Spain: January 1523

Pages 519-525

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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January 1523

1523. Jan. (?)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 27. f. 16.
516. The Emperor to Prospero Colonna.
With respect to his first instruction, bearing the letter A, he thanks him very much for his zeal to serve him.
1. Has always endeavoured to preserve the friendship of the Pope, and has even empowered Hieronymo Adorno to treat with the Venetians in his name and in the name of the Pope, if the Pope permits.
2. Has already sent his power to Hieronymo Adorno to conclude an Italian defensive league, if an offensive one cannot be concluded.
3. The same answer as to 1 and 2.
4. Promises him to take as much care of Milan and the Duke as though the matter regarded him personally.
5. Hieronymo Adorno has already been instructed to reconcile the Duke of Ferrara with him.
6. He (the Emperor) and the King of England will not discontinue the war with France as long as the weather and the state of the negotiations permit. Does not think that the King of France will send an army to Italy and expose himself thereby to the manifest danger of losing all his states.
7. Has already answered this point, and promises to do what he can in order that the army may be paid.
Indorsed : "Answer to the first instructions of Prospero Colonna, sent by Juan Vicenzio Cosso."
Spanish. Draft, apparently written by the Secretary Quintana. pp. 2.
Jan. (?)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 27. f. 18.
517. The Emperor to Prospero Colonna.
To the second instruction of Prospero Colonna, bearing the letter B, and concerning the truce, the restoration of Duke Maximilian and of the Milanese exiles, the same reply is to be made as has been given to the Pope and to the Archbishop of Bari. Copies of the proposals and of the answers are to be sent to the King of England. As, according to what the major-domo of Prospero said, he (Prospero Collonna) does not think that Duke Maximilian is to be restored to his throne, there is not much to be said about that affair. To restore Duke Maximilian would be tantamount to making the King of France master of Italy.
(The answer to the other articles of the instruction follows.)
Spanish. Draft, apparently written by the Secretary Quintana. pp. 3.
1 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 27. f. 44.
518. Pope Adrian VI. to the Emperor.
Has always been informed by his servants that he (the Emperor), animated by a desire to show his respect for the Apostolic See, has been and still is ready to further the conclusion of a truce between him and King Henry VIII. of England, on the one part, and Francis, King of France, on the other part, but that he declares he cannot enter on such negotiations, as he is bound by his treaty with the King of England. The King of England has lately written to him (the Pope) and has made nearly the same declarations, adding however, that if the King of France should offer reasonable conditions, he would wish to conclude peace with France conjointly with him (the Emperor). Desiring most ardently that the war between him (the Emperor) and the King of France should not be protracted any longer, and seeing that he, as well as the King of England, is not disinclined to conclude peace with France, he is glad to inform him that Francis, King of France, some days ago sent an ample power to his ambassador, the Cardinal of Auch, empowering him to conclude, in his (the King of France's) name, peace with him (the Emperor) and the King of England.
As, however, it certainly will take some time to settle all the conditions of the peace between him (the Emperor) and the King of England, on the one part, and the King of France, on the other part, and as meanwhile the Christian Republic might be exposed to great danger from the Turks, he (the Pope) has decided to exhort him (the Emperor), the King of England, and the King of France to conclude immediately a truce of three years, and to undertake a common war against the Turks. Beseeches him not to reject the truce which is offered to him and to the King of England.
Begs him not to wait till he knows the intentions of the King of England. Has no doubt that the King of England, who is so proved a Christian, will do what he (the Emperor) asks him and follow his (the Emperor's) example.
There is no fear that the King of France will not keep the truce, for it is his (the Pope's) intention to make all the parties to this treaty swear to exterminate any party who should break his promises.
He cannot excuse himself by saying that the truce with France is dangerous to him, for the continuation of the war with his Christian brethren is much more dangerous, as it gives an opportunity to the Turks to conquer Christendom.
Expects from him that he will not only not reject the truce, but will also persuade the King of England to conclude it.
Rome apud Sanctum Petrum sub annulo Piscatoris, the 1st of January 1523. 1° Pontif.
T. Hezius.
Superscribed : "Adrianus PP. VI."
Addressed : "To our most beloved son, Charles, King of the Romans and of Spain and Emperor elect."
Latin. Original brief. One sheet of parchment.
3 and 13 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 27. f. 67.
519. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor.
The soldiers of Prospero (Colonna) entered the place by the castle (fn. 1), pillaged the town, killed fifty men, and took the commissioner prisoner. As soon as the Pope heard of it, he sent for him (Lope Hurtado). Found his Holiness in such a rage that it is impossible to describe it. The Pope said that he would at once conclude an alliance with the King of France, were it not for his old love for him (the Emperor), and that he would excommunicate Juan Manuel and Prospero Colonna.
[Written on the margin by the Chancellor Gattinara :] His Majesty will inform himself of the merits of the case and satisfy the Pope, although it is said that the place is an immediate fief of the Empire, and belonged to Christoforo Pallavicini, who was executed and quartered in Milan by the French for his faithfulness to the Pope.
Cardinal Campegio has been sent to Venice, &c., &c.
Sends a memoir of the Archbishop of Bari, containing news from Scotland.
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome 1523. Lope Hurtado. The 3rd and 13th of January. Answered."
Spanish. Contemporary deciphering. The original despatch in cipher is not extant. pp. 4.
4 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 27. f. 49.
520. Hieronymo Adorno to the Emperor.
He and the others (Alonso Sanchez and Richard Pace) began their negotiations with the Venetian commissioners, who insisted on the condition that all the places which the Republic has lost in the last war shall be restored to them. Asked them whether they would break off the negotiations if this condition were not acceded to. They have not yet given an answer to this question.
Does not think that the Venetians will bind themselves to pay him (the Emperor) a perpetual census.
The Pope has advised the Signory to conclude an alliance with him (the Emperor) and the King of England, adding, however, that the alliance should be prejudicial to no other Christian prince.—Venice, the 4th of January 1523.
Addressed : "To his Imperial Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1523. Venice. Hieronymo Adorno. The 4th of January. Answered."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
10 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Muñoz. A. 56. f. 23.
521. The Emperor to the Duke of Sessa, his Ambassador in Rome.
Has received his letters of the 16th, 17th, and 31st of October. These are the first letters of his which have come to his (the Emperor's) hands since he (the Duke of Sessa) went to Rome. Rodrigo Niño has not yet arrived.
Begs him to remain as ambassador in Rome. Good captains can be much more easily replaced than good diplomatists, who are very rare.
Is sorry to hear that the Pope is so badly disposed towards him (the Emperor). Great inconvenience, it is to be feared, will be the consequence of it. He is to beg his Holiness not to tempt God by continuing this line of conduct.
Cannot understand why the Pope will not enter the defensive alliance. To defend oneself is permitted by human and divine law. It is the duty of the Pope and of the Emperor to be always united, and to watch that no wrong be done in the Christian Republic, the Pope wielding the spiritual and the Emperor the temporal weapon. God has placed him on the Imperial throne to defend the Holy Church, but the Pope will render the execution of his duties impossible if he refuses to conclude with him even a defensive alliance. Is the good son of the Pope, his old tutor. If the Pope does not reciprocate his love, he will injure the Imperial as well as the Papal authority. Knows that the Pope is a good man, but he is sometimes accessible to the influence of "bad spirits." The Pope is mistaken if he believes that by remaining neutral he will ensure the liberty of Italy, the peace of Christendom, and the security of the Order (of Rhodes) against the attacks of the Turks. The neutrality of the Pope perpetuates the war of the Christian princes with one another, and renders it impossible for them to succour Rhodes, Hungary, and other Christian countries which are oppressed by the Turks.
Has never been prone to begin war, but has been forced to defend himself. Has, nevertheless, not omitted to succour Hungary and Rhodes, but has ordered provisions and money to be sent from Naples and Sicily to the knights, although the Pope has not given him even such aid as would have cost him nothing. The Pope knows that the conclusion of peace was much easier before he had concluded the alliance with the King of England. Had he alone to conclude peace, he would content himself with less favourable conditions, but as both he and the King of England have now to be satisfied, the conditions offered to them must be much more liberal. The King of France, moreover, made much more acceptable overtures whilst he suspected that the Pope would enter into an alliance with him (the Emperor) and the King of England, than he does now that he believes the Pope will not be their ally or assist them in their Italian policy. The King of France has become haughty, and proposes things which he (the Emperor) cannot accept without dishonouring himself. The King of France even contemplates a new invasion of Italy. If the Pope would conclude the alliance, and inform the King of France that he would aid him (the Emperor), who is the highest authority in Christendom ordained by God, he would thereby prevent much effusion of blood. The Pope may tell the King of France, if he likes, that he (the Emperor) and the King of England are not disinclined to accept honourable conditions of a truce or peace, and would leave the arrangement of it in the hands of the Pope. That would be a much better way to ensure a general peace of Christendom and a common war with the Infidels than the policy observed by the Pope. The King of France, if he saw that the Pope, he (the Emperor), the King of England, and their other allies were closely united in real friendship, would not dare to reject the conditions of a truce or a peace which his Holiness would propose to him.
He is to tell all this to the Pope, and to add whatever he thinks convenient. Is persuaded that the Pope would lose not only Parma and Piacenza, but probably also Bologna and other places, if the King of France were successful in Italy.
The Duke of Ferrara. Enkenvöert. Speaks more fully of the favours which he has granted to the servants of the Pope in his other despatch. If they are not satisfied with them, he (the Duke of Sessa) is to speak separately with every one of them, and to promise them in his own (the Duke of Sessa's) name that he (the Emperor) will do more for them when he comes to Rome. He is also to remind them that the Pope will probably not live long, and that they might be punished after his death, if they were to render him (the Emperor) bad services.
The list of the comuneros in Spain, who are excepted from the pardon. The Bishop of Zamora, &c.
The abbacy of Roncesvalles. Marquis of Pescara. Quarta. Cruzada.
The Pope is mistaken if he thinks that he (the Emperor) does not occupy himself with affairs of state, but leaves them entirely to the decision of his ministers. If he really did not occupy himself with political business, and if his ministers really bore such illwill towards the Pope as he supposes, his Holiness would long ago have been reduced to the position of a simple "curate of St. Peter."
Has already informed him that he intended to send ambassadors to Switzerland. The ambassadors have gone to that country, provided with 50,000 florins and bills for more money, if it is wanted. If the King of England and the Pope will do the same as he has done, it is to be hoped that the Swiss will forsake the alliance with the King of France. He is to speak energetically with the Pope.
Approves that he has not yet given his obedience to the Pope, &c. Parma and Piacenza. Venice. Modena. Is dissatisfied with the frequent audiences the Pope gives to the French ambassador.
Has empowered Prospero Colonna to make war with Venice if the Signory refuse to conclude the alliance (with him and the King of England).
Archbishopric of Toledo. Cardinal de Medicis. Juan Manuel.
Sends him a copy of the answer which the King of England has given to the Pope with respect to the proposals for a peace or a truce. It is in substance identical with what he (the Emperor) has written to the Pope. If the King of France wishes to conclude a peace or a truce with him and the King of England, he must propose conditions which are calculated to satisfy the King of England as well as him (the Emperor). Knows perfectly well that the King of France will not make such proposals if the Pope does not declare himself in their (the Emperor's and the King of England's) favour. He is to communicate this to Lope Hurtado, who sees the Pope daily, and ask him to do what he can to persuade the Pope to declare himself against the King of France.—Valladolid, the 10th of January 1523.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 28.
[The passages in italics were to be put in cipher, whilst the remainder of the despatch was to be sent in common writing.]
10 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Muñoz. 56. f. 10.
522. The Emperor to the Duke Of Sessa, his Ambassador in Rome.
This document is the first rough draft of the preceding despatch, written in the handwriting of the Chancellor Gattinara.
14 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 27. f. 74.
523. Ennius, Bishop Of Veruli, to the Emperor.
His (the Emperor's) ambassador has communicated to him the treaty of alliance between him (the Emperor) and the King of England. Hopes, at all events, to divide the Swiss in such a manner that the French, who pay badly, shall not be able to obtain any substantial aid from them.—Rome, the 14th of January 1523.
Addressed : "To his most Sacred and Imperial Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1523. Rome. From Veruli, the 14th of January. Answered."
Latin. Holograph. pp. 2.


  • 1. St. Giovanni.