Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.
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M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. ff. 237-241.
497. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor.
He has done well to write a detailed letter to the Pope, and to tell him what he wishes to be done for him. (fn. 1) Although the Pope will not do it, he will at least not be able to excuse himself on the plea of ignorance.
Peter, the valet de chambre, is the principal man in Rome. He is a very sharp Burgundian. He must buy him. The money must be given him under colour of rewarding him for his services in Spain. The Pope would like it.
The Pope sometimes consults with the Archbishop of Cosenza, but only in the presence of the other (Peter?).
Cisterer told him that the King of France had asked the Pope for a safe-conduct for an ambassador, but that the Pope did not like the King of France to send him an ambassador. He says that, being Pope, he likes peace, and is only waiting for the answer from England. Observed to Cisterer that he (the Emperor) and the King of England desired nothing so much as peace, if the King of France would only accept reasonable conditions.
Prince Henry (of Navarra). Flanders. Castile.—Rome, the 1st of November 1522.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. From Rome. Lope Hurtado. The 1st of November. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 6.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
498. Hieronymo Adorno to the Emperor.
Did not go earlier to Venice, as he was waiting for Juan Manuel, who has been detained by contrary winds.
The Duke of Milan has intercepted letters from France. According to them the King of France has determined to invade Italy. He has gone to Lyons with his men-at-arms. The greater portion of the French army which has been opposed to his (the Emperor's) troops and to those of the King of England, being no longer wanted in Picardy, is on its way to the Dauphinate.
Andrea Doria remains in the service of France. The French have taken some ships and a Genoese carrack. It is necessary to retain the carracks which were destined to succour Rhodes, as they are wanted against the French.
The Neapolitan galleys are being made ready to sail to Naples. If they go there, they will soon be obliged to return. They are more wanted at Genoa than in Naples.
This letter is going by the courier of the Duke of Sessa.— Genoa, the 11th of November 1522.
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. Genoa. From Hieronymo Adorno, the 11th of November. Answered."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. f. 274.
499. Hieronymo Adorno to the Emperor.
Not having received any answer from the ambassador in Venice, he is leaving for that place, in order to conclude, if possible, the alliance (of the Emperor and the King of England with Venice).
Rhodes. Turks.—Genoa, the 13th of November 1522.
Addressed : "Cœsareœ Majestati."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. Genoa. Hieronymo Adorno. The 13th of November. Answered."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2½.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. ff. 276-280.
500. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to
The Venetians are entertaining a very lively correspondence with France, the object of which is kept secret.
Has been told that his (the Emperor's) army and that of the King of England are retiring from Picardy without having obtained any result.
The King of France has gained the Swiss, and is preparing an invasion of Italy, which is to take place this winter ; so, at least, say the French.
It is pretended that the Venetians are aiding the French with money. Does not know whether it is true.
Went, in company of the English ambassador, to the Signory. Both he and the English ambassador told them that they wished to speak with them as their friends, and as true servants of their respective masters. Declared that they had heard that the Republic was giving money to the French, to his (the Emperor's) prejudice and that of the King of England. If that were true, they would show thereby that they did not desire to remain at peace with him (the Emperor) and with England. They were in no way obliged, he said, towards the King of France, whilst they had in the last truce assumed obligations towards him (the Emperor) and the King of England, which they would break if they were to aid the King of France.
The Signory answered that it was not true that they had aided the King of France. They desired, on the contrary, to live at peace with him (the Emperor) and the King of England. The treaty of peace would already have been concluded if the King of England had not given them such a hostile answer. They further complained of the embargo laid on the Venetian galleys in England, observing that it was incomprehensible to them why the King of England, with whom they had not any kind of dispute, had taken their galleys and goods, whilst their ships were permitted to enter the ports unmolested, and their merchants were allowed to carry on trade in the Imperial dominions.
Answered that he (the Emperor) has always had friendly intentions towards them, although they had not deserved it, and as for the embargo laid on Venetian ships and goods in England, the English ambassador would show them that such a measure was justified. Besides, if they did what they ought to do, there was no doubt that the King of England would restore them their galleys and merchandise.
They observed that even in such a case they would suffer losses amounting to more than 50,000 ducats.
Said that the King of England would repay them all their losses.
The Venetians have told the ambassador of England in confidence that they are no longer bound toward the King of France, but they have never said such a thing to him (Sanchez), although he has often asked them.
Does not know positively that the Venetians are aiding the French, but does not disbelieve it.
The Venetians care for nothing but making money. They go so far in this way that they have an institution which they call lotto, by means of which one can gain much money. Many sell their jewels and their houses to buy shares in the lotto.
The Pope has sent a brief to his nuncio in Venice, dated the 16th of October, in which he says that he intends to bring about a general peace. The Venetians have asked the nuncio to show him (Alonso Sanchez) and the English ambassador this brief.
Has no news from Hieronymo Adorno.
The English ambassador told the Venetians that the treaty of London had not become null and void by the death of Pope Leo, as it was not only concluded with the Pope, but also with the Apostolic See, which does not die. They answered that they had asked the opinion of the Apostolic See on this subject, and had received a different answer. The court of Rome always opposes him (the Emperor).
Venice, the 8th of November 1522.
It is expected that the Pope will send another nuncio to Venice, who formerly had a mission to Spain from Pope Leo.
News of the Turks.—Venice, the 13th of November.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. From Venice. Alonso Sanchez. The 8th and 13th of November. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 6.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. C. 71. f. 37v.
501. Martin De Salinas, Ambassador of the Archduke
And Infante Ferdinand, to the Treasurer Salamanca.
Much disunion prevails in the Imperial court. Some of the officers desire to revenge themselves on their enemies, and others wish to be rewarded for their services. The bishoprics are not yet disposed of, &c.
Has not written to him yet about the business on which the Licentiate, his (Salamanca's) brother, is going to England. The Licentiate is a man who cannot keep his own counsel, and therefore he sometimes gets into trouble. He (the Licentiate) told him that he is on terms of the most perfect intimacy with the Pope, who has asked the Emperor to make him one of his privy councillors, as a reward for the good services he had rendered him during his stay in England.
Doña Isabel de Carbajal, &c.—Valladolid, the 18th of November 1522.
Addressed : "To the Treasurer Salamanca."
Spanish. Register. pp. 2.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. ff. 307-223.
502. The Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome,
to the Emperor.
Sent his last long letter by the courier Bernardino de Castro ; hopes he has received it.
The Pope has not changed his mind since his last letter left. He shows great indifference about his (the Emperor's) affairs, and does not even speak of his person with the respect and love which he deserves. Would prefer a hundred times daily to expose his life to all the dangers of war than to negotiate with the Pope.
The manner in which the Pope despatches his business is this ; he confers every day for two hours after mass with Enkenvöert, the Referendary Vincle, the Auditor de la Camera, and the Bishop of Cosenza on matters of state, reserving the most important and most secret cases for himself and Enkenvöert alone. But these conferences have no practical result, business is not despatched, and the discontent in Rome is general.
Saw the Pope last Wednesday. Was quite terrified to see how much the Pope has changed. When his Holiness arrived, he was stout ; now he is lean, pale, and his "eyes are rheumatic."
Cardinal of Auch. (fn. 2) Balmisio is going as nuncio to Venice. The Pope is very angry that the troops remain in Parma and Piacenza. The canton of Zurich has sent ambassadors to the Pope to ask him to pay them the arrears of their pensions. They are instructed to threaten the Pope in case he does not pay. Lucca. Florence. Genoa. Milan. Army.
Does not think it advisable to reduce the army, as he (the Emperor) has decided to make war on Venice in case the Signory refuse to conclude the alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England). As the French threaten to invade Italy, the presence of the Imperial army near the frontiers of Venice is very necessary, to render the negotiations of Hieronymo Adorno more easy. The Pope is afraid of the French, and would readily join an alliance against the King of France if the war did not cost him money. He says he fears the Turks, but the truth is he fears the expenses of a war. The irresolution of the Pope is the source of great inconvenience.
The French have captured the Genoese carrack Negrona, and the Genoese, in order to be revenged, have retained the two carracks of the Knights of Rhodes which sailed to succour that island, but were forced, by stress of weather, to put back to Genoa.
In order to win over the Pope, it is necessary first to gain Enkenvöert, who has great power over him. Enkenvöert asks for the bishopric of Tortosa. Johan Vincle, who is a German, is a much more intelligent person than Enkenvöert. He would be satisfied with little. The Auditor de la Camera, who is from Siena, has a bishopric in England. Will speak with the English ambassador, and try to win over the Auditor through him. The Archbishop of Cosenza has great influence sometimes, but he is not always in the secrets of the Pope. As he is a good Imperialist, it seems necessary to reward him. "The Secretary Cisterer is a very good person, and "can betray to him all the secrets of the Pope," as he puts the secret correspondence in cipher. Begs him (the Emperor) to make Cisterer a Knight of Santiago, in order to enable him to enjoy the benefices which the Pope intends to confer on him. All the other persons about the Pope who are "worth something" must also be bought.
Viceroy of Naples, &c. People pretend that he (the Emperor) carries on secret negotiations with the Pope of which he (the ambassador) knows nothing. Wishes that it were true.—Marino, the 20th of November 1522.
The Archbishop of Bari has arrived, and confirms the news of the intended invasion of Italy by the French.—Marino, the 21st of November 1522.
Addressed : "Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. From Marino. The Duke of Sessa. The 20th of November. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 15.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
503. Hieronymo Adorno to the Emperor.
After having seen Juan Manuel he left for Venice. Fell ill on the road, and is still in bed in Pavia.
Has received fresh information about the doings of the King of France. He is assembling an army in the Dauphinate, is sending money to the Swiss, and is doing everything to indicate a design to invade Italy. As the war in Picardy, where he (the Emperor) and the King of England had given occupation to the French armies, has come to an end, the King of France thinks he can not only reconquer Milan, but also render himself master of Naples and the whole of Italy. Such are the consequences of the interruption of the war in Picardy.
It is difficult to resist a vigorous attack of the French with an army that is not paid. Money is wanting. Has written to the Pope and to Lope Hurtado (de Mendoza), and has explained to them the state in which affairs are. At the same time he will do what he can to persuade Venice and the Duke of Ferrara to declare themselves members of the league (with the Emperor and the King of England). Intends to negotiate first with Ferrara and then with Venice. His reasons are stated in his letter to the Pope, of which he encloses a copy.
The French have captured different vessels, and among them a Genoese carrack called the Negrona, which is the best Genoese vessel afloat. Begs him to leave the Neapolitan galleys in Genoa, where they will soon be wanted.
The two carracks which were to succour Rhodes have been retained.—Pavia, the 21st of November 1522.
The envelope with the address is lost.
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 4.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. f. 331.
504. Pope Adrian VI. to the Emperor.
Answered, on the 31st of October, his letter of the 26th of September.
It is most necessary to succour Rhodes. Two carracks sailed from Genoa to succour the Knights of Rhodes, but were forced by stress of weather to return to that port. News had meanwhile arrived that the French had captured a Genoese carrack, which was said to come from Spain ; and the Genoese, with the intention of retaliating on the French, laid an embargo on the two carracks of the Knights of Rhodes. Begs him to give orders that the two carracks be not prevented from succouring Rhodes.
Has ordered the Archbishop of Bari to beg the King of France not only to restore the carrack to the Genoese, but also to conclude peace or a truce (with the Emperor and the King of England). If the Christian princes are disunited, they cannot aid Rhodes, which is exposed to the greatest danger from the Turks. It is true that the "Tyrant of the Turks" has been repulsed by the Knights of Rhodes, who have killed more than 50,000 Turks, but he is preparing a new army, with which he will attack Rhodes or Hungary. If Rhodes or Hungary were lost, it would be very doubtful whether all the Christian princes together could reconquer them. Beseeches him to conclude peace with the King of France, and to see that the King of England does the same. Wrote a long time ago to the King of England, and is astonished to see that there are Christian princes who prefer their particular interests to the welfare of the whole of Christendom. Repeats, therefore, once more his prayer, and begs him not only to conclude a peace or a truce himself, but also to induce the King of England to be a party to it.
[In cipher.] During his voyage and after his arrival in Rome he has been forced to complain of his (the Emperor's) captains and soldiers. Has protested against the Imperial garrisons in Parma, Piacenza, and Reggio, but has been informed that Juan Manuel had said, in a letter dated Marino, the 10th of September, that the garrisons should on no account be withdrawn from those places. Cannot believe that Juan Manuel would have dared to write such a letter had he not been authorized by him (the Emperor), or at least by his Council. Juan Manuel is inclined to do all the injury he can to the Church because his (Adrian's) election has deprived him of the 100,000 ducats which the Cardinal of Ostia (fn. 3) had promised him for his election. Such behaviour is in open contradiction with the love which he (the Emperor) professes for him. It is clear that the Duke of Sessa and the Marquis of Pescara, who are no better than Juan Manuel, try to injure the Church and to rob her of her dominions. Begs him to order his Council and his ambassadors to behave towards the Church in a reasonable and friendly manner.—In the Holy Palace at Rome, the 21st of November 1522.
A. Papa VI.
Spanish. Autograph, partly in cipher and partly in common writing. The key of the cipher has been formed and the despatch deciphered by Mr. Paul Friedmann. pp. 2.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. f. 337.
505. Pope Adrian VI. to the Emperor.
Has to add to his letter of yesterday that he has been informed that Hieronymo Adorno is commissioned by him (the Emperor), after having concluded the alliance (fn. 4) with Venice, to go and conclude a treaty with the Duke of Ferrara concerning Modena and Reggio. Is astonished to hear it, and begs and exhorts him not to conclude the treaty with the Duke of Ferrara before he has read the authentic papers and documents which prove the rights of the Church to the cities in question. It is true that what belongs to him (the Pope) is also the property of the Emperor. That is, however, no reason for robbing the Church, especially under the present circumstances, when the Church has to incur such heavy expenses.
The Bishop of Feltre has informed him that Juan Manuel insists upon the troops injuring the territories of the Church, and that the captains obey him. Is much astonished that he has given such power to Juan Manuel. The consequences cannot be good, and if Juan Manuel could be found in the states of the Church, he (the Emperor) may be assured, Juan Manuel would have to answer for what he has done.— In the Sacred Palace at Rome, the 22nd of November 1522.
A. Papa VI.
Addressed : "To our most beloved son in Christ, Charles, King of Spain and Emperor elect."
Indorsed : "Rome, from the Pope, the 22nd of November."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. The key of the cipher has been formed and the document deciphered by Mr. Paul Friedmann. p. 1.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
506. Juan Manuel to the Emperor.
Wrote from Rome on the 13th of October. His journey from Rome to Genoa lasted a month, as the wind was generally contrary.
The French intend to take him prisoner, and have surrounded him with spies, but he has also his spies with the French. Has sent Rodrigo Niño in a small vessel to Spain. Hopes he has arrived, and has told him all that it is important he should know. For the sake of greater security, however, he will repeat in a few words what Rodrigo Niño is instructed to tell him.
It is again generally reported that the French will invade Italy. They say that neither the English nor the Flemings carry on war with them in such a manner as to prevent them from attacking Italy. According to what he hears of the Cardinal of England nothing good can be expected from him. On the Spanish frontiers all is also quiet, so that the French are at full liberty to undertake some enterprise on Italy.
Begs him to give orders that the French shall be attacked on the frontiers of England and Flanders. He owes that to his servants in Italy. Besides, it is highly desirable to send a grandee of Spain with money and 6,000 or 7,000 Spanish foot, and to entrust him with the command of the armies in Italy.
If the Pope cannot be induced to conclude the alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England), a general league of all the other Italian states must be formed. When that is done the Pope will enter it.
The Turks have been defeated by the Knights of Rhodes. News concerning the army.
Prospero Colonna, &c.
The Cardinal of Volterra has sent his servant, Johan Hieronymo, to the King of France ; he is now on his return to Rome with a safe-conduct of Prospero Colonna. It would be well to intercept him.—Genoa, the 29th of November 1522.
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. Genoa. From Don Juan Manuel, the 29th of November. Answered."