Spain: December 1524

Pages 683-687

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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December 1524

1 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 33. ff. 7-13.
700. Lope De Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
Sent a courier on the 11th of November.
The King of France has asked the Pope's permission to march an army through the states of the Church to Naples. The Duke of Albany is to be commander-in-chief, Renzo da Ceri captain of the infantry, and Giovanni de Medicis commander of the light cavalry.
It is thought at Genoa that the Pope will permit the French troops to march through the states of the Church. Does not believe it, unless the Pope has a particular reason for giving such a permission. Must here observe that it is said that negotiations respecting a marriage between the second son of the King of France and the daughter of the Duke Lorenzo de Medicis are in a very advanced state, and that a treaty has been concluded, according to which Naples and Milan are to be given to the young couple. The government of these states is to be intrusted to the Pope. It is true that Alberto di Carpi invents many false rumours, but, on the other hand, it seems that all Popes, as soon as they are elected, regard Naples as their property, and only think how they can turn all foreigners out of it. Would not be astonished if it were true that "the Devil" had raised such thoughts in the breast of Pope Clement, and that he wished first to drive away the Spaniards from Italy and afterwards the French.
News concerning Naples, Milan, the army, &c.—Genoa, the 1st of December 1524.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1524. From Genoa. Lope de Soria. The 1st of December."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 9.
7 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 33. ff. 49-52.
701. Lope De Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
The Pope has refused the King of France permission to send an army through the Papal states to Naples.
Genoa has concluded a truce with France ; but that has only been done to prevent the French from conquering Genoa and restoring the Fregosi.
News of the movements of the army, &c.—Genoa, the 7th of December 1524.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 4.
12 Dec.
S. E. L. 2016. Lib. d. Berz. Vol. xxvi. f. 27.
702. Treaty between Pope Clement VII., Venice, and the King Of France.
1. Peace and friendship are henceforth to prevail between the contracting parties. The old treaty of alliance concluded by the King of France with the Doge Leonardo Loredano is revived.
2. The Venetians are not bound to succour the King of France in his enterprise to conquer the duchy of Milan. They bind themselves only not to help the enemies of the King of France (the Emperor and the King of England).
3. The Pope is security for the strict fulfilment of this treaty.
Superscribed : "Summary of the alliance concluded by Pope Clement VII. and the Venetians on the one side, and Francis, King of France, on the other side, on the 12th of December 1524."
Latin. Copy made in the Papal Archives in Rome, at the command of King Philip II. of Spain. pp. 2.
19 Dec.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Muñoz. 56. f. 239.
703. The Emperor to the Duke Of Sessa and Johan Bartholomeo De Gattinara, his Ambassadors in Rome.
Approves of what he (the Duke of Sessa) has said to the Pope.
It is his firm intention to continue his efforts and not to slacken them until Italy is free and tranquil, and until the great enterprise against the Turks can be carried out. In addition to the 50,000 ducats which Captain Loquinguen is bringing, he promises to procure 200,000 ducats besides, as they are necessary for the maintenance of the army. The Duke of Sessa and Gattinara are to do all they can to persuade his Italian friends and allies to contribute such a portion of the 200,000 ducats as, according to the treaty, they are obliged to pay.
Has sent one of his servants to the King of England, informing him of the state of things, and telling him that he has now an excellent opportunity of invading France, because the French army has marched far away into Lombardy. Has begged the King of England either to take the field in person, or at any rate soon to send his army to the Continent. The English troops, united with his (the Emperor's) horse, which are in Flanders, will find little resistance if they invade France Has solemnly promised the King of England considerably to increase his army in Roussillon, and to attack France on that frontier, so that the French, invaded on all sides, will find it impossible to defend themselves against any of their enemies. Is firmly persuaded that the King of England will not permit so great an opportunity to pass without making use of it. Has no doubt that the rumours about the English are false, and are propagated by their enemies in order to render them suspected by their friends. The honour of the King of England would be sullied if the rumours were true, and, besides, he would be acting against his own interests.
They (the Duke of Sessa and Gattinara) are to tell all this to the Pope, and to assure him that he (the Emperor) will do all he can, will even stake his states and his life, in order to free Italy from the French. Beseeches the Pope to remain a faithful member of the league.
Cannot as yet believe that the Pope really intends to remain neutral. The war was begun principally with the intention of defending the Pope against the tyranny of France at a time when he (the Pope) his family, and Florence were in a much less dangerous position than they are at present. They (the Duke of Sessa and Gattinara) must ask the Pope not only to renew the league of the Apostolic See (with the Emperor and the King of England), but also to persuade the other princes of Italy to do the same.
Accepts thankfully his (the Duke of Sessa's) offer to make personal sacrifices on his behalf.
Naples. Ursino, &c. Hungary. Cardinal Salviati. Ferrara.
[What follows is written in the hand of the Chancellor Mercurino de Gattinara :]
Whilst this despatch was being written the Archbishop of Capua arrived, and made certain proposals of a general peace or truce in the name of the Pope. Sends a copy of the proposals and of the answer of the Emperor to them. The Archbishop left on the 7th for France. From France he will go to England, and hear what the English intend to do. If he finds them disposed to conclude a peace, he will ask the belligerents to send commissioners to Rome with instructions and powers to conclude a truce. According to the news lately received from England, the English are much more inclined to make a truce now than they were before the loss of Milan. It is even said that they have already sent their power to conclude a truce, which is to last until May 1526. The Duke of Sessa and Gattinara are to take part in the negotiations of the truce, acting according to their instructions and the counsel the Viceroy (of Naples) will give them. If the Viceroy thinks that a truce is necessary to prevent further losses, they are to conclude it without waiting for further instructions from him (the Emperor). Wishes that the truce should be concluded for three years. If that cannot be obtained, they are to conclude the truce for the time which the English ambassador proposes, viz., until May 1526.
They must be careful not to exceed their instructions, and especially the instructions sent to Monsieur de la Roche, which arrived after his death. Encloses a transcript of them.
Siena. Ferrara, &c. Church preferment. Cardinal Colonna. —Madrid, the 19th of December 1524.
Superscribed : "The King. To the Duke, &c., and Doctor Micer Johan Bartholomeo de Gattinara, our ambassadors."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.
21 Dec.
P. A. d. l'Emp. N. K. 1639.
704. Charles De Lanoy, Viceroy Of Naples, to the Knight Commander Ruy Diaz De Peñalosa.
Has written to the Duke of Sessa to tell him his opinion as to the manner in which the negotiations of peace are to be carried on. He is to tell him by word of mouth that he (the Viceroy) still hopes to bring the enterprise against France to a satisfactory conclusion. As, however, the want of money is almost insupportable, it might happen that the army will be disbanded, in which case not only the whole enterprise would be a failure, but all the states of the Emperor in Italy would be lost. If that were to take place, the enemy would no longer offer honourable conditions, whilst the Emperor would be obliged to accept what is offered to him. He is, therefore, to tell the Duke that he must not lose an hour, but ask the Pope immediately to conclude a truce on one of the three conditions mentioned in his letter. The Duke must first make the first proposal. If that is rejected, he must make the second proposal, and offer the conditions contained in the third proposal only when the first and second proposals shall have been rejected. Should the Duke, however, think that the second or the third proposal would be accepted, so that the truce could be immediately concluded, he is not bound to the order observed in the letter.
Begs the Duke to write immediately to him, as he must make his arrangements according to what will be settled in Rome.—Cremona, the 21st of December 1524.
Superscribed : "What the Knight Commander Ruy Diaz de Peñalosa is to do in the service of the Emperor."
Written on the back : "Apud me est originalis."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. p. 1.
22 Dec.
P. A. d. l'Emp. N. K. 1639.
705. Charles De Lanoy, Viceroy Of Naples, to the Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome.
Received, by the Abbot of Najera, his letters of the 10th and 12th of the present month. Thanks him for his information on the state of affairs and for his advice.
The Emperor has none of the means which are indispensable for carrying on war, and in particular he has no money. It is impossible to get any more from Naples. To sell crown lands is impracticable, because there are no buyers. England and the Italian princes refuse to make any contribution towards the expenses of the war. The Pope is either an ally of the French, or, at least, an adversary of the Imperial party. The Italians will not only not help themselves, but will not be helped by others. As the Emperor began the war in the interests of the liberty of Italy, and as he has carried on the war so long, he (the Viceroy) is of opinion that the Emperor has done enough for his honour, and ought to conclude peace.
Advises him to make one of the following overtures :—
1. He is to beg the Pope to give him (the Viceroy) the time necessary to consult the Emperor about the proposal his Holiness has made to him through the Datary and through Paolo Victor, viz., to deliver the duchy of Milan into the hands of the Pope, who is to hold it until it is settled to whom the duchy belongs. For that time, however, abstinence of hostilities must be concluded.
2. He is to propose to conclude a truce on the conditions which are contained in the power of the King of England, that is to say, that each prince shall remain in possession of what he holds at present. In order to avoid unnecessary expenses, it must be stipulated how many troops each of the contracting princes is allowed to keep under arms. The Emperor must be released from the obligation of paying during the truce the French pensions to the King of England.
3. If the first and the second proposals are rejected, he advises him to propose that the whole duchy of Milan shall be delivered into the hands of the Pope, who is temporarily to hold it, on condition, however, that each prince be at liberty to take away the property which he brought into the duchy. A truce must be immediately concluded, and the ambassadors must assemble in conference in order to conclude peace. The Pope must give security that he will not deliver the duchy to the King of France without the consent of the Emperor. The Pope has asked the Infante to help him to conclude peace. He is to tell the Pope that the Emperor has written a similar letter to the Infante.
Being on the spot, he will be the best judge as to how far it will be necessary to alter these proposals.
Peñalosa will inform him of the reasons which have induced him to cross the river Po.
During the truce the expenses of the Duke of Milan must be paid out of the revenues of the duchy, and 50,000 ducats a year must also be paid to the Duke of Bourbon, as it would be unjust that the Emperor alone should pay all the expenses of the Duke.
Part of the revenues of Milan must also be employed to pay the German troops in Pavia, who would refuse to deliver the place if they were not paid.
He must not lose any time. Time is a more dangerous enemy than the French.—Cremona, the 22nd of December 1524.
Ungrammatical Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 3.