BHO

Spain: May 1521

Pages 345-353

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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Citation:

May 1521

1 May.
P. A. d. l'E. S. H. K. K. 349.
331. French Pensions paid to English Subjects.
On the 1st of May 1521 the following payments were made to the following persons, as half-yearly instalments of their pensions from the King of France :—
Livres Tournois.
To the Duke of Norfolk 875
To the Duke of Suffolk 875
To the Cardinal Archbishop of York 1,400
and 6,000
To the Bishop of Winchester 525
To Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester 1,700
To George, Earl of Shrewsbury 875
To Sir Thomas Lovel 175
To William Compton 350
To John Meautis, Secretary of the King of England 87
To Clarenceux King-at-Arms 87
French. Book of accounts concerning the pensions paid by the King of France to the King of England and to English subjects. pp. 2.
1 May.
P. A. d. l'E. S. H. K. K. 349.
332. French Pensions to the Earl of Worcester and to Jaques Castillon.
The King of France has granted a new pension of 2,000 livres Tournois to Charles Somerset, in consequence of which grant the sum of 1,000 livres Tournois has been paid to him, according to his receipt dated 1st May 1521.
The King of France has granted to Jaques Castillon, gentleman in waiting of the King of England, a pension of 300 livres Tournois a year. 150 livres Tournois have been paid to him on account, according to his receipt dated the 1st of May 1521.
French book of accounts concerning the pensions paid by the King of France to the King of England and to English subjects. p. 1.
3 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 20. ff. 166-168.
333. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
Has been informed, in a very secret manner, that the English ambassador, who has lately arrived, has spoken to the Pope much less favourably of his (the Emperor's) affairs than was expected. It is clear that he has been chosen by a person who entertains no friendly sentiments towards him (the Emperor). He must keep this communication very secret ; otherwise it would soon be known in England who has betrayed it, and it would then be impossible for him to get more information from that source.—Rome, the 3rd of May 1521.
Addressed "To the Cœsar and King of Spain, &c., our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome. From Don Juan Manuel, 3rd of May."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. The despatch and the deciphering are mere fragments, a considerable portion of the paper being rotten.
The deciphering is erroneously dated "3rd May 1522." pp. 3.
12 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 20. f. 170. f. 177.
334. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
When Raphael de Medicis arrived the Pope said he was ready to conclude a defensive league. Asked that the articles of it should be reduced to writing. The Pope made delays. When he complained of the delays his Holiness declared peremptorily that he would not conclude a defensive league, which, he said, was prejudicial to him, but that he was ready to enter into an offensive alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England). As he had full power to conclude the offensive alliance, and as he thought that it was the more advantageous one, he discussed with the Pope the articles, which were agreed upon without any great difficulty. Finally, the Pope approved of the project of the treaty which he (the Emperor) had sent, and did not alter a single word of it. Two copies were drawn up, and the day for signing them was fixed. Went on the appointed day to the Pope, who entered into a long conversation with him, at the end of which he said that he would sign the treaty some other day. As the Pope delayed the signing of the treaty from day to day, it soon became clear that he had changed his mind, most probably from fear of the alliance which the French say has actually been concluded between the King of France and the Swiss. The last three days he has not seen the Pope, on account of fearing to come to an open rupture with him, but has continued his negotiations, without interruption, through other persons. The result is that the Pope declares he will not sign the treaty if the news that the French have concluded an alliance with the Swiss is confirmed.
The Pope has no great opinion of his (the Emperor's) power, as he has already stated in his former letters. It is therefore necessary to make the Pope afraid of him. That may be done in the following manner. He must, above all things, try to conclude an early alliance with the King of England, and at the same time endeavour to disunite the Swiss from the French. Whether the alliance between France and the Swiss be concluded or not, the Cardinal of Sion must go immediately to Switzerland. It is not usual with the Swiss to keep good faith, or with the French either. Another means to make the Pope afraid of him would be to enter into negotiations of peace with the French, and to take care that the agents of the Pope in France should know it. But on no account is he really to conclude peace with the King of France.
Has written to the Viceroy of Naples asking him to give orders to the army to march to the Abruzzi, near the frontiers of the Papal States. Does so in apparent conformity with the former agreement with the Pope, but in reality with the intention of thereby causing the Pope fear and suspicion. Has also told the Viceroy to treat the persons whom the Pope considers to be his enemies with great courtesy. Begs him (the Emperor) to complain to the nuncio of the behaviour of the Pope, and to say that, as the Holy Father will not sign the treaty of alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England), he will bring about a general peace of the whole of Christendom, and will thus render great services to God. He may be sure that "that will be a flea in the ear of the Pope."
Received, four days ago, a great many letters from Charles Clerk, addressed to a secretary of Monsieur de Chièvres. Clerk hopes that the alliance (between the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of England) will soon be concluded. He (the Emperor) must, however, not believe that things are done which in fact are still undone.
Raphael (de Medicis) told him that, according to what the Pope had said to him, the King of England had sent this ambassador to beg his Holiness not to conclude an alliance with any one except with him (the King of England). The Papal nuncio in England also wrote that the King of England has asked the Pope to remain neuter, and not to conclude a treaty with either party. The intention of the King of England is very clear ; he wishes to get the negotiations into his own hands.
The money from Naples must be secretly sent to Augsburg through banking houses.
Financial affairs of Naples.
He must soon decide who is to be commander-in-chief of the army.
The French threaten to attack Navarra.
Archbishopric of Toledo.
The Cardinal de Medicis does not show much goodwill. He seems to be offended that he has not received a pension of 10,000 ducats in Spain.
Approves fully of his conduct towards Luther, but he must not relent in his prosecution of such a man and his abettors and followers. Robert de la Mark is one of them. The Pope has read his (the Emperor's) letter in the College of Cardinals ; it has been much praised and will be carefully preserved.
No news from Naples.
News has just arrived that the Swiss have not concluded an alliance with France. It is, however, impossible for him to speak with the Pope, as his Holiness has taken a purgative. —Rome, the 12th of May 1521.
Addressed : "To the Cœsar and King of Spain, &c., our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome. From Juan Manuel, the 12th of May."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Incorrect contemporary deciphering corrected from the original despatch in cipher by Don Manuel de Goicoechea, Keeper of the Archives of the Royal Academy of History in Madrid. pp. 10.
15 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 20. f. 180. f. 182.
335. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
Went the day before to see the Pope, and said to him that, according to what he had been told, his Holiness had had a very good purging. It was, therefore, to be hoped that he had got rid of his bad humours, and would give a satisfactory answer concerning the alliance. (fn. 1) The Pope begged him to wait only a very few days, until it should be positively known what the Swiss have done, and he assured him that he wished to do wrong to nobody.
Hopes still to obtain a favourable answer from the Pope.— Rome, the 15th of May 1521.
Addressed : "To the Cœsar and King of Spain, &c. our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome. From Don Juan Manuel, the 15th of May 1521."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 1½.
22 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 20. f. 189.
336. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
Has received his despatches of the 29th of April and 8th of May. The state of things is much changed in Rome. It is very natural that he should be astonished to see how irresolute the Pope is. The Pope has no bad intentions, nor has he (Juan Manuel) neglected to do his duty ; but the French have made very great promises to the Pope. When he (Juan Manuel) complained of the irresolution of the Pope he was told that the fault was his (the Emperor's), who had altered the articles of the treaty a "thousand times," and was always saying he was waiting to see what the King of England would do, promising to send his final answer by Raphael de Medicis.
He must provide for the affairs which concern the Swiss.
The Pope is offended by the French, who have included the Duke of Ferrara in the alliance.
Spoke to the Pope about the interview. The Pope answered in general terms.
Swiss. Vacant see of Toledo. Ambassador of Florence. Spanish clergy. Count Carpi. Naples. Venice and Francesco Maria, Duke of Urbino. Antonio Veluti.
The negotiations of the Cardinal of England in Rome are certainly not in his (the Emperor's) favour, and they will benefit the Pope still less. The Pope knows this quite well, but as he is persuaded that the Cardinal is very powerful, he gives him some credit.
Has not mentioned the imprisonment of the Duke of Buckingham, thinking that the ambassador in England has written to him direct about this affair. The English ambassador says that the Duke was arrested because he had slandered the King. It is generally believed that the violent manner in which the Cardinal governs England will produce great inconvenience in that country.
Naples. The Pope has said to him that he has no doubt about the defensive league, and even hopes to conclude an offensive one.
The Bishop of Tuy is a partisan of France.—Rome, the 22nd of May 1521.
Addressed : "To the most sacred King of Spain, &c."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 6.
26 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar, A. 20. ff. 193-197.
337. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
Judging by the news brought by the courier of the 16th of the current month, he has most probably left Worms. Is glad of it, as it is such an unhealthy place.
It is desirable that better arrangements should be made for the carriage of the letters. The couriers are "shamefully" slow.
The bad intentions which the French entertain towards him are every day more clearly visible. Led astray by passion, they will soon do things which will be very little in their interest. They have intercepted one of his couriers lately. He would have done well to have declared himself last year an enemy of the King of France, but as the past cannot be mended, he must do it this year. It is better that he should carry the war into France than wait until the French make war on his states. The invasion of France, however, must be a joint enterprise of him and the King of England. Thinks it will not be difficult to persuade the King of England to invade France. The Duke of Bari (fn. 2) and the Cardinal of Sion can render him great services in Switzerland. If he promises the Duchy of Milan to the Duke of Bari, the Swiss will help him to reconquer it, and thus be made enemies of France. There is no doubt the King of England would also like to see Milan wrested from the French. If the King of England was not a great friend of the French formerly, he has much less reason to like them now, as the King of France has bound himself to aid the Scots in creating difficulties for the King of England, and is injuring the English in every way he can. No great choice of allies is left to the King of England. He cannot find any other ally who could be of use to England except him (the Emperor). If an alliance with the King of England is valuable to him (the Emperor), it is at least as valuable to the King of England. Advises him soon to attack the King of France from the north, and to be hard upon him.
A war with France cannot be carried on well unless he has provided for the security of Naples. The best way to render Naples safe from an attack of the French is to conquer Genoa. The old Italian proverb is very true, that Naples cannot be conquered by any one who does not hold the keys of Genoa. It is true that Count Carpi has informed the French and the Genoese that an enterprise against that city is in preparation. Hopes nevertheless that, with somewhat increased forces, Genoa will be taken. Thinks 2,000 or 3,000 infantry and a powerful navy will suffice.
The Pope, in his present disposition of mind, cannot be trusted, although he has given money for the enterprise of Genoa. The Viceroy of Naples must be in the secret, but he begs him to send by a flying courier instructions to the Viceroy to obey his (Juan Manuel's) orders. Promises not to attack Genoa unless the war in Flanders has begun or unless the French threaten Naples. The bad administration of Naples is the cause of a great many evils.
As for the Pope, he (the Emperor) must secure his services. Count Carpi never knew that an alliance between him and the Pope had been concluded until lately, when Raphael (de Medicis) betrayed it to him. Count Carpi has offered to give the Pope, in the name of the King of France, Ferrara and even Naples. The Pope wavers. Is persuaded the Pope will soon see that he is deceived by the French, and will return to him (the Emperor), and ask him the same things which he (the Emperor) now asks of the Pope. However that may be, it would be wise to provide for the contrary case. The best manner to do so would be the following. Knows that the Pope, on his election, not only bound himself by a secret agreement with the cardinals to convoke a General Council, but also gave to every one of the cardinals a right to convoke it without his consent. The Pope has broken this and many other promises. But if he (the Emperor) tells the nuncio at his court that, as the Pope is not willing to go to war, it will be best to conclude a universal peace of Christendom, and to convoke a General Council, the Pope will become afraid, and do what he bids him. Siena, too, can be reclaimed by him, as it is notorious that it belongs to the Empire.
The Pope suspects him (Juan Manuel) of giving bad information about him. Said to the person who told him this, that he always wrote the truth, whether good or bad.
The Cardinal de Medicis becomes more dissatisfied every day. Begs him not to lose sight of Venice, &c.
Bishop of Tuy.—Rome, the 26th of May 1521.
Postscriptum.—The Pope has sent Johan Matheo to him, to say that his Holiness will give his final answer within two days time.
The French have put Christoval Pallavicino to the rack, but have found him to be innocent.
Addressed : "To the most sacred Cœsar, King of Spain, &c, our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King, from Don Juan Manuel, Rome, the 26th of May 1521."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 6.
29 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar, A. 20. ff. 200-205.
338. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
The result shows that he had judged the Pope rightly in his last letter of the 26th, when he said that the Pope would come and beg him (the Emperor) to accept him as his ally. His Holiness has, in fact, sent him by Raphael (de Medicis) the treaty of alliance signed by him. Johan Matheo sealed it with the seal of the Pope in his presence. Signed another copy of the treaty, and gave it to the Pope, promising him that he (the Emperor) would send his ratification within five and twenty days, which term ends on the 22nd of June.
Promises of the Emperor concerning Florence.
Promises of the Pope regarding the investiture of Naples. The cardinal's hat will be given to the Bishop of Liege when the war with France has begun.
The treaty which the Pope has signed is the offensive alliance. The proposals brought by Raphael (de Medicis) did not make a favourable impression on the Pope. Thinks the Pope is right. An offensive alliance is the only one which can be of any value under the present circumstances. The Pope wishes that it should be kept secret until the time has come to attack the French. Promised his Holiness to keep it secret, but begged him to speak with the English ambassador in Rome, and to tell him that he (the Pope) was now indissolubly united with him (the Emperor) and the King of England, distinctly stating his firm belief that the King of England could not refuse to be their ally. Such or similar words must be used, and no doubt as to a perfect understanding between him (the Emperor) and the Pope must be allowed to remain in the mind of the King of England. The same language ought to be used by the Papal nuncio in England.
Begs him to discontinue his negotiations with the King of England and other Englishmen for some time. His reason for asking this is that the King of England reproached the Pope some time ago with not having communicated to him that he was treating with the Emperor, whilst he (the Emperor) had done so. It is easy to understand why the Pope does not like to be on bad terms with the King of England, and why he has complained of his (the Emperor's) indiscretion.
The Pope has engaged his Swiss troops for one month more. It is clear that he intends to fulfil the treaty.
Begs him to give his ratification of the treaty to the Papal nuncio at his court, who ought to inform the Pope by two or three different couriers that he has received it.
Postal arrangements. Florence. Cardinal de Medicis.
Hopes the French will be punished by him for their overbearing behaviour. Begs him to answer soon. The Emperors and Kings who achieved great feats were men of prompt action. Enterprise against Genoa. Money is wanted. Has begged the Pope to send a special agent to the Swiss. The Viceroy of Naples has sent only 30,000 ducats. Will send his letters to the Archbishop of Aragon, though the French will most probably intercept them. The brothers Bozzolo. The Prior Diego de Toledo.—Rome, the 29th of May 1521.
Postscriptum.—Affairs of Florence.—Rome, the 29th of May 1521.
Addressed : "... Cœsar and King of ... our sovereign ..."
Indorsed : "To the King, from Don Juan Manuel, Rome, the 29th of May 1521."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 7.
29 May.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pap. r. a. 1. H. d. Esp.
339. Raphael De Medicis to the Emperor.
Has received his letters of the 15th and 19th of May.
Has done all in his power, and has rested neither day nor night from his efforts to persuade the Pope to sign the treaty. (fn. 3) Don Juan (Manuel) will bear him witness. Begs him, without delay and without making any alteration, to ratify the treaty.
His Holiness had some doubts about the alliance, and said he should render himself entirely dependent on him (the Emperor) by signing the treaty, whilst he (the Emperor) would have it in his power to deceive him. Said to the Pope that he would submit to have his head struck off if he (the Emperor) did not do more than he has promised.
He will not easily again find a Pope like the present one, who has 6,000 Swiss in his pay, besides his own troops and men-at-arms. The French put many disagreeable things into the head of his Holiness.—Rome, the 29th of May 1521.
Addressed : "To his most sacred Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Italian. Holograph, partly in cipher and partly in common writing. The contemporary deciphering is incorrect, and corrected by the editor from the original despatch in cipher, pp. 1½.

Footnotes

  • 1. It is scarcely necessary to observe that the alliance between the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of England is meant.
  • 2. Francesco Maria Sforza.
  • 3. The treaty of alliance between the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of England.