Spain: January 1525

Pages 687-697

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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January 1525

1525. Jan.
P. A. G. d. l'E. S. H. K. K. 351. f. 51.
706. Pension for the Ambassador Of Scotland in France.
Paid to Master John Cathulle, Archdeacon of St. Andrews and ambassador of the King of Scotland in France, the sum of 200 dollars in aid of his expenses during his journey.
Receipts and payments of the Receiver-General from the 1st of January 1524 until the last day of December 1525.
French. Original. p. ¼.
5 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 34. f. 5.
707. Pope Clement VII. to the Emperor.
Has always loved him. Since his elevation to the Papal throne his love towards him has not diminished, but his hatred towards others has disappeared. Being the common father of all Christians he loves them all alike. All his efforts to make peace have remained without effect. Had the princes of Christendom followed his counsel, everything would be in a far better state than it is now.
The King of France has sent to ask his permission to march through the states of the Church to Naples, not, as he says, with the intention of conquering that kingdom, but of forcing him (the Emperor) to give up the duchy of Milan. Has admonished the King of France to desist from his plan, but the King, knowing the utterly defenceless condition of the Papal dominions, has ordered the Duke of Albany to march through the states of the Church to Naples. Resistance being impossible, he thought it necessary to provide for his own safety and for that of the Church. Whilst he was doing so, news arrived that he (the Emperor) was not disinclined to make peace. Thanks God for that resolution, and hopes the peace which he is about to conclude with France will soon be universal, and that a general peace of Christendom will be concluded.
At all events, assures him that he loves him still as much as before.—Rome, apud Sanctum Petrum, the 5th of January 1525. Pontif. 2°.
T. Sadoletus.
Addressed : "To our most beloved son Charles, Emperor elect and King of Spain."
Indorsed : "1525. The 5th of January. Why he has made peace with the King of France, although the King of France has sent the Duke of Albany to try whether he cannot conquer Naples."
Latin. Original brief. p. 1. On a large sheet of parchment.
7 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 34. ff. 6-14.
708. The Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
The letter which goes by this courier was written four days ago, but he is so badly provided with couriers that he cannot send him a letter when it is required, but is obliged to wait for an opportunity of forwarding it.
Last night but one a letter from the Archbishop of Capua arrived, dated Lyons, the 24th of December. The Archbishop writes that he brings a favourable answer from him (the Emperor), and one quite in harmony with what the Bishop of Carpentras, who is secretary of the Pope, had written to him. The Archbishop was staying with the mother of the King of France at Lyons, and it was still doubtful whether he would be permitted to go to England. In two days, he says, he will know. The Archbishop promised to send another more detailed letter in a few days. The Pope says this second letter from the Archbishop has not as yet arrived. Suspects, however, that it has arrived, but that the Pope conceals it ; for a courier came from France, and then suddenly disappeared.
Told him in his last letter that he suspected the Pope had gone over to the French party. His Holiness himself has told him now that the clauses of a treaty with the King of France are drawn up. Is convinced that the treaty is already signed, although the Pope denies it. As Count Carpi is negotiating with the Datary, it is easy to imagine that the contents of the treaty are extremely disadvantageous to him (the Emperor). Although almost in despair, he (the Duke of Sessa) does not dare to do anything before he receives new instructions from him (the Emperor).
No news from the Viceroy of Naples. Sends him a list of the troops which are under the command of the Duke of Albany. The Sienese have elected Count Petigliano captain-general of their army. The son of the Count is serving in the French army.
The last letters from England are dated the 10th of December. They arrived last night. Monsieur de Beaurain had already left England when the letters were written. He has probably by this time arrived at the Imperial court. The English flatter the Pope, and say they do not intend to assist the Emperor in any way in his enterprise (against the French).
Ascanio Colonna has been in Rome. Ascanio Colonna, Cardinal Colonna, Vespasiano Colonna, Prospero de Cabi, and Roberto Ursino have written to the Viceroy, and asked him to send them money, promising to enlist as many troops as are necessary, that is to say, if the sum of money suffices for it. Can also do such miracles. Does not know whether it is the influence of the Italian climate, but it is a fact that nothing can be had in Italy without paying money.
The cardinals ask the payment of the pension of 10,000 ducats out of the revenues of Toledo, which were formerly paid to the Pope.—Rome, the 2nd of February 1525.
Post datum.—The Pope has told him that he had received a second letter from the Archbishop of Capua, and has communicated some portions of it to him by word of mouth. The Archbishop writes that he (the Emperor) has declared himself ready, if the King of England will give his consent, to bestow the investiture of Milan on the second son of the King of France, on condition that he marries the daughter of the King of Portugal. But as he could not enter into any further negotiations on this subject without the permission of the King of England, he intended to send an ambassador extraordinary to England. Considering that the late Monsieur de la Roche was not trusted when he was in England because he had taken his way through France, the Archbishop writes that he (the Emperor) has decided to send the ambassador by sea to England. The Pope added that he was informed by the Archbishop of Capua that some preparations were making in Spain to succour the army in Italy, but that all was done very slowly. That is what the Pope communicated to him. How much he concealed from him he cannot say, although he knows that immediately after the arrival of the letter the negotiations with Alberto di Carpi were carried on more briskly than ever.
Said to the Pope that it was unjust to take from him (the Emperor) the duchy of Milan, as he had already accepted the conditions proposed by the Pope. His Holiness made the usual excuses, observing that if he were to do what the French asked of him, the King of France would give him (the Pope) Naples and many other states. Grew so angry when the Pope spoke of Naples, and used such strong language, that he is astonished the Pope did not give orders that some harm should be done to him. (fn. 1)
"On the eve of the Feast of the Adoration of the Kings, the Pope signed the treaty with the King of France, thus making sport of more than one king." Has informed the Viceroy of Naples and other persons that the Pope has concluded peace with France.
The Archbishop of Capua is returning to Rome. He is ordered to see the King of France and the Viceroy on his way. The Prothonotary Casale is going to England, instead of the Archbishop of Capua. The Datary, Johan Matheo, is in the confidence of the Pope, and the Archbishop of Capua will have no influence in Rome.
Renzo da Ceri. Ursino. Naples.—Rome, the 7th of January 1525.
Indorsed : "To the King. 1525. Rome. From the Duke of Sessa, the 7th of January. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 8.
7 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 34. f. 16.
709. The Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
The Viceroy asked him to go to Venice, and to see whether he could not persuade the Signory to do anything in his (the Emperor's) favour. Ill as he was, he went to Venice, but all his efforts remained without result.
For a month past no letters have been received from him (the Emperor).
Beseeches him not to have any confidence in his Italian allies. They will declare themselves against him, or, at the most, will remain neutral. Nor is it possible, under the present circumstances, to conclude peace. His only hope must be in his army. The French are not so powerful as they are believed to be. They do not possess any strong places in Italy, and are unpopular with the people at large. The expedition to Naples weakened the French army. On the other hand, since the lansquenets and the Burgundian and German cavalry have arrived, the Imperial army is very strong. Without taking the garrison of Pavia into account, his army numbers 20,000 German and Spanish foot.
The Pope does nothing for him. Advises him not to rely on any of his allies. Hopes all will end well, and that God will give him the victory.—Venice, the 7th of January 1525.
Addressed : "To his sa [paper gone] Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1525. From Venice. Caracciolo. The 7th of January. Answered."
Italian. Autograph. pp. 4.
10 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Muñoz. 56. f. 247.
710. The Emperor to the Duke Of Sessa and to the Doctor Johan Bartholomeo Gattinara, his Ambassadors in Rome.
Wrote to them last on the 19th of December. Has not received any letter from them since.
Is reinforcing his navy and his army. Although it is difficult for him to procure the necessary money in a time of war and pestilence, he will procure it. Sends 100,000 ducats by this courier, and shall soon send an additional 100,000. The armaments in the seaports are pushed on as fast as possible.
Is quite determined to carry on the war until he conquers the enemy, or loses his states and his life.
They are to tell this to the Pope and the Italian princes, exhorting them to fulfil their duties.
They are to inform the Duke of Milan, the Duke of Bourbon, the Abbot of Najera, the Prothonotary Caracciolo, the English ambassador, and any other person they may think convenient, of his determination.—Madrid, the 10th of January 1525.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
19 January.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. 1. Hist. d. Esp.
711. The Abbot Of Najera to the Emperor.
Informed him, in his letter of the 23rd of last month, that the Viceroy and others of his captains had crossed and recrossed the river Po.
On the 26th of last month a man-at-arms of Alarcon arrived, having been sent by Antonio de Leyva from Pavia. He had passed through the hostile army in the disguise of a peasant, and he brought a letter dated the 16th of last month. The news is that Antonio de Leyva has succeeded in collecting clothes and money from the citizens, and even from the soldiers themselves, and from the churches, to the amount of 30,000 ducats, wherewith he has paid his troops up to the 10th inst. He wants, however, 6,000 ducats more in order to pay the Germans, who refuse to continue their services if they are not paid. Provisions begin to be scarce, and the soldiers dispute amongst themselves whether horse flesh or the meat of the beasts of burden which they brought from Provence is the better food. Antonio de Leyva, Count Sorno, Count Baptista Lodron, Garcia Manrique, and many other captains and soldiers distinguish themselves highly by their prudence and valour. The Germans who are in the camp of the King of France are proud of their countrymen in the besieged city performing such brilliant feats of arms. The Viceroy sent 3,000 ducats to Antonio de Leyva on the 10th of the present month.
The Viceroy, the Marquis of Pescara, the Marquis del Gasto, and Alarcon marched on the 5th instant to Cassano, and conquered it. They left there a garrison of 400 Spanish troops, and returned the next day to Lodi.
The peace between the Pope and the King of France was published in Rome on the 4th inst. When the Milanese heard that peace was concluded they rang the bells, pretending that Venice, Florence, the Marquis of Mantua, and even Genoa are parties to the treaty of peace. Should it in future become more evident that the King of France has gained the victory, then the Pope may perhaps publish an admonition, exhorting both parties to lay down their arms, reserving to himself the liberty, as head of the league, to aid either him (the Emperor) or the King of France, according to which he thinks will be most advantageous for himself. The conduct of the Pope is influenced by fear of his (the Emperor's) greatness.
Of the Duke of Ferrara there is nothing to be said, except that he is a Frenchman at heart, as he always has been.
The Duke of Savoy has declared himself a partisan of France. So much the better ; he has been one all his life long.
The Venetians have hitherto fulfilled their promises, but they have declared of late to the Prothonotary Caracciolo and to Alonso Sanchez that they do not like to put their own states and the states of the Duke of Milan in jeopardy. They are afraid of the power of the French, since the King of France has made peace with the Pope, and the King of England has given up all thought of invading France. The Venetians apprehend also that the Viceroy may perhaps abandon them, and go to Naples in order to defend that kingdom against the Duke of Albany. The Viceroy has sent a very prudent and friendly letter to the Signory. The Venetians will, however, succour him only if he no longer wants their aid.
On the 11th inst. the Duke of Bourbon arrived with Count Salm and his son, and Marco Citi with 200 horse and the infantry which the Infante has sent. On the 14th inst. George Frunsberg was at Pandino, seven miles from Lodi. He is at the head of more than 5,000 Germans. They are very good soldiers. The troops of Frunsberg and those which the Infante has sent are resolved rather to die than to return without having relieved Pavia.
More than 100,000 ducats are, however, absolutely necessary to pay the army. The 80,000 ducats which were expected from Naples have not arrived, as the Neapolitans wanted the money to defend themselves against the Duke of Albany. They have even asked the Viceroy to come to Naples. The Viceroy has pawned all his plate for 8,000 ducats, and has paid one instalment to the light horse. All the other troops, however, have not received any pay for a long time. In Cremona seven troops of men-at-arms, who have not been paid for the last sixteen months, are in open revolt, &c. Captain Bracamonte arrived on the 7th inst., but did not bring a single maravedi. Nothing less than the loss of the army and of the duchy of Milan, of his (the Emperor's) honour and the honour of his gallant captains and army, will be the unavoidable consequence if money is not procured. The Duke of Bourbon, the Viceroy, the Marquis of Pescara, the other captains and he (the Abbot) conferred together during four days. As they could not discover any means of procuring money, they returned in despair to their several corps.
Went to see the Marquis of Pescara, whose great genius and unimpeachable honour give him immense influence over the whole army. The Marquis decided to try to persuade the army to continue their services without pay until the 10th of February, in order to go and relieve Pavia. It was arranged that the Marquis should speak first to the Spaniards, then to the Italians, and when the Spaniards and Italians had given their consent, to the Germans. The other troops were to tell the Germans that they would vow everlasting enmity to them (fn. 2) if they should refuse to march to raise the siege of Pavia on the plea that they had not been paid. The Duke of Bourbon and the Viceroy approved this plan. The Marquis spoke on the 15th inst. with the Spaniards, who applauded his harangue, and said they were ready to do what he asked, promising to sell their horses, cloaks, and even their shirts in order to obtain money wherewith to buy victuals, or to give it to those who had none or refused to march (to Pavia) without being paid. Afterwards the Marquis spoke to the Italians, who gave the same answer as the Spaniards. Next day the Marquis spoke to the 7,000 Germans who were in the camp. They declared themselves satisfied with one scudo to be paid immediately to every one of them, and half a scudo to be paid on the 26th inst. If that were done, they said, they would continue their services until the 10th of February. The Marquis went afterwards to the corps which Frunsberg had lately led into Italy. They declared themselves contented with the half pay they had lately received.
Alarcon spoke with the men-at-arms, who all of them promised to go, either on foot or on horseback, to Pavia, and to take part in the war, but they added that it was impossible for them to serve as men-at-arms without receiving their pay. It is hoped that Alarcon, or if necessary the Marquis of Pescara, will succeed in persuading them to continue their services as men-at-arms until the 10th of February, if they receive one month's pay.
Thus it is due to the exertions of the Marquis of Pescara that with 30,000 ducats, which the Viceroy and the Duke of Milan are occupied in procuring, the services of the whole army have been secured until the 10th of February. The captains and he (the Abbot) intend to march on the 20th inst. direct against the King of France, who is filled with fear, and does not know in his perplexity whether he shall defend Milan or order the garrison of that city to join his army. All the soldiers of the Imperial army are animated by the greatest desire to fight, and it seems as though every one of them is sure that it will be he who is to wound and to take prisoner the King of France. (fn. 3) All, from the highest officer to the lowest soldier, are sure of victory. The King of France will be obliged either to fight with them or to retire to the other side of the Ticino, where he will be lost. He cannot retreat to Milan, as he would not find provisions there.
The army which is to march against the King of France consists of 13,000 Germans, 6,000 Spaniards, 3,000 Italians, 800 men-at-arms, and more than 1,500 light horse. The King of France has 1,200 men-at-arms, and his light cavalry is more numerous than theirs. The infantry amounts to from 24,000 to 26,000 men. But the King of France has not 10,000 men who are such good troops as those of the Imperial army. Besides, the 3,000 Germans who are in Milan are going home, as they are not paid. They intend to conquer on their way the castle of Chiavenna, which the Count Gerard del Arco, Castellan of Mus, has lately taken. The Milanese dislike the French.
The Duke of Albany, with 4,000 foot, has been in Lucca, and has obtained 12,000 scudos from that city. The Sienese have given him 12,000 ducats besides, and it is said the Florentines will lend him a large sum of money. The Ursinos and Renzo da Ceri are very active in preparing for the invasion of Naples. The Council of that kingdom has asked the Viceroy to come to Naples, but it is necessary that he should remain with the army. The King of France has recalled the Duke of Albany. Hopes the Duke will arrive too late to take part in the battle.
A skirmish with the troops of Giovanni de Medicis.
On the 6th, Lorenzo Salviati came to tell the Viceroy that his (Salviati's) brother intended to go to the King of France as legate, and to make proposals of peace or a truce. The Viceroy declared himself content, but on the condition that each party was to hold what he at present occupies. The King of France, however, asked the whole of Lombardy.
The Archbishop of Capua has remained in Lyons, and is waiting for the decision of the Pope whether he is to go first to England, or immediately to return to Rome. The Pope seems to have ordered him to return to Rome, as he (the Pope) has already sent the Prothonotary Casale to England. The Prothonotary is a brother of Gregory Casale, who is in the service of the King of England. The Archbishop is shortly expected in Rome.
The King of France is in great want of funds. Begs him (the Emperor) to send money to his army. It will not be difficult after the victory to obtain more money.
Hieronymo Severino goes to Siena to see whether he can there obtain money.
The investiture of the Duke of Milan has been sent to Rome and to Venice.
The Marquis of Pescara sends him (the Emperor) a copy of the letter of the King of France, in which the Marquis was offered 20,000 scudos if he would come and fight a battle with him (the King of France) within eight days. Encloses also the answer of the Marquis of Pescara.
Has received news that the money which the Viceroy had sent to Pavia had arrived there.
The King of France has sent, through the Legate, an offer of peace. The King of France declares himself ready to give Milan to his (the King of France's) second son if the Emperor will give him the investiture of that duchy. He would, says the King of France, do with respect to the Duke of Milan what he (the Emperor) should desire. Concerning the King of England, the King of France would see what could be done. Concerning the Duke of Bourbon, however, the King of France declared that he could not make any proposal. Thinks the King, who is every day more afraid, wishes to gain time.—Lodi, the 19th of January 1525.
Post datum.—Letters from Pavia have arrived. Antonio de Leyva and the whole garrison are full of courage, as they hope soon to be relieved. Don Antonio thinks the King of France will not wait for the arrival of the Imperial army. Is persuaded that the contrary will be the case, as God has resolved to confound the King of France.
The Count Agramont (fn. 4) has arrived, and will probably have the light horse.
The Venetians have forbidden that provisions shall be sent from their states to the Imperial army.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 15
26 Jan.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. f. a. 1. Hist. d. Esp.
712. Lope De Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
Received his letter of the 18th of last month on the 18th inst. Has forwarded his letters which were directed to the Viceroy, the Prothonotary Caracciolo, the Abbot of Najera, and Alonso Sanchez.
Delivered his letters to the Doge and the citizens of Genoa. They thank him very much for his promise to restore peace and liberty to Italy, and regret that the bad state of their finances does not permit them to show their gratitude by deeds.
The Doge thanks him for his care in sending 6,000 Spaniards to defend the seaports.
The Genoese have heard with great joy that he has asked the King of England to invade France, and that the Imperial horse which are in Flanders will join the English army. It is clear, they say, that France cannot offer any serious resistance in the north of the kingdom. The King of France, if he wishes to avoid the danger of losing his kingdom, will, therefore, be forced to give up his plans on Italy. The King of England can never find a better opportunity to make war with France than this. They beg him to enlighten the King of England about his real interest.
The Genoese think that he (the Emperor) ought to attack France on the frontiers of Roussillon.
Believes it would be of great advantage to arm a fleet in Barcelona.
Genoa is in danger of being conquered, being in a bad state of defence.
The Doge of Genoa says he cannot ask the city to send vessels to embark the 6,000 Spanish troops, since the citizens complain already of the great expenses to which they are subjected.
Alonso Sanchez. Florence.
The Duke of Albany is before Siena. The Viceroy writes that the King of France has ordered the Duke of Albany to return with his troops to his camp. Hopes the Duke will be too late for the battle.
The King of France sent a servant of his to the Marquis of Pescara, proposing a battle with equal forces on each side. The Marquis accepted the offer, answering the King of France that he would come with 20,000 foot, 800 men-at-arms, and the necessary light horse. The French captains, however, intercepted the answer of the Marquis, saying, that as the King is very courageous and might accept such an offer, it is their duty to prevent him from exposing himself to danger.
The French are fortifying themselves before Pavia. A spy says that the French are in arms day and night, in expectation of the Imperial army. They suffer from pestilence and other kinds of sickness.
The Viceroy wrote on the 18th that the army would be on its march in a few days.—Genoa, the 26th of January 1525.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 8.


  • 1. "Que me admiro de no averme mandado maltratar."
  • 2. "So pena de perpetua inimicicia."
  • 3. "Toda la gente deste exercito es tan determinada y deseosa de yr combatir al Rey como si fuesse cada uno cierto que ha de ser el que le ha de herir y tomar en prision."
  • 4. Sic.