James VI: June 1590

Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593. Originally published by His Majesty's General Register House, Edinburgh, 1936.

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, 'James VI: June 1590', in Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936) pp. 309-343. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp309-343 [accessed 20 May 2024].

. "James VI: June 1590", in Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936) 309-343. British History Online, accessed May 20, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp309-343.

. "James VI: June 1590", Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936). 309-343. British History Online. Web. 20 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp309-343.

In this section

James VI: June 1590

413. [William Asheby] to [Alexander Hay]. [June 3.] Eg. MSS., 2,598, fol. 270.

Your letter of the 10th of February came to my hands the 15th of May, which made me think my letters had miscarried, being sent hence in January upon my arrival in this court, and that and other occasions which this bearer shall impart caused me to delay writing. He will acquaint you of his suit and what has stayed it. He is bound to you for your care to do him that pleasure that hardly otherwise would be obtained. I would I had occasion to show how much I account myself beholden to your honour; you may command me for yourself and your friends. I pray you continue your courtcous correspondence "to the service of both our soveraignes."

p. Draft in Asheby's hand.

414. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [June 4.]

Received yesterday Burghley's letter of May 20th, with her majesty's to the King. He immediately acquainted the Chancellor with parts thereof, as directed, and prayed access to the King, which was appointed for this day.

Because the King had signified to her majesty that he had delivered to Bowes his intent in the matter to be moved to the King of Spain for peace, therefore Bowes recounted to the Chancellor all things which the King and the said Chancellor had delivered to him in this behalf, and how earnestly Bowes had pressed him to move the King to advertise her majesty particularly as to his course therein; reminding him that he and the King had left the advertisement thereof to the King's letter, and to the report of the messenger going to her majesty on his way to Brunswick. The Chancellor acknowledged the truth of all this.

Finding the Chancellor occupied with the draft of the instructions for Colonel Stewart and John Skene, Bowes entreated him in the Queen's name to use expedition therein, and in the dispatch of the ministers to the assembly of the princes at Brunswick, and also so to dispose the course "as it might be manyfest to the world that her majestic had not sought or procured this mocion to be made to the King of Spaine for peace, but that the same proceded whollie from the King and th'other princes confederate with him." Having previously dealt with the Chancellor on this behalf, Bowes found him ready to accomplish his request therein.

"Further, I travailed with him to perswaid the King to suppresse th'associates of the rode of the brigg of Dee, laieng before him the great benefittes to the King and the suertie to himself that should come by the due chastisement of that faccion; wherein he appeareth to be well mynded."

Lastly, showed him how confidently her majesty trusted in his sincere dealing betwixt her and the King, "concluding with request to kithe the same" in the good ordering of present affairs. Wherein he promised to endeavour to advance all things to her contentment, and advised Bowes to deal inwardly with the King for the same.

"This daie I delivered her majesties letter to the King, and accompanied the same with significacion of her kynd affection towardes him, and how well it pleaseth her majestie to behould as well his princely and thanckfull behaviour towardes her self, as also his honorable care and regard for th'advancement of this cause, for the glorie of God and his churche, and the common benefitt of all princes and realmes in Europe. In which respect albeit her majestie nedeth not and will not seeke peace, yet she will not willfullie intertaine a warre encombring so greatlie all staites, and she will nether demaund anything unjust, nor yet denie any mocion equall; so as his labours herein are like to be crowned with great honour." Moved him to hasten the matter, which had suffered such delay as time scarcely served to execute all things; and pressed him to have special regard to the choice of the person employed in this negociation, that it might answer her majesty's expectation appearing in her letter to him. Bowes pointed out sundry causes of suspicion in Colonel Stewart, "chefelie his former defection from the lords well affected, and his late intelligence with Colonell Simple in the Spanish course." Her majesty had plainly told the Justice Clerk that the King might trust the Colonel in this action but she would not.

The King was much pleased with her majesty's letter, yielding hearty thanks and promising to be found thankful for all her benefits. "Secondlie, he agreed to sett forward to-morrow the parsons imploied in this cause, trusting that this night their commission and instructions shalbe readie." But he (Bowes) hears from the Chancellor that they cannot be dispatched so soon, but that all three ambassadors shall start on Saturday or Monday next.

"Thirdlie, touching his choise of Colonell Stewart, he shewed me that bicause the Colonell had greatlie traveyled in this cause, and was well acquainted both with the matter and also the parties that must be used in the furtherance thereof, therefore he appointed him to negociate the cause, and had made his mynd and doinges therein knowne in Denmark, and to the Colonell, who had furnished and prepaired himself for it. That he had latelie imparted to the Colonell his wholl mynde and full effectes of th'instructions to be given herein."

With some excuse of the Colonel's former defections, he promised so to deal with him as he should faithfully accomplish the charge, adding that he was accompanied by a wise and honest associate, who would look so deeply into his doings as the Colonel's misbehaviour would only work his own overthrow and not defeat the cause. Therefore he resolved to send him and John Skene with all possible speed. All which Bowes showed to the Chancellor, who promises to take order with John Skene to be watchful. The commission and instructions are not yet ready, and there is want of money to furnish them. This place and time, after so large expenses about the Denmarkers, do not well serve to remedy this disease, the cure whereof will be sought at her majesty's hands.

Has dealt with the King and Chancellor, that upon the resolution of the King and princes assembling at Brunswick to send an ambassage to the King of Spain to treat for peace, they should likewise send fit persons to her majesty to seek to persuade the same at her hands, and that the French King may also be comprehended in the motion for peace. He has also, as of himself, made suggestions for the draft of the instructions, "letting them knowe that her majestie may nether seeke or procure this mocion, nor yet advise the course thereof," but on understanding the King's mind she will deal plainly with them at their coming.

Redoubled his labours with the King to move him to suppress the band of the Brig of Dee. The King promised so to proceed as that band and association shall be broken, and the parties brought either to obedience, or to such places as they shall have no power to disquiet him or this realm. He said he had commanded the Laird of Auchendown, by special messenger, to bring the band to him. He thinks Huntly will send the band and bow down to him, and also reform himself: otherwise he will deal roundly with him.

The King has sent for the Earl of Erroll, trusting to win him to follow his advice—seeing he has now concluded to marry the daughter of the Earl of Morton—and looks to be well informed by him in all things; so that by drawing him from that association and finding out their designs, he may more easily bring them to quiet course with him, or put them in safety to be unable to do any hurt. Bowes has stirred him up to go forward herein, and in the reform of his house, Council, and sessions.

This day, before Bowes speech with the King, Mr. Robert Hepburn had been sent to the King by Bothwell that the Earl might be admitted to his presence. He answered that he had advised the Earl to put from him the lewd persons about him, yet the Earl still retained persons known to be wicked. "Therefore he wold now commaund th'erle to put them awaie, and if he should disobay that commaundment he wold then provide remedie for him: for as he had resolved to be a reformed King, so he wold have him to be a reformed lord." Hepburn reported the King's answer, and persuaded the Earl to forbear seeking his presence before he had reformed himself to the King's advice. But the Earl, with Lords Hume and Sanquhar, in the afternoon "came to the court seking to have spoken with the King, which was denied untill he shall better harken to the King's advise, and obay his commaundment and reforme him self. Hereupon th'erle departed with litle contentment."

Before this the Earl had moved the Chancellor to be the mean to the King for his leave to depart out of the realm and remain in Germany at the King's pleasure, offering to the tuition and trust of the Chancellor his son and livings. He pretended to be moved thereunto because the King's countenance was turned from him, and that he could not with honour rid himself from his associations except he withdrew out of this realm: also that he had wasted his living, and by remaining in place of small charge and not suspected might repair it. The Chancellor is not sure he will depart if the King grant leave.

"The Lord Hume is likewise a suter for the King's lycence to passe out of this realme in companie with Bothwell, and he also offereth to leave his family and landes in trust with the Chancelour. But he sheweth him self well pleased to tary in case Bothwell shall staie here still." It has come to the hearing of Bothwell and Hume that they shall be warded, and they are greatly moved therewith.

Albeit he (Bowes) wrote before that Bothwell was agreed with Maunderston—indeed the articles of agreement were assented unto—yet by especial means known to great personages that agreement is stayed.

It is much lamented by many that the King should be driven to discharge his whole guard, since troubles may grow out of these discontents. "I have bothe letten the King understand how depelie her majestie is offended, and can not yet be pacified, with the shamefull lye and report given out that she his deare sister had sent her shipps to surprise him her most loving brother; and also earnestlie intreated Justice Clark to bolt out th'authours of this slander." The King seems very desirous to know the said authors, that he may punish any that raised that false rumour, whereunto he never gave ear. The Justice Clerk promises diligence, but cannot yet prevail therein.

"Sundrie tymes I have moved the King and Lord Chancelour that the jewelles late in the handes of Thomas Fowler, deceased, and appertayning to the Lady Arbell, might be restored to her; and that the mony, plate, bondes, and writinges of Mr. Fowler's, and lately taken by th'erle Bothwell, might be delivered to Mr. Fowler's sonne here present and readie to give bond for the redeliverie and imployment of all suche thinges as he shall receive, to the payment of Mr. Fowler's creditours, releif of his wife, and suche uses as by th'order of our lawes and to justice appertayneth." The only answer given is that upon sight of the Lady Margaret's will the King will take order therein. Bowes will endeavour to get further resolution before the departure of young Mr. Fowler, which shall be in two or three days' time.

For preservation of the Borders in quietness has often moved the King and Chancellor that the wardens might keep their accustomed meetings, according to the request of her majesty's wardens of the East and Middle Marches. The King and Council have referred all Border causes to the provost of Clenclowden (sic), the Laird of Coldenknowes, Sir John Carmichael and the Clerk Register; encloses copy of the order.

Has sought redress for piracies of Scotsmen against the Queen's subjects, wherein the King and Council appear very willing. They intend to make the like request to her majesty by the Laird of Carmichael, who departs on Monday next. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

Postscript—Letters brought from Denmark this night certify that the Queen Mother would take her journey towards Mecklenburg on the 27th of May, and be with the Duke of Brunswick on the 24th instant.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

415. James VI. to Burghley. [June 6.]

"I have nou, hou soone the depairture of the straingeris coulde ministrat any laisaire, imploied my self for directing in Germanie to traivell in that negotiation quhiche I maide the Quene youre souveraigne aquainted uith allradie as to the choice of the personis. Althoch I knou the principall of thaime, bearare heirof, hath bene not a litle suspected amongst you thaire, yett hath his actionis and behavioure so clearde his pairt since, besyde his fittnes for this earande, as I trust in the Quenes lettir I have lairgelie satisfied her in that point. I hope I neid not reccomend unto you the haistie expeiding of thaim thaire, as one that is uyse aneuch to considder the schortness of tyme and uorthiness of the earande. The particulair instructionis uill be shouin to the Quene, that nothinge uithout her advyce and consent may be done thairin." "From my palleise of Holyrudhouse." Signed: James R.

½ p. Holograph, also address. Indorsed by Burghley: "6 Junii 1590. The King of Scottes by Colonell Stuard."

416. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [June 7.]

This bearer, William Fowler, son of Thomas Fowler, deceased, has sought unto the King for his father's jewels, bonds, writings, and apparel, which Bothwell seized after Thomas Fowler's death. He is ready upon receipt of those goods to use them, or part of them, to pay his father's debts, "for the releif of his mother-in-lawe" [sic: stepmother], and other uses according to English law. Has supported his suit, to the end that such jewels as appertain to the Lady Arbell might be rendered to her, and the rest of the jewels and goods be delivered to the parties who ought to have them, but has as yet got no answer.

"The King hathe charged all the debtours of late Thomas Fowler in this realme, being his subjectes, to bring in and pay imediatly unto him all suche somes as any way they ought to paie to Mr. Fowler if he were alive." Bowes has spoken with the parties to stay the money in their hands, and they are willing to do it, but are in such fear by the said sharp charge as they are minded to obey and pay the money to the King out of whose hands it will be hard to recover it. The King will claim it because Fowler died intestate in this realm, but Bowes will seek to get it restored to the parties to whom it appertains.

Such papers as remained in Fowler's house at his death his servant John Montgomorie will shortly bring to Burghley. All else concerning Fowler's goods he refers to the report of this bearer. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

417. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [June 9.]

After many difficulties about the drafts for the commission and instructions for Colonel Stewart and John Skene, all things at last are ready, and this day they start for London, purposing to be this night at Berwick. Their commission to the princes of Germany is very general, and they are addressed namely to the Palsgrave, the Duke of Saxony, the Marquis of Brandenburg, the Dukes of Mecklenburg, Brunswick, Pomerania, Lüneburg, John Duke of Holstein, Prince of Anhalt, and the Landgrave. "All which or the greatest part thereof are thought shall assemble to be togither at th'entree of the Duchesse of Brunswick into that contrie." The heads of their instructions are to lay before those princes the great inconveniences rising by the wars maintained by her majesty and the King of Spain: and for pacifying the same, for the surety of religion and benefit of Christendom, to send fit persons to her majesty, the French King, and the King of Spain "to perswaide joyntlie in the name of the King of Scottes and all th'other princes an honorable peace amongst them"; declaring to such as shall refuse equal conditions that they cannot but hold them perturbers of the common peace, and to be left to themselves without the aid of the princes, "which threatninges are rather sett downe to disguise the matter, then of intencion to prosequte the same: adding that upon the refusall of the King of Spaine, it shalbe further declaired to him that these princes must and will bynd themselves together for the maintenaunce and preservacion of the common cause of reformed religion and the safetie of themselves and their confederates, and restraine and barre from him the commodities in their severall dominions. And that upon the same refusall of the King of Spaine suche league and confederacion shalbe made betwixt her majestie, the Frenche King, the King of Scottes, and the princes joyning in this accion as shalbe convenient."

Because the commission and instructions are to be showed to her majesty by the King's order, and the commissioners desire to be the first to acquaint her therwith, Bowes refers the matter to the view of the said commission and instructions, which the King desires her majesty to reform at her pleasure; for which cause the last clause was added to the instructions, referring the execution to the discretion of the commissioners, so as they have power to embrace such course as she shall deliver to them.

Albeit the King has chosen Colonel Stewart in this negotiation, and by his letter to her majesty sought to clear him from suspicion, yet it is at her majesty's pleasure to allow or disallow of him. Therefore it is provided that the commission shall be joint and several, and that order shall be given that, if the Colonel be sick or otherwise stayed. John Skene shall execute the charge committed to them, as by Sir John Carmichael will be further made known: who will also satisfy Burghley as to the sufficiency of John Skene, whom Bowes now commends to him, together with John Geddy, appointed to be secretary to the commissioners.

Wishes the King to know that he has commended these two, and also, upon her majesty's acceptance of Colonel Stewart, to understand that he has omitted nothing for their good contentment.

After the attempt of sundry means to defray the charges for these commissioners, the King is driven to seek aid of her majesty entreating her by Sir John Carmichael to furnish them so much money as shall suffice for this voyage, which he will promise to repay thankfully at such time as she shall please to appoint. Bowes has told him that her majesty will not be seen to be privy to this cause, neither haply will like that Colonel Stewart be employed or acquainted with her actions therein, whereupon she can hardly be induced to disburse money to him in this matter; yet the King, finding no other help, and desiring to go forwards in the cause, has determined to rest wholly on her favour, requiring Bowes to give her knowledge of his necessity, and purposing also to signify his request by Sir John Carmichael very shortly.

For the expedition of the commissioners by sea they are desirous to have a vessel in the Thames—bound for Hamburg or other place on the Elbe—prepared for them, and pray that Burghley will give order for the same.

The assembly of nobility at this convention appointed to begin tomorrow at Holyrood House is like to be very small and far contrary to the King's expectation, for sundry noblemen have sent excuses, and it is thought some will remain at home without excuse. This general discontentment spreads so far as many well affected look for sudden troubles here: the danger shall be hardly avoided without seasonable remedy. Bowes has admonished the Chancellor, "who well seeth the perriles over his owne head and to this estate."

Distrust occupies the minds of the seditious, making them think that their counsels, once opened to any of their faction, shall be shortly revealed to the King; and in regard of the danger thereof few dare attempt to lay down the plot for any enterprise, or consult with others for the execution thereof.

"Yesternight verie late in the night th'erle Bothwell, Hume, and Sancker came to the port of this towne to have commed in, and to speake with the Lord Chancelour. But the port was kept untill the day was bright, whereupon they are entred and presentlie remayne in their lodgings with verie small nomber."

The amity lately knit betwixt the Chancellor and the Master of Glamis is much shaken: the sight whereof shall stir sundry busy heads to more hasty enterprise than otherwise they would have attempted.

Thinks Sir John Carmichael will start in two days' time. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

Postscript—The King complains of discords among his Council, saying "they spring from the devill that seeke the defeat of all his reformacions," wherein he finds many difficulties and terrors.

3 pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

418. Mr. Archibald Douglas to Burghley. [June 9.]

"To my no small greafe of mynd I did forfeit ane bonde to my host Maister Harvye upon the eighth day of May last bypassed. The dayngeir whearin I am lyk to fall upon the ellevint of this instant to forfeit another of ane thowsand l. sterling, if Sir Francis Walsinghame of gud memorie or his executoris shall not see fyve hundreth and fifteyn l. payed at the day forsayde, constrins me to pray your lordship be so faworable as to mowe hir majeste to be myndfull of hir princelye and liberall promisse mayde anent the diffraying of my chargis during the tym of my aboade be hir hyenes commandement."

"I put no doubt bot that your lordship is able to satisfye her majestie anent the removing of the opinion consawed that evir I did ressawe ony uthir sowmes of money from the sayde Sir Francis than those above mentionate that I am obliged to repaye."

"I am not in dispayr bot that I shalbe able before I die to do hir majeste suche service as hir curtesseis bestowed upon me doethe require or crawe of me, and nevir to be moyr chargeable to hir majeste in onye tyme heirefter if my debtis contractid in hir majestes service, sen that tyme it pleased hir hyenes of hir gudnes to gewe hir worde, war once satisfeid, whiche may be done wythe no grit charge to hir hyenes; that uthirvayss of my self I am not able to performe, to my uttir undoinge, whearin I can not persuade me self that hir majeste vill sea me fall." Signed: A. Douglas.

1 p. Holograph, also address. Indorsed.

419. [Maitland] to [Burghley.] [June 10.] Add. MSS., 23, 241, fol. 37.

"My veary good lord, understanding by Mr. Robert Bowis, the Quene your sovereygnes ambassadour resident heer, what freendlye conceipt your lordschip hes allwayes had of me, I shalbe vearye lothe to frustrat or deceave your opinioun, and sall do all my endeavoure by all the good offices I can to asseur and confirme the same, cheiflye tending to the nurissing and encreas of the amitye and good intelligence happelye begoon betuene these tuo crounes, as my actions have partlye [yeelded] and by God his grace shall yeeld effectuall proof at all occasions."

"I have communicat to this bearar Sir Johne Carmichaell some thinges to be imperted to your lordschip, which I doubt not he will faythfullye delyver and have such credit as his fidelitye shall deserve: whom and his negotiatiouns I am bold to recommend to your lordschips faveur, for that he standeth sincerelye devoted to the amitye, particularlye well affected to your lordschip and my looving freind." Holyrood House.

1 p. Unsigned. No flyleaf or address.

420. Instructions for Sir John Carmichael. [June 10.] Add. MSS., 23, 241, fol. 31.

"Instructions to our trusty and welbeluffed Counsellour Sir Johne Carmichaell of that ilk, knight, our ambassadour towardis our deerest sistar the Queen of England, x Junii, 1590."

"Efter ze have presented our hartyest commendations and lettres to our said darrest sister, ze sall in our name delyver her maist hartye thankes for the continuance of that motherlye affectioun scho hes allwayes effectuallye uttered toward us, and for her sa liberall and kyndlye dealing with us; and speciallye for the luffing caire scho had of us and our state in our absence furth of our realme, and the guid and quyet correspondence keeped be her officiars at her directioun and commandement, for the quhilk we can not bot accompt our selfis greatlye bound to her, and sall thankfullye endevour our selfis with gratefull acquittall at all occasiouns. At our first arryvall we intended to have geaven her immediat knawlege thairof be sum speciall of our counsell, as also of our dealing and proceadeur in Denmarc, and haill progres of our voyage, which during the abod of the strangears heir we war moved partlye to remit to be signifyed be her ambassadour, partlye will appear be the dispatch sent be Coronell Stuarde and M. Johne Skein; the residue yow sall imperte to her, who having attended on us all the quhyll can mak sufficient relatioun thairof. The rumours of busye practesing and advertisment geaven us of earnist travelling of some Jesuistes and utheris for a band and associatioun of papistis and factionaris in both the realmes moveth us to keep a more vachfull ee, and to explore the more narrowlye both the erand and travellars, vherof yow sall also give warnyng to our sayd darrest sistar that the more diligent researce may be maid in her realme, whair we heir the practisars ar presentlye in dealing."

"We ar also moved heerby to inquyr the more diligentlye what hes been the particulair behaveour in our absence of such whose actions hes randered thame suspect in religioun and cours, and to us them allwayes as we sall hy thay have deserved."

"Finding also what harme and inconvenientis ha growen upon such abuses and corruptioun as divers occasiouns have broght out in our state, and meanyng be the grace of God to do all our endevoure to remove and reforme the same, as well for the wealth as seurtye and better settilling thairof, that we may be the more abill to concur with our sayd darrest sister to the benefit of the hole yle: yow sall earnistlye crave her liberall ayd as we have enformed yow, her assistance and correspondence of her officiars as wilbe requisit for the effectuating of sa godlye and necessarye a propos, which all the factionars and wors affected in both the realmes will withstand to thair uttermost for the better maintenance of thair projectis and indemnitye of thair partisans, which onles it be tymouslye provented will breed us the more difficultye and some parrell. If our lenitye used toward such as war culpabill of the late conspiracy be misconstrued or objected to yow, and that thair impunitye will not onlye encourage thame, but also the exempill ministrat occasioun to others to attemptat the lyk, ye sall ansuear, it is trew we ar naturallye enclyned to clemencye, abhorring rigoreuse extremitye onles we be by justice and mere necessitye enforced thairto, and that in our state and pepill both we and our progenitours have tryed be experience a rigoreus proceadeur hes often rather moved nor repressed rebellions and uproares, as also our present state movis us to yeeld to tyme and necessitye, having latelye moved against us a deathlye wrayith of myghtye foreyne princes for participating the cours and fortune of our sayd darrest sister, and driven to dispaire all such within our kyngdome, as affected thame, thair religioun, and desseings; and having no full and firme assurance of our sayd darrest sister, we are moved the more to abstean from hard proceadeur, which yf we fand our selfis so ayded and assisted be her as our behaveour and sincere meanyng deserves, myght be better put in executoun and breid more seurtye to both our estates and kyngdomes."

"Sen we have in actioun and proceadeur so plainlye and sincerelye uttered in tyme of most apparent danger how kyndlye we war affected and how inuardlye and fully devoted to our sayd darrest sister and her state, we will no more now obscuir or dissimull our thoghtes, but mon needes schew and plainlye declaire the same."

"We can not bot find strange that, seing our sa freindlye careing our self and luffing dispositioun, we have not bein so respected as we both merited and expected, and albeit we have in deid at dyvers tymes—as last be Colvill and uther tymes befor—veary tymouslye resaved such soomes as hes advanced our affaires, yet not in that sort nor quantitye as was promised, besydes thinges spoken to us in her name be her ambassadours, in that onlye disavoued, yea the ligue and contract of amitye between us yet unaccomplissed or perfyted. Which althogh it randeris us more lent and slaw in our proceadeur, yet ar we not so greeved by lackyng our commoditye as we ar both sorye and eschamed be reproch and upbrading of our ennemyes, who ar the more bold both to practise and attemptat, mocking and douting of the firmitye of our ligue and amitye which they scuif, saying it will litill annoy thame yf it be no freinlyar observed then it speedelye performed. Ye sall therefore crave of our sayd darrest sister to yeeld such assurance both touard the ligue and ammitye that we may knaw what to expect, and such full certaintye as nather freind nor ennemy dout thairof, to the contentment of the one and mislyking of the other and that both the a [sic] certane some of the anneutye as was aggreed upon, and tyme and seurtye of payment therof, be so set doun as no questioun or difficultye aryse in tyme cumyng; as also that be a reciproc correspondence both we and all uthers rest assured of a firme intelligence and inviolabill amitye betuene us. As to our part, we sall continue and kyth at all occasions as great a proptitud and devotioun as yf we war the naturall sone of her body."

"Ye sall declair to our sayd darrest sistar how far we ar moved with the pitiefull complaintes of sa mony our miserabill subjectis, wraked by pyracyes and depredations of such her unnaturall subjectes as by law of nations suld be accompted ennemyes of all mankynd. Speciallye lament to her the pitiefull cace of Archibald Johnstoun and his feloues, who efter thair naufrage war cruellye spoyled, to whom upon commiseratioun our sayd darrest sistar ones commanded redres to be made, which is now relented and lyk to be frustrat—as we beleve certainlye— besyd her knowlege, and we houp upon your signifying therof wilbe fullye effectuat. And deale also for redres to our cousing the Master of Orknay."

"As to mutuall redres and ordre taking on the bordours, yow can best informe our sayde darrest sistar in what sort it is maist expedient it be prosequuted, having bein commissionar and ever since our officiar therin. We sall omit nothing that may serve for repressing of the insolence of disordred persones, and maintenance of the peace and amitye the realmes."

"At your first audience deale earnestlye with our said darrest sister for a speadye dispatch to our ambassadouris toward Germanye, and for a lon of so muche as may serve for thair honorable furnituir and chairges during thair negotiatiown whiche our so great chairges made of late may not permit to furnishe as we would."

"Assuir also our said darrest sister upon our honour and conscience we ever estemed the bruittes dispersed of her intentioun to lay for ws at our returning from Denmarke wer fals surmyses malitiouslye geaven out, and that it nevir entred in our hairt to suspect any suche thing. And yf it may be tryed the authour thereof wes onye of our subjectis, sall see it punished with all rigour and extremitye."

"Declaire the occasioun moving ws to insert the last article in Coronell Stewart his instructions, as we have informed zow."

52/3 pp. Draft in Maitland's hand. Indorsed by Maitland.

421. Instructions for [? John Colvile]. (fn. 1) [June 10]. Add. MSS., 23, 241, fol. 35.

"Efter ze have saluted our darrest sistar the Quein of England and recommended us to her in our hartyest maner, ze sall in our name render her maist hartye thankes for her sa luffing caire had allwayes of us, and her sa freindlye and liberall dealyng with us be our late ambassadour the laird of Eisterswemys, as alsua for the offre mayd to us be her ministres of forder ayd of treasour, forces, and schippes as the necessitye of our effaires suld requyre. Ze sall in our name fullye assuir our sayd darrest sistar that lyk as we have heirtofore geaven effectuall pruif in tyme of greatest strait and apparent parrell of our sincere meanyng and entier gudwill touard her and her state, respecting nather hazarde of our crowne or persone, the lose of our foreyne freindes and narrest kinsfolkes, or houp of commoditye offred, sa sall we allwayes continue in the same dispositioun as lang as we sall fynd reciproc correspondence on the pairt of our sayd darrest sistar according to our kyndlye behaveour and desert."

"Ze sall alsua signifye to our darrest sistar that as probablye the lose and schame latelye resaved be the proud and malicious ennemyes to God and her state will rather enflame thame to desyre of revenge and repairing thaire harme then quenche thair malice, and divert thame from prosequuting thair desseings, sa have we bein certifyed—and we dout not our sayd darrest sistar hes the lyk intelligence—thay ar making new preparations and doing all thair endevour to attemptat againe quhareunto be lykly heid they will be forder encouraged be the late execrabill mourder perpetrat on the persone of our unquhyll darrest brother and oncle the late King of France, to quhom it was mocyoned before his death as the onlye mean to unite the Catholiques be a commune and generall entrepryse against the realme of Englande, quhilk thay termed the cheif source and only nourrice of all heresye: being allwayes led be ane spreit and stirred up be schame and thrist of revenge, and— as thay conceave—favored be sic incidentis, it seims thay will rather hasten then retard thair projectis, asweill for occurring to the establissing of thes King as for the prosequuting of that thay have of lang tyme proposed. As these dangerous desseings dois requyre to be as weill spedeelye as substantiouslye [looked ?] unto, sa we dout not our sayd darrest sistar will have sic due consideratioun thairof as the danger threatned bayth to God his treuth and hir oune state may be tymouslye prevented; quhilks as we hold no les deir then our croune and lyf, sa will we spair nather of them in mainteanance and defence therof."

"Ze sall signifye to our said darrest sistar that accordinge to the advyse geaven to us be her a lang tyme syne be the abbot of Dumfermeling, and reiterat to uthers our ambassadours, we have resolved to joyne in allyance with the realme of Denmark and indelayetlye marye the sistar of Christian now King thairof; quhairunto we have enclyned the mair willinglye, knowing the amitye and guid intelligence of lang tyme continued betuix our said darrest sistar and that croune."

"Ze sall alsua declair to our sayd darrest sistar we can not but thankfullye remember her kyndlye dispositioun touard us beginnyng at our vearye byrth and continuyng from tyme, with a motherlye caire over us. And hearyng how glaydlye and honorablye scho assisted our baptesme be ane of guid calling in her name, sa we . . . (fn. 2) not our mariage being ane of the cheif and maist respected actis of our lyf, scho will lykwyse assist and favour us be her messinger, as weill to signifye her guid lyking of that matche, quhairof scho was the first autheur, as to testifye to the world scho will not abandon us at any tyme, quha have preferred her amitye to the haill world, having maid onlye choyse therof and it war renunced all uther therfor."

"Ze sall in our name crave her freindlye and liberall ayd in thinges requisit therto, as we have particulairlye informed yow."

"If ze fynd remises or delayes used, give us advertisment with all speid and retourne with all expeditiown, that be protracting of tyme and omitting uther provisioun, we be not frustrat and dishonored."

"Yf our clemencye toward our subjectes in the late conspiracye be misconstrued, ze sall ansuear as naturallye we ar inclyned to mercy, vissing rather the resipiscence then wraik of our subjectis, sua we have bein moved to resave the late offendars to our obedience; and zit not upon foolisch pitie but wechtye and guid consideratiouns to [count them the ?] dangerous practises of foreyns, be quhom bayth thay have bein delt with and we ourself earnistlye sollicited, as we have particulairlye enformed yow, yet we have sa delt thay sall not be abill be corrupting this estat to parell ather of the realmes."

"Ze sall alsua signifye to our said darrest sistar we sall sie sic ordre for justice and redres on the marches as we have declared to Mr. W. Ashbe and particulairlye imported to yow."

"Ze sall use yourself touard Mr. Archibald Douglas as we have commanded yow, and according to our late directioun geaven to James Hudsoun, quhairof we have geaven yow a note."

"Ye sall at lenth impert to the Lord Thesaurair and Mr. Secretarye the proceadeur and reasons moving us to the match with the realme of Denmark, quhaironto we have the mair willinglye enclyned for that we was advertised thay did lyk thereof, and wold have advysed us to mak that choys."

4 pp. Draft in Maitland's hand.

422. James VI. to Burghley. [June 10.]

"Trustie and wellbelovit cousin, I have sent nou at last unto the Quene youre Souveraigne for my ouin particulaire effairis my servant, the bearare heirof, to procure a direct ansoure of suche thingis as I gott but a delay in at my last sending thaire. I desyre nothing but a certaintie if promeises will be keipit. It is best for us both that thaire be a reciproke meiting in all oure turnis, for so sall mutuall amitie be suirliest conservid as to requeist you to assist by all the meanes ye can. I thinke I neid not use any longe harangue for that matter, nor also to trust this bearare; ye knou his honestie so uell. He hes direction to use youre advyce in all my effaire." Signed: James R.

½ p. Holograph, also address. Indorsed by Burghley, "10 Junij 1590. The King of Scottis by Sir Jhon Carmykell."

423. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [June 12.]

Yesterday he received Burghley's letter of the 6th, and with the advice of the Chancellor immediately "let the King understand that her majestie did not allowe of Colonell Stewart to be principall in that commission." Suggested that if the Colonel should be visited with sickness, or found by her majesty not fit to be employed—notwithstanding such excuses as he shall make—he might be stayed and return, and John Skene proceed alone. The King earnestly defended the Colonel, acquitting him fully in his former actions, and said that he desired this service that he might obtain help of the Protestant princes in Germany for recovery of debts owing to him and his companies by the States in the Low Countries for service in their wars.

This Bowes turned to be a just occasion to her majesty to mislike the more of his journey, as being offensive to the States, whom she might not grieve. Finding the King's earnestness to satisfy the Colonel, Bowes said he thought the said Colonel, seeing her majesty's misliking, would of his own wisdom give up the voyage and retire with credit. Hereupon the King was pleased that if he should be stayed by any occasion coming of himself, then order should be given to John Skene to prosecute the service by himself, and agreed to signify the same to Sir John Carmichael, who yesternight received his despatch from the King, and departed to his house at Fenton, having parted from Bowes before his access to the King and purporting to be at Berwick this day.

"Amongst all th'articles in th'instructions given to Sir John Carmighell toucheing piracies, the Borders, combinacion of Jesuites in bothe the realmes, the purpose of the King in his reformacion of the state, the reasons of his former doinges and present intencion against th'associates of the brig of Dee, Papistes and suche like matters, yet his cheif earand to her majestie is to seeke some monie to strengthen and enable the King to procede in his reformacion intended." For without her aid he cannot pass through the difficulties which daily meet him.

Sundry about him say that he shall find small relief from her majesty, and—leaning to their friends of the brig of Dee—seek to estrange his mind towards her, and to draw him to call in question the rode at Stirling rather than that of the brig of Dee. He seems to be stedfast, and to trust in her affection, but seeks her answer as to payment of the yearly portion accorded by the league to be given to him.

Has again earnestly sought that the jewels of Lady Arbella and other things late in Thomas Fowler's hands might be restored; but the King answered yesterday that he detains them not only in recompense of legacies bequeathed to him by Lady Margaret Douglas, left in Fowler's custody," whereof he is not hitherto satisfied for any part, but also that all these jewelles and parcelles being the goodes of Thomas Fowler and in his realme at his deathe appertaine to the King, for that he died intestate and was a stranger here."

Reminded him of the protection he had given to Fowler, wishing him to weigh this matter with his honour. "Whereupon he finallie answered that albeit his protection reached to the parson of Mr. Fowler, and not to make him denizen; yet he wold committ the matter to the consideracion of his counsell, who after th'end of these present and weightie affaires shall deliberate thereon and give me answere."

Sought to stay the money of Fowler's creditors, but Sir Robert Melville, vice-treasurer, so presses them that they deliver it to him for the King, upon delivery to them of their own bonds by Bothwell. He will renew the matter with the aid of the Earl of Worcester.

"This convencion being hitherto small—and yet this daie something increased—hathe not delt with any of the weightie matters to be reformed, but is purposed to enter into the same tomorrowe; whereupon it is ment that the Counsell and Sessions shall come in consideracion, and that some parsons of godly and zelous behaviours shalbe called and placed on the Counsell with th'others that shalbe fitt to be continewed."

"Albeit that Bothwell hathe been with the King, and received good countenaunce and lessons, yet hitherto he hathe not sitten with th'other lords assembled; but he is looked to come to them tomorrowe." The King desires to purchase of him the inheritance and keepership of Liddesdale, to draw the inhabitants to better order and get redress for England. Mediators are to be appointed for the King and Bothwell: the King has named the Justice Clerk, Sir Robert Melville and the Clerk Register; and Bothwell the Chancellor and Alexander Lindsey, whom the King would not allow of, so the Earl must choose others.

The King and Council have been much occupied with the complaint against the Master of Glamis for commanding some men that in riotous manner pulled down his ditches to be whipped in a pin-fold. This matter was followed by some of especial place because it was suspected that Glamis chiefly drew on the marriage betwixt Erroll and Morton's daughter, which is nevertheless stayed by Morton's consent and by means of the Master of Glamis, "so as the rent lately made in the frendship betwixt the Lord Chancelour and the Master is ones againe sewed up." Discords amongst the Council burst out daily.

Erroll's coming is deferred till further order be taken for his marriage, and his reconciliation to the church, and promise to leave the fellowship of the brig of Dee and run a better course.

"The King is informed that an Inglish pirate lyeng upon this coast with a dubble flyebote hathe robbed th'eldest sonne of th'erle of Orkeney, three shipps of Kirkcaudie, and six or eight others that as yet are not commed to complaine. The crueltie used against the poore men of Kirkcaudie to compell them to discover where their gold or silver was is very barberous and the tormentes extreme." There are daily new complaints, as Sir John Carmichael can testify. This flyboat is consorted with another barque and a pinnace chasing all Scottish ships between Lynn and Shetland. Desires that Burghley will inform the Lord Admiral thereof. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

3 pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

424. Proclamation Against Persons at the Horn. [June 12.] Printed in Acts of Parl. of Scot., iii. 524-5; see also Reg. of Privy Council, iv. 490.

"The Kingis majeste, his nobylytie, Counsell, and estatis presently convenit, understanding the great contempt and inobedience entered and contynuing in all partis of his realme, through the multitud of persons contemporably lying at the horne, aswell for criminall as civell causes, to the dishonor of his majestie and great prejudice of complayners; and yet no wayes willing that such as hath satisfied partes and obteyned themselves orderly release from the horne in dewe tyme before ther escheitis fell so [sic: be] trobled or systeyn skaith, although ther names be standing in the regesters as denuncit; therefor ordains letters to be derect, charging all such persons as are or shalbe found in registers or adjornall stand and denunceit rebells and at the horne, whose names shalbe spedely expressed in the said letters, to appere personally before his highnes and lordis of Secret Councell or lordis audituris of Chekker at certeyne peremptour dayes, to answer and underly such order and punishement as shalbe appointed for ther contempt and wilfull remayning at the proces of horne, led by vertue of his highnes other letters raised at the instance of such persons, as also shalbe spedely expressed in the foresaid letters to be direct for their apperaunc in manner above mencioned under the payne of rebellyon etc. With certificacion and they fayle, letters shalbe direct simpliciter to put them to the horne, and to eschete etc. Yf they appered not the certificacion shalbe graunted, and letters directed incontynent to denunce them to the horne and to intromell and uptak ther escheites, or the sam escheitis shalbe granted for composicion to what soever person will offer most therfore."

"They so [ ] the parties one or mo at whose instant thay are denunced as accordes and finding suerty to that effect to the thresurers deputie if they appeer and showes relaxation orderly past ther names show [sic: salbe] deliet out of the carthalogue of horners and an act made theruppon, wher through they shall not be farther trobled for that hering [sic: horning] in tyme commyng."

"Gif they shew not relaxation but be fownd still standing at the horne, in case the horning be for hie and odious crymes, or that they hav bin at the horne over the space of a yere and day, they shalbe presently comitted to ward in the Tolbooth of Edinbrough or som of the Kingis castells, according to the quallyty of ther person, ther to remayne till they have sufficed the cause one or mo for which they were denunced and have obteyned themselves relese and payed for ther escheitis."

"And if the horning be for other common cawses, and the yer and day over past, they shall also be comitted to ward within the said Tolbooth or in som of his highnes castells, according to the quallyty of ther persons as said is, while they find suerty to remayne in suer ward within the brough of Edinbrough, and not to schap forth of the same while they be lawfully and orderly released and have payed for their escheitis, and satisfied likwise the persons one or mo at whose instance they are denunced as said is."

"And that letters be directed to mak publicacion herof at the mercat crose of the hed boroughes of this realme and all other places nedfull."

"And also to warne the persons his highnes rebles inhabiting shrefdome of Edinbrough and constabularie of Hadington and other underwretin, they are to say, etc., which wer charged of be fore oftin tymes caled and not appered at the dyet appointed to that efect, to appeir personally before his majestie and the said lordis at Halyruidhowse or wher it shall happen them to be for the tym, uppon Fryday next the xix day of June instant, to answer and underly the forsaid order conforme to the tennour of his highnes [ ] letters direct to that effect, and under the paynes conteyned therin: [ ] them and all others which shalbe charged herafter to this effect; and they fayle to appeir and render ther obedienc in this poynt, that the certyficacion of the letters directed and to be directed shalbe graunted."

"Further, they shalbe persued therafter with fier and sword with all rigor and extremyty in insample of others, etc."

1 large page. Copy. Indorsed.

425. Mr. Archibald Douglas to Burghley. [June 14.]

"Haiffing already forfetted two bondis, the one of sexteyn hunderth l. upon the viij of May to my host Mr. Hervye, and another of a thowsand l. upon the xj of this moneth for payment of five hundred, (fn. 3) for whiche Sir Francis Walsingham of gud memorye did remayn obliged; in dayngeir also to incurr the penaltye of mo, and not able of myself to put any remedy to these inconvenientis that ar lyk to incresse upon me, I am forced as of before to pray your lordship to move hir majeste to put to hir helping hand, accordinge to hir princely promisse that my debtis or necessarye chargis contracted in hir majesteis service sen the gevin of hir hynes worde may be satisfeid. And I shalbe contented to tak upon my self to discharge the remanent, and nevir to be any vise chargeable to hir majeste in any tyme heiraftir; remaning alwayis affectionat to do hir majeste service so long as lyfe shall remayne." Signed: A. Douglas.

¾ p. Holograph, also address. Indorsed.

426. The Earl of Worcester to Burghley. [June 15].

Arrived at Edinburgh on Saturday the 13th instant, conducted by the Earl of Mar, who was appointed to meet him by the way. Lord Hume was to have met him on the Borders, but came not, for which it is thought he will be "shent." His men made Worcester's men affeared, for betwixt Berwick and Haddington there suddenly appeared a band of one hundred horse, and galloped about the cart where the stuff was, without a word. When they had viewed sufficiently they rode away.

On Saturday night Bowes sent to the King to know when he would grant Worcester audience "who awnswered, when I wowld; the next day yf I wear not weried with so long a jornay." So he had audience on Sunday.

"After some fewe wordes of her majesty's joy for his safe return, I delivered her letter. That being red I delivered the other, with some wordes shewing her majesty's further affection in chusing him to bee of the honorable Order of the Garter together with the Frenche King. His awnswer was he was glad to bee joyned with so honorable a companion. Then hee wrapped bothe the letters together and gave them to the Lord Chancelor, yelding her majesty conding thankes; and after a fewe speeches concerning the brute of my stay, and her majesty's ships liing in wayte for his retorn, I requested to have accesse to the queen, unto whome likewise I had bothe letter, token and messadge to delyver from her majesty; but hee sayd shee was not well in her tothe. I towld him, for that shee myght thanke him, for yt was a saing in England when the teethe did ake yt was a token of breeding child: and after some speeches more I departed for that tyme; and thus far I have hethertoe proceeded, hoping to have accesse uppon Teusday."

There is at this time a convention of the nobility for the reformation of divers matters, wherein the King is mightily withstood. Encloses particularities.

"Matters referred untyll Monday the 15 of June."

That the coin current in this realm may be reduced to as fine silver as that of England, "wherin the Lord of Makeston and others of the mint have promised to gyve in there ouvertures this day."

The reformation of Lords of Sessions. John Lindsay, for them all, sought to preserve their privilege given them by act of parliament to examine and try any of the lords of Session accused of bribery, corruption or other default. Nevertheless he offered that any of them charged with any offence should be tried by twelve persons chosen out of the nobility, barons, boroughs, and church.

"The fourteen articles presented by the ministers to furnishe everye parishe churche with a minister, and provide a convenient stipend for them; wherin the most of the articles ar assented to, but the possessors wyll not lose theyr takes or leases, unless that uppon the surrender of some part of the tythes in theyr howldinges for term of ye[ars] they may have the residewe in fee simple for ever. Montross and Justice Clark did chefly withstand this mat[er]; wheruppon some warm speeches grewe beetwen Justice Clarke and Mr. Patrike Galoway a famose preacher."

"Matters ordered."

"All suche as bee at horne shall appere on Friday next for there disobedience and with the partees pursuing them. Suche as shal not appere then shalbe agayn denownced, and the King to intromit with there gear and aprehend theyr persons, and keepe them in sure firmance untyll they shale geve obedience and agree with the partees compla[ining].

"Border matters."

Coldenknowes, Clerk Register and Andrew Carre are working for redress to be made on the Borders.

Erroll will not come, for the letter appointed to be sent to call him was omitted by some accident, partly through the sickness of George Young, deputy secretary, in which office he has of late done very little by occasion of strifes between the Chancellor and him.

"Arroll hathe no wyll to come hether or to reforme and reconsyle him self to the churche, where in the Earle Morton agreethe to perswade him by all the means in his power to satisfye the churche, but he cannot compell him, nether can he breake the contract of mariadge that is now fully concluded betwyxt Arrell and his dowghter."

"Huntley hathe sent hither Jhon Drummond to solicyte his cawses in cowrt. Dromond came yesternyght, but with what condition is not yet knowen." Bothwell is this day come to the King to proceed in exchange for Liddesdale. Bowes tells Worcester that the articles by the ministers are adjourned to a larger assembly. The Chancellor has endeavoured to remove from sessions some noted for papistry, but could not prevail.

Encloses the articles presented in this Convention. Gives thanks for Burghley's favourable letter to Bowes. Edinburgh. Signed: "E. Worcester."

3 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

Enclosure with the same.

(Articles agreed upon at the Convention.)

"First. That every parish within this realme be provided with one minister, or two where the multitude of the parishioners and rentes of the churche may suffer and requires the same."

"Secondlie. That every minister of ilk parishe churche within this realme have ane competent stipend of the dueties [sic] which growes on the grounde assigned to him furthe of the frutes of the parishe kirk where he serves, according to the abilitie of the place, notwithstanding whatsoever rentes or impedimentes to the contrarie."

"Thirdly. That speciall teindes of particular landes and townes of the parish be assigned to the minister for payment of his stipend, to the effect he may have ane relacion [sic] therefore. And in the first end the vicarage to be compted where the same vakes or may vake by the lawes of the realme, together with the manss and gleib."

"Fourtlie. That all the ministers be provided in title to the parishe kirk where they serve; by vertue whereof they sall uplift the said locall stipendes and remanent frutes of the said parish kirk to remaine with the auld provided tenauntes and takesmen during their life tymes and rightes; and thereafter to accres to the ministers title to be distributed ut infra; and that the haile stipendes and superplus of the teindes be free of all taxacions, in respect his majestic hath temporalitie of the benefices."

"Fiveftlie. That for expedicion of the premisses, it is necessarie to make a valuacion of all teindes and speciall townes and landes thereof to be expresslie nominate thereintill, which valuacion salbe made by two ministers to be nominated by every presbitery and reported to the lordes of the Chekk[er] by the said presbitery betwixt [ ] and the [ ] of [ ]. And the said valuacion to be in victuall and not in monye."

"Sixtlie. That it sall not be leesum to any minister to sett in tack, dispone in pencion, make factours of any part of his locall stipend, nor to putt in ony in possession thereof, nor yet to alter the estate of the same presentlie valued and assint to him."

"Seavently. That provision be made in favours of ministers in case of nonethanckfull payment of their locall stipendes within fifteen daies efter the terme, that then the minister sall have actionem spolii and juramentum in litem upon his inhibicion, or actionem dupli, for the estimacion of that yere. And it salbe lesum to the said ministers the next yere thereafter and sicklike yerelie in tyme comming therefter to leede the teindes of the speciall townes and landes assinit to them. Providing allwaies that gif they make thanckfull payment thereof within the said tyme they salbe free of all [ ] spuilzie [ ] of their teindes and others inconveniences."

"Aughtly. That it be provided that all tackes and other rightes of teindes lately sett and made to whatsouever person or persons be na waies prejudged by the said locall stipendes, which salbe allwaies preferrit to the said tackes and rightes of teindes. It salbe lesum to the said minister's provided [ ] to the said kirkes to renew the said tackes and rightes of the superplus of the said teindes by and attour the said locall stipendes, by the advise and consent of the presbetery where the said ministers makes residence and na utherwaies. Consideracion being allwaies had of the old kyndely possessours of the said teindes, who salbe preferred to all other extramantis [sic]."

"Nintely. If it fall out that the said locall stipendes be whollylie assigned out of any man's tacke, that take salbe releived thereof pro rata by the rest of the takismen of the parish in [sic] if their be ma and by the remanent possessours of the teindes of the said kirk and dueties thereof, which releif shalbe somarely tried by the lords of the Checker. And in the meane tyme the ministers stipendes not to be deferred in payment nor put to actionem therfore.

"Tenthlie. That the remanent of the teindes by and attour the saids locall stipendes, giff any sall happen to be presentlie vacant, salbe presentlie assigned to the sustentacion of the colledge, satisfaccion of the senatours of the college of justice, wha sall happen to be interessed by the said locall stipendes, payment of the fees of the commissioners and others ordinarie servauntes of the kirke, repairing of the ministers part of the fabrik of the kirk and others godlie uses and common affaires of the kirk; and that by the said lords of Checker to be appointed for the modification of the said locall stipendes. And giff the rest of the said teindes sall happen to vake at any tyme hereafter by the expiring or reduction of tackes or rightes of the teindes, then the same salbe imploied to the uses above written by six commissioners yerelie to be nominate by the generall assemblie; whereunto they salbe allwaies subjected to make yerelie compt and reconing of the same and distribucion thereof."

"xj. That the superplus of all the teindes of all colledge kirkes non vacant, whansomever they sall vake, sall retorne to the said colledges to be used by them as their owne patrimony."

"xij. It is thought good for eschewing of fraudes and debates, which commonlie uses in takes and other rightes of teindes, that all the said rightes and tackes of the teindes made or to be made salbe registrate in the bukes of the collectorie, and notit to be registred therein by the collectours clark upon the back thereof, betwixt [ ] and the [ ] daie of [ ] utherwaies the same to make no faithe."

"xiij. That commission be geven to certen discrete men to sett downe the locall stipendes at every parish churche, and to subscrive the bookes and modificacion thereof, and to judge the relief of the takisman and others that may be interest by this work, and to assigne and imploye the remaynent of the said teindes by the said locall stipendes to the particular uses above written; and to cognose and decide all difficulties and questions quhilk sall result upon the interpritacion of this act; and unite and devide parishes where the same hath not been commodiouslie erected of before. And to convene all burrowes for production of their guiftes and all annuells given them and their hospitalls or poore. And for makeing of compt and reconing thereof; and to see the same profitably bestowed in tyme comming."

"Finallie. That these articles be formed in a generall act, which craves to be established as a lawe by the estates and ratified by the lordes of Secrett Counsell, Session, and Chekker, who shalbe sworne to judge according thereto. Wherein salbe likewise conteined ane ratificacion of the commission made to the lordes of Checker for perfecting of this work and of the locall stipendes and others assignations of the said teindes to be made by them in maner above written; with a promis that the same salbe ratified in the next parliament. And in the meane tyme to be inviolably observed as a lawe."

pp. Copy. Indorsed: "14 June 1590. Articles at the Convention at Edenborowgh."

427. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [June 15.]

According to Burghley's letters of the second instant delivered by the Earl of Worcester, he has acquainted that Earl with the present state of this realm and the disposition of great persons here, and the doings at the Convention.

Sundry times he (Bowes) has moved the King for the execution of justice on the Borders. This day this Convention have resolved to choose a greater number of commissioners for Border causes, at whose hands he hopes to get redress for former attempts in England and the late spoil at Mindrum and detaining of prisoners, for which causes sundry prisoners are now attending upon Worcester and Bowes.

"Th'erle Bothwell was sent for [to] procede with the King in [th'] exchange for Liddisdale, but rather to give his consent that sondrie marchantes latelie spoiled by English pirates might presentlie sett fourth to the seas at their owne charge shipps to take the pirates that had before robbed them. And that thereon they might reteine and kepe to their owne uses so muche of the goodes to be founde in the pirates shipps as should amount to the value of their goodes taken by the pyrates, without delivery of any porcion thereof to Bothwell as admirall: and that the residue of the prize to be taken by them the due porcion should be given to th'admirall. But Bothwell hathe refused to give any part of the duetie belonging to him: whereat the King after longe debate did leave him with some offence; so as Bothwell departed, pretending to ride againe this night to his owne house, but he is not as yet departed."

Has acquainted the Chancellor with Burghley's esteem of his wisdom and constancy, whereof at this Convention he has given good proof. He gave great thanks, and has by Carmichael signified his affection to Burghley. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

428. Richard Wigmore to William Asheby. [June 15.] Eg. MSS., 2,598, fol. 271.

The 7th of this instant I received your letter, dated the 15th of May, whereby I perceive how slowly mine posted towards you, taking three months to find their way to St. John's. Whether the cause rests in Captain Carvell or the posts, God knows. My letters to her majesty came never near her highness.—"Untill therfore I may meatt with a more assuered convoy for my letters then the present doeth afforde, I must entreatt zow not to attende other then ordynary matters from me."

"Concerning Mrs. Foulers laett husbandes estate, and zower request to me in her furtherance, zow must understand: first, that Mr. Fouler dyed intestate; secondly, that the ackownt of his welth, so farr as is zett cum to knowledge, amownted to no greatt matter; thirdly, that the King, in regard of that intestation, pretendeth to be his heyer."

Touching his wealth—that wherewith Bothwell intermeddles—take here the true particularities: a cross of diamonds, a tablet with a diamond, a ruby and an emerald, a tablet with an agate of either side, a ring with a fair diamond; in coin, twelve shillings in single pence and thirty four silver counters; obligations of debt from Thomas Foules for 3000li. Scotch, from [P ?] Jussy for 600li. Scotch, from Da. Clappan of Leith for 500li. Scotch, and from Roger Asston for 400li. sterling.

"Now zow may if zow lyek believe that he whoo had to furnish other men, whose present condition was to be charged with phisitions, potecarye, sand surgions, besydes the necessitye of howsold expences to be supplyed, at the hower of his death had but twelve shillings in singl pence; but my opynion is that Jhon Mongommery hath very handsumly helped himself, whoe only hath delt with the howsold stuff, the vallue wherof imported not greatly."

"Amongst his wrytinges ar fownd certen discharges from my Lady Tabot for jewells receved to the Lady Arbellase use, and Archibald Douglass his obligation to Mr. Fouler, which arryseth sumwhat hygh." I was a stranger to his life, except since his coming hither, wherewith I was too well acquainted: "suerly his death was very prophane to the world," full of miserable torments. To the inheritance of his wealth he had destinated first the King, wherewith he charged Patrick Galloway at his going into Denmark, secondly the Laird of Coldenknows, thirdly old William Hume, "fourthly Mr. William Fouler, and fiftly William Fouler." Every one of these were strongly guided with this hope, but he dealt evenly with them all, not bequeathing to one of them the value of a "plack," notwithstanding that some in person and the wives of others were present at his death, and he was urged to make his will. He ever answered that his will was made and in the custody of a sure friend, whom he would never name. "Yea, this was his awnswere to Mr. Jhon Brand the minister not half an hower before his deathe, and zett now it can not appeare, eyther by his son whoe is cum hither to demawnd his goodes, or by any other, that evar he made any testament. How unchristianly he behaved himself toward the minister even at that tyme I forbeare to wryte bycawse that he is dead. But this I will confydently affirm, whatsoever hath bin hoaped for to the contrary, that both her majesty and this King by his death ar delyvered from a most dangerus instrument. Heerof more at tymes more convenient." What his secret course in state matters was cannot appear by any writings left behind him, all of which were either committed by himself to some other trust, or since his death by some handsomely embezzled; which confirms my opinion of Montgomery. Fowler would never hear of death or look after the consequences that might ensue. His son has earnestly busied himself about his father's goods. He could not pretend right of testament, for himself confessed that his father did not make any; he is therefore returned in hope to join with his "mother in lawe" [sic: step-mother] in the administration of his father's goods. The gentlewoman shall never better her estate by one farthing by anything here, for the debtors are charged on pain of horning to bring all money due to Mr. Fowler to Sir Robert Melvin; and the King pretends a double right thereto, first because he died intestate, "next in regard of certeyn legacyes bequethed unto him by the Lady Margaret his guddame." Mrs. Fowler's friends should dissuade her from a pursuit which will yield nothing but travail and expence.

I dare not write of this state, ratio quœ supra. It standeth in a most dangerous state. "In the Kings howse a strange metamorphosis: in himself a greatt alteration."

"This Convention did begin the 10th of this present: not many wer called; of those fewe have appeared. In this tyme the King hath carryed himself with greatt gravity and moderation. Many thinges have bin propownded: as zett not any one concluded. This daye a reformation in the session is expected." Edinburgh. Signed: R. Wyg . . . (fn. 4)

pp. Holograph, also address. Indorsed.

429. Mr. Archibald Douglas to Burghley. [June 20.]

"Doctor Josephus Michaele, to your lordship knawin, that hathe this longe tyme remaned wythe me in cumpanye, is presentlye for some pryvate effectis to repayr towardis Holand, of intention to returne wythin the spaice of one monethe. He hathe prayed me to mowe your lordship for ane pasport to him, whiche I must pray your lordship to lat him hawe." Signed: A. Douglas.

½ p. Holograph, also address. Indorsed.

430. Earl of Worcester to Burghley. [June 20.]

Having ended all that he had in charge he awaits the King's despatch. The Convention has given order for persons at horn, as appears by the enclosed note. They have committed to the King's pleasure the choice of his secret Council: the King purposes to call men of good religion, wisdom, experience, and good behaviour. "They have left the reformation of the Sessions to th'examynatione and order of them selves, with th'advice of the Lord Chancelour and consent of the King." Concerning the coin, Borders, and petitions of the ministers, they have appointed commissioners severally for every several cause, at whose meetings the King is to be present. All other things are referred either to the King and Council or else to the next Convention; "and yesterday taking order for matter of customes and sondrye other lyke thinges, they disolved this Convention untyll a newe warning."

Huntly has sent John Drummond and Alexander Duff to sue the King's favour upon delivery of the Earl's letters, and to solicit his friends to travail with the King, that seeing the King has taken for the Queen the house and lands of Dunfermline, that in recompense he will let him enjoy the tack or interest lately granted him by the bishop of Moray of the temporalities of that see, granted by the King since that bishop's decease to Alexander Lindsay: otherwise that he and his wife may be licensed to depart out of this realm and there to remain.

The King thinks James Gordon the Jesuit will come in by the day appointed, so as he may have the King's promise to depart without harm: and that Huntly, Auchendown, and others will obey him in all things. It is purposely bruited that James Gordon is already gone to the seas, but he remains in John Duff's house at Craighead, and will not come to the King except he be assured to return without hurt.

Auchendown also is said to prepare for flight, and will not appear except he have assurance for his safe guard. The King looks to be informed of these by the Master of Elphinstone, who is looked for today or tomorrow.

Erroll has sent to his father-in-law Morton, and to the Master of Glamis, to travail with the church for gentle dealings towards him, and written to Robert Bruce to give no credit to bruits against him and his religion; "wherin hee wrytethe as hee is presently disposed he wyll not shewe what religion he is of, nevertheless he wyll in tyme geve proofe of his honestee."

"The marriadg of Morton's dowghter to have been solemnysed of Tewsday next is put over untyll farther day." The King and Bothwell grow near to agreement for the exchange of Liddesdale, as by the enclosed note appears. Bothwell has three grievances: first, that the King presses over much for the exchange of Liddesdale; secondly, that he offered to prejudice him in his office as admiral by granting all the goods taken of the English pirates that robbed the Master of Orkney, who are to be pursued by the merchants spoiled, to those merchants in redress of their losses, without recompense for the portions due to the admiral; lastly, that Bothwell being chief gentleman in the King's chamber before the entry of the Duke of Lennox, is not now admitted to any place in the chamber. He (Bothwell) is departed not well content. Whilst here he sent for Lord Compton and other English gentlemen to see pastimes on Leith sands, "for yt was foreseen that neyther the King showld bee greeved for the company geeven nor hee styrred to ayny hard conceyt by refusall of his request in this beehawlff."

Andrew Clarke is to be sent by the Spanish faction to the Duke of Parma, but knows not yet what his commission shall be. Edinburgh. Signed: E. Worcester.

pp. Indorsed.

Enclosure with the same:—

(Articles accorded between the King and Bothwell).

"That the Earle Bothwell sall resigne the lordship of Lyddisdale in the Kings handes and remanentiam, which is presentlie esteemed in yerely worth and value to [ ], on condicion that my lord sall not be subject to answere for nane of the inhabitantes of Lyddisdale dedes preceding the daie of his resignacion, saulfing for the performance of his band made in the King's majeste's absence; and that he hes not nor sall not do any thing that may hinder the true and effectuall relief of his highenes and his wardaine for his bygaine offensses of the inhabitantes of Liddisdale agains them selves. For quhilk cause his majestie sall seeke and procure that Rory Makcloyer [sic] of the Lewes and Torquill Maccloyer his sonne may be forfalt in his highness next parliament be lawe for sic crimes of treason as they have committed, upon the said Earle Bothwelles labours and expences: and quhill the said forfalt sall graunt no respitt nor remission to the said Torquill, nor other thing that may impeid the said forfalture: and sall also graunt to the said Earle Bothwell the escheit and life rent of the said Rory and To[r]quhill."

"Whereupon the said Earle may sute and acquire the possession of the landes and goodes and appertening to them for sic cause as they stand denounced to the horne for, as the lawes of the realme will allowe; with condicion that the King's majestie sall warrant the disposition of the landes of the Lewes and others, all being in the possession of the said Rory Mackroyer and Torquill his sonne in this manner: that in case it sall happen the said landes to be evicted from the said Earle Bothwell, his majestie and his successours salbe halden to warrant to the said Earle and his heires asmuche and as gude lande as the lordship of Liddisdale is estemed presentlie worthe by yere by him self, or sall reintegrat gif he sall so require the said Erle Bothwell to the said lordship of Liddisdale before the end of yere and daie after the date hereof.

2/3 p. Copy. Indorsed: "June 1590. Note of the order to be accorded betwixt the King and the Erle Bothwell for exchange of Lyddisdale."

431. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [June 21.]

Leaves all information as to this state to Lord Worcester, except something of which he has been this morning informed, as follows. The Lady of Auchendown, by the advice of Huntly's friends in court, came yesternight to this town, to excuse the appearance of her husband by his sickness; for he was charged to appear yesterday, and bring in James Gordon and the band of the brig of Dee. So many of Huntly's friends have dealt with the King in his favour, and that of others charged to appear yesterday, as they hope to find grace at the King's hands, "yet the King pretendeth to be resolute to procede with a sharpe course against them." Auchendown is ready to pass over the seas if he cannot get the King's favour.

James Gordon is brought hither secretly, and is in this town very close, purposing to depart again quietly if the King's goodwill may be gotten to Huntly and him. Otherwise he will put himself in the King's hands, trusting thereby to remove the King's offence from Huntly, who shall thus get his liberty.

"I trust my lord of Worcester shall this daie sett suche an edge on the King to cutt of these practises as this matter shall not be thus lightlie passed over, as it is looked for." Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

432. Queen Anne to Elizabeth. [June 22.] Printed in W. Fraser, Memorials of the Earls of Haddington, ii. 47.

Among all the favours which our Lord has granted us since, by His holy grace, having passed through much misfortune and weariness by sea, we have been happily led to a good haven, nothing has given us more contentment than that it has pleased His divine goodness to move you to visit us by your letters, rejoicing both in our alliance and nuptial union, and also in our happy arrival in the realm of the King our most honoured lord. In truth, it is impossible for us to express sufficiently how agreeable to us is this friendship which you having begun with the late King our father of eternal and happy memory, it pleases you to continue and to make hereditary towards us: which appears evidently, as well by your letters full of courtesy and good affection towards us as by your very rich and truly royal gifts; which we being unable worthily to remunerate except by an affection and goodwill like unto your own, we desire rather to manifest it by good effects when occasion shall offer than by writing. And if it please you to do us the honour to employ us in any thing which may turn to your contentment, as you may freely do, as well in respect of the near neighbourhood of the kingdoms wherein God has established us, as of the sex which is common to us both, and likewise of the courtesies whereby you have obliged us, we shall endeavour by all good and honourable effects and offices to show you the desire that we have, not only to entertain, as hereditary, that friendship begun between the late King our father of happy memory and you, but to increase it and render it closer and more assured, for the universal good of this island and our particular contentment: as we have prayed our very dear cousin the Earl of Worcester your ambassador to give you to understand more fully. Holyrood Palace. Signed: "Vostre tres affectionnée soeur et cousine Anna R."

1 large page. French. Addressed. Indorsed.

433. James VI. to Burghley. [June 28.]

"Richt trustie and weilbelovit cousing we greatt yow hairtlie weill. Upon the sute of this berar Johne Montgomerie, lait servand to Mr. Thomas Foular, deceissit, quha be the suddane death of his said maister is frustrat of the rewaird expected for his long service and paines, as alsua of the great gude he promised him a lytill befoir his deceis, as we have bene crediblie informed, we ar mowit heirby to interpone our requeist for him, quhilk salbe in desyring zow to bestow wpone him ane office of waitter in the poirt of London, the nixt that fallis woid and waikand. Quhairby he may have the occasione and meanes to do als gude service thairin as his fader, quha of long tyme hes and presentlie dois execute the same; quhilk we understand to be at zour dispositioun and gift. And lykwyis we ar to desyre zow to giff him licence to transport fyftie tunis of beir frome London to Scotland as we have appointed. Quhairanent we luik zea sall schaw him suche favour as this oure requeist may prove effectuall, as we have had large pruife thairof heirtofoir." Holyrood House. Signed: James R.

½ p. Addressed. Indorsed.

434. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [June 29.]

The Earl of Worcester meeting at Alnwick Burghley's letter to himself of the 21st instant, sent it to Bowes, that he might execute such part of it as concerned him; which he has done, signifying to the Chancellor Burghley's acceptance of his friendship. The said Chancellor promises all good offices.

On Saturday 27th he (Bowes) received Burghley's other letter of the 21st to himself, with the packets sent from the ambassador for Scotland; which he has delivered.

Has showed the King and Chancellor the times of audience granted by her majesty severally to Colonel Stewart and Sir John Carmichael, as also their success: letting them know how inconvenient it was for her to furnish Stewart and Skene with money for this voyage, as he had informed them before the departure of those ambassadors: "and that your lordship had nowe delivered to Sir John Carmighell for the King five hundred pounds, which Carmighell had put over to the Colonell and Mr. Skene, who at this tyme were passed forwardes in their voyage towardes Germanie." The King is greatly pleased, and will provide two commissioners to be sent to her majesty, the French King, and the King of Spain, at such time as shall be needful for the mediation of peace. As her majesty by letter to the King, and Burghley by letter to Bowes, have little allowed of the King's mild proceedings against the associates of the Brig of Dee, so Worcester and Bowes pressed the King to hold his course against them and in his intended reformation.

Reminded him of his promise to her majesty in this behalf to be delivered by the Earl of Worcester, and laid before him how deeply his honour was engaged to perform the same. He answered so well as nothing can be added in words to assure performance in deeds. And he and his Council have quietly motioned that Huntly, Erroll, Bothwell, Crawford, and Montrose shall be shortly commanded to such ward as shall be convenient and give best assurance of their obedience in times coming. The execution of this is doubted, because of the great offers they make to the King, and the force of their friends about him and in Council; for of late the King and Council have not consented in sundry causes in question amongst them. They have all lately sought the King's favour by their friends in court, and prevailed so far as the King has shown signs of good countenance towards them upon their good behaviour.

Huntly has offered to the King to surrender his estate in Dunfermline, and to be loyal and obedient. Also largely to compound with the Chancellor, seeming now willing to do all that shall be enjoined. "He seekethe leave for him self and his wife to depart out of the realme in case he can not obtaine the Kinges good opinion towardes him."

Has sent James Gordon, the Jesuit, as commanded, to be at the King's pleasure.

The King has not yet accepted his surrender of Dunfermline, because he has already compounded with the Master of Gray for his interest therein; yet his surrender will be received for the extinguishment of all titles.

The Chancellor refuses to trust his promises, seeing he has so often broken with him. "But the Duke of Lenox and other frendes so travell with the King, as it is ment that Patrick Murray shalbe sent with the King's letter and advise to Huntlay, to counsell him to agree with the Chancelour, and thereon the King wilbe favorable to him." Huntly hopes to get licence for himself and his wife to depart out of the realm, but if the King continue in his course professed, Huntly shall not pass away so soon. It was thought that Huntlaie, Sutherland, and Aughendown should have been put to the horne at this tyme, upon their default in the chardge given them to appeare and bring in (fn. 5) Mr. James Gordon; but the processe of horning are hitherto staied."

"Mr. James Gordon the Jesuit is readie to depart out of this realme at the King's pleasure, and provision is made for his transportacion into Flanders, with chardge that he shall not retorne."

"The Ladie Aughendowne is retorned well contented. She is willed to perswaide her husband to bring in the band of the brigg of Dee, and thereon he shalbe received to the King's grace. She obtained in courte the greater favour by the shewe of her doughter with her, that is sole inheritrice of the possessions of the lard of Geethe hir father, and first husband of the said ladie: for George Hume a principall gentleman in the King's chamber is like by the King's commendacion to gitt the good will of the maide and her frendes to marie her."

Erroll coming secretly hither was brought to the King by Morton, Mar, and the Master of Glamis, without the privity of the Chancellor; yet they had before sought his goodwill. The King has addressed him to satisfy the kirk and to reconcile himself to the Chancellor, and he will the better accept of him. Erroll has written to Robert Bruce offering to satisfy the kirk, yet nothing hitherto is performed. He has also made means by his friends before named to agree with the Chancellor, who requires to be satisfied for former defaults, and assured of good behaviour hereafter. At this the matter still sticks, but the friends labour earnestly with liberal offers, and it is like shall come to agreement.

"The mariage betwixt Arrell and the doughter of Morton is appointed to be within few daies. But it is now intended to be done quietlie and without suche open solempnitie as before was prepaired. (fn. 6) "

The jealousies betwixt the Chancellor and the Master of Glamis as to Erroll breed great hindrance to the common causes.

Bothwell is passed towards Caithness with great discontentment that the Chancellor stayed the holding of his court at Dediston as he had appointed. In this journey he will probably speak with Huntly, and meet at St. Johnston's Lord Hume and other noblemen. If this tryst hold, matters of great importance will be stirred up: but Hume shall be advised to break that appointment. Many marvel at Bothwell's taking this course, when he ought rather to seek to recover the King's grace.

The Spanish barque, suffered to depart with captain and company before Worcester's passage hence, has cruelly spoiled sundry English ships about Hartlepool, "cast out sundry men from their ship, letting two barkes fleete emptie on the sea; and they are presentlie in the rode before Anstruther in Scotland, with a ship of Mr. Vernon's laden with malt for Barwick, one other of Lynn with beanes, and other of Clay with pease for Newcastle." Which three ships they took before Hartlepool, and having brought them to Anstruther, offer to ransom the men and their freights. They offered sale of these prizes, which was refused by the town, "and where they sett on land with one of the Inglish botes the masters of the shipps of Mr. Vernon and Lynn to fetche the ransomes appointed, the towne of Anstruther tooke and detaine two of the Spaniardes, and reskewed two English boies: whereupon the captaine of the Spanish bark immediately—as the boyes escaped have told me— hanged one of the Inglishmen." It is suspected that this barque was set forth by some of this nation to take the English pirates that robbed the Master of Orkney and sundry merchants of Scotland; and if they should miss the English pirate, to take such other ships of England as might redress those losses; for many Scots are in this barque besides the Spaniards, and the master of the ship of Lynn says that he saw another Scottish ship consorting this barque.

Peterson, lately in prison here for taking Mr. Arnold's ship and others, is in this Spanish barque. It was promised to Bowes that though he was set at liberty with others upon the Queen's entry into Edinburgh, he should be taken again; but he passed away quietly with his company and was cruel to the English as he threatened.

Has shown the King and Chancellor these causes of offence, and they go about to set forth ships to take this Spanish barque and rescue the prizes, and the merchants of the coast seem ready to seek the apprehension of that barque for her majesty's contentment, fearing it shall otherwise fall to their great hurt. Will pursue the matter, but fears the barque will escape, sail for Spain, and go about the isles.

It is said the Earl of Orkney has taken sundry English fishermen in Shetland, and brought them to Orkney to recompense the spoil of his son by an English pirate. Bowes prays direction, in case it be true.

It is called again in question whether the King's Council established before his passage into Denmark shall be altered, but the King and Council intend to appoint for this Council six earls, two lords, and four barons, agreeable to the note enclosed, as was motioned before Worcester's departure.

The commissioners for the Borders are directed to resolve as to measures for redress and preservation of the peace, that their resolutions may be signified to Sir John Carmichael and he may deal with Burghley and the Council upon a course to be taken.

"The peticions of the ministers will not be graunted; but in the end something wilbe done that every parish church may be furnished with a minister with reasonable stipend."

"Mr John Grame one of the lords of the Sessions hathe been sore charged with corrupt behaviour in that place by the King's advocate, before the King and Counsell. He is suspected to be found fowle herein, and hathe impeached the advocate of great corruption in his office: so as the matters for reformacion of the Sessions fall into further examinacion then was looked for."

The King purposes to resort with the Queen to Dunfermline, and after to Falkland for his pastime, with some chosen councillors. The Chancellor and other councillors shall be left here, and let the King know if his return is needed.

At the motion of sundry well affected to the Chancellor and Archibald Douglas, Bowes has approached the Chancellor to make reconciliation betwixt them, but finding him "verie nice to allow of Mr. Douglas course in the common cause," has suspended his labours and awaits direction. He commends Douglas for his former services to her majesty—which Killigrew, Randolph, and he have avouched—and for his good offices to be done hereafter. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

5 pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

435. James VI.'s instructions to the Ambassadors to Denmark and Germany. [June]. Cott. Calig., D. ii. fol. 1.

". . . (fn. 7) [Ger]many directed from . . . of June 1590."

". . . that celeritie is required in your negotiation, ye shall omitt no [dil]igence in prosecutinge youre chardg, and use all speed possible in [your] jorneyes and voyage, abstayninge from all unnecessarie aboad by the waie or divertinge anie wheare but where the necessitie of youre erand shall carie youe."

"Presse by all meanes—if convenientlie youe maie—to be in Denmarke before the departure of the Quene our deerest mother from thence, that by conference and deliberacion had with such of that state well devoted to our erand and sincerelie affected toward us, aswell residinge there as that are to accompany her, you maie the more resolutelie travell in youre negotiation."

"After youe have delivered our letter and hartiest comendacions to the Lord Chauncelor, Regentes, and other most zealous and kindliest devoted toward us of the counsell of that state, youe shall call to remembraunce the motion made to them first by our Chauncelor in our behalf, thereafter by our self, desiringe them to consider deepelie of the moment and daungerous sequele of the unkindlie warres betwixt the Quene of England our deerest sister, the Kinge of Fraunce our deerest brother, and the Kinge of Spaigne; howe manie inconveniences maie growe [th]ereby, what effusion of Christian blood, and what unquietnes to all [E]wrope, they beinge all so mightie Princes and havinge so greate [a]llyaunces, so stronge confederacies, and so straight conjunctions with [so] manie princes and potentates that almost all Christiandome shall [parti]cipate thereof, but cheifelie all that sincerelie professes Christ have carefullie . . . ert, to foresee theire perill and to provide diligentlie for theire . . ."

"This beinge no private quarrell founded on particulare injur . . ld project decreed in the Counsell of Trent for subversion . . . ion and overthrowe and utter exterminion [sic] of all s . . . sacred intencion to destroy and re . . . of Spaine entituled Catholique the he . . . and confederacie, not onelie for zeale of . . . monarchie; whereunto—havinge such wealth . . . domynions in the occident—he hopes to attaine . . . maie either possesse overthrowe or dissolve the . . . it in the power of one of his clientes, or parti . . . England; and consequentlie that restes of the K . . . shold possesse the seas and assure his naviga[tion] to him."

"The Emperoure his nephew, the Duke of [Savoy] in frendship with the most part of the Swyses, . . . Baviere and all the ecclesiasticalles in Germanie . . . kingdome of Pole destinate to one of his nephew[s] . . . afflicted, and alwaies likelie to be possessed by . . assotiation."

"By theise and manie other evident i . . . this warre in outward shewe directed against Eng[land and] to the rebelles of Fraunce is intended against all . . . Christ his truth, and all such as for maintenaun[ce] . . . and states wold mislike or withstand his monarch . . . the progresse thereof will breed the troble and . . . part of Christiandome, but the event and sequ[ele] threateninge subvertion of true religion and over[throwe] of all states truelie professinge the same."

". . . desired them, aswell for the publique respect . . . of peace and true religion, as for our private . . . owne estate wold not be void of perill in the . . . not onely wold participate the universall . . . perticulerlie touched bothe for religious caus . . . wold rekon with themselves the infinite pe . . . likelie to fall out, which wee sawe noe . . . hazard of oure states but one, to witt, . . . to make remonstrance to the . . . of the whole, that they being Christian prynces . . . ses and states, have longe contynued not only in suer peace, . . . [str]aighte amitie and ould confederacye, and often, and of late in verye . . . [a]llyance, no suche cause offred nor injuryes donne by anye of them to other as may justlie move so hotte desire of so cruell revenge, as so deadly a warre may produce, or that might provoke any of them to attempte so highlie againste the person or estate of other: and to laye before them the offence of God, whose highe displesure may be kyndled thereby, the greif of their consciences, the greate and many inconveniences that may growe thereon, the disturbing of the comon peace of Christendome, the effusion of Christian bloude, the harme and danger of their subjectes, frendes, confederates and domynions; the perillous sequells and doubtfull eventes, the assured domage and uncertein commodities. And therewithall to entreate them by all good meanes to give eare to the godlie and juste motion of so many well affected prynces to them, to reverence their Creator who is a God of peace, whose livetenantes they are, to dispose their hartes thereto, to shew themselves conformable, not to disdayne the honest petition nor frustrate the travailes of so freindly intercessors, and suffer their differences to be amitablie composed by a firme peace, suer and honorable for them both and all their freindes and confederates. As also to signifye to the Kinge of Spayne that this so harde dealinge againste the Quene of Englande and Kinge of Fraunce ministers no smale occasion of jelousie to all the prynces Protestantes, that in respect of the decree of the Counsaile of [T]rent, the Holye Leage, and other late proceadures, this may seame [ra]ther a generall project againste them all then a private quarrell [or] particuler revenge, whiche by his conformitie and enclyninge [to] peace wilbe fully cleared and removed. And on the other [par]te to declare to the Queene of England that hir contynuanc[e in wa]rre will argue in hir not only a disposition unsemely for hir . . . [al]so will move and encrease against hir a generall mislyk . . . in danger thereby."

"Synce the Kinge of Spayne is of so g . . . person, having lately had so greate losse which . . . repaire, his domynions so distant and sparsed . . . his state is cheiflye mayntayned, the lesse prof . . . he is enforced to exorbitant charges to kepe a s . . . suertie of entercourse to and from the same, or s . . . and his navigatioun be stayed or intermitted by ly . . . enclyne to quyettnes, settle his state, assure his domyn[ions], . . . young sonne who is not accompted of stronge bodie . . . suertie, and harken to honorable and suer condicion[s], . . . private quarrells be componed and transacted; onle . . . upp by ambition to aspire to a monarchie . . . in the subversion of trewe relligion and professo . . . so be we all wilbe enforced either willfully or sh . . . or sincearly joyne our selves together in a firme . . . countreleage, and with joynt myndes and forces . . . obviate to the cruell desseignes and forces and ungodlie . . . adversarye, which if it be offensive and defensive . . . to mayntayne his Indies againste all our power . . . which his estate might neither consist in securi[tie]. We therefore desyred them carefully to en . . . and not onlie to joyne with us therein, but . . . meanes and creditt to persuade the prynces . . . of their friendshipp and allyance, with whom . . . deale particularlie to this end, and would dea . . . as were to repaire in that realme; whereun[to] . . . willinglie as well for themselves, as to joyne . . .'

". . . with all convenient expedicion addresse you to Bru[nswick] . . . ther part of the assemblie of the prynces, and delyver [to eve]rie one of them our severall letters with our hartiest commendacions, and [in] our name signifie to everie ane of them, cheiflie the electors of [S]axony and Brandenbourg as we have sett downe before: that we dealt with the chauncelour and cousnaile of Denmarke, laying before everie one of them what dangerous sequele, what effusion of Christian bloude, what troble to all Europe, and how manye inconveniences, whereof all Christendome is lykely to participate, appeares to ensewe on this unchristian warre moved by the Kinge of Spayne againste our dearest sister the Quene of England and our dearest brother the Kinge of Fraunce; as also to desyre them to call to mynd the bloudye decree of Trent against all that syncerlye professe the ghospell, the contynuall preparations of forces, the craftye dealing to committ the Protestantes amongst them selves, the Holy Leage amongste all Papistes, their cruell executions and massacres, the murders of so many prynces and persons of accompte, some attempted, some essayed, and some yett intended."

"What practises, what devises, what enterprises, all tending to that end and manifesting evidently the warres professed againste the said prynces are intended againste all that syncerely professe the evangile, and with tyme [wi]ll tend to the subversion of relligioun in everie severall place, [and] particuler overthrowe of their estates and domynions."

"The [Kin]ge of Spayne beside the cause of relligioun proposing to him [self] a monarchie, encoraged by his power and large domynions [in d]yverse partes of the earthe, having the Pope, the Emperor, so . . . prynces in Germany and confines thereof so farr addicted . . . smale impedyment but in the states of Fraunce and Engl[and] . . . obviate to all those m . . . Christendome, is to compose the dis . . . foresaides at peace."

"The fittest exp . . . by a conjoynt legation dyrect from a ne . . . from us, our dearest brother the elect King of Sax[ony], Brandenbourg and Palsgrave, the . . . Mehelburgh, Pomer, Holstein, Lunenbourg, pry . . . and others zealous of peace and God his glory, f . . . authorised by us all to deale and remonstre as . . . Which if it be yelded unto, then shall the trewe re . . . in securitie, and Europe for the mooste part re . . . quiettnes. Otherwise, if it be refused, and the . . . of so well affected prynces frustrate and disd . . . shall proceade from the part of the Quene of Eng[land] . . . Fraunce, preferring particuler revenge to com . . . will deme their quarrell unlawfull, them selves . . . and distorbators of the publicke peace, yeald up . . . freindshipp with them during their obstinacye, and . . . commodities of our domynions be used to the . . . of their adversarie. And if the King of Spayne . . . reject so godlie a mocion, and obstinately ref . . . condicions, as by lykelyhood he will not for th[at] it argues playnlie a covert meaning and w . . . intention against relligion and all that s . . .; which as it concernes all moste highely, both . . . so we muste we [sic] sincerely joyne our selves in a . . . obviate to his pernitious desseignes and pro . . . offensive and defensive would be the more . . . harme and grevance. As we by our selves at our late being . . . dearest brother and father in lawe . . ."

". . . deale severallie in the like sort with everie one of [the] said princes, and if youe find them frankelie disposed spare noe . . . . mocion it publiquelie to them all at one tyme."

"Travell by all meanes that the legation be spedelie directed specyallie to Spaine, and all celeritie be used, for that delay maie breed a lett, and give us tymelie warninge of the persons and tyme shall be appointed. The like must also be directed toward England and Fraunce, to intreat those princes in the sort; lett the tyme be signified to us that wee maie joyne one from us to deale conjunctlie with theirs."

"Lett your cheife travell be that a league—at least defensive yf forder maie not be obteyned—be firmelie promitted in case the Kinge of Spaine contynue obstinate, reject the legation, give flatt refuse or use shiftes, delayes or remisses to frustrate the effect thereof."

"Yf the tyme of the assemblie at Brunswick be prorogate to a longer daie, or hold not at all, youe shall deale with them severallie, and if youe find them well affected, deale ernestlie for a meetinge in some convenient place so soone as youe maie move them thereto."

"The like if before your arrivall the assemblie be dissolved. Yee shall also travell by all meanes with the said princes that after the retornynge of the legation from Spaigne, Fraunce, and England, howe and where they shall be convenit for takinge farder resolucion what shall be most expedient to be furder done in case of refuse or [y]eldinge to peace."

"[If pe]rhaps ye be so streited with tyme that conveniently [ye ma]y not goe by Denmarke and come tymously to . . . some be tymously sent to joyne . . . was agreed unto when we first mo . . . All other thinges fitt to be done for the adv . . . of youre negotiation wee remytt to your better . . . shall fall out, keepeinge alwaies the effect . . ."

pp. Copy. Marginal notes in Burghley's handwriting.

436. Observations on the instructions to the Ambassadors to Denmark and Germany. [June ?] Cott. Calig., D. ii, fol. 5.

". . . (fn. 8) meth not possible for the ambassadours to be at Brunswyk [before] the end of this month of June, which shall be within [twelve] or thirteen days, if they shall mak ther voyadg first [to] Denmark and than to Brunswyk, or that they do [n]ot mak great spede to pass by sea from hence ether to Hamburgh [o]r Staden, from ether of which two places ther jornye [s]hall be shorter to Brunswyk than from Denmark to [B]runswyk. [Ther] for where they ar commanded to be in Denmark befor the Queen [of D]enmark . . . towardes Brunswyk, and that also they have letters to [the] Chancellor of Denmark and to the regents ther [to] whom they ar willed at ther arryvall thyther to remembre to them all that befor . . . bene declared ther first by the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, and after [by] the King of Scottes hym self concerning the daungers of the continuance of the [war] betwixt the Queen of England, the French King, and the King of Spayn [and the] remedyes therof, to be a joynt legation to those three [princes to] move them to peace, and in case of the refusall . . . then be meanes of a conterleag to withstand the attem[pts] of the refusor, w[ith a] very large decla[ration] . . . both to induce the sayd three princes to peace, . . . in a leage defensyve and offensyve if it . . . the refusors."

"All these matters may be sent in [Denmark] by these two ambassadors with the King of Scottes letters, and to . . . of thes ambassadors not comming thyther to be by reason of the lack of . . ., yet to require of the Chancellor of Denmark and the regentes that some persons mete for this purp[ose be] sent from Denmark to Brunswyk, to joyne with these ambassadors to procure the joynt intended legation to . . . now at warr, and the prosequution of the commen leage."

"Item, whan these ambassadors ar come to Brunswyk, if the ass[embly be] ther, but ether it be not begon or that it be past, than . . . . ar directed by ther instructions with the severall letters of the King of [Scots] to all the princes severally, and to move them to a . . . metyng togither for this intended purpooss. By . . . process of this action, which requireth spede, . . . such length as the fruit or benefit therof will . . . this sommar nor a long tyme after. Therfor it semeth better that presently . . . the King of Denmarkes regentes and the [Duke of Mecke]lburk ar all redy had . . . be spent by these two ambassadors . . . so manny princes as ar named, beyng in nomber ten, as the Elector of S[a]x[ony], the Palsgrave, Mar[grave] of Brandenburgh, Dukes of Brunswyk, [Meck]ellburg, Pomerland, Holsten, Luneburg, Anholt, and Landsgrave, [which] ar manny hundred myles and manny dayes jorneyes [a]sonder. But for remedy of that inconvenience it may [be required] that havyng the consent all redy of the King [of] Denmark, the Dukes of Brunswyck and Meckellburg, who also, as it seemeth, have determined to impart this intention to other princes ther neighbors of ther [mi]ssion, it shall do well first to understand of these two dukes whyther they have imparted this purpooss to the other princes, [to] how manny, and what hope they have of ther consent; [and] if they have any such hope, than to require those [two] dukes, that is, Brunswyk and Meckellburgh, to send [their] own privat letters joyntly with the Scottish Kinges letters to them, and to . . . them of the arryvall of the Scottish ambassadors to Brunswyk, [and] by all good meanes to procure the coming of as manny of those princes, ether [person]ally, or to direct ther agentes well authorised to come thyther and [in] ther names to conclude with the ambassadors of the two kynges uppon the sendyng of such a [decla]ration to the three princes beyng at war; and furder . . . upon a comen leage for mayntenance of publyck p . . . the breakers and . . . and to defend all such as a . . . in any sort invaded or off . . . meanes the ambassadors shall sonest coun . . . But if the sayd two dukes of Brunswyk . . . have not delt to tast the myndes of any . . . or that they have found them th . . . or that the ambassadors shall otherwise unders[tand] . . . they may by some intelligence to be had, eth[er through] Palavicino hir majesty's ambassador in Germany [or the] French King's ambassadors de Saucy and de Fres[ne that the] princes ar not willyng to joyne in this . . . two Kings of Scottes and Denmark, nether for the legation nor for mak . . ., than it s . . . to reveale the cause to any such as . . . so unwillyng; for so by ther refus[al] to the requestes . . . Spaynes faction in Germanny will . . . And therfor it may seme sufficient . . . conjunction, to have the two Kynges and [Dukes of] Brunswyck and Meckleburgh, addyng [only] Holst and Pomerland, which two by bloo[d are] joyned to the King of Denmark, and . . . be made, of ther assent both to the . . . conterleag; and if mo princes can be had . . . the better . . . be sent to the three princes, and . . . of the sayd princes to harken to conditions of peace, than it s[hall be con]sidered how and wher a convention shall be for furder procedyng ageynst the refusors."

"[Th]at order will bryng great delayes, but it is better [tha]t at the tyme whan the legation shall be now determined to be sent the princes that shall send to the three princes do presently combyne themselves in a present leage to conserve peace amongst them selves and ther allyes, with clauses both of offence and [d]efence ageynst ther adversayres; and by the same [le]age to comprehend by speciall names the Queen of England, the French [K]yng, and the King of Spayne, if they three will [a]ccord to peace, or with as manny of them as shall [as]sent to conditions of peace uppon the legation. [A]nd in lyk sort to bynd them selves to relinquish the [ami]te with the Queen of England and King of France if ether of them shall refuse to . . . ce, and also to obviat the pernitiooss deseynes of the King of Spayn if he will not yeld to peace, and so consequently to joyne togither in a leage offensyve [and] defensyve ageynst the invader or violator of [peace; a]nd this leage to begyn to tak effect . . . ageynst any prince refusyng conditions . . ."

"Item, for the legation to be mov[ed] . . . It may seme mete for avoydyng of charges that the same consist not . . ., and therfor it may be compounded of . . ., on for the King of Scottes, on for the King of [Denmark], and on for the other princes of the empyre; and these three may com from Hamborogh or Staden to se . . . to France, and ther to speak with the French Kyng, and so to . . . from whence by ther retorn the King can know how furder to procede."

"As for the place of treaty to which the [Queen of] England and the Spanish King may send com[missioners] . . . be for some fourteen dayes at some place n[ear] . . ., some other fourteen dayes neare Gravelyng; and for the honor of the Queen [of England] it may be accorded that all the ambassadors may be shipped over to Do[ver] . . . fourteen dayes treaty. And to avoyd all . . . entry into treaty, the ambassadors may move it . . . for the three princes; wherin the severall names . . . small cedules inclosed in a bullett of wax indifferently molded with a muskett wold . . . To avoyd all kynd of fraud, that bullett that shall be first taken out of a secret bag by the King of Scottes ambassador, beyng the first of the mediators, shall serve to declare the place to be first apoynted for that King whose name shall be found ther inclo[sed]. . . . prince of the empyre . . . [pe]ace, [sh]all be assitent with the commissionars that shall be sent from the three prynces that ar in warr, and shall do ther endevors to reconcyle the controversyes to a fyrm peace."

"Item, it semeth necessary that for the more expedition to bryng this action to a good end, that wher by the King's instructions no mention is made for the nomination of such as shall be sent from the King of Scottes in the intended legation, but that as it semeth these two ambassadors shall first retorn into Scotland after they have concluded uppon the legation and the leage, to advertise the Kyng of ther doynges, and than the King to apoynt such as he will send in the legation [joint]ly with the ambassadors of the King of Denmark and the princes, the effectyng wherof will require a long tyme both for the tyme of ther retorn and for the tyme of the preparation of the King's ambassadors and for ther passyng also into Germanny to joyn with the others: and therfor it is thought more mete that those [ambas]sadors here present, consideryng they meane befor ther departure . . . being in hostillite, and thereof . . . uppon knowledge to be had from Bronswick . . . of the full conclusion made with the princes . . . nes to send theire ambassadours, the King may . . . by waye of England, and theareuppon such as he hath cawsed afor[time] to be . . . maie come thorowgh England and meete with [those] of Denmarke and the princes at theire landing [in] Germanie, withowt expecting altogither the personall reto[rn of the] ambassadours out of Germany, althowgh theie maie also retorn . . . to Scotland by sea, or hither withowt anie . . . in Germanie, after they have concluded theire . . . committed unto them by theire instructions."

"It is also thowght meete that when the a[mbassadors] have done theire messuage to the three princes . . . them all inclinable and willing to have the . . . to be treated and concluded, because they shall . . . King of Spaine, if the sayd King be theareto wil . . . move him to yeld to send his commissioners to be . . . within forty daies after to meete with the . . . shall cum both from the French King and . . . England, who may in very short tyme send thers to . . . And by this meanes the more . . . made without procuring of any newe con . . . sending of ambassadours. These observations war made by the Queens majestes commandment . . . of the instructions, and hir commandment . . . hereafter named."

8 pp. In Burghley's hand, except most of the last page.


  • 1. Misdated and misplaced. It should be August, 1589.
  • 2. Decayed.
  • 3. "For payment of five hundred" inserted by Burghley, who writes in margin: "lent by a gent of Yorkshire by Purvess."
  • 4. Decayed.
  • 5. In margin in same hand: "It is told me that his licence is already past, and that Huntley or his wife will not depart."
  • 6. In margin: "At the makeing hereof I am credibly informed that upon feare that the mariage should be staied by the King's chardge, the mariage is secretly selibrated on Saterday last 27 Junii."
  • 7. Decayed.
  • 8. Decayed.