James VI: May 1590

Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593. Originally published by His Majesty's General Register House, Edinburgh, 1936.

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, 'James VI: May 1590', in Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936) pp. 287-309. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp287-309 [accessed 20 May 2024].

. "James VI: May 1590", in Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936) 287-309. British History Online, accessed May 20, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp287-309.

. "James VI: May 1590", Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936). 287-309. British History Online. Web. 20 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp287-309.

In this section

James VI: May 1590

396. Mr. Archibald Douglas to Burghley. [May 1.]

"Be letteris from Scotland I haif resawed information that the worst dewoted to quietnes in that realme gewis owt speachis that some of the Spanishe forcis ar to be luked for to be thayr before the end of May; and this report is nather trusted nather luked for of the best sort: which gevis me occasion to pray your lordschip if anye such advertisment be cummed to your handis from any part, that ather your lordschip may singnifye the samin to your ambassadour thayr resident, or than to lat me onderstand of it, to the end that suche as ar trustye and weill affected may be mayde acquaynted wyth thayr awin perrill and prepair for thayr deffence so weill as thay may."

"I am forced also to pray your lordschip to mowe her majeste to haif consideration of the debtis that I haif contracted of layt in hir hynes and for hir hynes service, and that thayr rested now no longer tyme to the forfaltour of the bondis that I haif gevin furth than the eighth of May instant. If wythin that space I shall not be helped be hir majeste I shall be uttirlye undone."

"If the disposition of your lordschip's persone may not serve to sea hir majeste in that tyme, and I durst so far presume, I wold most hartlye pray your lordschip to mak my lord Chancellar acquaynted vyth the state of my case, who lamentis my present state as your lordschip hath hitherto done." Signed: A. Douglas.

1 p. Holograph, also addressed. Indorsed.

397. Proclamation concerning the Danes. [May 2.] Printed in The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, iv. 478-80.

"At Leith the second daie of May the yere of God 1590."

"Forasmuche as the Kinges majestie our soveraigne lord hath now by the favour of the Almightie God accomplished his late voyage with happie and comfortable succes, and hath saiflie returned in this his realme with his dearest spous and queene, honorablie accompaned with divers persons of honour and credit, counsellors and commissioners to his dearest brother and allayay the King of Danmark, and sundrie other gentlemen his familier servauntis and loving subjectis; it becomes his highnes therfore to continewe most thanckfull in his dutie to God for so great a profe of his mercie and favour speciallie at this time, and all his loving subjectis hath cause to thinck ther prayers effectuallie hard and there wishis satisfied. And not only for his allayayis, such being the principall meane in this life to renewe, augment, and confirme frendshipp, speciallie where it hath beene long since planted and sincerelie heretofore observed, but for the manifolde honours, curtassies, and offices of humanitie and hartelienes which his majestie and all his companie hath receaved, as well in the court as over all where the dominions of the crone of Denmark where his majestie hath jorneyed and repaired, it becomes his nobilitie and people to shewe ther good wills to imitat the same and to acquyt the honorable personages and others of that natioun repaired and come with his highnes and presentlie remayning in this realme with like honour, curtasie, and humanitie, and to eschew all occasions to the contrarie, as they regard his highnes honour and good lyking and will underly his indingnatioun at ther owne perrell if anny shall presume to minister cause deserving the same. And of this his highnes will and pleasure ordaines publication to be maide at the market crose of Edenburgh, shore and peir of Leith, and other places needefull, that non pretend ignorance therof, comaund and charging all and sondrie his highnes leiges and subjectis that non of them take upon hand to offer or do molestatiown, harme, greife, or injurie to the said counsellors, commissioners, and gentlemen of Denmark and others beinge in companie with them or there servauntis, or to make them provocatioun of displeasure by reproche, scorne, or any other waies in word, deede, or countenance, but to shew them all frendshipp, curtisie, hartines, and give interteignement under the pane contenid in this his highnes will and declaratioun, to be seveirlie used and extended against the offenders, if any—as God forbid—shall happen, in example of others. And seeing his majestie, his counsellours, and such as hath beene in his companie hathe seene justice, good order, quietnes, and a love and a reverence of the soveraigne prince amonge the people wher his majestie hath remained and travelled since his departing forthe of this realme, and hath also good experience of the love of his nobilitie and people by ther keping of good rewle and quyetnes at his majestes admonitioun in his absence; therfore comaunding all his highnes owne subjectis, of what estate, degree or conditioun that ever they be of, that they continewe them selves in quyetnes, modistie, and comelie societie amonge them selves, and in no waies take in hand to persew, invaid, molest, quarrell, or offend others ether for olde feid or newe, by worde, deede, or countenaunce, speciallie during the remayning and continewance of the frindes strangers in this realme, under the paine of deathe, specialie during the remayning aforesaid; certifying all suche as shall presume anny waies—neglecting this his highnes commaund—contemptuouslie to do in the contrarie it shalbe no other waies esteemed and punished nor willfull slaughter and as doune gainst his highnes owne persoun."

pp. Copy. Indorsed.

398. Persons Appointed to be at the coronation of the Scottish Queen. [May 4.]

"Duke of Lenox, Lord Hamilton, Marre, Marshall, Angusse, Morton, Montrosse, Crawford, Rothuss, Atholl, Murray, Bothwell."

"Busshop of Orkeney, Paisley, Landours, Cambuskeneth, Dryburgh, Melross, Bushop Dunkeld, Bushop of Brechen, Culrosse, Altree."

"Edenburgh, Dundee, Perthe, Montrose, Aberdene, Glasco, Aire, Dumfreis, Jedwourth, Couper, Carraill, Anstruther."

"The coronacion on Sondaie xvij° Maij."

1 p. Indorsed.

399. Noblemen and gentlemen of Denmark in Scotland. [May 4.]

"Peter Monk, admirall, Stephen Brave, Brede Ranzon, the counsell; Nicholaus Theophalus utriusque juris doctor."

"The gentlemen of Denmark."

"Owc Loung, Jerwein Brave, Hanniball Gudlingsterne, Heming Gor marshcall, Andreis Thot, Stephen Biter, Jacob Krabbe, Eric Caas, Cristern Frize, Cirsysest Tinshome, Bekis Linffinkit, Hemyng Renninclow, Pachin Webenn ane Briounswik gentilman."

"Geodeon admirall, Stephen Matzon lieutennent. Josaphad vice admirall, Henry Gudlensterns, Hans Concellour, lieutennent."

"Raphaell: Alexander Duram, Claus Bold, lieutennentes. Gabriell: Nelis Skink, Jacob Trugard. The Dowe: Hans Rostok, Owc Winshour. The Blew Lyoun: Kild Bauld. The Little Sertoun: Herwick Broun. The Mowse: Hans Symonsoun. The Roiss: Captein John Syde. The Falcon of Birren: Jerwein Mowst."

1 p. Indorsed.

400. Mr Archibald Douglas to Burghley. [May 4.]

"I have understoode by report that Roger Wyndam who spoyled the Scottesmen marchandes of Edinburgh is after long delayes come to this town. His remayning absent so long tyme hath so wearied the saides marchandes that they earnestlie presse me to move your lordschip that the judges appoynted for hearing of their cause may be commanded to assemble themselves for tryall in this mater according to suche direction as hath byn heertofore given to Doctour Cæsar by direction frome the honorable counsayll."

"The judges now appoynted ar Doctors Herbert, Abra, Cæsar, and Maister Beall. I hartely pray your lordschip that the berar may have your lordschip's favorable letters to the saydes judges for this effect."

"I am also pressed by a Scottesman called George Padye to request that ordour may be taken anent wronges done to him, which I am driven to recommend to your lordschip's fatherly and accustomed care to the furtherance of justice. The particularities of his cause will appeare by divers supplications of late presented to her majestie and to her honourabill Counsayle." Signed: "Your lordschip's at all powar to be commandit, A. Douglas."

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

401. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [May 9.]

Albeit he has daily sought conference with the Chancellor, agreeable to the address given him by the King and certified to Burghley by his letter of the 4th instant, yet the said Chancellor has been so occupied with the affairs of the Queen, the Danes, and other matters as Bowes only spake with him yesterday. After long discourse of the ambassage to the King of Spain, and league to be made by her majesty, the Kings of France, Scotland, and Denmark, and sundry princes of Germany, they found such imperfections in the course intended as the Chancellor thought it expedient to advise further and to take the King's pleasure therein, that her majesty might be advertised with best certainty. The Chancellor rested to know the King's mind, and today has sent Carmichael to Bowes to confer further with him at court tomorrow afternoon. But Bowes thinks the meeting will be deferred till Monday, that the King may deliberate with others and afterwards give him order thereon.

Yesterday he (Bowes) recounted to the Chancellor the effects of the overture motioned to him by Colonel Stewart and renewed to her majesty by the Justice Clerk by the King's commission, with her answer. Bowes showed that albeit her majesty saw no warrant from the King to Colonel Stewart to deal therein, yet he was to signify her good liking of the motion, as proved by her letter sent to the King with Colonel Stewart.

Although her majesty had no disposition to stoop to the King of Spain—against whom God hath sufficiently armed her—yet for love of Christian peace she let the Justice Clerk understand that she liked the motion, wishing the King might know her mind therein. "And never theles she thought it not honorable for her ether to be seen to the world to send any especiall persons to procure the matter, or yet to prescribe to the King and other princes any particuler manner for the entree and progresse thereof." Howbeit a gentleman of credit acquainted with the princes in Germany was sent with the French King's ambassador to require succours for the French King against the invasion of the King of Spain, and to move those princes to form a league for defence of religion, "which might be solicited by some prince nere to Denmark; and with the same this ouverture recited might well come in consideracion at the recepcion of the Duchesse of Brunswick into Brunswick about Trenitie Sondaie next."

Her majesty was ready—upon knowledge of the course to be taken by the Kings of Scotland and Denmark—to give her opinion in the approbation of the same; "therefore she wished the King to use th'advise of his most wise counsellours, how he and the King of Denmark and the rest wold intymate to the King of Spain these motions, to forbeare th'invasion of this isle and come to condicions of peace."

The Chancellor in a long discourse showed Bowes that in the treaty of marriage betwixt the King of Scots and the King of Denmark's sister, the commissioners demanded what aid Denmark would give against invasion of any part of this isle, and it was answered "that for the defence of Christian religion and the contries in this isle the Danes wold take part against the invaders, and let 30,000 men die in their shooes in one daie in that quarrell."

The Chancellor being in Denmark, in conference with the Danish Chancellor, Ramelius, and others, laid before them the present preparations in Spain, the Catholic League, the danger to France, by the overthrow of which state the reformed religion every where and all the protestant princes in Germany should be endangered, with other perils to be foreseen by them, by the sovereigns of this isle and France and by the German princes; urging a league between England, Scotland, Denmark, Brunswick, Saxony, Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Pomerania, Hesse, and others, as motioned by Colonel Stewart.

The governors and councillors of Denmark, loth to entangle their King with wars in his tender age, asked what her majesty would do therein and feared to deal in matters of league and peace concerning her, "seing their successe before in like cases had not been prosperous." He answered that she had already signified her liking thereof by letter to the King his master, who would undertake that her majesty would proceed in the same. They wished she might be first in league with the French King, and after to join altogether in this confederation, thinking she should thereby be so straitly tied to the common cause as always to yield aid when needed.

The Chancellor said that her majesty was in firm amity with the French King, and had already required by Walsingham's letters that the French King might be comprehended in this league. He found them well inclined to this motion, but they urged that the embassy to Spain should be finished before the conclusion of the league for their common defences. Upon any refusal of peace by Spain he trusted they would readily agree to the league defensive. "And he so preswaded the Dukes of Brunswick, Miclebrughe, and Pomer as they francklie agreed to joyne with the rest."

The Chancellor told him (Bowes) that the Queen mother of Denmark, the Dukes of Mecklenburg and Pomerania would go with the Duchess of Brunswick at her reception into Brunswick about Trinity Sunday next, and the Duke of Saxony, Marquis of Brandenburg and Landgrave of Hesse with other princes will be there, so that time and place shal suit to treat of these matters.

Thinks those princes will choose fit persons to be sent jointly from them all to the King of Spain to negotiate peace, and that upon his refusal, "which he and the counsellours of Denmark think he will not do," the league among the princes shall be made defensive and offensive but he referred all such things to conference with the King, promising to give Bowes further knowledge by Carmichael on the morrow.

After he (Bowes) had reported the success of the Justice Clerk in his negotiations with her majesty, agreeable to Burghley's letters, the Chancellor seemed pleased with the same, saying that the King depending wholly on her favour, and standing presently in need thereof, would send some fit person to inform her of all particulars concerning this overture, to give thanks for her liberality, and to acquaint her with his present state.

Yesterday he (Bowes) received Burghley's last of the 3rd instant. He cannot proceed in the apprehension of the bishop of Derry till he know what the persons whom he sent into England have effected, or learn of the bishop's entry into Scotland, whereupon the Chancellor has promised he shall be taken.

"By th'occasion of the present absence of th'erle Bothwell passed over the water to give up his kyndenes with Fentrie, by the sharpe check that the King gave him upon suche accidentes as by my next shalbe signified to your lordship, I can do nothing with him."

"For the banishement of Penry and restitucion of the jewelles late in the handes of Thomas Fowler I shall upon my next accesse to the King travell to execute your lordship's directions given me." Edinburgh Signed: Robert Bowes.

3 pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

402. Safe-conduct for the Earl of Crawford and Lord Sanquhar. [M[ay ?] 14.] Cott. Calig., D. I., fol. 300.

The Earl of Crawford and Lord Sanquhar having desired to pass through England with their company and horses brought out of Scotland into France and other foreign parts, the Wardens of the Marches and all other English subjects both by sea and land are commanded to assist them from place to place. Greenwich.

1 p.

403. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [May 16.]

By his last, of the 9th instant, he advertised Burghley of his conference with the Chancellor and his appointment to be at court the next day to know the King's full mind therein. Has since received four letter from Burghley, of the 5th, 7th, 10th, and 11th instant.

On his attendance at court on the 10th instant, he was referred to speak with the King on Tuesday the 12th, on which day the King—accompanie only by the Chancellor—by long discourse confirmed the Chancellor report touching the league. Asked for the King's resolution in sundry articles he had put together for understanding the King's intention as to the execution of that league. The King said he would write to her majesty in that and other matters, and that the Chancellor should deliver to Bowes in writing the note of his advice for the advancement of the league, praying Bowes to stay till he could get leisure for these things; which Bowes looked to have received within two days next following. Cannot as yet get the same, though he has laid before the Chancellor the greatness of the cause in hand and straitness of the time. It is answered that the King has been this week so occupied with the Queen's feoffment, and disposing of all things for the coronation, and so encumbered with accidents working changes in his orders and those of the Council "as he is muche disquieted in bodie and mynde, appearing in his face," and could not have time to perfect his letters to her majesty and give Bowes the notes requisite to be sent. All which are again promised. "But seinge that the coronacion shalbe solempnized tomorrowe at th'abbay at Holyroodehouse, and not in St. Gyles churche in Edenbrughe as was appointed, and that the Queen's entrie and reception into Edenbroughe shalbe on Tuesdaie next the 19th hereof in Edenbrughe, I do not therefore thinck that the King will take any tyme for the finishing of his letters and notes expressed before Wednesdaie next, about which tyme it is looked that the commissioners shall depart if the winde serve theim."

Upon receipt of Burghley's letters, told the King that her majesty was informed of his and his Queen's happy arrival at Leith, and how joyfully she accepted the same; for which he gave great thanks, promising to deserve her affection. Reminded the King of the false bruit spread in Denmark and Scotland that her majesty had sent ships of war to impeach him in his returne on the seas, praying that the author might be sought for and punished. He readily agreed that if it could be found that any Scottishman had raised this wicked slander on her majesty he would make an example of him. He protested that it was far from him to think that her majesty could be induced to offer any such hurt to him, acknowledged that some Scottishmen coming with the Justice Clerk had spread this rumour in Scotland, and other Scottishmen come into Denmark from London had done the like. He promises to examine thoroughly, and to acquaint Bowes with what is found out. Because the Justice Clerk was with the commissioners of Denmark, Bowes could not speak with him as directed, but will answer by the next, as they are now returned hither.

"It is conceived by the King, Chancelour, and others that this brute was raised by subtill practise devised and hatched in England to staie the expedicion of the Kinge's retorne into Scotland: for one Milner a Scotishman comminge to Elsinure from London gave it out for certaine that he sawe both her majeste's shipps readie for the east seas to mete with the King of Scottes; and also that Westminster Hall was prepared for him. And to confirme the matter it was perswaded that one Gray an Inglishman—sonne of Mr. Gray having charge in her Majestes shipps —lieng before Elsinure in marchantdize, was commed thither to espie and carie to her majeste's fleete the King's readines to imbark and purpose to make sale. Yet it was seen that Graie in the morning following kept his course for the Narve, so as Milner lost his creditt in that tale. By inquirie at London Milner's lodging, behaviour, and doinges may be happelie found out."

In conference with the King touching the negotiation of the Justice Clerk with her majesty, Bowes found that the King had been too much occupied as yet to hear about it; nevertheless he holdeth himself right well pleased. Bowes will entertain the Justice Clerk to his satisfaction, agreeable to Burghley's order. Hes told the King of Penry's being in this realm, and that by publishing books for the alteration of the government in England he is fallen within the case of treason, praying him in her majesty's name to banish Penry. The King is ready to satisfy her majesty herein, purposing to enquire of Penry's doings and to give order for her contentment. Moved the King for the apprehension of the bishop of Derry; the King and Chancellor acknowledged that he had been in this realm, and thought he was still here, being a person of wicked practices. Bowes told them he was not now in this realm, but would return hither shortly. The King agreed to apprehend him, and the Chancellor promised to see the execution thereof, trusting to get hold on him in the highlands. Such as Bowes sent to the bishopric of Durham to hunt him out are returned and cannot find him; "yet they have hard that one apparrelled as I have given note of him passed latelie over the bridge at Newcastle into the busshoprich, and I have some still attending in Northumberland to watch for his retorne that way."

"The Lord Bothwell hath delivered to the King the bondes made to Mr. Fowler for the monie owing to him by Thomas Fowlis and others in this towne; and the King calleth likewise for the jewelles in his handes; wherein the King will give me shortlie his answer and order."

The King continues his favour towards the Chancellor, purposing to advance him and Alexander Lindsay of his chamber to higher degree, and to bestow on him and his heirs part of the King's own possessions; the Chancellor stiffly refuses to take any of the King's heritage, seeing it is so greatly diminished.

Since the Chancellor's return many who were thought to be grieved with him have sought his favour, and many are reconciled with him. Bothwell yesternight entered into good terms with him. But they fall in sunder so often that it is doubted how long this kindness shall endure. Marishal is to be agreed with him, and the Master of Glamis is become very familiar.

Montrose and others are sent for and offer all good will. Huntly and Erroll have secretly some here for them to deal with the Chancellor if they find it convenient, but Bowes is informed that they intend his overthrow. The Chancellor offers his whole devotion to her majesty for the benefit of religion and of both sovereigns and their realms, promising faithful service without expectation of any benefit for himself, with all concurrency for the furtherance of all good causes.

"By th'occasion of some speache mirrilie uttered by the Duke of Lenox in the presence and hearing of Bothwell and touching Mr. Fowler, the King entred so sharpelie to chardge Bothwell as well with his hastie dealing in those causes of Mr. Fowler as also for the maintenaunce of Fentrie, sondrie murtherers, excommunicate and wicked parsons, as th'erle was muche greved therewith, thincking that the same proceded by the meanes of the Chancelour." Thereon he passed over the water to give up with Fentry, and soon after resorted to Kincarn, Montrose's house; whereat the King was little pleased. At his return the other day to the King he told him that he had given up with Fentry agreeable to his pleasure, "and pretending that the King was purposed to committ him, he required to know where he should be warded."

The King told him in gentle sort that he had no suche purpose, and soon satisfied him: yet upon the King's direction that he should deliver to him Mr. Fowler's bonds and jewels he conceived new griefs, chiefly against the Chancellor; wherein his passion so far prevailed as he was purposed with other noblemen to leave the realm.

Had dealt with Richard Douglas to get a copy of Bothwell's letter to Parma for cutting off intelligence with him, that he might send it to Burghley to be forwarded, but Bothwell seemed for that present so stirred, and to think he was so evil thought of for his course with her majesty, that by advice of Richard Douglas Bowes referred the matter to his next conference with the earl, trusting soon to remove this heat from him. Now he is pacified, and at peace with the King and Chancellor, and Bowes purposes shortly to broach him for the copy and letters, and also for restitution of the jewels and bonds of Thomas Fowler.

The King bears great affection towards Bothwell, and upon his good carriage will advance him. He has promised the King to do in all things and embrace such persons as the King commands him; the King now looks for his steady performance, otherwise his favour towards him will be abated.

"The coronacion and th'entrie of the Queen were appointed to have been solempnized tomorrow in St. Giles churche in Edenbrughe. But bicause some of the ministers thought that the pagions and devises for th'entrie should partlie prophane the Saboth daie, therefore they perswaded that it might rather be on some other daie in the weke." Upon this motion, and also because all things were not ready, the King and Council took new order to solemnize the coronation tomorrow in the abbey church at Holyrood House, and the entry in Edinburgh on Tuesday next.

"The provost and burgesses of this towne of Edenbrughe found them selves greatlie disapointed and greved with this sodaine change, turning their offence to the Chancelour and the ministers here, and laboring to procure th'order for the coronacion at the abbay to be revoked. The matter for a while was something sharp and muche encombred the King and others, but it is now indifferentlie appeased, and yet not cleare quenched."

The King has drawn up articles to be resolved at the convention to begin in this town on Monday next. Encloses a copy.

"The senodall assemblie of the churche in this province have presented to the King sondrie peticions for th'establishment of the discipline of the churche, for th'appointment of convenient portions for the lyvinges of the ministers, for banishment of Jesuites, papistes, excommunicates, and their aiders and abbettours, and sondrie other like causes: in all which the King hath put theim in good comfort to be well satisfied, and agreed to commend the same to further consideracion."

The commissioners for Denmark have viewed this week Falkland, Dunfermline, and Linlithgow, appointed for the Queen's feoffment. They think these possessions much under the value they looked for, and the houses in some decay. They press the feoffment to be as great as that of Margaret, wife of James IV., daughter of Henry VII. The King purposes to give them contentment so far as he can.

It is thought here that the confederates of the bridge of Dee—against whom the King went in person last year—keep the same course, attending some fit time to attempt the overthrow of the Chancellor, by whose defeat this court shall be altered. It is feared that many of the nobility have lately without just cause conceived such discontentment as they may be drawn to join the confederates, and that others will rather "stand at gaze" than aid to suppress any attempts.

The party formerly joined to maintain the common causes of religion, the estate of the King and realm, and amity with her majesty, is shaken in sunder by private quarrels, and by the readiness of sundry in court to advance their adversaries before the well effected.

For the remedy of all inconveniences likely to grow thereby, sundry peaceable persons are chosen to travail to remove all particulars among the well affected, and to knit them together in friendship. The King promises his aid, "and with assured constancie to run fourthe the course with them," for comfort of the good and chastisement of the evil; if he perform this the dangers threatened shall be prevented, otherwise this estate will not have long peace.

The Chancellor, Treasurer, Earl Marishal, and others to be reconciled have submitted themselves with solemn protestations to the order of the mediators. It is hereby hoped that the troubles likely to follow the departure of these strangers shall be quenched, and care will be taken for the same. Yet some of good experience are persuaded that this remedy shall not suffice to cure the disease in this state, whereof Bowes has given sufficient warning, which is lately proved by intelligence gained through Carmichael; this may so quicken the King and Chancellor that those inconveniences shall be avoided.

Dr. Theophilus and other Danes under the commissioners came this day to present to her majesty the good devotions of all the commissioners and themselves, and to visit Bowes. Tomorrow he will return their compliments. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

Postscript—Desires news from France or elsewhere, as it helps him in her majesty's service.

5 pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

404. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [May 23.]

Since his last has daily solicited the Chancellor for the King's resolution to be sent to her majesty "what course he wold take to sett forwardes the cause with the King and estate of Denmark and princes in Germanie touching th'ambassage to be sent by them for the treatie with the King of Spaine, and the league to be accorded upon the King's refusall of the condicions of peace."

The King was so occupied on Sunday last the 17th instant at the coronation of the Queen, and so grieved with pains and swelling in his hand the two days following, as he could not write. Therefore on Wednesday he gave order to receive of the Chancellor articles and notes for her majesty's satisfaction, and Bowes looked for them every hour. But at length the King resolved to write to her majesty with his own hand, and has to-night sent his letter to be conveyed to her. By this letter enclosed he has partly signified his purpose, and Bowes has very earnestly travailed that he would more fully express the certainty of his intended course. Whereupon he will speedily send a special person to her with his whole mind on every article and to receive her advice in the same; and thereupon that person to address himself with all expedition to the princes to convene at Brunswick in the end of June, and there to do as by his instructions to be showed to her majesty, and as he shall be directed by her advice and order, "whereunto he will whollie referre the disposition of the cause."

The King intends to send an instrument into Denmark to be there before the departure of the Queen mother for Brunswick, to solicit the King and estates of Denmark to travail with the princes of Germany to advance this cause; and purposes to write to the Queen-mother, the Chancellor, and Ramelius to use their endeavours for the advancement thereof. This person employed into Denmark shall meet the other sent to her majesty, and proceed with the princes as shall be thought expedient and allowed by her. Colonel Stewart desires this journey into Denmark and the King is in mind to give it to him, yet he is not found meet for some respects, therefore it is wished that her majesty's pleasure might be known therein.

Ramelius is to attend the Queen into Brunswick, and the King has special affiance in his diligence in these affairs, but he should be quickened by a letter from the Queen or Burghley. Colonel Stewart reports that Ramelius has conceived some jealousy that his former labours in the treaty with the King of Spain were not well accepted, nor himself free from suspicion; yet he professes himself wholly devoted to her majesty and ready to do his uttermost for her contentment.

In Bowes's late conference with Bothwell, on his asking for the copies of his letters to be sent to Parma, Bothwell said that the King misliked that he should have any dealing in such matters, so now he may not send those letters or keep any intelligence with him or any foreign prince or person whatsoever, neither can he proceed further with her majesty in that behalf without the King's direction, resolving therefore to give up all his intelligence with Parma, and to depend upon the King's direction for his course with her majesty, to whom he professes great devotion.

Has delivered to the King sundry obligations appertaining to Thomas Fowler for payment of 300 li. The residue of the bonds and writings, and all the jewels, he will deliver to the King, who, he says, will take them to his own use. Bowes moved the King for delivery thereof to Fowler's son here present, "that suche jewelles as appertaine to the Ladie Arbell may be restored to her." But the King referred the matter to the Chancellor, who has hitherto given no full answer.

Yesterday Bothwell departed from the court pretending to ride to Fast Castle with Lord Hume to baptise the daughter of the Laird of Restalrig; and after to retire to his own house at Creichton.

"He appeareth to be muche discontented in that he was holden at the King's chamber doore twise or thrise when he sought to have entred." He has heard that the King has been partly persuaded by the Master of Glamis "to putt at him and others for the late rode of brig of Dee." The King intended to pardon all, especially Bothwell, but is now otherwise persuaded.

Bothwell is much grieved with Glamis, charging him that he first drew him and other noblemen into that action of brig of Dee, and suffered him to fall into the hands of Huntly, Erroll, and the rest, "thincking that the successe in that rode should have been to their contentmentes." Bothwell offers to prove this either by testimony of two witnesses or by single combat.

Bothwell has several times reconciled himself to the Chancellor; and on Tuesday the 21st instant he and Montrose were so reconciled to the Chancellor as it is now looked that they shall remain in friendship, and Montrose is become pledge for Bothwell, who has opened to the King many practices touching noblemen and others; "chefelie that Huntley by his letter had latelie sought to stirre Montrosse to joyne with others against the Chancelour."

Openly Bothwell pretends to retire from court, and that his friendship with the Chancellor is shaken, but he will return and run his course with the Chancellor. He has sought leave of the King to travel abroad, but it is neither granted nor liked of.

The Master of Elphinstone has presented to the King Huntly's letter declaring his good behaviour in the King's absence, hereafter to be continued, and desiring to kiss the King's hands. "He taketh knowledg that the King had entred into Dunfermling which before he had given him with his wife in part of her advancement. And therefore he praied that this promocion might be taken from her with his honour, and not by force"; yielding himself therein to the King's pleasure.

The King answered that Huntly's letters "were ever coted or full of impostomes"; while he was in his practice of the bridge of Dee he wrote most humbly to the King and yet proceeded therein; so now having lately by letter stirred some noblemen to new practices, he sends to the King these fair offers by the Master, whom the King sharply checked for his boldness to deal therein. The Master denied that Huntly had written any such letter, or practised anything to the King's displeasure in his absence, protesting that if he had he would never trust and travail for him. The King had been informed by Bothwell that Huntly's letter was to Montrose, and requires the letter to be produced. It is thought he has other intelligence of Huntly's doings through Huntly's secret friends; but in the end he will probably receive Huntly to favour.

The King had given the castle of Spina to Alexander Lindsay, and process is awarded and sent to Huntly to deliver possession, which grieves him; he seeks Lindsay's favour, being in the King's chamber and in special favour with him. It is said that Lindsay shall sell his interest to Huntly.

Since the King's return to Holyrood House his chamber is kept more private than before. Lord John Hamilton knocking at the King's door was answered by Mr. Sandilands that the King was quiet. Hamilton— not pleased—willed him to tell the King that he sent for him and he was ready to serve him, trusting that he and other noblemen should have access to him freely as they were wont to have "adding that this newe order wold offend all men and might not be used"; and departed, minding to pass out of town; nevertheless upon better advice he stayed. The King, much grieved, has commanded the doors to be kept close, suffering none to have access to his chamber without his pleasure. Lord Hamilton has been with him and with humility satisfied the King, "who saith that it doth not become the Master—meaning the heire apparant —to be angrie with th'old lorde." This novelty and bar of free access to the privy chamber discontents some, and also serves many for their private courses to draw others to greater discontent than the matter deserves.

"In the reconciliacion betwixt the Chancelour and th'erle Marshall it is sought that the Chancelour should be meanes that Sir William Keith should ether be restored to the Kinges favour and suche place as the King pleased to bestow on him, or els that he might have his triall in all thinges to be objected against him." Whereupon Marishal and all his friends will promise their full kindness to the Chancellor. Otherwise, at the King's command, Marishal would shake hands and drink with the Chancellor; but except the latter should show some kindness the ground of this displeasure will not be taken away. This agreement has been shaken by late accident, that Robert Bruce travailing with Marishal to compound all things betwixt the Chancellor and him, returned to the Chancellor to acquaint him with his success; whereupon the Chancellor told the King that Marishal sought his friendship, which coming to Marishal's ear hath much grieved him.

Upon quarrel fallen out betwixt Hume and Fleming, they were agreed by mediators, but are again in displeasure. These reconciliations "wrapped upp to please the King" are not so fast sewed but that the threads readily break upon new offences. The Justice Clerk is ready to search for the author of the wicked bruit that her majesty had sent ships to impeach the King's return. He heard part of that rumour in London. He had in his company four gentlemen and two servants; he offers to deliver to her majesty any that shall be found guilty of raising this bruit; acquitting them to his knowledge.

The commissioners for Denmark purpose to depart with the next wind. They have desired Bowes to recommend their devotion to her majesty.

The coronation was solemnized at Holyrood House the 17th instant. The signification of the anointing and other ceremonies was explained, to let the people know that their use was civil and not ecclesiastical. That day the Chancellor was created Lord of Creighton, and fifteen persons named in the enclosed schedule were knighted. On the Tuesday following the Queen made her entry into Edinburgh. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

4 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

Enclosure with the same:

"The names of the gentlemen knighted at the coronation of the Queen of Scottes, the 17th of May, 1590."

"Drumlangrig Sir James Douglas.
Jonston Sir James Jonston.
Cesford Sir Robert Kar.
Bawcleughe Sir Walter Scott.
Garleis Sir Alexander Stewart.
Young Loughenvarne Sir Robert Gordon.
James Melvill of Halthill Sir James Melvill.
Ormeston Sir John Cockburne.
Ballwerg Sir James Scott.
Laweris Sir John Campbell.
Glenurquhy Sir Duncane Campbell.
Master of Glames Sir Thomas Lyon.
Carmighell Sir John Carmighell.
Constable of Dunde Sir James Skrymgeour.
Tutour of Cassellis Sir Thomas Kennedy."

"Sir John Mateland Lord Chancelour was created Lord Crighton."

2/3 p. Indorsed by Burghley.

405. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [May 23.]

Albeit that great labour is taken to compound the griefs among the nobility and towards the Chancellor, wherein sundry reconciliations are made, as appears by his (Bowes) other letter, yet this day some chief instruments about sundry noblemen—seeing the general discontent—are purposed to draw many noblemen and others into a strong party to provide that the King may govern with his nobility in wonted manner, and not by private persons hated, nor by order of Denmark, against the ancient rights and privileges of the nobility.

This party is meant to be gathered of noblemen and others "associated at the rode of Sterling" who are now endeavouring to maintain religion and the good estate of the King and commonwealth, with the amity of her majesty, and also sundry of the confederates of the bridge of Dee, who are thought still to seek the alteration of religion and the state. It is pretended that this plot is too strong to be defeated, but the Chancellor and others purpose so to encounter it as it shall not work any great troubles.

The King, purposing to establish his government for the public wealth and his own profit, thinking that some of the confederates of the bridge of Dee shall conspire again to hinder him, intended to commit Huntly Erroll, Bothwell, and Montrose to ward, or have such surety of their behaviour as to be out of peril of their troubles, and was to carry out this intention soon after the departure of these strangers, for during their abode he will not "hasard any troublesome stirres in this realme." But now hears the King will not so proceed, "but rather seeke to kepe two faccions, or els by faire meanes to unite all togither; nevertheles he had promised in Denmark and sence his retorne so to deale with the confederates of the brigg of Dee as he should breake that plot and associacion, wherein manie well affected will put him in memorie to execute his promis."

"The Justice Clark hathe acknowledged to me that he was sufficientlie contented in all his negotiacions with her majestie, saving onelie in the Kinges request for the monie desiered, wherein he seemeth that her majestie by her answere to him bothe doubted of the certaintie of the somme accorded to be given to the King, and also that the payment ought not to be made whilst he shewed him self discontented with her majestie for his mother's death and during the tyme of his absence in Denmark: so as the matter was left without parfect answere or certayntie."

"The Chancelour moreover told me that her majestie said to Justice Clark that she sawe no cause to give the King that monie, adding that the yerelie payment to him was not above 4,000li. These thinges are reported to the King by Justice Clark, wherewith he is something moved, wishing—as Justice Clark told me—that he might perfectlie knowe her majesties will and pleasure in the same." Bowes has rather fled the matter, seeking only to hold the King in kindness with her majesty.

This state and the great personages therein are so subject to daily and strange alterations that he is troubled how to write, being often advertised of new changes even while writing, so that until the state settle he can give little certainty. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

406. Summons issued against the Earl of Huntly and others. [May 28.] See The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, iv. 484.

"Forasmickle as be act of perliament halden at Edenbrugh in the month of Julie 1587 it was statute and ordayned that whatsoever professed and avowed Jesuites or seminary preistes should be found in any part of this realme within the space of one monthe after the publicacion of the said act they should be taken, apprehended, called, pursuit, and incurre the paine of deathe and confiscacion of all their gudes moveable, and whoever willinglie and wittinglie should ressett or supplie any of them thereefter by the space of three daies and three nightes together or severallie at three tymes upon certain knowledge that they are of that profession and beis lawfullie and orderlie convict of the same should incurre the tynsell of their life rentes as in the said act at mair length is conteinit: notwithstanding it is perfectlie understand to his majestie that Mr. James Gorden father brother to George Earle of Huntlaie ane avowed Jesuit hath continewally sence the makeing of the said act remanit within this realme occupied by publick and privie reasoning in alluring and perswading of his highenes good subjectes to decline from the true religion presentlie professed within this realme, like as he at all tymes hes bein and presentlie is resett and supplect by the said George Earle of Huntley [ ] Earle of Sutherland, Sir Patrick Gordoun of Auchendoun, knight, and others their freindes and dependers within their dwelling places and houses and upon their landes, rowmes and possessions be their knowledg, allowance and tollerance be the space of three daies and three nightes togither and after, upon certaine knowledge of that he was a parson of the profession foresaid, expresse against the tenour of the said act of perliament, and in hie and manifest contemption of his highnees his authoritie and lawes. And therefore his majestie, with advise of the lordis of his secrett counsell, ordaines letters to be direct, chargeing the said Mr. James Gordoun to compere personallie, and also the said Earles of Huntley, Sutherland, and the said Mr. Patrick Gordoun, to enter and present him personallie before his majestie and lordes forsaides at Holyroodehouse, or where it sall happen them to be for the tyme upon the 20th daie of June next to come, confirme to the said act and under the paines conteined therein, and forder under the paine of rebellion &c.; with certificacion to theim and they faile they shalbe denounced rebelles &c.; and with certificacion also that they shalbe decernit to incurre the tynsell of their life rentes; and letters shalbe directed for uptaking thereof to his majesties use in forme as efferis, conforme to the tenour of the said act, laweis of this realme, and justice."

¾ p. Copy.

407. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [May 29.]

Asking for a passport for Joachim de Veltheim, servant to the Duke of Brunswick, and sent hither by the Duke from Denmark, that he may return through England to Brunswick. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

½ p. Addressed. Indorsed.

408. Burghley to Robert Bowes. [May 30.]

On Wednesday 27th instant he received Bowes' letters of the 23rd, being two of the same date: "and in them a letter to hir majestie from the King of Scottes superscribed in Frenche and inwardlie in Englishe." In answer to those written to himself, wherewith he has acquainted the Queen, he perceives Bowes has "been diligent in soliciting the Lord Chancellour to gett the King's resolucion to be sent to hir majestie for the matter to be delt in with the King of Spaigne for peace, and also for a league uppon refusall of the peace. And notwithstanding your solicitacion and lack of awnsweare from the Chancellour, the King hath written his owne letter to hir majestie, whearein thowgh he doth in sum perticuler sort showe his meaning, yet in vearie deade, he dothe by the same his letter signifie to hir majestie that he hath very perticulerly delivered unto yowe his whole purpose and intent, soe as hir majesty did by reason of his letter conceive to find in your letters a perfect and perticuler direccion of his whole meaninge and purpose. And yet by your letter it is written that the King will send a speciall person to hir majestye with his whole minde in everie article and circumstance, and by him to receive hir majesties pleisure in the same: and theareuppon the said person shall addresse himself to the princes of Germanie in the ende of June next, accordinge to such instruccions as he shall showe to hir majesty, and agreable with hir majesties order. Besides this yowe write that the King intendes to send an other into Denmarke from thence, to be theare before the Queen of Denmarkes departure to Brunswick. And finally yowe write that Collonell Steward desireth to be used in that journeye, althowgh he be not thowght fitt for the same. Nowe what hir majesties opinion is uppon thes pointes yowe shall understand."

"Hir majestie findeth noe such perticularitie in the Kings letter as yowe did suppose, but she wissheth that sume speed weare used for the comminge of him whome the King mindeth to send hither, for otherwaies yt will be herd fer him that shall comme hither, which will aske sume time, and to goe into Germanie, to be theare by the ende of June as yowe doe write; althowgh hearetofore yt was written that the meatinge at Brunswick for the mariage showld be on Trinity Sondaye, which will be as wee accompt the 14th of June: and if the mariage and convencion be soe soone it will be impossible for the Kings minister first to comme hither and from hence to goe thither, to be theare before that daie: of which matter yowe maie doe well to make the Lord Chancellour theare acquainted, that the King may consider for the hastening of the partie to the purpose intended."

"Yowe shall inwardlie deale with the Lord Chancellour, in whome hir majestie hath greatest confidence, for direct dealing betwixt hir majestie and the King; that this matter maie be soe used to the sight of the worlde that in noe wise hir majestie maie be thowght to seeke peace at the King of Spaignes handes, althowgh as a Christian prince she wissheth peace as the blessing of God, and abhorreth warre: but soe yt hath pleased God to blesse hir estate, as she findeth hir realme not wearie of the charges for defence of Godes cawse, hir self and hir realme. And in trewthe she understandeth howe wearie the King of Spaigne and his whole nacion is of the losses theie doe dailie susteine by hir majesties power uppon the seas. And for this purpose yowe shall move the Lord Chancellour to gouverne the honnourable intencion of the King his master, that the world maie see this purpose of moving the King of Spaigne to peace commeth of his owne naturall princelie disposicion, and of other the princes his confederates. And hir majestie dowbteth not but the Lord Chancellours wisedome will soe use this matter as hir majesties honnour maie be saved in not seeking the peace, and the Kings honnour advaunccd in the seeking of yt."

Bowes writes that the concords and discords amongst the lords there changed so often that before he can end a letter his later advertisements must differ from the first: her majesty was pleased to see his right judgment of that country's action. He is to endeavour with the Chancellor or other confident counsellors to provoke the King to suppress the offenders at the Brig of Dee; "and to that ende to procure the noblemen that tooke the Kinges part in that action to further and cumfort the King to overthrowe the said northerne faction: which surelie hir majestie thinketh if the King will constantlie attempt, yt will make him to be the better obeied whilest he reigneth; and thearein faties [sic] hominis is faties leonis."

"Hir majestie alloweth the King in makinge his chamber more privatt," but would wish him not to seek reformation suddenly or violently, but to follow her example: sometimes she suffers much liberty for noblemen and others to keep her company, at other times she permits neither noble person nor other to come into her privy chamber, "if theie be not sworne to attendance, or be not of her privie counsell: and by that meanes the greatest persons doe knowe that theie owght not to cume thither withowt license."

Encloses the Queen of England's answer to the King's letter: she wills it to go by post, and not await the Earl of Worcester, who departs hence in two or three days. "Hir majesty would have yowe to deale ernestlie with the Justice Clarke to bolt owt the lewde awthours of the shamefull lie, that hir majestie showld have prepared shippes to have intercepted the King of Scottes; for she is desirous that the King might perceive howe much yt dothe offend hir for soe unnaturall a repourt of a deare sister to a most lovinge brother." He (Bowes) is to find out about Fowler, as to the jewels of the Lady Arbella, and his own goods, for the relief of his wife, who complains that she is left in hard estate by him and asks Burghley to write about it.

22/3 pp. Indorsed: "M. of a letter to Mr. Robert Bowes."

Enclosure with the same:

(Elizabeth to James VI.).

"My conceyte I perceave, my deere brother, hath no whit swarvid from your good intent. For now I well see Coronels Steward's negociation was not framid of his owne brayne, but proceedid from your ernest affection to so laudable a cause; and by your last letters I finde your ernest motion made to the twoo dukes, togither with their good and loving consent. All this mooves me to finde you a redevable prince to a carefull frend, and doo prayse my judgement to have chosen so gratefull a king on whom to spend so many carefull thoughts as since your peregrination I have felt for your suerty and your landes welth: and as my thanks are manifolde, so shall the memoriall byde perpetuall. And for the action, at the arrivall of such a one as you are sending me, I will at large imparte plainly my resolution therin, and count it not your leste regarde of me that you be heedefull to deale no other wayes than as may best content me; and doo assure you that as I will never my self enter into it the first, yet I will aske nothing that shall not fitt a king to demaunde, nor pleade more innocency in all the cause than my guiltles conscience well shewed by my actions shall ever testify. And so may you be assured to gett most honor, and never blot your fame with dealing in an action where so greate injury shall appere and no just cause to inforce it."

"That I perceave the gouvernors of Denmark like well that other princes of Germany shuld send their good consent with joyning their message, I must needes say the more the better that desyre such thing as is best for all Christendom. Although I had thought that you with the King of Denmark would have sufficed, yet if the rest doo make the knott the greater, I must think my bond to them the more, and trust the pact will be the surer. In the choyce of such as you minde to send, I hope you will cheefely regarde that he be none such as whose owne cause or affection to the adverse parte may breede a doubte of perfourmance of the sender's will, but be chosen evin such a one as whose honest and wise indevour may much advaunce the end of so good a begynning. My good brother, I write this the playner that you might cleerly see what one I wish, and that may suffise for all. And for that the tyme requirith speede, I doubte not but you will use it."

1 p. Indorsed: "29° May, 1590. Copy of her majestes letter written with her own hand to the King of Scottes, sent to Mr. Bowes."

409. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [May 31.]

Since his last letter the King told him "that he was so occupied with the dispatche of the Commissioners for Denmarke, and with the dailie —or rather nightlie—entertaynement of them, as he had not leasure to rest three houres in his bed, or deliberate of any other affaires, promising me upon their departure to enter into consideracion of the choise of the ministers to be imploied and sent to th'assemblie of the princes at Brunswick, and to informe her majestie of his intencion and course in that cause." It has been doubted whether her majesty could allow that Colonel Stewart should be used in this negotiation, and some well affected have advised to commit this charge to a person "void of any crack" in former behaviour or suspicion in dealing with this matter, and also of greater experience in Latin and the penning of treaties. About this choice longer time than needed has been expended; Bowes has called daily for resolution thereof, and expedition of the persons to be employed.

The King has to-day made choice of Colonel Stewart and John Skene for this journey, "shewing me that the Colonell had travailed in the matter before, whereupon he had promised to use his further labours in the pursute of the same. And knowing Mr. John Skene to be religious, learned, and honest, having the Dutche and Latine tonges, with great acquaintance with sondrie princes in Germanie, and the chefe lerned men about the princes there, therefore he thought it mete to joyne him with the Colonell, trusting the same should well content her majestie, chefelie upon her majesties knowledge of the sufficientcie and good affection of Mr. Skene."

Those who impugned the employment of the Colonel, and all others, approve of the choice of Skene. The two shall be sent to her majesty before Thursday next, and will show her their commission and instructions, to be altered as she shall direct. Want of money to furnish these commissioners has troubled the King and hindered their despatch. Probably the King will seek to borrow of her majesty for them.

The King has reserved a barque to carry his letters to the Chancellor of Denmark and Ramelius for this cause, rather than send them by the commissioners of Denmark, who are little acquainted with this matter. The barque is ready, and will sail when the wind serves.

The King intends to send to her majesty in his own affairs Sir John Carmichael, captain of his guard, before the 8th of June. He shall renew some of the requests lately presented to her majesty by the Justice Clerk, chiefly for the money; for without her help he cannot compass the intended reformation in his realm. Lack of money compels him to discharge his guard of horse and foot, much against the advice of the best affected, that wished this guard to be kept till after the next convention ended and the Papists taken and committed as is purposed, for the King cannot carry out this reformation without great dangers, and these perils by want of force to suppress the seditious will be found the greater.

On Sunday the 24th instant, upon the end of the sermon in St. Giles's, "the King did publicklie bothe give thanckes to the provost, burgesses, ministers, and people of this towne for their great love shewed by their praiers and fasting for him in his absence, and for their great charges susteined at th'entrie of the Queen, and by th'entertaynement of the strangers commed with him out of Denmark; and also promised to requite their goodwills with all kyndenes; signifieing that according to the present advise given him by the preacher out of the word of God, and, upon th'occasions offered to him, he wold reforme th'abuses in his realme to the comfort and benefitt of his good subjectes, and for the chastisement of the disobedient."

On the Tuesday evening following the commissioners of Denmark embarked at Leith, and on Wednesday afternoon sailed for Denmark. The King bestowed 4500 crowns in chains and other gifts upon them, and refreshed their ships with victuals, wines, and other necessaries to his great charge.

Before their departure on Wednesday last the King and Queen rode on hunting, in view of the commissioners then being at their anchors. But the King being determined to prosecute all persons attainted of murder, and hearing that the Laird of Niddery—one familiar with Bothwell—was near, withdrew secretly to have taken him; but he was departed, so the King dissembled his riding thither, keeping the matter secret for better opportunity.

The King, according to his public promise, is resolved to reform his house, Council, and sessions, and to banish all Jesuits and Papists; also to resume into his hands sundry of his own possessions now in the holding of others, and "to advance his revenewes with some porcions of ecclesiasticall lyvinges, and to draw to due obedience all parsons attainted, at horne, excommunicate, or otherwise disobedient;" in which he will find no little difficulty, for many will seek to defeat his course, and sundry of the sessions will stand in law to hold their places when ordered to avoid them.

"The chefe officers of Counsell in the Kinges house, and some other especiall counsellours, entred on Fridaie to reforme his house, dischardging at the first all his servauntes therein: and after the remove of the suspected, unfitt, and superfluous nomber, they received and placed againe suche as were found meete and necessarie, but in farre lesse nomber then had been used, appointing his chamber to be served with four gentlemen in ordinarie and two verlettes, which before had nere twentie gentlemen and others attending therein, and placeing onelie two masters of houshold, two cuppers, karvers, stablers, &c. in other severall offices, which before were occupied by manie more. It is thought that Sir William Keith shall recover the Kinges favour, and in tyme obtaine his place in the Kinges chamber."

The reformation of the Council, sessions, and inferior courts is referred to the convention to assemble on June 10th. Missives are sent to call the same lords that were called to the coronation, and the Earl of Erroll is sent for. This assembly of the nobility is called that they may be privy to the King's proceedings for change in his Council and sessions, and give their consent, so as the burden may not be laid on one man's shoulder, as hitherto on the Chancellor's. All Papists and suspected persons in Council or sessions shall be displaced, wherein Sir John Seaton, the prior of Pluscarden, Mr. John Graham, and others shall be removed.

"Th'erles of Huntlaie and Sutherland and Sir Patrick Gordoun lard of Auchendowne—being chargit to have ressett and intertayned Mr. James Gordon the Jesuit—are commanded by letters to bring hither the xxth daie of June next Mr. James Gordoun to answere to suche offences as shalbe objected against him, and as by the copie of that chardge hereinclosed your lordship may more plainelie understand."

"The Lard of Auchendowne should have been also chardged to have brought in the band of the brig of Dee," but it was doubted whether he would present himself on that charge, therefore he is called upon smaller causes: whereupon he shall be driven to produce that band of the brig of Dee, for the King is purposed—or at least pretendeth in Council—to call that action, with other late practices, into examination, and to take such order with the chief parties as to break that association and prevent such-like attempts; and in due time he will make a journey into the north for the execution hereof. The like processes are to be sent for the apprehension of other notorious Papists.

Bothwell departed from court without taking leave of the King, and has sent for his stuff in his house here, purposing to remain in the country at his own houses. The King is displeased, and motion has been made for his warding, "but his good behaviour and the Kinges love continewing yett towardes him may staie the progresse thereof." He continues on good terms with the Chancellor, to whom he offered his son and all friendship. But if he shall not reconcile himself to the King his case will be the more dangerous. He has agreed with Alexander Hume of Maunderston for the slaughter of Davie Hume and for the priory of Coldingham. Lord Hume is in nearly the same condition as Bothwell, but before leaving town he offered to Mr. Robert Bruce to subscribe to the religion, with promises to amend his course.

After the King shall have established his house, Council, and sessions as is to be resolved at the convention, he will attempt to reduce the Isles to obedience, thinking thereby to increase his yearly revenue more than 4,000l. sterling, and to draw the rude people to civil order.

The manner of the coronation, set forth by Mr. James Carmichael, minister at Haddington, is enclosed. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

410. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [May 31.]

"Where by myne other with these I have certified the Kinges intencion to reforme and establish his secrett Counsell with th'advise of the next convencion, assembling here the xth of June next, it is offered to me by the Lord Chancelour that suche religious and fitt persons as her majestie liketh to place therein shalbe planted in the same."

In conference with the King he (Bowes) found him—owing to the Justice Clerk's report—in some doubt of her majesty's mind to continue the payment of the money he thought was to be yearly bstowed on him by his league with her, and of the certainty of the sums to be paid. He is perplexed, chiefly in the care he hath to keep himself in her good opinion, "affirming that albeit this league is not consummate by othe as it ought to be, and as he is and hath been readie to accomplishe, yet he hathe both faithfullie performed his covenaunts accorded therein, refusing all other princes and moyens whatsoever, and will constantlie runn his course with her majestie, and with her advise and best contentment." His present condition pressing him to crave relief of her majesty, and to know her intention as to the continuance of this payment, he purposes to solicit her, and to seek Burghley's help and that of others, protesting upon experience of the continuance of her favour towards him to be ready to be employed for her surety and contentment to the utmost of his power. Some about him, seeking to estrange his mind from her majesty, "have urged this matter to be stomaked," and the Garter refused, but his answer so sharply pricked that councillor as he will not again attempt that advice.

It is reported here that the King is chosen Knight of the Garter, and that the Earl of Worcester with sundry noblemen shall be sent to him; who being in readiness were suddenly stayed, so as it is now doubted whether they shall come or not, and jealousies have arisen, fostered by advertisements from unknown persons in England.

Mr. James Murray—one especially devoted and well known to her majesty—is suitor to the King to be restored to his office in the wardrobe, taken from him, as he saith, by courtiers hating him for her majesty's sake. He prays her to give order to the Earl of Worcester to move the King in her name for his restitution to that office, which, having long experience, he used to the great profit of the King. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

411. "Heads" for the Privy Council. [May.]

"Provision of defence, in case of forraine invasion ether by sea or land, and to consider the present estate of our strengthe and munitions therein."

"Treating for making and preservacion of forraine amitie, and eschewing of the occasions of the breake thereof, and dealing for forraine intelligence."

"The occasions of the greiffis of the nobilitie and people, as well against us as the governement of our present resident counsellours, and the likeliest meanes to remove the same and to avoide the imminent inconveniencis."

"To travell for intelligence of the true estate of our Realme in all quarters and contries, of the ettling and disposition of our nobilitie and others of any powre or creditt, and who are affected to the true religion, or otherwise caried awaie by the perswasion of the Jesuitis and papistis, and of the best remedies to eschew the apparant dangers by diversitie of religions and faccions, and how quarillis and feades may be pacified."

"To consider the true cause why the rentis of our Crowne are so farre decaied in quantaty and become of so little valour."

"How the Actes of our last Parliament may be sichtd and published and put in execution."

"To declare what properlie belonges to every office of our estate, and that they may have our direction to attend thereupon, whereby we may knowe whome to blame in case of negligence."

2/3 p. Copy. Indorsed.

412. Elizabeth to Queen Anne. [May].

The goodness of our Lord having been so manifested toward you that after many misfortunes you have escaped the mercy of the waves, and it has pleased him at length to bring you safe and sound to the realm of the King your spouse, the news whereof has been very acceptable to us, on the one hand by reason of the trouble we were in on account of the doubtful hazard of the sea and on the other by our great desire to hear of your arrival in safety; for which we render infinite thanks to his divine goodness. Also we would not fail to give you a friendly token thereof by our own letters, and by the same means to let you know how infinitely we rejoice at this nuptial union between the King our good brother and you, deeming his happiness so much the greater that he has chosen a princess, the daughter of a prince to whom during his life—the King your late father—we bore all friendship and honour, as well for the merits of the truly kingly virtues with which he was endowed as much as or more than any other prince in the world, as for the singular sincere affection which he bore to us in particular, which will serve as a spur to us to continue our friendship and affection, as hereditary, towards his daughter, as to a princess who may expect all good and honourable effects and offices on our part, assuring ourselves of reciprocity on yours. And thus, referring ourselves to that which our cousin the Earl of Worcester will say to you more fully, we beseech the good God, etc.

1 p. French. Draft. Indorsed.