Spain: May 1522

Pages 419-426

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.


May 1522

6 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 24. ff. 28-32.
410. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
The French attacked the Imperial army near Milan, and were defeated. Does not know whether they made the attack because they were short of provisions, or because they were unable any longer to pay the Swiss auxiliaries, or whether the attack was a mere blunder, but certain it is that the French brought about their own defeat.
The French were not pursued, because the Imperial army was not paid, and therefore refused to do its duty. But the French must retire from Italy. Does not advise that war should be made on the Venetians, though they have deserved punishment. Of all the Venetian places of importance only Vicenza and Bergamo can be taken in a short time. The other places will offer a long resistance, and the time spent in besieging them would be lost. Is of opinion that he (the Emperor) ought to besiege Genoa, and to invade Provence and Dauphiné. If the French are defeated in Genoa and in their own kingdom, Venice must submit to his (the Emperor's) dictation, and make such an alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England) as he judges convenient.
News from Naples. Intrigues of the Cardinal of Volterra. The College of Cardinals is hostile towards him (the Emperor) and the Pope.—Rome, the 6th of May 1522.
Addressed : "To the Cœsar and King of Spain, our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome. From Don Juan Manuel, the 6th of May 1522."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 6½.
10 May.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Es.
411. The Abbot Of Najera to the Emperor.
Informed him in his last letter, of the 5th of March, that the Imperial army has taken and sacked Lodi, that the French have lost more than 200 men-at-arms, and that Prospero Colonna has resolved to conquer Cremona.
On the 7th and 8th the army moved slowly, in order to wait for the soldiers who had gone to Milan to sell the booty they had got in Lodi.
The Marquis of Mantua has received letters from his (the Emperor's) court of the 29th of last month, in which it is stated that the King of England has declared war with France. The whole army is extremely glad to hear the news. Hopes to God that the King of France and all other tyrants will soon be chastised, and the true Catholic faith be triumphant everywhere.
The Imperial army is before Grimelo, near Pizzighetone, which is a very strong place. Hopes the governor will surrender it as soon as he finds a pretext for doing so.
Begs him to give Neapolitan horses to the men-at-arms who were robbed in the battle of the Bieocca of all their baggage by the French and the Milanese.
Two o'clock at night.—The Governor of Pizzighetone is ready to surrender the place.—Grimelo, the 10th of May 1522.
Addressed : "To his most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
May (?)
S. E. Cor. d. Cast. L. 12.
412. Project of a Treaty Of Alliance between Pope Adrian VI., the Emperor, and the King of England. (fn. 1)
All the former treaties between the Emperor and the King of England remain in full force.
The alliance between the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of England is a defensive one, against all and every aggressor without exception.
The contracting parties bind themselves to defend, not only their present dominions, but also those which belong to them by right, and which they may hereafter conquer. If any prince attacks any of the contracting parties, the other confederates are bound not only to succour him in defending his states, but also to attack the aggressor in his own kingdom and dominions.
The alliance is an offensive one in as far as the enemies of the Christian religion are concerned. The Pope promises to all princes who take part in a joint expedition against the Infidels all the indulgences of crusaders.
This treaty is to last until the coronation of the Emperor. On occasion of the coronation a new and definitive treaty will be concluded.
French. Draft or copy. pp. 3.
13 May. (fn. 2)
S. Leg. Suelt. L. 2.
413. Poupet De Lachaux to the Emperor.
Has spoken with the Pope about the treaty. The Pope does not think it would be wise to conclude it ; for, he says, he will never cease to be the friend of the Emperor and of the King of England, although no treaty of alliance is concluded between them. If a treaty of alliance were concluded between them, it could not be kept so secret but that the King of France would obtain knowledge of its conclusion. He (the Pope) would thereby lose the confidence of the King of France, and be unable to be the mediator of a general peace or truce for the whole of Christendom.
Cardinal of Volterra.
[Here the document breaks off.]
French. Fragment. p. ½.
16 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar A. 24. ff. 71-75.
414. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
Wrote to him on the 12th, and hopes that his letter has not been intercepted. After that letter had left he received his despatch of the 29th of last month.
Is glad to hear that the 50,000 ducats which the King of England has lent him are only a beginning of what the King of England intends to do for him. The King of England ought to have earlier aided him with money. However that may be, he hopes to God that the King of England will continue what he has begun. The money should be sent by a flying messenger, and not by the Viceroy, who travels slowly. The captains of the army do not want more soldiers, but money to pay the troops which they have already. In spite of the money which the King of England has lent, he (Juan Manuel) will do what he can to get as much more from Naples as possible.
The army. Cardinal de Medicis. Francesco Maria. Cardinal Colonna has reconciled himself with Cardinal de Medicis. Cardinal of Volterra. Siena.
It is said that he is trying to obtain (from the King of France) that the gentlemen who were in the ship which was captured (by the French) shall be set at liberty, and especially Felice, who was sent by the Cardinal de Medicis. Cannot approve of his taking more pains to further the interests of strangers than of his own servants. The Spaniards who were taken prisoners in that ship have very influential relations in Castile, who will be offended if he neglects them. Even the King of England will not thank him if he is partial to strangers.
Florence. Naples.
Is not at all astonished to hear that the Venetians are so artful in their dealings with Alonso Sanchez. Knows their manner of negotiating. They now wish the negotiations concerning the alliance to be entrusted to the King of England, or to the Cardinal (Wolsey), to whom they have given money. Is of opinion that he ought not to conclude any peace with Venice unless Verona is surrendered to him. Verona is the key of Italy. Besides this, the Venetians ought to be forced to pay him a tribute for the territories which are subjected to the Empire, and to give him a considerable sum of money.
Cardinal Grimani. Lactantio Petrucci. The Cardinal of Volterra.
The Swiss are discouraged and much dissatisfied with the French. The King of France has opened fresh negotiations with them. Begs him to send some persons to Switzerland to counteract the influence of the French. The King of England ought to do the same.
It would be well if the Pope were given to understand that he (the Emperor) has placed him on his throne. Hopes, if that is done, that the Pope will be a good father to him.
Money affairs. Lachaulx.
Will speak with the Pope about the galleass. The Venetians pretend that the Pope has restored her. Should not be astonished to hear that his Holiness is liberal with the property of other people. This, however, as well as other things, can be set right, since he and the King of England are enemies of France now, and friends with one another.
Money affairs. Navy.—Rome, the 16th of May 1522.
Addressed : "To the Cœsar and King of Spain, our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome. From Juan Manuel, the 16th of May 1522."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 6.
18 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 24. ff. 83-88.
415. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor.
The Pope is still undecided where he will embark. It is to be hoped that the galleys for his voyage to Italy will be ready at Barcelona towards the end of the month.
Monsieur de Lachaulx and he (Lope Hurtado) are doing all they can to persuade the Pope to have confidence in Don Juan Manuel, and to confide the management of his affairs to him. Don Manuel, they have told his Holiness, is the only man who can prevent his utter ruin. The Pope admits that he has done wrong to Don Juan Manuel, and excuses himself on account of the unfavourable reports he had received about him. The Pope promises to disembark at Gaeta. His Holiness does not dare to approve of the cardinals, who did not do their duty, being deprived of their livings. Thinks, however, he would like it if it were done without asking him.
The ambassador of England has already given the obedience of his King to the Pontiff, who was much pleased to receive it. The ambassador of the King of Portugal has declared to his Holiness that his master will give him his obedience as soon as he arrives in Rome. Has made the same promise to the Pope in his (the Emperor's) name and in the name of the Kings of Hungary, Poland, and Denmark. The satisfaction of the Pope in receiving the obedience of the King of England was so great that he thinks he (the Emperor) should also give him his obedience before the Pope goes to Rome.
Detailed description of the servants of the Pope, and the presents in money or preferment by means of which they can be won over to the cause of the Emperor.—Zaragoza, the 18th of May 1522.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord."
"To the hands of the Bishop of Palencia."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 12.
24 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 24. ff. 105-106.
416. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor.
The Pope rejoiced much when he heard of the defeat of the French.
Monsieur de Lachaulx will return with the answer of the Pop e. As he has written and told him what that answer contains, it would be well if he (the Emperor) would send his reply to the English ambassador in France. The advantage obtained thereby would be that Monsieur de Lachaulx would know his will as soon as he arrives at the court of the King of France. Is persuaded that the English ambassador in France will do what he orders him. Pestilence at Cadiz, &c.
Asked the Pope whether he would not send the Bishop of Astorga, or another prelate, as nuncio to England. His Holiness answered that the Bishop of Astorga must remain as nuncio at the Imperial court, and that he does not know any other person who is fit for the place of nuncio in England. —Zaragoza, the 24th of May 1522.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty, &c., our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. Zaragoza. From Lope Hurtado, the 24th of May."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 2.
26 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 24. ff. 112-116.
417. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
The Marquis of Pescara, with the Spanish and a portion of the Italian infantry, is not far from Genoa.
The Spanish and Papal fleets are on their way to Barcelona.
The Italians say that the Turks will be in Italy sooner than the Pope ; in fact, the French and the Italians are spreading a rumour that the Turks are coming to Italy. Letters from Naples even state that the Turks are preparing a great fleet, and intend to sail either to Rhodes or to Apulia and Sicily. It is to be hoped that the Viceroy will soon arrive. Defence of Naples, &c.
Is fully persuaded that the French and the Venetians send information to the Turk, telling him that he (the Emperor) is far away, and that this is the moment to attack Italy. It would be well to tell the King of England, and to publish throughout Germany, how the French and the Venetians behave. The Germans and the English, if they knew the intrigues of the Venetians and the French, would soon be their mortal enemies, and would then like to "knock them on the head." (fn. 3) The King of England ought to send an ambassador to Venice, and tell the Venetians that he is indignant at their behaviour. He would thus frighten the Signory. At the same time the Infante ought to assemble an army near the frontiers of Venice.
Has done all he can to obtain the excommunication of the King of France, and has really succeeded in so far that the excommunication has been sent to the Prothonotary Caracciolo. Thinks he (the Emperor) should try to get it into his own hands, and show it to the King of England, who would thereby be confirmed in his good intentions and his hatred of France.
Alonso Sanchez writes that the Venetians think that the Pope is their friend. It would be well if the Pope were made to understand that.
The King of France is collecting the opinions of lawyers against the Pope. The Pope is held in so little esteem that no person of good position can be persuaded to go and see him.
The Cardinal of Volterra, his nephew, the Bishop of Sanctis, (fn. 4). and other cardinals invite the King of France to come to Italy. Giacopo de Salviatis, &c. Florence. Lucca. Naples, &c.—Rome, the 26th of May 1522.
Addressed : "... sar, King of Spain, &c., our sovereign Lord."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 5.
31 May.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 24. ff. 120-125.
418. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
Has written to Naples that all the money which is to be had there must be sent to Lombardy, but his orders have not been carried out hitherto. The Neapolitans always make difficulties if they are ordered to send money.
Knew already, before he received his letter of the 12th inst., through letters of merchants, that the King of England is resolved to come to an open rupture with the King of France. Is glad to hear such favourable news. But the King of England, it is added, has sent a messenger to the King of France, in order to make certain demands ; on the refusal of which war will be declared. It is feared in Rome that, if such be the case, the King of France will promise even more than the King of England asks of him, and afterwards break his promises. The French would thereby gain time to carry out at least a portion of their plans in Italy. Is more afraid of this manœuvre of the French than of the boasted invasion of Italy by the King of France in person.
If the King of England would, without losing time, vigorously attack the French in the north, whilst the Imperial army invades France in the south, the King of France would soon find himself placed in a very difficult position. Even the Venetians would turn against him if ordered to do so.
It is of the utmost importance to send a person of very great authority as ambassador to the Pope. As the church patronage of the Pope is so great, everybody wishes to be his friend. Monsieur de Laxao (fn. 5) is not a sufficient person for that post. Thinks it would be best to send the new ambassador direct from Flanders to Rome, so that the ambassador should arrive before the Pope.
Must again beg and insist that he be revoked from his post as ambassador at the Papal court. Is ready to serve him (the Emperor) to the best of his knowledge, but on no condition whatever would it be advisable to leave him in Rome ; nor does he think it would be well to send him to any other place where diplomatic negotiations are to be carried on.
Knows nothing about the journey of the Archbishop of Bari to France.
Florence and Cardinal de Medicis negotiate with the King of France.
Marquis of Mantua. Should he conclude a truce (with the King of France), he must include in it the Count of Mirandola.
Has already written in another letter that he cannot get Astudillo into his hands in the manner he (the Emperor) has ordered him.
Urges the College of Cardinals to pay the Marquis of Mantua ; the cardinals, however, have hitherto done very little.
The son of Count Golisano, &c.
The Cardinal de Medicis has discovered a conspiracy in Florence to murder him. It is believed that the Cardinal of Volterra is at the bottom of it. Some of the conspirators are arrested.
Cardinal of Santa Croce, &c.
The Pope is still at Zaragoza. The Venetians entertain a treasonable correspondence with Rimini, &c. Archbishopric of Catania, &c.—Rome, last day of May 1522.
Addressed : "... Cœsar, King of Spain, &c."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 7½.
31 May (?)
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. 1. Hist. d. Es.
419. The Marquis Of Mantua to the Emperor.
Thanks him that he has so good an opinion of him, and that he has not believed the calumnies of his enemies.
Is very glad to hear that the King of England succours him, and that the enemy is in such a bad condition on that frontier.
His ambassador will explain to him the reasons why, in spite of his obedience, respectful love, and veneration for him, he has permitted Monsieur Rochiapot to come to Mantua.— No date.
Addressed : "... Cœsar, my Lord ..."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. From the Marquis of Mantua."
Italian. Autograph. p. 1.


  • 1. A copy of this document is preserved in the Archives Générales du Royaume at Brussels. From that copy it is clear that the project of this treaty served as foundation for the negotiations of Poupet de Lachaux with the Pope in Spain during the month of May 1522.
  • 2. A copy of this letter is preserved in the Archives at Brussels, from which we learn that it was written on the 13th of May 1522.
  • 3. "Dalles en la cabeza."
  • 4. Sic.
  • 5. Lachaulx.