Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.
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June 1522, 1-15
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. C. 71. f. 8v.
420. Martin De Salinas, Ambassador of the Archduke
Ferdinand at the Imperial Court, to the Treasurer
Has received his letters of the 4th instant (fn. 1) in London. As travelling in England is troublesome and intercourse with the English by no means agreeable, it has been impossible for him to write earlier. Will relate all that has happened since he left Bruges.
Left Bruges on the 25th of May, in the suite of the Emperor. Arrived on the 27th at Calais, where the Emperor was well received by some English gentlemen. Sailed next day over to England, although the weather was as bad as it could be. The vessel in which the Emperor sailed was accompanied by a great number of English ships. The majority of the court officers and servants of the Emperor could not cross over to Dover that day. The Emperor remained three days at Dover, waiting for his wardrobe. The Cardinal of England came to receive the Emperor at Dover. Few provisions were obtainable at Dover, and the cooking was as bad as possible. Although the King of England had promised to send 600 horses, the necessary number could not be obtained, and the journey to London was extremely fatiguing. Arrived in London so worn out that it has been impossible for him to write earlier.
The day after the arrival of the Emperor at Dover the King of England came to see him. Both the Emperor and the King went from Dover to Canterbury. The whole court accompanied them. The court of the Emperor remained at Canterbury, and the King conducted the Emperor to Greenwich, where the Queen was staying. Followed the Emperor next day. His lodgings are bad and dear. Great festivities are in preparation.
Went to Greenwich to see the Emperor, and delivered his letters when he (the Emperor) was going to the jousts in which the King of England personally took part. They were not very splendid. Did not even go to see them. No foreigner jousted. Saw the Emperor next day, and asked succour against the Turks.
The King of England has armed a powerful fleet, on board which are 10,000 armed men. It is said that he has, in addition to these, 5,000 men under arms. Saw a portion of them at Calais. Is told that they are to watch the frontiers. The Emperor has 6,000 German troops and 4,000 Spaniards. If the Imperial and the English troops are united, they will amount to 20,000 men. It is not known "where the thunderbolt will strike." All seems to be peaceful. It is pretended that the Emperor has come to marry the Princess. Will not believe it until he sees it. A French ambassador has come over. It is said he brings offers of peace.
Madame has remained at Bruges with Monsieur de Hochstrate, &c.
The Emperor does nothing at Greenwich but spend all his time in festivities &c. On Friday the 6th, it is said, he will go to London and stay some days there. Thence he will go to visit various country houses of the King of England. The fleet has been ordered to sail from Flushing on the 1st, so that the Emperor can leave England whenever he likes. The Emperor does not say a single word about business, whether regarding the marriage, the truce, or the peace. Will inform him by a special courier as soon as anything is concluded.
He has asked him (Salinas) whether he wishes his Highness (fn. 2) to sign the letters directed to him. Answers that he will be quite satisfied if he (Salamanca) will send him his instructions. —Greenwich, the 5th of June, 1522.
Addressed : "To the Treasurer Salamanca."
Spanish. Register. pp. 2.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 24. ff. 143-145.
421. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the
The Marchioness of Monteferrato wishes to marry Monsieur de Bourbon. It is necessary that he should at once take his measures. The marquisate is of great importance, on account of its revenues, its strategetical position, and its fortresses. It would be best to send a Spanish garrison to it.
The Cardinal Jacobacius has a servant who is a friar from Catalonia. This friar has done all in his power to defend his relations against the Inquisition, and has obtained from the Cardinal Jacobacius and other cardinals a promise to assist him in his opposition to the Inquisition. It is intended to induce the Rota to give a judgment to the effect that the goods of persons who have confessed their heresy and have been pardoned by the inquisitors are not to be confiscated by the King, but given to the heirs of the pardoned person.
Has spoken on this subject with persons of great authority in law matters, who are all of opinion that such a judgment of the Rota would be against the law ; for, though the inquisitors may pardon the persons of heretics, they have no right to dispose of their goods, which are forfeited to the King. It is calculated that, if the Rota should give such a judgment, more than one million of ducats would have to be restored to the heirs of pardoned heretics.
Has remonstrated with the Cardinal Jacobacius and his friends, and has really obtained from them a promise that no further steps shall be taken in this business until the Pope has arrived in Rome.—Rome, the 5th of June 1522.
Addressed : "... Cœsar and King of Spain, &c., our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "1522. Rome. From Juan Manuel, the 7th of June."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 2.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 24. f. 152.
422. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor.
Wrote on the 24th of May to him, and on the 25th to the Bishop of Palencia, and told them what has occurred since Monsieur de Lachaux had left. Begs him to keep the fleet in readiness for the Pope, who intends soon to go to Rome.
"The friar of the mother of the King of France, who is a Franciscan," came to the Pope on the 26th of last month. He brought no letters, but made two proposals to his Holiness, viz. :—
1. That the Pope should employ his good services to conclude a peace between the Emperor and the King of France on the same conditions as were concerted with Monsieur de Chièvres when he concluded the treaty of marriage.
2. To go to Rome by land through France.
The Pope informed the English ambassador of what the friar had proposed to him, and said that he had told him that in the present state of affairs peace cannot be made without first concluding an armistice. His Holiness added that he had sent the Archbishop of Bari for that purpose to the King of France, and the Bishop of Astorga to the King of England. As for his journey to Rome, his Holiness observed that the route is very long by land, and that he had already decided to go by sea. The friar left on the 29th of June, (fn. 3) by the same route as the archbishop.
Asked the Pope whether he would advise him (the Emperor) to make peace with the King of France on the conditions which the friar had offered. The Pope replied that he did not think well of the treaty formerly, and that he thought much worse of it now. The fact is that his Holiness is as much a French partisan as he (Don Lope Hurtado), whose father has been killed by the French.
The Bishop of Badajoz (fn. 4) wrote, on the 14th of May, to the Viceroy, saying that the King of England had declared himself an enemy of the King of France, and that the French were defeated on the 27th of May, (fn. 5) and that Monsieur de Fleurange has been routed. The Pope knows it. It is impossible to describe his joy when he heard this news. It is further known that Imperial troops have taken Cremona, that the castle of Milan was to surrender on the 22nd of May, and that the French are driven out of Italy. Genoa is ready to revolt. The Fregosi are preparing means of escape.
The Pope has received very friendly letters from the College of Cardinals, and from the Roman people. (fn. 6) The cardinals call his Holiness Pope, which they have not done hitherto. The Pope sent a copy of the letter from the cardinals to the King of France, to show him on what terms he is with them. The same courier brought a great many private letters from the cardinals and other persons. The Cardinal of Santa Croce and Juan Manuel, however, have not written to the Pope. His Holiness knows the Cardinal of Santa Croce very well by this time, but Juan Manuel was wrong not to write.
Ambassador from the Duke of Ferrara. Cardinal Cesarini has arrived in Palamos. King of Portugal.
News from Spain. Enkenvöert is the dearest friend of the Pope, who loves him more than all the rest of the world. It is said of Enkenvöert that "if all goodness and all learning in the world were lost, and Enkenvöert alone preserved, everything that had been lost would be found in him." Enkenvöert is, however, an enemy of Juan Manuel.
News concerning Spain, &c.
Monsieur de Lachaux has probably informed him already of the contents of the letters which the Bishop of Astorga will deliver to the King of England. If this letter arrives before Monsieur de Lachaux, he ought to order Monsieur de Lachaux to write to him, and to do nothing except what he is ordered to do.
The Pope is going to Tortosa.—Zaragoza, the 6th of June 1522.
Addressed : "To his Sacred Imperial Majesty the Emperor and King, &c., 6th of the present month."
Spanish. Autograph, partly in cipher and partly in common writing. Contemporary deciphering. pp 6.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Ar. d. Sant. Mar. d. Nax. Priv. y Cart. Real. T. v.
423. The Emperor to the Abbot Of Najera.
Ordered the Bishop of Palencia to write to him by the last courier, and to inform him of his arrival in England.
Since then he has left Canterbury in the company of the King of England, who treats him with all the love of a father, and pays all the expenses of his household with royal liberality.
Was received at Greenwich by the Queen and the Princess of England with much love. Remained at Greenwich until the day before this, when, accompanied by his hosts, he made his entry into London. The procession was very brilliant, the welcome hearty, and the expenses must have been great.
Two days ago the king-at-arms whom the King had sent to the King of France arrived at Greenwich. He reported that, according to his instructions, he had challenged (fn. 7) the King of France in the name of the King of England, after having waited eight days at the French court. War between England and France is declared, and a considerable number of English infantry have crossed over to Calais, with an order to make a junction with his (the Emperor's) men-at-arms and the infantry on the frontiers of Flanders. The united English and Imperial armies will begin hostilities without any further delay.
The King of England has, besides his army, a very good navy, which is to go to sea within eight days. The two fleets (the Imperial and the English) will carry on board 18,000 armed men, English, Spaniards, and Germans. As much harm as possible will be done to the French. As soon as the fleet of the enemy is destroyed or captured, the English, Spaniards, and Germans will be disembarked either in Flanders, or Guienne, or Normandy, according to circumstances. The war will be carried on with so much vigour that it will not be difficult to expel the French entirely from Italy.
Writes by this courier to the captains of the Imperial army in Italy, and tells them not to be afraid of the King of France going in person to Italy. The King of France will most probably defend Picardy, or go wherever his presence is most required. As he is the disturber of Christendom, and peace cannot be preserved unless he is greatly humiliated, God will give him (the Emperor) and the King of England the victory.
Leaves London on Monday next, and goes by land to Southampton, where he expects to find his fleet from Zealand, on board which he will continue his voyage to Spain. The first thing he intends to do after his arrival in Spain is to make preparations for a war against France on the frontiers of Spain. Attacked thus on all sides, France will find it difficult to resist.
Intends to put in order the affairs of Spain as soon as possible, and, that done, to go to Italy for his coronation.
Writes to the commander-in-chief of the army in Lombardy that if the French who are at Cremona make even the smallest mistake in observing the capitulation which he has concluded with them, he is to besiege and fight them in such a manner that not a single soldier may escape. The captains may rest assured that the King of France will not succour Cremona, as he will be obliged to be present wherever the greatest danger is, that is to say, in the northern provinces.
He and the King of England will do all they can to persuade the Swiss to abandon the King of France. Thinks it will not be difficult, as they offer them very advantageous conditions. The Swiss have the less reason to prefer the friendship of the King of France to an alliance with him and the King of England, as the French have hitherto treated them very badly.
The republic of Venice will also be gained over. No great difficulties will be made, as the Venetians are always guided by the calculation of what is most advantageous to them.
Peace will thus be restored to Italy, and especially to the states of the Church, and a common war of the Christian princes with the Turks can be undertaken.
Orders him to see that the captains carry on the war in Italy with the utmost vigour, and conclude it as soon as possible.—London, the 7th of February (fn. 8) 1522.
Yo el Rey.
Alonso de Soria.
Addressed : "By the King. To the Abbot of Najera, Imperial Commissioner with the Army in Lombardy."
Spanish. Copy made in the convent of Santa Maria de Najera from the original letter of the Emperor. pp. 4.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. C. 71. f. 10.
424. Martin De Salinas, Ambassador of the Archduke
And Infante Ferdinand at the Imperial Court, to
the Treasurer Salamanca.
His last letter was dated the 5th inst. The Emperor and his councillors are so much occupied in festivities that they have no time for business, and it has been impossible to have an audience of the Emperor. On the 5th, at night, the King of England received a letter from his king-at-arms, whom he had sent to tell the King of France that he must not meddle in the affairs of Italy, lest he (the King of England) should be obliged to declare war with him, according to the treaty concluded at Calais. Suspects that this and some other treaties were concluded only with the intention not to observe them. As the aid of the King of England has been secured, affairs have been arranged as follows :—
The King of England sent his king-at-arms to the King of France with certain articles, declaring that if the King of France would not, within six days, satisfy the demands contained in those articles, he would challenge him. The king-at-arms delivered the articles, and waited six days, and as the King of France answered in the negative, he challenged him in the name of the King of England, which challenge the King of France accepted. The French have invaded the territory of Calais, and carried away some prisoners and some cattle. The Scots are also making war on the English, burning and destroying whatever they can. The Emperor is very glad of it. As soon as the King of England received the letters from France, he ordered the French ambassadors to leave England, without permitting them to take leave of him.
The King of France has written a letter to the Pope, calling him Cardinal of Tortosa, and telling him that although he has been elected Pope, his election has been without any reason, and is nothing but an "untoward hap-hazard."
Delivered the letters of the Infante to the Emperor, who, without reading them, gave them to the Viscount. (fn. 9)
It has not been possible for him to speak with the King and the Queen of England, as their solemn entry into London took place only on the 6th. Has never seen so many people as on that day. The procession of the court was very fine.
The Pope is at Zaragoza, and the Emperor wishes to hasten his departure from England, in order to see his Holiness. The Emperor leaves London on Monday next, and goes by way of Southampton. His fleet, however, has not yet arrived.
Pestilence in Castile, &c., &c.—London, the 7th of June 1522.
Addressed : "To the Treasurer Salamanca."
Spanish. Register. pp. 2½.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. C. 71. f. 11.
425. Martin De Salinas to the Treasurer Salamanca.
Affairs are very badly despatched. Festivities and the war with France are the only things thought worth speaking of. The Chancellor, Hannart, and he (Salinas) read in common the letters of the Infante to the Emperor. The Chancellor entertains very friendly intentions towards the Infante. The answer will be sent from Southampton. The Emperor is going to Richmond on a pleasure party, but the Chancellor will remain in London to despatch business.
Delivered, the day before this, his credentials to the Queen of England, who promised to read them and to give him her answer. Went to see her the morning of the date of this letter. The Queen said that one of the letters contained his credentials, and the other spoke of a certain business of the Turks. The time for a war with the Turks, she declared, was ill chosen, as the war with France absorbed all the resources of England. Told her that the Infante regarded her as his true mother, and asked her not to forsake him, but to see that the King of England should send him succour against the Turks. The Queen answered that it will be impossible for the King to send succour against the Turks. Begged her, nevertheless, to speak to the King about the matter. If it is impossible to succour the Infante directly, it might, perhaps, be done next year. The Queen said she would write her answer to the Infante.
Delivered the letters of the Infante to the King of England, who received them, saying he would read them and give his answer afterwards. Thinks the answer of the King will be the same as that of his wife. Has not spoken with the Cardinal, who is so occupied, and ... (fn. 10) Is sorry that he has spoken to the King and Queen of England, and permitted them to know in what a strait the affairs of the Infante are. Had, however, no choice, but was obliged to carry out the orders he had received.
Yesterday, which was Whitsuntide, the Emperor and the King went to the principal church of London, where the Pope [added between the lines : who is the Cardinal] said mass. He was served by more than twenty mitred prelates from the one and the other court. The festivities were very splendid, and some persons wore extremely rich clothes. Something had been said about some marriage ceremonies, or some oath, but no marriage ceremonies were performed, no oath sworn. The Princess had remained at Greenwich.
Pope. News concerning personages of the court of the Emperor.—London, the 9th of June 1522.
Addressed : "To the Treasurer Salamanca."
Spanish. Register. pp. 2.
|10 June (?)
S. E. Cor. d. Cast. L. 27. f. 290.
426. Inigo Fernandez De Velasco, Duke Frias and
Condestable Of Castile, to the Emperor.
Two pieces of good news have arrived simultaneously, namely, that he arrived at Calais twenty days ago, and that the French are expelled from Italy.
Has done all in his power to get the navy (which is to go to England) into as efficient a state as possible, but some officers in the seaports which are beyond his immediate reach have been somewhat remiss. Will see that the navy sets sail soon to fetch him.
As soon as he received the news of his arrival at Calais, he despatched a courier to the admiral, begging him to retard the departure of the Pope.—Vitoria, Whitsunday.
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.