Simancas: August 1565

Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1892.

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, 'Simancas: August 1565', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892) pp. 458-470. British History Online [accessed 26 May 2024].

. "Simancas: August 1565", in Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892) 458-470. British History Online, accessed May 26, 2024,

. "Simancas: August 1565", Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892). 458-470. British History Online. Web. 26 May 2024,

August 1565

6 August. 313. The Same to the Same.
On the 29th I wrote to your Majesty that the Emperor's Ambassador was at Richmond with the Queen. When he was there the earl of Arundel, who had also gone to take leave of the Queen on his departure for his estates at Arundel for a few days, invited him to see his house of Nonsuch before he left it, and to ask me to accompany him as I had already promised to go. He answered that he should be pleased to do so if his engagements allowed him, and if not that I would go. The Ambassador found he could not spare the time, and I accordingly went on the 31st. The house is excellently embellished and fitted and has beautiful gardens. The Earl has brought water thither which King Henry could not find. As soon as I got there Sidney arrived, and as the Earl was somewhat troubled with gout, one of his sons-in-law called Lumley, and Sidney took me over the house and gardens. I had some conversation with Sidney, and told him that I understood what he had said to me about the Archduke's marriage being all empty words was likely to turn out true, and that I had written to your Majesty what he had said at the time. He answered that he recollected perfectly saying so, and had written to the same effect to Count de Feria. He grieved that an attempt should be made to treat the Archduke in this way. I asked him about his departure for Ireland, whither he goes as Viceroy, and he told me he was not sure when it would be, as they were a long while despatching him.
After dinner, although there were other visitors I was talking for some time with the Earl at one end of the room where we had dined. He expressed great desire and affection for your Majesty's service as he always has done, and told me that he was convinced that the men who surrounded the Queen did not wish her to marry. I said it was quite possible that some of them who thought they might get the prize for themselves might wish to hinder it, but as regarded Secretary Cecil, I thought that his disagreement with Lord Robert might well lead him to support the Archduke if it were not for the question of religion. He told me not to believe that Cecil wanted the Queen to marry. He was ambitious and fond of ruling, and liked everything to pass through his hands, and if the Queen had a husband he would have to obey him. The Earl has always expressed the opinion, that in this matter of marriage the Queen herself should be addressed, and not her ministers who were all divergently interested. He thought the Ambassador should press the Queen to decide, and said that this was necessary for many reasons ; that the Queen was naturally irresolute, and this delay and procrastination might prejudice the business in several ways. He was of opinion that the present time is opportune, and as for religion, he said, the Queen knew very well that the Archduke was a Catholic, and why had she brought up the question again, as she was informed about it before she commenced. I said I was surprised that as the Queen had at first treated of the Archduke's matter through the duke of Norfolk, Lord Robert and Cecil, she had not now summoned the duke of Norfolk, the Emperor's reply having been received, and it seemed to me that it was a slight to the Duke. I mentioned this to him, because a secretary of the Duke here, who is a worthy person and a good Catholic, had told me that the Duke was not coming as he thought even before his departure that the Queen was not acting as straightforwardly in the affair as he could have wished and expected. The Earl said the Duke was young, and gave me to understand that he was therefore deceived at first. The Earl did not seem very confident of the affair, but we could not pursue the conversation for fear of attracting the attention of those present, for they are so suspicious of one another that Throgmorton, who manages Lord Robert's matter, lost no time in approaching us, and we spoke of other things until the hour for my departure. I communicated all I had heard to the Ambassador.
On the 3rd he went to Richmond to see the Queen and I went with him both to comply with her request that I should see her before she left here and also to deal with the Secretary on matters touching some of your Majesty's Flemish subjects and these sea robbers who are continually assaulting them. When I arrived in the presence of the Queen with the Ambassador I left them together for a considerable time although the Queen called to me three times and told me some nonsense about her having heard that the Turk had a great force against your Majesty's fleet, and that she had made up her mind to marry his son Bajazet for the sake of making peace. I said it was a large price to pay for a friendship that your Majesty desired so little, and that I for my part should be satisfied if, failing Bajazet, "hoax" had nothing to do with her marriage. (fn. 1) She laughed a little at this. I understood that the Emperor's Ambassador had to discuss his business with the Council as he had told me, but the conversation was with this Queen alone and after a time with Cecil, who gave him an answer in writing to the clauses that the Emperor had sent and which had been discussed with the Queen. With regard to religion, which is the first clause, the answer repeats almost the same words as they had said to him previously as I wrote to your Majesty recently although the written answer given to the Ambassador is somewhat more decidedly unfavourable, as it says that in accordance with the law and usage of the country no person is allowed to hold any service or follow any other religion than that established, in consequence of the grave troubles that might result therefrom. Inside the palace, they say, there is still greater reason for uniformity, and above all in case of a person so near the Queen as her husband. On the question of dowry they say the same course must be pursued as when your Majesty married Queen Mary. They are resolute about this. Referring to the title of King they say this cannot be given as it is against a specific Act of Parliament and touching the alliance to be declared with your Majesty and the Emperor, they wish this to be elucidated and they have been asked what they require on this point. The other clauses would probably be agreed to. The Emperor's man told the Queen that since she had always been so anxious to see the Archduke before the confirmation of the match it would be better for him to come and to defer the discussion on religious matters until they could meet, and she could hear from his own lips what religion he wished to follow and he could hear the same from her. The idea was that if the Archduke came the Queen would not fail to marry him as the Ambassador is assured. I am not sure that they understand the case aright as nothing certain can be foreseen in so doubtful a matter.
On the 7th Secretary Cecil came to speak to me about the business of the Flemings, which I have mentioned, and the Emperor's man was with him for a considerable time. He gave him better hope and said that after his return the Queen had again discussed the matter with the Council and had shown herself so inclined to it that as they went out the Admiral had said, "Thank God! the Queen is so well disposal towards her marriage." It is true that on that morning the successes in Malta had become known through various channels, and the news had been anxiously expected by both parties, but with very different hopes.
On the morning of the 5th, Sidney came and was some while with the Emperor's man. He said Leicester had lost hope of his business, and he afterwards came to my rooms where I made him stay to dinner in order to talk with him and see whether he had any further particulars. I repeated to him that the impression became stronger every day that the Archduke's affair would end in nothing, and asked what object the Queen or those who had acted for her could have had in revising the negotiations and getting another Ambassador sent unless they had resolved to bring the match about. This was done, as he knew, by Lord Robert, Cecil, and Throgmorton. He said that was so, and he had represented the same thing to Lord Robert, but none of them understood each other. He affirms that he was always sure the Queen did not mean to marry, and that they were in the most troublous state that ever was known in England, especially if the Queen were to die, as they were all so divided that no three persons were enirely of one opinion.
On the same day in the afternoon the earl of Sussex visited the Emperor's man and was with him for some time. Amongst other things he said that on the question of the Archduke's request touching religion they are not all united, and if the Archduke would consent to accompany the Queen to the place where the service was held, so that the people should see him, and then return to his own apartments and hear Mass, he thought that the matter might be arranged. The Ambassador told me that he answered that he could say no more on that point than he had said in accordance with his instructions. They both came to me together, and after the Earl had again assured me how much he desired the marriage to take place in order to frustrate the designs of the French, the Ambassador (fn. 2) assured me that his King would still urge his marriage with this Queen, and made great promises to the effect that if the Queen refused to marry him in consequence of his tender age, but would marry a person whom he should recommend, he would give her an army of 30,000 men to conquer Scotland, and would pay them during the time necessary to do so. In addition to these promises he offered a sum of money to help the business forward, and consequently that he would have plenty of friends. He (Sussex) knew this to be true because they had even sounded him, and he said that if this was their plan, and the French got a footing in this country by such means the States of Flanders would run great risks, the sea being occupied, and your Majesty prevented from going to their aid if required. At all events, he said, I should press the Archduke's match forward in your Majesty's name, and should advise the Queen on my own behalf, as he knew she would pay more attention to me than to the greatest man on her Council. I thanked him for what he had told me, and as regarded Flanders I said I was not concerned to deny the danger, as I did not wish to excuse myself from using every effort in favour of the match, but if what he mentioned even were to happen there was small reason for fear, judging by what had happened in the past, and especially with one who like your Majesty was fortunate enough to be able to succour even your friends, much more your subjects, and who had more ways than one of going to the aid of Flanders at all times. He again repeated that he thought I ought to address the Queen as from your Majesty, which would have great weight since, he told me as a great secret, she said I had not yet done so.
I said I was greatly surprised at that as the contrary was the case, and she knew very well that I had done so, the Ambassador or himself being present at the time. I said I would willingly do whatever the Ambassador thought advisable as I had orders from your Majesty to help him in every way in my power to forward the Archduke's suit. He said that nothing was offered to the Queen on your Majesty's behalf like that which the Frenchman offered, and I replied that there was no need for your Majesty to offer anything as you were already the Queen's friend and had binding treaties of friendship sworn by the Emperor with King Henry the Queen's father for himself and successors. Those who were not yet the Queen's friends might offer new pledges which were probably meant to be broken as usual. He (Sussex) still thought it would be well for me to go to the Queen with the Ambassador and recommend the Archduke's suit to her again. I told the Ambassador I would act as he thought best. He was assured by me from the first of your Majesty's desire to help the Emperor and his brothers. I accordingly went with him to Richmond, and after we had both been with the Queen for a short time yesterday, I said to her that as the Ambassador had business with her that would take some time I would like to speak with her first. I then told her that I understood that the Ambassador was leaving dissatisfied, and said I thought it would be greatly to her interest that after the negotiations had been pressed so far the matter should be concluded, not only because the Archduke was so powerful a Prince and brother of the Emperor, but also because your Majesty had great affection for him and was most anxious for his advancement as she had already heard from one and from the Ambassador himself, and I begged that in her gracious answer she would let him see that her desire to please your Majesty had some weight with her. She replied that she would do all she could in it and that the matter turned upon two points ; first that the precedent of your Majesty's case should be followed in all things except only in the question of religion, which was the second point. As regards that she could not and ought not to do otherwise than maintain the laws and orders of her realm, and she thought this answer could in no way affront the dignity of the Archduke. I replied that this was a very delicate point to put to him as he had been clearly and expressly told that the religion of the country would have to be observed, and it would be sufficient now to say that the laws and customs of the country would have to be respected, because on the points of religion they really differed so little, as she had often told me, with her good wishes it would be easy to agree on that point, and it would be unwise to raise the difficulty by specially naming religion which moreover could serve no purpose. She said it was the Emperor who had raised the point, and she could not avoid answering it, and she also had to look to her dignity and honour in the matter since the question had been raised. She said she thought she was doing all she could on her part. I again urged her to consider it well and to bear in mind how important this marriage would be to her. When I pressed her on this she smiled, thinking that I said one thing and meant another, and I cannot help noticing this sort of suspicion the Queen has of me. The day before yesterday in the course of conversation Sidney said he thought she was so greedy of marriage proposals that she would be glad to have an offer from Don John of Austria. I told him that the negotiations with the Archduke having been commenced such an idea could not be entertained for a moment. These people have strange fancies.
When I had finished the Emperor's Ambassador spoke to the Queen and was better satisfied than with his previous audience. He says the Queen still sticks to the two points, although he found her better disposed towards the business and expressed pleasure at the coming of the Archduke and the persons referred to in the Emperor's letter. I think this is a mistake on the Emperor's part, as the Queen is said to be only feigning for her own ends, and I have told his Majesty's man here to assure him that if the Archduke agrees to her demands about religion other points would be raised, and, after all is said and done, she falls back upon personal attachment by which she shows her artfulness to bind herself to nothing and leave herself always a loophole to escape from. The Ambassador asked her to sign in her own name the points upon which they were agreed, but she would not do so, and on his requesting that the Council might sign she also refused, but said the Secretary should sign them. The Ambassador is to return for the paper and take his leave to-morrow and the Queen asked me to go with him, which I will do. He spoke to Lord Robert yesterday, and tells me he said that he had entirely lost hope of his suit. It is all deception in my opinion. Henage still progresses in the Queen's good graces. The queen of Scotland's gentleman who had arrived here, as I wrote, left on the 3rd. He said that this Queen still complained bitterly of his mistress for having resolved to marry after promising her she would not do so without informing her, and above all with a subject of hers. I sent an answer to the said Queen by him and verbally recommended her try to tranquillise affairs and to take care not to admit Frenchmen into her country except under great necessity, as I knew she would lose much of the support she had in this country, which in fact is true.
The queen of Scotland was married, as I wrote she was to be on the 29th ultimo, Sunday. On the previous Saturday she had Lord Darnley proclaimed King, saying that she would only marry a King. I understand that these people here are not pleased at it at all, and they are right, as many difficulties are raised for them, particularly as it is said that the Scots who rebelled against she Queen are now reconciled. Throgmorton tells me this is not the case, but still he confesses that one of the four chiefs who held aloof was at the wedding, and this would seem as if the news about the reconciliation was true.
The day the wedding took place there was a rising of heretics in the city where she is, which they say lasted until night, and it was necessary for the Queen to give an answer to the conditions which had been submitted to her, as I wrote to your Majesty. To the first condition, namely, that no Mass public or private should be celebrated in any part of the Kingdom she answered that she was the daughter of parents who with their ancestors had followed the Cotholic religion in which she had been brought up, and she did not understand and had never been shown that there was anything bad in it, but rather to the contrary, and that being so, there was no reason to ask her to do a thing against her conscience and against the interests of her realm. If she did as they ask all Christian Princes would abandon her in her hour of need for doing a thing which both she and they thought wrong. With regard to the tithes and other benefices this was a matter of ancient rule, and that the exchange and commutation of such was generally a matter for the Parliament to decide. She would therefore summon the estates of the realm and discuss this matter with them, trying to arrive at a settlement which should be satisfactory to all and beneficial to the national interests so far as her conscience would allow her. Since she had left them (her subjects) with full freedom of conscience for themselves and had deprived no one on that account of life, honour, or property, it was not just that they should try to force her to do anything against her conscience. The French Ambassador has received a reply to his remonstrance on behalf of his King in the matter of Lady Margaret. It was that the Queen requested the King to consider if he had a subject who had left his country under an artful pretext for the purpose of deceiving him, and had married against the King's will, and had done other similar acts whether he would be offended with him or not. She therefore requested that the King would not take it amiss if she took further time to consider what she had better do. The gentleman who went to Scotland on this Queen's behalf had instructions to complain of what had been done and to propose means by which this Queen might be appeased. The principal proposal is that the queen of Scotland should cede all the rights she claims to this crown to the Queen for her life and that of her successors if she has any, and that no change is to be made in religion in Scotland, seeing the trouble that might arise in this realm therefrom.
Postscript : After closing the letter which goes herewith I have learnt that the cause of the postponement of the interview of the Emperor's Ambassador with the Queen from to-morrow to the day after is that her Majesty leaves for Windsor on that day and wishes to take him with her and entertain him there on a visit for seven or eight days. I believe the object of it is to frighten the queen of Scotland into the belief that the marriage is to take place, and concede better terms to this Queen with regard to her own. These people never budge without some object in view.—London, 6th August 1565.
13 Aug. 314. Guzman de Silva to the King.
On the 6th instant I wrote your Majesty that the Queen had commanded the Emperor's ambassador to go on the following day to Richmond to take leave and receive his answer. This was postponed until the 8th in order that the Queen might bring him here to Windsor with her as she arrived on that day. I came with him as I was asked, and also because I had just received a despatch from the duchess of Parma respecting certain robberies committed lately against subjects of your Majesty which are a source of great damage and grievance to them, although no new one, and must needs be remedied in a way that may be felt, since words will not do all that is wanted although certainly something has been done, as I write to the Duchess. As I advised the Queen, I arrived here at nightfall on the 8th. They wished to give the Ambassador and me separate lodgings, but I had arranged otherwise because as the Ambassador travelled to England by post and has been staying with me he had not the necessary baggage, and I had sent forward what was wanting for his use. The pack mules were at the door of the Dean's house where they had arranged for the Ambassador to stay, and the Queen no doubt thought on seeing them that they had not given me a lodging, whereupon she was extremely angry, and when she arrived in her chamber she turned to me and said, "What! have they not given you a lodging? My people shall learn in a way they will not forget how you are to be treated. You shall occupy my own chamber and I will give you my key." She took the key to hand to me, but I calmed her and said that in order not to leave the Ambassador I had told my people to stay in his house. We supped that night with the earl of Leicester, and after supper he said he would dine with me next day. He had arranged to have his own attendants and butlery in the Dean's house, and so they continued (he and what courtiers are here) to come and have their meals in our company.
The next morning the earl of Leicester sent to ask if we would go and see the park, in doing which we punished three horses and saw a large quantity of game. We came round by the footpath leading to the riverside through the wood to where the Queen lodges, and when we came to her apartments Leicester's fool made so much noise calling her that she came undressed to the window. It was morning, and in an hour and a half she came down and walked for a long while talking with the Emperor's man and me about many different things. She always repeats her dislike to marriage and even to talking of it. She showed me a ring with a fine ruby which she wore and afterwards handed it to the Ambassador for him to look at. When he returned it he asked her whether she would like him to take it to the Archduke and wished to take it from her but she would not give it up and said it was too early to send jewels to him. She spoke of the Archduke's visit, and I asked her whether she had noticed amongst those who accompanied the Ambassador and me any gentleman she had not seen before, as perhaps she was entertaining more than she thought, only she must be told so in a way not to disconcert her. She turned white, and was so agitated that I could not help laughing to see her. "That is not a bad way," she said, "for the Archduke to come if his dignity will allow him to do it, and I promise you plenty of princes have come to see me in that manner."
After dinner she went hunting and they killed two fat bucks. The Queen went so hard that she tired everybody out, and as the ladies and courtiers were with her they were all put to shame. There was more work than pleasure in it for them.
This morning she returned home. I left with her and returned also to write this.
For a part of the way I came with the earl of Sussex, and said I was surprised that the Queen did not put him into the Council, as she had so much important business, and he was so clever and experienced in affairs. He said they very often called and consulted him on matters of importance, but he had little to do with it as they never made up their minds upon anything. He said he had advised the Queen in Scotch affairs to accept the many good offers of settlement which the queen of Scotland had offered before her marriage. Amongst others that she would marry an English subject, abandon her alliance with France, and cede her claims to this crown to the Queen and her descendants on condition that failing them her right to the succession should be recognized, as was just and reasonable. She had not been able to decide at the time, and the queen of Scotland would probably not now offer such terms so that great evils might result, and particularly now that the queen of Scotland had married as she had. All clear-headed people greatly fear this. I keep Leicester in hand in the best way I can, as I am still firm in my idea, that if any marriage at all is to result from all this it will be his. The Emperor's man also sees a good many signs tending to this, although certainly nothing wrong, but he says you must put up with a great deal to gain such a kingdom as this. He will not stick much at the religious point himself, but fears that the Emperor and the Archduke will. The Queen is well and in good spirits, but they tell me that although she appears so, she is not at all pleased with Scotch affairs, upon which she hardly spoke to me. I told her I had heard that the king of France had written to her about Margaret's imprisonment, which she said was true, and told me her answer, which in substance was the same as I wrote your Majesty, Cecil having told it to the Emperor's Ambassador. She said the King (of France) had written at the request of the queen of Scotland and he had not been able to refuse, giving me to understand that he had done it simply out of compliment. I told her it was a thing in which I thought she might show clemency if rightly considered, as I had heard that the queen of Scotland had always obeyed her as if she was her younger sister and had married one of her subjects, and that when acknowledgment of accomplished facts was demanded by prudence and expediency, it was better it should be done soon and graciously, so that the thanks might be due to her rather than to the king of France. She said it was true that the queen of Scotland had been so friendly and obedient to her that she had been willing to marry to her satisfaction with one of her subjects, only that he had not consented. The Queen seems more pliable in this matter than I was led to expect.
The Emperor's Ambassador took leave of her and kissed her hand which she is very free in giving. I had no idea the Germans were so gallant. Thence he went to Hampton Court, accompanied by eight or ten of the Queen's gentlemen who showed him over the house, which is very nicely fitted. He went to pass the night at a house built by Gresham, the Queen's factor. We arrived here yesterday morning, and in the afternoon he (the Emperor's Ambassador) went to take leave of the French Ambassador, who told me that he was not going to your Majesty's Court, but they were sending a layman as Ambassador, your Majesty not wishing to have any person in your Court who may have read Geneva books ; giving me thus to understand that it was because he was looked upon with suspicion. I told him that could not be the reason, but rather because his King wished to retain him here on account of his great knowledge of English affairs. He said that was not the reason, and he was inclined to send his secretary to the Queen (of France), and keep him there until they gave him permission to leave, as there was nothing to be done here except the queen of Scotland's business.
He received a courier from his King three days ago, and Sussex tells me he is to have an audience the day after to-morrow. Cecil told me the same, assuring me that they (the French) are still making great offers. No doubt they are trying to open some fresh marriage negotiations, and this will be the reason why the Ambassador is sending his secretary, not to ask for his recall.
Your Majesty will see the exact position of the Archduke's suit by the copy of a statement enclosed, which I send at the request of the Emperor's Ambassador. He is of opinion that the Archduke might accede to the terms they propose as regards religion, so that after he had got his foot in he could adroitly find some way to bring the country back again to the old faith, but he fears the Archduke will not do it except by your Majesty's orders, urged thereto by the consideration I have mentioned. Sussex told me recently not to think they would stick on the religious question, and to get the Archduke to come over, and this, as I have written, is also the idea of the Ambassador, namely, to prevail upon him to come without settling that point until the two parties have seen each other and can come to a mutual understanding as to what each will do. It is a matter of such great consideration and so uncertain in its result that I can only refer to the opinions which are expressed in my former letters on the subject.
News has arrived that after the Turks took the castle of St. Elmo, Don Garcia had arrived and routed them and recovered it, but the intelligence was afterwards contradicted. The Queen was very sorry, and said she wished she was a man to be there in person. I told her she was right, but expected the succour would be effected by your Majesty with the help of God. The sorrow of the godly here is incredible when bad news comes, and is only equalled by the glee of the wicked. An Englishman accompanies the Emperor's Ambassador to bring back the answer. The Queen has sent him (the Emperor?) a desk which in my opinion is worth as much as 1,000 crowns.—London, 13th August 1565.
20 Aug. 315. The Same to the Same.
Since the departure of the Emperor's Ambassador on the 14th instant I have been informed that the Queen has received letters from the king of Sweden, again proposing marriage with her, and the King's sister, as I have advised your Majesty, is to come hither, not as arranged from Embden, but it is believed by way of Antwerp.
I do not think anything is more enjoyable to this Queen than treating of marriage, although she assures me herself that nothing annoys her more. She is vain, and would like all the world to be running after her, but it will probably end in her remaining as she is, unless she marry Lord Robert, who is still doing his best to win her. He is being helped as much as possible by the French Ambassador, who tells me frankly that his King desires the Queen not to marry a foreign Prince, but one of her own subjects. It is all directed against the Archduke, and in favour of Lord Robert. I believe this match will be kept in play as the others have been until they see how Scotch matters will go. The gentleman who was sent by this Queen to the queen of Scotland, as I wrote your Majesty, has not returned yet. They say that Lord James, the Queen's base brother, is still aloof from her interests, and even that he has been proclaimed a rebel. The French Ambassador tells me that this Queen complains somewhat of his master because he had ordered a company of 50 Scotch horse to be raised in France, which has been given to the brother of the earl of Lennox. He replied that it was an ancient and customary thing, and the King was bound thereto by long-standing treaties with Scotland. He says it has been done for 600 years, and the kings of Scotland had the right to appoint the captains of these companies, although for the last few years they have not done so. The importance of this Scotch matter in connexion with England can well be understood, as, if this country were to submit, the fountain head of French and Flemish heresy would disappear, and even the leagues in Germany as well, since they all have need of each other's evil help, and have to exert every effort to sustain their neighbours.
This Queen had in her house a sister (fn. 3) of Jane, who was beheaded for claiming the Crown, and of Catharine, who is in prison. She is little, crookbacked, and very ugly, and it came out yesterday that she had married a gentleman named Keyes, sergeant-porter at the palace. They say the Queen is very much annoyed and grieved thereat. They are in prison.—London, 20th August 1565.
27 Aug. 316. The Same to the Same.
The last reply that the deputies at the Bruges conference have given by order of the duchess of Parma to the representatives of this Queen has not pleased them much, and on the 25th instant the Chancellor, the Treasurer, secretary Cecil and Sackville came to my house, and (as I write in detail to the Duchess) they repeated on the Queen's behalf all that had taken place in the said conference and the concessions that had been made by their side for their greater justification, and asked me to advise your Majesty thereof so that you might see that the Queen had proceeded in this matter with every desire that these differences should be settled. They also asked me to look over some documents that I might satisfy myself of their right in respect of a certain article and advise on the point. I excused myself from doing so by saying that I had no instructions, but as regarded informing your Majesty and the Duchess of what they told me I answered I would do so most willingly if they gave me a memorandum of what had passed and repeated what they had told me. I pretended to know very little about the matter (although M. de Montague had given me full information) in order that they might not want to discuss with me the answer they have to give in the conference, and I advised them in these negotiations to consider only the public interests both of this country and the States, and to set aside subsidiary points and keep to the essential part of the issue. There has been no time for them yet to send anything, as the Queen is at Windsor and Cecil went thither about this affair yesterday.
As these people have been allowed to have their own way so much in the past, in consequence of greater international affairs having prevented their neighbours from attending so closely to the private interests of their subjects, they feel the more keenly any thwarting of their will. Now, however, that their neighbours are in a better position than formerly, whilst they themselves are in greater difficulties about these Scotch affairs, it appears probable that better terms might be got from them ; and the Duchess, with the utmost prudence and anxiety to succeed, is endeavouring to defer the conclusion with this object. God forward it.
I have received some details from Scotland, but as I am not certain of them I do not repeat them as facts until I have more trustworthy information. They say that the rebels have plenty of troops, and that the King is in arms and marching against them, and, seeing this, that many of those who had joined that evil company have returned to their homes and the rest of the rebels had fled to the mountains. They say that the gentleman of the Queen's chamber who, as I have written, was sent by her to discuss matters with the queen of Scotland, found himself with almost insufficient liberty to negotiate, and seized the opportunity of joining the rebels as Throgmorton did in France when he was the Queen's Ambassador there. The name of this gentleman is Tamworth. A courier came to this Queen three days since, but as she is absent it is not known what news he brings. News, however, that is not published at once is usually considered bad news for this Queen. It is looked upon as certain that the rebels are supported by this Queen, and this would be confirmed if Tamworth has really gone over to them, and if what they now say, that the queen of Scotland will not suffer any Protestant in the kingdom, be presevered in, which is difficult to believe at the present time. I am just informed that this Queen is sending to obtain money in Flanders, which no doubt is not without some bearing on Scotch affairs. They have sequestrated Lady Margaret's property in addition to her imprisonment, and she will now suffer need.
I wrote to your Majesty that Mary, the sister of Jane, who was beheaded, had married one Keyes who is the Queen's sergeant-porter. They took them both, and he confessed that it is true, and that the wedding was performed with all solemnity by a clergyman, and has been duly consummated. She asserts to the contrary that merely a promise for the future was given and nothing else. He is imprisoned in the jail here and she is incarcerated at Windsor.
Some of the servants of the king of Sweden's sister have arrived in the city, and liveries are being made for the rest who accompany her. She is expected every day, and, as I have said, she comes to treat for a marriage between her brother and this Queen.
These people must be waxing fat on the spoils of the Indies. (fn. 4) A ship belonging to Winter, of 80 tons burden, is leaving for Guinea, and I am told to-day that Captain Hawkins, of Plymouth, who left about a year ago, arrived in Florida, and after having had some differences with the French had made it up with them, and had taken a very beautiful river, where he had built a fort and remained.
I wrote to your Majesty that the Queen was showing favour to one Heneage who serves in her chamber. Lord Robert and he have had words, and as a consequence Lord Robert spoke to the Queen. She was apparently much annoyed at the conversation, although what she said could not be heard. Heneage, however, at once left the court and Robert did not see the Queen for three days until she sent for him, and they say now that Heneage will come back at the instance of Lord Robert, to avoid gossip.
The French Ambassador sent his secretary to the King four days ago. I have not heard that there is any other object than that which the Ambassador told me, namely, to ask for his recall from here.
As I have written, the Ambassador first saw the Queen, and left the secretary at the court two days after he returned. I am aware that he had some private business which might have detained him.— London, 27th August 1565.


  • 1. "Que yo me contentaria con que lo que tocaba a su casamiento, ya que no fuese Bayaceto no fuese Baya" a pun which is lost in translation.
  • 2. Note in the King's handwriting :—" This is not very clear. What Ambassador said so?" It is evident that Sussex is repeating a conversation of the French Ambassador and that a few connecting words have been omitted by the writer.
  • 3. Lady Mary Grey. She was subsequently for some years kept in the custody of Sir Thomas Gresham in his house, and died in 1578.
  • 4. Note in the King's handwriting—" Let the Indian Council have a copy of this."