her enemies in war, for having her thence she is assured of her affairs in Scotland.
7. On the 4th inst. one Steward [and] Sesellis, a gentleman of the King of Navarre, who has been prisoner since the King was at Rheims, the Prince of Conde's squire and a preacher of estimation, being prisoners at Tours, are escaped, and not yet heard of.
8. Received her letters on the 9th with a copy of an answer to the French Ambassador's protestation by De Favory. As the Court was seventeen leagues from hence, he despatched Mr. Somer thither with a letter to the Cardinal of Lorraine, desiring him to devise some means how he might do the King to understand her pleasure, as he is too sick to repair thither himself.—Amboise, 10 May, at midnight, 1560. Signed.
Orig., portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 7.
May 10.
Forbes, 1. 451. (fn. 9)
68. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Received by De Favori his letters of the 4th inst. on the 9th inst. At which time he was so sick and weak that he could scarcely creep off his bed. Wants the French Ambassador's protestation, which both the Queen and he say in their letters that they have sent him, and which will help him somewhat to frame his discourse orderly to the French, therefore begs him to send it by the next as also the "counterpain" of Lord Montague's cipher which Cecil ordained to serve betwixt them and the writer. They have the one part, and, understanding that he wants the other, they have not written to him so liberally by this courier as they would, and so have left him in great perplexity. If Cecil finds by the delivery of his letters that he does his duty he must cherish him well. He has told Throckmorton that the King of Spain gave him great charge to pass with secresy and diligence with this despatch into England. "You may see what it is to be aforehand, God keep you there."
2. Begs that he may hear of the Spanish marvels mentioned in Montague's letter. The Spaniards are afraid that England will ally herself with France, and that the English descant unkindly of their doings. Why should not the Queen look up? She had never so much cause, for now both these great Princes strive for her amity. For his revocation he will abide by the decision of war or peace; if war, Cecil must revoke him, or they will detain him here.
3. Recommends as his successor either Mr. Sidney or Mr. Challoner; "but that your sister will be angry I could remember your brother, Mr. Thomas Hobie." Thinks, of the two Knights of the Order to be chosen, the King of Bohemia, as the case stands, is better suited, though the other would hazard more for them and stand them in more stead when they shall have need. The King of Spain greatly mistrusts the revolt in his Low Countries and dares not retire his Spaniards from thence. Cecil may see how many ways they there do serve his turn to animate and make the English afraid and the French alternately, to keep his Low Countries from revolt and others greedy of them from assailing them. Begs him to tell the Queen that it is a well spent penny to save a pound, and a well made war for one year to make a peace for twenty years. He need not be dismayed with bruits of these men's practices in Ireland or elsewhere, for they will nourish as many as they can, but are not in case to execute any great matters as yet.—Amboise, 10 May 1560. Signed.
4. P. S.—Cecil makes no mention of the receipt of his letters sent by De Favori and Francisco Thomaso.
Orig., portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
May 10. 69. The Cardinal of Lorraine to Throckmorton.
Encloses a letter which the King of Navarre has desired him to forward in reply to one from Throckmorton, a copy of which he has sent to the Cardinal. Asks for English news, of which he has heard nothing for a long time.—Chinon, 10 May 1560. Signed: Claude de Lorraine [sic].
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
May [10].
Knox, ii. 46. Calderw. 1. 478.
70. Confirmation of the Articles of Berwick. (fn. 10)
James, Duke of Châtellerault, the Council, nobility, and principal estates of Scotland, considering on the one hand how wealthy and flourishing their kingdom would become if it were joined with England and on the other the tyranny of the French, have been of necessity constrained to employ the aid of the Queen of England, which she has most gently and liberally granted, specified in a treaty past at Berwick between the Duke of Norfolk on the one part and certain Commissioners on the other, the import of which is here recited, (fn. 11) to which they now affix their hands and seals of arms.—Dated [blank] May 1560. Signed by: The Duke of Châtellerault, the Earls of Argyle, Arran, Huntly, Glencairn, Morton, Rothes, and John Earl of [blank,] the Bishop of Galloway, the Prior of St. Andrews, James Steward, Lords Russell, of the Isles, Ogilvy, Bogole, St. Johns, Eastar, Sommerville, Ochiltree, John Steward, John Kendores, Cameskenneth, the Bishop of Argyll, the Abbots of Kenloss, Kilwyning, Culross, and Mr. Car of Newbottle.
Pp. 7.
May 10. 71. Another copy of the preceding.
Williamson's transcript. Pp. 5.
The Cardinal of Lorraine [to Throckmorton].


  • 1. This and the previous letter are written upon the same sheet of paper.
  • 2. Another copy of this letter occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 3. This sentence is in the Duke's hand.
  • 4. Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 5. This P.S. does not occur in the copy at Hatfield House.
  • 6. Printed by Forbes from Throckmorton's draft.
  • 7. Another copy, partly in Cecil's hand, occurs in B.M. Vesp. C. vii. 204.
  • 8. Printed by Forbes from two separate drafts of different portions of this letter.
  • 9. Printed by Forbes from the original draft in Throckmorton's hand.
  • 10. For other copies see B. M. Calig. B. v. 38. and D. 1. 29.
  • 11. See in the previous volume Feb. 27, No. 781.