Spain: November 1553, 11-15

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 11, 1553. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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'Spain: November 1553, 11-15', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 11, 1553, (London, 1916) pp. 352-363. British History Online [accessed 13 April 2024]

November 1553, 11–15

Nov. 12. Vienna, Imp. Arch. S. 4. Licenciate de Games to the King of the Romans.
The Portuguese ambassador (fn. 1) is still here, and neither goes to England himself nor sends off a private courier he has ready to start for Spain. He is awaiting his Majesty's commands, which I believe to depend on what M. de Courrières brings, and M. de Courrières is expected daily, as we know that he has got as far as Bruges.
What has been said here at Court by persons of authority since Alonso de Games' departure is that a marriage is being arranged between the Queen of England and the Prince of Spain. If there is a son and heir, he is to succeed in England and the Low Countries, and if no heir is born, the Infante Don Carlos, son of the Prince, is to marry the Queen's sister under the same conditions. I am writing this because it is hotly going the rounds here, though I have asked no questions in order to arouse no suspicions. . . .
Brussels, 12 November, 1553.
Spanish. Signed.
Nov. 13. Vienna, Imp. Arch. E. 21. The Emperor to Simon Renard.
We have received six letters from you, and are pleased with the manner in which, so far, you have done your duty in the negotiation entrusted to you; and it is excellent that things have advanced so rapidly. But as we, for our part, desire to proceed as the Queen's greatness and fair fame demand, we will not now inform you of that which our subsequent letters shall contain as to our decision, only telling you that we are sending off the present courier on purpose to warn you that we have heard that Licenciate de Games, who has charge of the affairs of our brother in this Court, has sent his nephew to England with letters from the King (of the Romans) for the Queen. This is contrary to what was understood from the Licenciate, who said that if the Queen favoured a foreign match and one with the Prince, our son, could not be arranged, (he was to) try to induce the Queen to consider the proposal of the Archduke, our nephew. The man was sent off without any communication with ourself or our ministers, and has been instructed to await the Queen's answer, giving her time to think it over at leisure. And though we feel sure that such a proposal could never make the Queen change her mind, or alter her devotion to the Prince, our son, we prefer to inform you of the matter at once, and tell you what we think you had better do to prevent the English from taking the mission and proposal contained in the King's letters, as both are being made without our or our ministers' knowledge, to confirm the rumours that have circulated there and elsewhere to the effect that there is no good understanding between the King and ourself. As this is one of the objections that has been raised to the match, we think you had better tell the Queen, and whomsoever else you may think fit, that the King wrote us letters with his own hand informing us of the mission, and that the Licenciate informed us that he had letters from the King and instructions to speak to us, but as we delayed giving him audience for a few days, being somewhat troubled with a cold, the Licenciate sent off his nephew. Nevertheless, you will be careful to find out what he does, without displaying any suspicion of the nephew or his letter, and in order to reassure every one you had better give him a very favourable reception. You will be able to discover all he does from the Queen herself better than from anyone else, but you must be sure to tell the nephew that the letters from the King shown by the Licenciate prove that he has no other charge than to present letters and await a reply, wherefore he must not allow his good intentions to mislead him into trying to perform any office that might be prejudicial to English affairs or your negotiation. The Queen may delay as long as she pleases in giving him a reply. And here we will make an end, as we are only writing to tell you the above news.
Brussels, 13 November, 1553.
French. Minute. Printed by Gachard from a transcript at Brussels, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
Nov. 13. Besançon, C. G. 73. The Queen Dowager to Simon Renard.
The bearer of this letter, an English gentleman called William Pelham, desires to return to England and has asked me to favour him with a word to bear witness that, five or six months ago, he spoke to us about the humours then prevalent in England. We felt unwilling to refuse him because of the goodwill and affection he has always displayed towards our good sister and cousin, the Queen of England. Moreover, when her affairs were in the condition you know of, two or three months before the death of my good cousin, the late King Edward, this gentleman presented himself before us asking to be allowed to declare certain things to us in secret and in confidence, and saying he had left England under the displeasure of the King's Council. We granted his request, and he then told us of the conspiracy that was then aiming against the Queen's safety and honour, and specified the members of the Council who were harbouring evil designs, showing his goodwill in a manner that events have fully justified. He also told me he had a number of Englishmen ready, whom he could enlist in the Emperor's service under colour of the war raging on the frontier and use in the Queen's service when the moment should arrive. When the late King died, he again offered to hazard his person in the service of the Queen, and go over to England to try to help her; but we felt unable to come to a decision on so important a matter for fear of further jeopardising the Queen's affairs, although he persevered and showed great goodwill by renewing his offers of service. After God was pleased to confirm the Queen's right, he asked me for leave to serve his Majesty in this present war, to which I consented, giving him a good salary, and he did his duty. We are writing this in order that you may repeat it to the Queen and tell her we have a good opinion of him, and have always found him devoted to her interests.
Brussels, 13 November, 1553.
Signed. French.
Printed by Gachard from a minute at Brussels (L. A. 66), Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
Nov. 13. Besançon, C. G. 73. The Bishop of Arras to Simon Renard.
I am writing this in reply to your letters of the 28th and 29th of last month, and the 6th and 8th of this. In the first place, his Majesty's letters will tell you of his satisfaction with your negotiations: a satisfaction which he may well feel. And though his Majesty will show recognition of your pains and labours, I also will do what I can, and my joy over your success is such that I desire to be the first to congratulate you (donner de ma part les allevrices (fn. 2) ).
Up to the present this affair has been managed by us four, (fn. 3) as you know; but it is now so far advanced that it will be necessary to send persons of position such as the Queen's reputation requires, give them instructions as to what they shall do in England, and also to discuss the matter with some of the foremost nobles of this country. They are all absent at present, either at their posts or in their homes, from which they have been absent all summer, so you will understand that the matter cannot be quickly despatched. But I will lend a hand so that things may go as rapidly as possible; for it is certainly necessary not to let the negotiation get cold, as Paget very prudently observed to you.
I praise God that religious matters have so far gone well, indeed better than I had dared to hope for in so short a time. However, in this as in the rest, God has wished to show us miracles.
Cardinal Pole wrote to his Majesty urging him to consent to his coming hither, in spite of what Don Juan de Mendoza had said to him on his Majesty's behalf. But when he learned from your letters that it was not advisable to allow the Cardinal to approach any nearer, and that the Queen had received warnings on the same subject, the Emperor wrote to Pole and sent him a despatch in which the Pope says that he had better do his Majesty's bidding as to going or staying, so I take it he will not continue his journey.
The portrait of our Prince that Lucas has in hand is on wood and large, and difficult to carry, though it is only the head; but I am trying to get the Queen to send one that she has by Titian, and hope it may depart with the next courier. You must explain to the Queen that the picture is already old and therefore will not be as good in colour as the model, who will also have filled out and grown more beard than he had when it was painted.
As for news, if his Majesty does not write to you, Bave or I will keep you posted of all important occurrences. I can tell you no more about what is happening on the frontier than you have heard in England: the French have retreated after burning a few villages and the town of St. Paul, which was abandoned, but without daring to attack Renty. Three hundred Spaniards ambushed near there put to flight eight companies of Germans who got safely away, though if we had had three hundred horse near by the Germans would have been crushed. M. de Lalaing wreaked vengeance on the French, for he burned all the country round St. Amant on the other bank of the Somme, towards Artois.
As for Germany, the league of Heidelberg has been amplified at Heilbronn and the King (of the Romans) received into it with his Imperial Majesty's consent. The league that was proposed at Tzeys in Bohemia has been drafted, the deputies have taken the articles home to show to their masters, and are to meet once more to conclude it. If these two leagues take effect they will greatly contribute to quiet German disorders and prepare the way for the next Diet.
Margrave Albert is strengthening his forces, and his adversaries theirs, and the latter have now received the support of the Duke of Brunswick and the bishops and cities. The Marshal of Bohemia has gone with a thousand of the King's horse to join Count von Plaw, (fn. 4) who is supporting the bishops on the King's behalf. The agreement that the King of Denmark and the Margrave-Elector (i.e. of Brandenburg) were trying to arrange has not been effected because they wished to shut out the Duke of Brunswick and the bishops, and the King of the Romans would not have it. However, the King of the Romans has agreed to a two months' truce, in which the Duke and the bishops are to be included; he hopes to come to a definite understanding in the meantime, and we shall soon see what will come of it.
Don Fernando Gonzaga—may God give him more success than he has had so far!—was in the field and on the point of invading the territories occupied by the enemy towards Piedmont. Prince Doria is now in Corsica with 10,000 foot and 300 horse to win back what was lost in that island and drive out the French. Cardinal Salviati is dead, and also the Marquis of Aguilar (fn. 5); God forgive their sins! A galleon has reached Spain from the Indies with 450,000 ducats, and brought news that fifteen more ships are following. These were being expected from hour to hour, and it is said that they are bringing over four millions between them. The people in the first galleon assert that the troubles that arose in the Indies after the death of the Viceroy of Peru have been repressed and the guilty punished.
I have made no sign about what you wrote concerning Scheyfve, and will not do so unless the Emperor insists on an answer to . . . (fn. 6)
I have given orders that two couriers be sent to you, and there shall be no failure to pay those you send.
Brussels, 13 November, 1553.
French. Signed. Printed by Weiss, Documents Inédits, Vol. IV.
Nov. 14. Vienna, Imp. Arch. E. 20. Simon Renard to the Emperor.
Sire: The Queen of England sent for me yesterday to go and speak with her at the usual hour, when she gave me three letters, copies of which are being sent to your Majesty, written to her by Cardinal Pole. She also told me that the Cardinal's man (fn. 7) who brought them to England spoke to her at great length about his coming, beyond what was written in the letters, and made it clear that his mission to your Majesty and the King of France was not the chief point, but rather the English matter. And it seems to me that he is not taking his stay at Dillingen in good part, judging by what he has written to your Majesty. The Queen asked me what reply she should send him; and though his coming would rather keep back the cause of the Church's authority than advance it, and I suspect he wishes to further Courtenay's suit, still, as Parliament will have risen in twelve days, and without it be will be unable to execute his commission, and the religious question has been settled as I wrote to your Majesty, it seems to me that you might allow him to come as far as Brussels and keep him there some time in order not to alienate him. The Queen would then repeat to him the difficulties that would attend his coming hither on his mission, as she has always explained to him by letters in which I aided her to point out the danger he would run personally because of the declaration of Parliament, and the peril that would menace his chief object. I asked the Queen whether the Cardinal made any mention of marriage, and she replied that he had not. She confirmed her promise given to me, and added that the Bishop of Winchester was quite won over, and that his only fear had been that his Highness might wish to carry her off to Spain. Wherefore, Sire, unless the Cardinal upsets her determination, which I do not believe likely, I take it that the marriage is settled on the conditions the Queen is looking for with anxious expectation. I told the Queen of the arrival of Alonso de Games with letters for her from the King of the Romans proposing a marriage with his son, the Archduke, and that Games, who had only been instructed to wait for an answer, desired to present the letters himself. She replied that she was not very well, and if she felt better she would let him know, though as for a reply, she could only make the one I knew of. Your Majesty and the King were doing her greater honour than she deserved by making such proposals; and as for me, I had made her fall in love with his Highness, and his Highness might not be obliged to me for it, though she would do her best to please him in every way. I said that if she would communicate the King's letters to me I would obey her. From what Alonso has told me, I gather that the King of the Romans has some suspicion of your Majesty, because he says that Licenciate Games, the King's ambassador with you, failed to obtain audience or a reply to the letters the King sent you, for which reason he sent Alonso over here to carry out the King's orders. I take it from what I have heard him say and from his communications with the Grenades (fn. 8) that the King has decided to press his (son's) suit, and believes that he stands a better chance of being accepted than does your Majesty. I have already written to your Majesty that my Lady of Cleves broached the subject to the Queen. Games has given me the letters which the King was pleased to write to me, and which I am sending to your Majesty, wherefore I thought it better, in order not to endanger the good understanding, and as the Queen has given me her word in so solemn a manner that this suit will be vain, to tell him that I would give him all the assistance possible and would send to find out when the Queen could give him audience, which audience I nevertheless put off for two days, thinking that your Majesty would send me instructions.
As for what he said about not having awaited a reply from your Majesty, I told him that if the ambassador were not aware of your Majesty's pressing occupations and business his error would be excusable, though I feared the King, his master, would not be pleased. He answered that your Majesty had told the ambassador that his Highness was not marriageable, using those words, and that you would give him all the help he could wish for in the Archduke's favour; wherefore the ambassador had thought that your Majesty would not disapprove of his having hastened his departure.
We went on to talk of the league concluded at Heilbronn and other events in Germany. I had heard that Margrave Albrecht had come to an agreement with Duke Augustus by the mediation of the King of Denmark, that Duke Augustus had an understanding with the Kings of the Romans and Bohemia, that the King of Bohemia was unusually melancholy after Duke Maurice's death, and your Majesty, to drive away his sadness, had him told that you had never believed that he had had any share in Duke Maurice's plans for making war on the Low Countries. And as I knew about the league, and he told me that Count de Plau (fn. 9) was going to attack Margrave Albrecht with the Duke of Brunswick and the Bishop's army, which militated against the news of the agreement between Duke Augustus and Margrave Albrecht, and consequently with the King (of the Romans), I said that all that might result in much ill-feeling. He could find no other reply than that he did not know how; and I am repeating this to your Majesty because the French are daily growing louder in their proclamations that the King of Bohemia is plotting against your Majesty, and are confirming the rumours of a misunderstanding between you.
Mason has recently sent letters to the Queen, of which an extract (fn. 10) is inclosed in mine, and I have also seen letters from Wotton, in which he says that the King has been to see the Constable, whose health is now better, at Chantilly. He also complained that the Scots were continually raiding the English pasture-lands over the border and sending troops to Ireland to assist the wild Irish against the Queen, thus breaking the treaties. The King disclaimed any knowledge of these doings, and said he would write to the Queen (Dowager) of Scotland in order to find out what was really happening and settle all disputes in a friendly spirit.
As for the passage from Dover to Calais, the King said he would gladly agree that it should be free for your Majesty and himself, that he would inquire into the depredation committed on Portuguese subjects and order their goods to be restored.
Louis Alamanni, (fn. 11) maistre d'hostel of the Queen of France, is soon to come hither with a piece of needlework (ouvraige) that the said Queen's ladies have executed for the Queen of England. Cardinal de Tournon has told Wotton so. Your Majesty knows Alamanni, and the intrigues he has carried on on other occasions; his coming to this country is suspect.
Peter Strozzi, the Duke of Somma (fn. 12) and other Italian captains left for Marseilles on the 1st of this month, and Strozzi is to be lieutenant for the King in Siena and Corsica.
The King is to spend the winter at Fontainebleau.
It is said that the French have burned many villages on the borders of Artois and the county of St. Paul, and that your Majesty's men have done the same elsewhere.
The Queen told me that Courtenay's mother had asked leave for her son to go and sup at the Venetian ambassador's last Thursday, in the company of the French ambassador; and the Queen replied that he had gone often enough without leave, and that she hoped he would behave prudently in all respects, and do nothing inconsistent with his duty. I thought this request came from the Venetian ambassador, in hopes of sounding the Queen's disposition. It is hardly to be believed how these ambassadors are plotting to prevent the match with his Highness, and the Venetian is taking sides more keenly than the Seignory have commanded him, at least when he so discourteously calumniates a prince of his Highness' standing, speaks ill of foreign nations and plots so openly with the French.
To-day three sons of the Duke of Northumberland, Jane of Suffolk and the Bishop of Canterbury were taken to the hall at Cheapside, (fn. 13) and were there condemned to death. The only one of the Duke's sons who has not been condemned is now my Lord Robert. When execution is to take place is uncertain, for though the Queen is truly irritated against the Duke of Suffolk, it is believed that Jane will not die.
The enclosed note (fn. 14) in Spanish will inform your Majesty of the news given to me of Scottish acts of hostility against Ireland.
London, 14 November, 1553.
Signed. French. The first paragraph is in cipher. Printed by Gachard from a transcript at Brussels, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
Nov. 15. Vienna, Imp. Arch. E. 20. Simon Renard to the Emperor.
Sire: Since I wrote my last letters, Alonso de Games has presented the King of the Romans' letters to the Queen of England. She immediately sent them to me, and I had them copied. I drew up a minute (fn. 15) for her reply, which I am sending with the copy; and I will say nothing of the scheme contained in them, because your Majesty will readily understand its object.
I have several times been asked if I had not received your Majesty's answer to my letters, and I am mentioning this fact because it would not be amiss for you to write a letter with your own hand to the Queen to strengthen her in her promise, and also in order that your Majesty may recognise that despatch in opening negotiations is necessary.
Cabot, who is too ill to go over to your Majesty, is sending you a chart of navigation and a letter in which is contained the information he wished to impart to you. A Spaniard, named Francisco, (fn. 16) is to take them.
London, 15 November, 1553.
Holograph. French. Printed by Gachard from a transcript at Brussels, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
Nov. — (fn. 17) Besançon. C.G. 73. Mary I to the King of the Romans.
I have received two letters from you, one by the Emperor's ambassador resident here, and the other by Senor Martin de Guzmán's secretary. (fn. 18) As for the first, I believe the ambassador will have written my remarks to you; and as for the second, I thank you most affectionately for your thought for me, my affairs and this kingdom, as well as for the sincere love you and my Lord the Archduke display by doing me the honour to advise me to marry, whereby you are acting as a good and virtuous prince should, and increasing the obligation in which I have long stood towards you. I will tell you that my Council and also my Parliament have persuaded me to determine to marry, though my own inclination and years render me hostile to the notion, for the sake of having posterity and thus safeguarding the welfare and tranquillity of the realm. They also cause me to understand, by means of hints, that although the choice of persons about to wed ought to be free, they have many reasons for desiring mine to fall on an Englishman, if any be found who will serve the purpose. I have as yet come to no decision, as I am so busy with affairs of government, Parliament, religion and administration, that I have not yet had the time to discuss this question with my Council as fully as its importance demands; for it is a point of consequence, as you observe in your letters. When I have consulted my Council, as I shall do after this session of Parliament, I will not fail to inform you in full confidence of my decision. I need no proof of the excellent qualities and virtues of my Lord and cousin, the Archduke, for his actions sufficiently declare them. I beg you to accept this reply in good part, as it comes from one who ever wishes to remain, etc.
London, — November, 1553.
French. Minute in Renard's hand. Printed by Weiss, Documents Inédits, Vol. IV.
Nov. 15. Simanoas. E. 808. Sebastian Cabot to the Emperor.
When I was almost on the point of starting on my journey to kiss your Majesty's hand and give you details of the matter which Francisco de Urista shall report to you, I was attacked by a quotidian fever that has reduced me to such a condition of weakness that I am unable to travel, for I am sure I would die before finishing the journey. Moreover, I fear, considering my age, that if my ailment increases I may die, and before that I would like to declare the secret I know to your Majesty, wherefore as the above-mentioned causes prevent me from doing it myself, and further delay might cause harm, I have decided to write it down and send it by Francisco de Urista. It is that when Boisdauphin, French ambassador, was here, he and the Duke of Northumberland asked me many times what sort of country Peru was, what forces your Majesty had there, and whether it was as rich as people said. I replied that there were plenty of good Spanish troops, well-supplied with everything they needed, horses and arms, and that it was a rich country in silver and gold. And I will tell your Majesty that I got out of both of them that they wished to fit out a fleet for the Amazon River, to be made ready in France. On board there would be 4,000 soldiers, without counting the seamen; and they would take with them twelve pinnaces, make a fort at the mouth of the Amazon, ascend the river in the pinnaces, kill off all the Spaniards, and become masters of the country. If they did sail up the river and caught the Spaniards unawares and scattered, they might easily succeed in their evil designs and inflict very great injuries on your Majesty, wherefore may you be pleased to take steps to prevent them, because what I am writing is true and accurate. I have also discovered that when Boisdauphin went away he took with him 2,000l. which the Duke gave him for the above-mentioned purpose, and to make a beginning with the fleet.
As for determining the (geographical position of the) Guinea coast, accounting for the variation shown by the needle of the compass as to the Pole, I have already suggested a remedy to your Majesty, if the King of Portugal is agreed. Francisco de Urista is also taking two figures to show to your Majesty: one is a map (mapa mundi), cut through at the equator (equinocio), from which your Majesty will see the reason why the needle shows a variation with regard to the Pole, and why, on other occasions, the needle takes to pointing exactly straight to the arctic or antarctic Pole; and the other figure is one by which it is possible to ascertain the longitude, in whatever degree (paralelo) one happens to be. Francisco de Urista, who understands thoroughly the art of navigation, and to whom I have given full instructions, will explain to your Majesty the working of both. As for the chart he is taking, I have already written about its importance, and also about a report signed by me which I handed over to Jehan Scheyfve (Esguefe), your Majesty's ambassador, in order that it might be sent on to you. I hear that it is now in the hands of Secretary Eraso, so I will only repeat that the chart is of great importance with regard to the line of division traced between (the possessions of) the crowns of Spain and of Portugal, as I have set forth in the report. I beg your Majesty to be sure of my goodwill and ever-enduring desire, by the Grace of God, and His most holy Mother, to serve you, and to know that, had it not been for my illness I would have preferred to go and kiss your hand, and explain all the above in person, rather than to set it down in writing.
London, 15 November, 1553.
Copy. Spanish. Printed by Fernández Navarrete, Documentos Ineditos, III, but wrongly dated 15 November, 1554.
Nov. 15. Simancas. E. 100. Juan Vazquez de Molina to Francisco de Eraso.
I received your letter that came by land together with one for his Highness, who has been much pleased with yours because it gave him news of his Majesty's health and other matters. As for the scarcity of money over there, I believe there will be as great difficulty in connexion with it as you say. We are no less embarrassed here, as you will have heard from the letter that went with Don Iñigo de Mendoza or the duplicate that took the Italian route and must have arrived by now, and also by other despatches taken by a courier three days ago by way of Italy, duplicates of which are to be sent by the western sea. There is nothing left on which money (fn. 19) can be raised for three or four years to come, and all that came from the Indies is exhausted by the sums owing to the Schetz and Fuggers, which will be paid over there, by other demands mentioned in my letters to his Highness, and by the amount that must be kept for his Highness' journey, as I wrote to his Majesty by Don Iñigo de Mendoza and the said couriers. Don Iñigo must have arrived by now, for letters have reached us from him from England, and he will have told you that his Highness sent him to visit the Queen of England according to his Majesty's directions. I am not sending a duplicate of his letter, as his Majesty will know it from him, and no delay will ensue. His Highness was very glad to hear what you write about England, the hopeful outlook there and the Queen's goodwill, which is the most important consideration. We quite understand the necessity of coming to a speedy conclusion of this matter, both because of his Highness' share in it and on account of the Portuguese matter, which is still being left open on the ground that we are awaiting a reply from his Majesty by Don Iñigo. So if Don Iñigo were to come without a definite answer as to England we would be unable to deal with Portugal, wherefore his Highness thinks Don Iñigo had better wait until a solution is reached, as it cannot delay long, and when his Majesty sends him he will be able to give instructions as to Portugal. You will see that this matter presses, and will report it to his Majesty in order that he may issue the necessary orders. His Highness commands you to be careful to send him all the news you hear of this negotiation, and especially tidings of his Majesty's health, which may God be pleased to make perfect! A note from his Highness to Don Iñigo de Mendoza is going with the dispatches sent by way of Italy; you will give it to him if he is still there, and if he has gone to visit the Queen of England, send it after him, for his Highness so wills it.
Holograph. Spanish.


  • 1. Antonio de Saldaña resided at the Emperor's Court, but the ambassador here referred to seems to be Lorenzo Pirez, who had been sent from Portugal on a mission to England; see p. 376.
  • 2. Allevrices is a gallicised form of the Spanish albricias.
  • 3. i.e. the Emperor, Arras, Bave and Renard.
  • 4. Apparently Count Reuss-Plauen, see the following paper.
  • 5. The Marquis of Aguilar was viceroy of Cataluña.
  • 6. A tear in the sheet.
  • 7. This was Thomas Goldwell, afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph and Oxford (Venetian Calendar).
  • 8. This may be Sir Jacques Granado, who was Esquire of the Stable to Edward VI and took a present of geldings to Henry II of France, from whom he received presents (Foreign Calendar). This circumstance would have been enough to make him suspect in Renard's eyes.
  • 9. According to Gachard this is Henry V, Count of Reuss-Plauen.
  • 10. I have not found this extract.
  • 11. Luigi Alamanni, the Florentine poet (1495–1556).
  • 12. Giambernardo di San Severino, a Neapolitan exile who had long been in favour at the French Court. See Romier, Origines Politiques des Guerres de Religion, I, 170–172.
  • 13. Lord Guilford, Lord Ambrose and Lord Henry Dudley were condemned to death at the Guildhall, as well as Lady Jane and the Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 14. I have not found the note here referred to.
  • 15. See the following paper.
  • 16. Francisco de Urista; see Cabot's letter to the Emperor, also of November 15th.
  • 17. This is the minute referred to in Renard's letter to the Emperor, of November 15th, which Renard drew up for the Queen's reply to the King of the Romans.
  • 18. i.e. Alonso de Games.
  • 19. For Spanish sources of revenue at this period, see an excellent paper: Las rentas del Imperio en Castilla, by F. de Laiglesia, (Madrid, 1907).