Spain: December 1522

Pages 510-519

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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December 1522

6 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. C. 71. f. 491.
507. Martin De Salinas, Ambassador of the Archduke and Infante Ferdinand, to the Treasurer Salamanca.
Doctor Pran (fn. 1) and Metania have left for Switzerland. They are to try to gain the friendship of the Swiss. The Emperor promises to deposit 30,000 or 40,000 florins in some town of Germany, and to inform the Swiss that the King of England, who is his ally, will deposit an equal sum of money, in order to secure that they shall be paid regularly. Has written by a secretary of the King of England, who went to transact this business.
Fuentarabia. Money affairs, &c., &c.—Valladolid, the 6th of December 1522.
Addressed : "To the Treasurer Salamanca."
Spanish. Register. pp. 2.
17 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Muñoz. 56. f. 17.
508. The Emperor to the Duke Of Sessa, his Ambassador in Rome.
Wrote to him on the 7th and 27th of September, the 31st of October, and the 13th of November. Has not received an answer to any of those letters. The last news of the Pope dates from his embarkation in Genoa, and the last letter from Juan Manuel is dated the 1st of August. The difficulty of receiving letters from Italy is a very great inconvenience.
Has already written to him about what he intends to do in case the King of France invades Italy. Has sent his chamberlain, Raphael de Medicis, and Doctor Brandenert (fn. 1) to Switzerland. They will take this despatch to Genoa, and are provided with bills of exchange to the amount of 50,000 florins, and preparations are being made to enable them to obtain more money. They are ordered to employ this money in inducing the Swiss to forsake the King of France, and to enter into his (the Emperor's) service, or at least to remain neutral. If they cannot come to an understanding with the Swiss, they are to enlist as many lansquenets, with the money, as will be necessary to defend Lombardy against the French and the Swiss.
Has sent Hieronymo Adorno to Venice, and begged the Pope to empower him to treat in his name also with the Venetians about the alliance (fn. 2) which has been proposed to the Signory. If the Pope has not yet sent his power to Hieronymo Adorno, he (the Duke of Sessa) must try by every means in his power to persuade his Holiness to send his power to Hieronymo, as well as to the Bishop of Veruli, empowering them to treat with the Swiss, and to conclude with them the treaty which he (the Emperor) and the King of England have proposed to them. The King of England has sent Pace to Switzerland, who is to occupy himself with the same negotiations as the Imperial commissioners. Begs the Pope to send 50,000 florins to Switzerland also, or if the Swiss cannot be gained, to employ them to enlist lansquenets. Not the least result is to be hoped from the negotiations of peace which the Pope is carrying on in France, whilst the King of France is making preparations to invade Italy. If the Pope really wishes to secure peace to the whole of Christendom and to himself, he has no choice left but to aid him (the Emperor) and the King of England against the King of France.
Hears that the Marquis of Mantua is dissatisfied with the Pope, who does not pay him, and has not yet confirmed him in his post of captain general of the armies of the Church. It is of the greatest importance to preserve the services of the Marquis.
Cruzada. Comuneros. Queen of Portugal. Navigation to the Spice islands. It is said that the ambassador of the King of Portugal is instructed to speak to him (the Emperor) about the marriage. He has not yet done it.
Rebels in Xativa and Alzira. The Marshal of Navarra has died of despair in the prison of Simancas.—Datum [blank].
Mercurinus. (fn. 3)
Post-datum.—Bishopric of Burgos, &c. &c. Church preferment.
His letters of the 16th, 17th, 31st October and 1st of November have just arrived.
Indorsed : "The King. 1522. Valladolid. To the Duke of Sessa. The 17th of December."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 13.
17 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. ff. 359-365.
509. The Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome to the Emperor.
Wrote to him on the 18th, 21st, and 27th of October.
The Pope is as irresolute as ever, and says he will remain neutral. He is so much afraid of incurring expenses that he speaks to all the people he meets of his pecuniary difficulties.
Urged the Pope very strongly to declare himself (an ally of the Emperor and the King of England). At last his Holiness answered resolutely that he would not declare himself before he had received the answer of the King of England, and had seen whose fault it is that the truce or peace cannot be concluded. Asked the Pope what he would do if the King of France should invade Italy. The answer of his Holiness was that in such a case he would declare war against France.
Is persuaded that the Pope will remain irresolute as long as he hopes that a peace or truce can be concluded, but that he will declare himself against France as soon as he (the Emperor) and the King of England assure him that a truce or peace is impossible. His Holiness has been confirmed in his wavering policy by some words which the Cardinal of York said to the Papal nuncio in England. The Archbishop of Bari, moreover, writes that the French have made all kinds of offers to the Pope, which are utterly preposterous, but which make the Pope believe that they intend to entrust the negotiations of the peace or truce to him. The Archbishop writes also that the King of France cannot invade Italy this winter, as his men-at-arms are not in an efficient condition, and the people are ruined and discontented.
[Written on the margin by the Chancellor Mercurino de Gattinara :] That is true. The Archbishop has given the same information to the Emperor.
The Cardinal of Volterra makes great promises to the King of France, who, however, does not trust him. Nor is the policy of Venice very encouraging to the King of France, as they refuse to send auxiliary troops to Lombardy. It would be well if Hieronymo Adorno were informed of this.
[Written on the margin by Gattinara :] That is done.
The King of France told the Archbishop of Bari that he was entertaining a secret understanding with subjects of his (the Emperor), and even with some Imperial servants. Does not believe it.
[Written on the margin by Gattinara :] That is a falsehood.
Begs the bishopric of Tortosa may be given to Enkenvöert.
[Written on the margin by Gattinara :] That is done.
The Pope hates Juan Manuel, and says if he could lay hands on him he would send him to prison, and keep him there in spite of all the remonstrances which he (the Emperor) might make. If Juan Manuel returns to the Imperial court and takes part in the deliberations of the Imperial council, he (the Pope) will do what he can to injure him (the Emperor).
[Written on the margin by Gattinara :] The Pope will content himself with what is reasonable, and will leave it to us to ask advice of whom we like.
All church preferment which has become vacant has been given to cardinals and other persons who are partisans of the King of France.
[Written on the margin by Gattinara :] The Pope may give them church preferment if he likes, but it depends on us whether they will obtain possession of it, and whether they will be permitted to stay in our dominions.
Duke of Ferrara. Modena and Reggio. The ambassadors of the canton of Zurich have asked the Pope, in strong language, to pay them the arrears amounting to 24,000 ducats, &c. The Pope offers to pay one-third, and wishes that the rest should be paid by him (the Emperor) and the Duke of Milan, &c., &c. Naples. Archbishop of Bari.
Has been told that the Pope has written a very friendly and loving letter to him (the Emperor), and that if he and the King of England answer the Pope in a resolute manner, the Pope will declare himself in their (the Emperor's and King Henry's) favour. He and the King of England should undeceive the Pope with respect to the false assertions of the King of France, and show him that the proposals made by France cannot lead to a satisfactory result. If the Pope should declare himself in their (the Emperor's and King Henry's) favour, they would gain much, even if they should conclude a truce or peace.
Rome, the 17th of December 1522.
Addressed : "To the ... sar, King of Spain, &c."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. Rome. Duke of Sessa. The 17th of December. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph in the cipher of Lope Hurtado de Mendoza. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 7.
23 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. ff. 371-377.
510. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor.
The Pope says he will not enter into a league with him (the Emperor) and the King of England as long as he has any hope of concluding a general peace.
The Bishop of Veruli is in Rome with the Swiss ambassadors. They ask 36,000 ducats. The Pope wishes that the Apostolic See, he (the Emperor), and the Duke of Milan should each of them pay one-third of that sum.
Ambassadors of the Duke of Milan.
He (the Emperor) must not ask money from the Pope, who is continually afraid that he will soon be unable to buy food ; in fact, the Pope has no money, but if he had he would not give it, for he is very avaricious. Hopes, nevertheless, that the Pope will satisfy the Swiss ambassadors. He (the Duke of Sessa) and the ambassador of England will do all they can in this matter.
Cardinal Petrucci is dead.
Has received letters from Hieronymo Adorno and from Alonso Sanchez.
Marquis of Pescara. Prospero (Colonna).
The Pope has received letters from the King of England and from the Cardinal. The King of England has given the same answer to the Pope which he (the Emperor) has sent, judging, at least, by what the English ambassador has told him. The English ambassador has this day had an audience of the Pope, and declared to his Holiness that the King of England would, in the month of March next, go in person to Picardy, and make a most cruel war on the King of France, if justice be not done him (the King of England) by the French before that time. The English ambassador has received power to conclude, in common with the Imperial ambassador, a treaty of alliance (with the Pope).
The Pope has told him he would speak with him (Lope Hurtado) after the audience of the English ambassador. Has not time to write about this interview with the Pope, as the courier is leaving.—Rome, the 23rd of December 1522.
Addressed : "To my Lord the Secretary Soria." (fn. 4)
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. From Rome. Lope Hurtado. The 23rd of December. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 10.
24 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 21. ff. 410, 411.
511. The Archbishop Of Bari to the Emperor.
The Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland, has come to France for money and troops, to be employed in a war against England. Thinks he has not obtained either money or soldiers.
[Written on the margin by Mercurino de Gattinara :] That is favourable to the English, who, if this news be true, can the sooner carry out what they intend.
The Scots have again concluded a truce with the English, which is to last until the beginning of March. It is believed in France that this truce will be renewed from time to time.
News from Italy.
The Duke of Bourbon will be made captain-general, and Lautrec is to go to Guienne.
The Grand Maître and Montmorency are gone to Switzerland. They are provided with a large sum of money ; it is said they have 1,200,000 ducats.
Indorsed : "News from the Bishop of Bari. In cipher. Sent from Paris by Bernardino on the 24th of December."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 1½.
24 Dec.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
512. Prospero Colonna to the Emperor.
Johan Vicenzio Cosso, whom he had sent to him (the Emperor), was detained at Narbonne and carried off to Paris, after his papers had been taken from him. At Paris, however, he was set at liberty, and his papers were given back to him.
Thanks him (the Emperor) for being so ready to provide for the army in Italy.
Has been informed by the Duke of Sessa that the Pope shows very little inclination to enter the league (with the Emperor and the King of England), and even insists on the restitution of Modena and Reggio by the Duke of Ferrara. The only means of resisting France is by union, not dissension. Begs him, therefore, to send some person who speaks the language of the Pope as extraordinary envoy to Rome, who, in common with the Duke of Sessa, must urge the Pope to come to an arrangement with the Duke of Ferrara, and to declare himself an enemy of the King of France. Has taken upon himself to prevail on the Duke to accept any reasonable offer.
There is a certain William Enkenvöert in Rome. He is the Datary, and a confidential friend of his Holiness. Advises him to gain over this Enkenvöert and other confidential servants of the Pope by bribes and other means.
Johan Vicenzio has informed him that in France no warlike preparations are observable. Receives the same information from other quarters. Beseeches him not to delay providing for the Italian army on account of the peaceful appearance of the present state of things, and at the same time to see that the King of England also contributes money for the maintenance of the Italian army. Assures him and the King of England that he will not spend the money or any part of it if it is not absolutely necessary to do so. The success of his (the Emperor's) and of the English policy depends on the efficiency of the army in Italy.
In Switzerland there are different parties contending with each other. The Duke of Milan and he (Prospero Colonna) will do all they can to increase their disunion.
Begs him to order some light vessels to sail to and fro between Barcelona and Genoa.
Thanks him for the favours shown him.
Thinks it will be difficult to persuade the Italian members of the league to pay their share of the expenses of the army, unless the Pope exhorts them to do so.
Juan Manuel has proposed and much insisted upon a military execution against Siena and Lucca. Not only their proportion of the money but also a heavy fine, should be exacted from them. Had doubts whether such a way of obtaining money could be called honourable, and has asked the opinion of the Duke of Sessa, who has condemned it. It is very true that the execution would not redound to his (the Emperor's) honour, but, on the other hand, the money is much wanted. Waits for his decision.
The French boast that they will soon be in Italy. Answers them as he (the Emperor) has told him to do.
Postscriptum.—Has received news from Rome that the Pope is very well disposed towards him (the Emperor). Will write more about this in his next letter.
Cardinal Petrucci is dead. Has left it to the Viceroy and the Duke of Sessa to decide what is to be done in Siena. Thinks the Cardinal de Medicis ought to be satisfied.—Milan, the 24th of December 1522.
"To his Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed : "To his Majesty. Prospero Colonna. The 24th of December 1522. Answered."
Italian. Holograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 5.
26 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. f. 392.
513. Hieronymo Adorno to the Emperor. (fn. 5)
The hope of the Venetians that the French will invade Italy, the indecision of the Pope, and the want of money render the negotiations with Venice very difficult ; does not, however, despair of a good result.
The English ambassador has told him that he has the authorization of his King to declare to the Venetians, that the King of England will be surety for the punctual fulfilment of what he (the Emperor) promises to the Republic. Is very sorry for it, as the negotiations about this security will only help to delay the conclusion of the alliance. Will do all in his power to avoid speaking on this subject. Sends a courier to England, and begs the Imperial ambassador at the English court to persuade the King not to insist on being surety. The English ambassador will write in the same sense to England ; he is a good servant of his (the Emperor).
The best way to prevent the French from marching an army to Italy would be to forestall them, if the money for such an expedition could be had. The Duke of Ferrara would give money if the Pope did not prevent him from doing so. As the case stands, it will be best that he and the King of England should attack France in the north vigorously enough to prevent her from invading Italy.
Count Gambara, &c.—Venice, the 26th of December 1522.
Postscriptum.—The English ambassador has told him in secret that the Pope had said to the English ambassador in Rome, that he would declare himself against the King of France if the King of England would assist him with a sum of 50,000 ducats. Begs him to keep this communication secret. —News from Rhodes.—Venice, the 26th of December 1522.
Addressed : "To his Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. From Venice. 1522. Hieronymo Adorno. The 26th of December. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 5.
27 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. ff. 401-406.
514. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor.
The Cardinal of Auch has spoken with the Pope. In consequence of what the Cardinal has told the Pope, and what the King of England has written to him, his Holiness has resolved to write to the King of France, and to ask him to conclude a truce of three years, promising to make peace during that time. The Pope himself is his informant.
[Written on the margin in the hand of the Chancellor Gattinara :] If his Holiness is very sure that the King of England is ready to make peace, and that the King of France will not reject it, and if the conditions of the truce satisfy his Majesty and the other princes, then there is hope that the negotiations of the Pope will be crowned with success. But if such is not the case the Pope has committed a great mistake.
Before the Pope spoke with the Venetian ambassador, he (Lope Hurtado) asked his Holiness whether he wished that the Signory should be reconciled with him (the Emperor). The Pope answered that he wished it, and that he would not only write to that effect to the Signory, but also send them another nuncio, with an order to aid Hieronymo Adorno to conclude the alliance.
[Written on the margin in the hand of the Chancellor Gattinara :] That would be well, if it were carried into effect.
The Cardinal of Volterra advises the Pope to incorporate Siena with the Papal States ; but the Pope thinks it is best for Siena to preserve its independent government, paying annually a certain sum of money to him (the Emperor) in recognition of his suzerainty.
[Written on the margin in the hand of the Chancellor Gattinara :] The Pope behaves in this respect like a good father. An answer has already been sent on this subject.
Rome, the 27th of December.
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. Rome. From Lope Hurtado, the 27th of December. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. p. 1.
28 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 26. f. 413.
515. Hieronymo Adorno and Alonso Sanchez to the Emperor.
He (Adorno) has written from Ferrara what he has negotiated with the Duke.
Arrived on the 1st of December at Venice, but his illness prevented him from delivering his credentials before the 3rd.
Spoke at first in general terms only about the subject of his mission.
Conferred with Alonso Sanchez. On the 4th of December Hieronymo Adorno, Alonso Sanchez, and Richard Pace went again to the Signory, and he (Adorno) made known his (the Emperor's) communications to them. After never ending deliberations, the Signory answered at last on the 14th. A copy of this answer is enclosed. Hieronymo Adorno, Alonso Sanchez, and Richard Pace replied to the Signory likewise in writing. Encloses a transcript of their reply.
[Paper entirely rotten.]
The great mass of the people are Imperialists, but those who govern the state are partisans of France. All matters of state are first discussed by the Lesser Council, which consists of from forty to fifty members. This Lesser Council afterwards makes its proposal to the Great Council, which consists of 200 and more members, and which is called the Pregai. (fn. 6)
Think it advisable to treat with the Venetians as with merchants, and to make concessions only by degrees. Treated in that way, the Venetians will better appreciate his (the Emperor's) liberality, and recognize his goodness if he reconciles them with the Pope, the King of England, and the rest of the world.
The Venetians asked guarantees for their present possessions and for the restoration of the dominions which they had lost in their last war. Did not promise anything.
Richard Pace, the ambassador of the King of England, took part in all these negotiations.
The Lesser Council is daily deliberating on this subject.
He (Hieronymo Adorno) informs the Duke of Sessa continually of the state of his negotiations in Venice, in order that he may induce the Pope to ask the Venetians to make peace with him (the Emperor). They demand that the Pope and the King of England and all ... (fn. 7) guarantees ... (fn. 7) as they have very little confidence.
The Venetians asked him whether he had the power of the Infante also. (fn. 8)
At last, on the 27th, the date of this letter, the Venetians declared that they were willing to conclude an alliance with him (the Emperor) and the King of England, on condition, however, that this alliance should be an honest and everlasting one, and that the Infante should send his power also to conclude the peace in his name. Answered that he (the Emperor) and the King of England wished nothing more than to conclude a durable alliance with Venice. Concerning the power of the Infante, they (Adorno, Sanchez, and Pace) said that that was a new and unnecessary demand, as he (the Emperor) had promised that the Infante should ratify the treaty of alliance. It was at last decided that the Signory should nominate commissioners, and empower them to conclude the alliance. Monday next the negotiations with the Venetian commissioners will begin.
He (Hieronymo Adorno) thinks that his instructions are not detailed enough.
Beg that the Infante will secretly send his power to conclude the treaty in his name also ... (fn. 9) —Venice, the 28th of December 1522.
Addressed : " Cœsareœ Majestati."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1522. Venice. Hieronymo Adorno and Alonso Sanchez. The 28th of December. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 7.


  • 1. Prantner(?)
  • 2. With the Emperor and the King of England.
  • 3. Gattinara.
  • 4. Sic. Alfonso de Soria was secretary of the Emperor.
  • 5. This document is in so bad a state of preservation that only some paragraphs are legible.
  • 6. Paper gone.
  • 7. Ferdinand.
  • 8. Pregati, in the Venetian dialect Pregadi, and contracted into Pregai.
  • 9. Paper gone.