Spain: November 1526, 16-25

Pages 1002-1018

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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November 1526, 16-25

16 Nov. 609. The Emperor to the Abbot of Najera.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d' Esp.
The King, &c. His letters of the 27th June, 28th July, 27th of August, 10th of Sept. and 3rd Oct. have come to hand.
1526. The Viceroy of Naples sailed from Cartagena on the 24th of October last, and as the wind has been prosperous ever since, it is to be hoped that he is already at Genoa, whither he was directed to go. He takes with him 10,000 men, Germans and Spaniards, and several gentlemen of our household. As We have likewise provided our brother, the Archduke, with money, that he may send reinforcements to Lombardy, and We are now remitting bills of exchange for the support of our Italian army, it is to be hoped that with such assistance everything will be settled to our advantage though God Almighty is witness that We would much rather employ our resources and means to lessen the power of the Turk, and prevent the dangers and calamities which threaten Christianity.
The agreement (concierto) with the Duke of Ferrara is concluded. We have caused a letter to be written in our name to the Duke of Bourbon, to which We hope he will offer no objection (se conformará), and that when the time comes for the ratification of that made between the Pope and Don Ugo, he will not raise any difficulties.—Granada, 16th November 1526.
Addressed: "To the Abbot of Najera, &c."
Indorsed: "The King. 1526. Granada. Abbot of Najera, 16th Nov. By duplicate."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 1½.
The Viceroy of Naples sailed from Cartagena on the 24th of October last, and as the wind has been prosperous ever since, it is to be hoped that he is already at Genoa, whither he was directed to go. He takes with him 10,000 men, Germans and Spaniards, and several gentlemen of our household. As We have likewise provided our brother, the Archduke, with money, that he may send reinforcements to Lombardy, and We are now remitting bills of exchange for the support of our Italian army, it is to be hoped that with such assistance everything will be settled to our advantage though God Almighty is witness that We would much rather employ our resources and means to lessen the power of the Turk, and prevent the dangers and calamities which threaten Christianity.
The agreement (concierto) with the Duke of Ferrara is concluded. We have caused a letter to be written in our name to the Duke of Bourbon, to which We hope he will offer no objection (se conformará), and that when the time comes for the ratification of that made between the Pope and Don Ugo, he will not raise any difficulties.—Granada, 16th November 1526.
Addressed: "To the Abbot of Najera, &c."
Indorsed: "The King. 1526. Granada. Abbot of Najera, 16th Nov. By duplicate."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 1½.
16 Nov. 610. The Emperor to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 114.
The King, Abbot of Najera, &c. Your letter of the 8th of May has come to hand. Respecting our Italian army, sufficient provision has been made, as you will see by the letter written to our generals, and by the instructions given to Don Ugo, who has already left the court of France. The bills of exchange now remitted, you will take care to have presented and accepted.
With regard to the rumours which you say are current in Italy, that King Francis will not fulfil his promises, the truth is that the said King is willing to observe the treaty in all its parts, except in that which concerns the restitution of Burgundy, which he says is very difficult, owing to the resistance of the inhabitants to a change of master. In compensation he offers a large sum of money, viz., 2,000,000 of ducats. We have not as yet accepted his offers; on the contrary, we have insisted, and still insist, upon his returning and again constituting himself a prisoner in our hands.—[Granada, 16th Nov. 1526.]
Since the above was written your two despatches dated the 18th and 24th of May have been received. No answer is needed to their contents. (fn. n1)
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 1½.
16 Nov. 611. The Emperor to Secretary Perez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 116.
The King, &c. Your despatches of the 31st of July, 17th, 26th, and 31st of August, 8th, 24th, and 30th of September have duly come to hand.
1526. Cardinals Cesarino, Campejo (Campeggio), Valle, Tortosa and Sienna have been written to in acknowledgment of their good intentions and wishes.
We are much affected by the news of the Duke's [of Sessa] death. Certainly we have lost in him a good servant.
You will thank the Portuguese ambassador (D. Martin de Portugal) in our name for his good offices, and for offering to forward your correspondence.
Great was our displeasure at hearing of the attempt (lo que se intentó) made by the undisciplined bands under Don Ugo [de Moncada]; for although it is quite evident that the disastrous doings at Rome were unpremeditated, and against the will of Don Ugo and of the Colonnese, yet we would have given anything that so flagrant an outrage had not been perpetrated by troops under the command of one of our captains. Would to God that the Pope and those of his cardinals who are the principal cause of this war had looked to its consequences! We should have been spared this affliction. His Holiness knows well how ardently we have wished for peace, and what strenuous efforts have been made on our side to ensure the peace of Christendom, so that we might together march against the infidel Turk. We are now sending to His Holiness Cesare Ferramosca, our equerry, and one of our Councillors [of Estate?], bearer of the present, properly instructed to negotiate and bring about the said peace, which we sincerely hope will be now effected and accomplished.
Our Viceroy of Naples sailed from Cartagena on the 24th of October. As the wind has been fair ever since, it is to be hoped that he has already anchored with his fleet at Genoa, whither he was directed to go. (fn. n2)
The promised brief of absolution for Alcalde Ronquillo and the rest who had anything to do with the trial, sentence and execution of the Bishop of Zamora has not arrived, though so often promised and announced. You must again request His Holiness to fulfil his promise in this particular.
The offers of service which you say have been made by Count Petillano (Pitigliano) had better be discussed with Don Ugo de Moncada and Cesare Ferramosca on his arrival.
You will find herein enclosed the copy of a brief (motu proprio) which His Holiness granted to the Bishop of Urgel; also of a letter for Joan Beltran, commanding him to give up his pension of 20 ducats every year on the Archdeaconry of Urgel, now held by Don Antonio, our present chaplain.—Granada, 16th November 1526.
Addressed: "To Secretary Perez at Rome."
Spanish. Original draft in the handwriting of Secretary Soria. pp. 5.
16 Nov.
612. The Emperor to Knight Commander Aguilera.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 112.
His letter of the 3rd Oct. has come to hand.
The news of the Turk and of the late disorderly behaviour of Don Ugo's men at Rome have caused us much painand sorrow. We consider both as visitations of God, on account of our sins, and because each of us attends to his own private interests instead of promoting the common weal. Of our sentiments towards His Holiness, and constant wish for the establishment of a good and lasting peace, no one can presume to doubt. We are now sending to Rome our equerry, Cesare Ferramosca, bearer of this, &c.—Granada, 16th Nov. 1526.
Addressed: "To Knight Commander Aguilera."
Spanish. Original draft in Secretary Soria's hand. p. 1.
16 Nov. 613. Antoniotto Adorno, Doge of Genoa, to his Secretary in Spain.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 109 v..
Has received by Don Ugo's secretary (Espinar) his letter dated Monaco; also the information that on the 4th inst. the Viceroy was with his fleet at Mahon, the port of Menorca. He was to sail that very night for Calvi in Corsica, and there wait for intelligence from us as to which route to take. Two brigantines have been despatched, informing him of the state of affairs here, and urging him to come as soon as possible. Savona may be easily taken from the enemy if Mons. de Bourbon will only help us with 1,000 infantry and some pieces of artillery from Alessandria. Our designs against the Florentines will, he has no doubt, meet with the Viceroy's approbation. Meanwhile the Venetians are arming in all haste (facendo fanti à furia) and the country people flying to the towns with their valuables.
There is a rumour that the Germans who are coming down muster 44 banners in all, though the advices from Milan and Venice reduce them to 35. With these reinforcements, and those which the Viceroy will soon put on shore, His Imperial Majesty can do anything he pleases in Italy; but money must also be abundantly forthcoming, otherwise all our efforts will be unavailing, and perhaps too some of the mercenary bands will go over to the enemy.
The Papal troops have lately taken Marini (Marino) and another town from the Colonnese. The war goes on, not in the Pope's name, but in that of the College of Cardinals.
The Pope sent, some days ago, 45,000 ducats to Piacenza; he is now remitting a similar sum to raise troops in that locality. It is supposed that the number of men to be enlisted is 10,000.—Genoa, 15th Nov. 1526.
After the above was written advices have come from the Imperial camp at Milan. Mons. de Bourbon announces, positively, that the Germans had left Trent and were fast approaching Italy. The enemy had raised their tents, and were in full retreat upon the Adda. Some light cavalry had been sent in their pursuit.
The Viceroy's fleet, according to the enemy's report, has been signalled at the mouth of Bonifacio. The French fleet have not yet left the Pomeghe islands, and, therefore, the news of their having anchored in front of Villafrancha [di Niça] has turned out untrue.
The other towns taken from the Colonnese [besides Marino] are Grotta Ferrata and Rocca di Papa.—Genoa, 16th Nov. 1526.
Addressed: "To our Secretary in Spain."
Italian. Contemporary copy. p. 1.
16 Nov. 614. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 126.
After writing the enclosed, Spinal (Espinar), the secretary of Don Ugo, arrived with the Imperial letter of the 9th Oct. He also brought us the agreeable intelligence that the Viceroy was at Mahon in Menorca, (cipher) and wished to know from the Doge and from him (Soria) how matters stood in this city and where he should touch. Has despatched a brigantine to inform him of the naval forces in this port ready to follow his orders, and the number of the enemy's galleys outside.
(Common writing:) Has heard from Sanchez, at Venice, in date of the 30th and 31st of past month, and encloses one of his to the Emperor with news of the Turk and of the Germans. This last is confirmed by letters from Milan of the 8th inst. At that date George Fruntsperg had already entered the Veronese with 12,000 foot and some cavalry, besides artillery, &c. According to other advices from Milan, and to a letter of Donato de Taxis of the 12th, the Venetians had hastily raised their camp and were crossing the Adda, with a view no doubt to arrest, if possible, the progress of the said Germans, and defend their own territory.—Genoa 16th Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. Lope de Soria, 16th Nov."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2.
16 Nov. 615. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 120.
(Cipher:) Wrote on the 5th inst., and now encloses duplicate. As Don Ugo must have written from Naples this will also go by way of Ferrara and Genoa.
(Common writing:) Giovanni Antonio Muxetula arrived on the 9th inst., and on the ensuing day went to the Pope and explained the nature of the charge he had brought from Naples, which was to request him to abstain from wasting the lands of the Colonnese. The Pope's answer was that the Emperor could not possibly object to his punishing his rebellious vassals. After a good deal of remonstrance on the part of the ambassador (Muxetula), the Pope consented to stay all warlike proceedings against the Colonnese for a few days, so as to allow him time to consult Don Ugo and the Collateral Council at Naples. He (the Pope) wished only to chastise the Colonnese; he would promise not to interfere at all with the kingdom of Naples. So it was agreed, and the ambassador (Muxetula) has accordingly written this to Naples.
Meanwhile the injury that has been done to the Colonnese is very considerable. The Pope's troops have taken Marino, Frascati, Gruta Ferrata, Monte Fortino, Genençano, Cave, and Rocca di Papa. They have set fire to most of the houses, pulled down the enclosures, and demolished the walls of the castles, except those of Monte Fortino and Rocca di Papa, which they have not yet succeeded in taking. There is a report that they have likewise destroyed the palace [of the Colonna] at Genençano, which is very handsome and large, and that several pioneers had been employed in that work [of destruction]. Paliano (Pagliano) has been assailed, but the castle is well defended, and the garrison, it is added, has inflicted some loss on the besiegers.
Things are in this state and likely to remain thus until an answer be obtained from Naples, where, according to late advices, a force of 7,000 foot and 1,000 horse is being prepared, without including in that number either the ordinary troops [of the kingdom] or the levies which the barons are raising on their estates. Part of these forces was to join Ascanio Colonna in the Abruzzo, and the remainder to go to Sant Germano under Vespasiano.
On the 8th inst. admonitory summonses were posted up calling upon Cardinal Colonna to appear at Rome within 60 days to answer certain charges, at the expiration of which period he was to be deprived of his dignities and emoluments. Similar summonses have since been issued against his relatives. He (Perez) has never ceased representing to His Holiness that such proceedings are in violation of the agreement entered into with Don Ugo; that the Pope has no right to dictate such measures against the Colonnese. The Pope maintains the contrary opinion, and it has been settled that there will be an open discussion in which each party will defend his own right. The secretary trusts to his own powers and learning; the Pope has appointed Cardinal Ancona to reply to him. (Cipher:) Is not at all in favour of the expedient adopted. He would have preferred that an intimation should have been made to the Pope to stay all proceedings against the Colonnese and observe the articles of the treaty; for, to say the truth, the Turk could not have treated them worse than he (the Pope) has done. It is a heart-breaking scene to see the vassals of the Colonna family flying and taking refuge in Rome, men and women with their children on their backs: a miserable sight, much worse than the flight from Egypt.
Every day fresh troops come in, and join the Pope's camp. Last week 1,300 men, who were under Juan (Giovannino) de Medicis, arrived from Lombardy.
It is generally supposed that His Holiness, after taking complete revenge on the Colonnese, will try to arrange matters with His Imperial Majesty. In case of his not succeeding, he will endeavour with the assistance of France and Venice to invade Naples or attack Genoa, so as to oblige the Emperor to come to terms with him. The speedy arrival of the Germans, however, is likely to disconcert his plans, for at this moment they must already be in Italy, mustering 18,000 men, with plenty of artillery and ammunition, and so strong that they could of themselves give the enemy battle. The Venetians have sent to defend the passes on their frontier, but no force that they (the Venetians) can put on the field will be sufficient to arrest their passage.
Renço de Cherri (da Ceri) is daily expected here. Some say that he is to form part of the expedition now being fitted out at Marseilles against Naples, and that the Duke of Albany (John Stuart) and a brother of the Duke of Lorraine, (fn. n3) who pretends to have a right to that crown, are also coming down with him. It is added that if Renço comes [to Rome] by a land route, he is to take the command of all the Pope's troops, and in the event of the latter making his peace with the Emperor, invade that kingdom all the same in King Francis' name.
No news yet of the Viceroy's fleet, which is anxiously expected. Some of the Imperial servants in this city would rather see it at Naples than at Genoa.
Estafettes go regularly between this city and Naples, though some have been detained on the road.
There is a report that the general of the Franciscans (Fr. Francisco de los Angeles) (fn. n4) landed the other day at Genoa, and that he is the bearer of full powers to treat with His Holiness.
Don Ugo's answer to the Pope's request has come. The Collateral Council of Naples rejects all offers of money, and refuses to give up Filippo Strozzi, whom they consider on account of his wealth and influence and the many friends he has at Florence, a most valuable security. Strozzi's wife, however, never ceases her entreaties, and is trying to persuade His Holiness to make his peace with the Emperor.
His Imperial Majesty must already have been informed how the Archduke was elected King of Bohemia on the 23rd of October last, and how there was good hope of the Hungarians agreeing to the election, although the Vayvod of Transylvania (Zapolsky) had made some sort of arrangement with the Turk, by which he hoped to remain in possession of that country. Soliman, (fn. n5) however, had gone to Transylvania, whence he sent most of his artillery to Constantinople by water, besides 3,000 boat-loads (varcas) of shot made from the bronze bells he had melted in Hungary. Terrible accounts come of the cruelties perpetrated by the Turks.
(Cipher:) He (Perez) has been told as a fact that the Pope has already made out a bull depriving the Emperor of the kingdom of Naples, and revoking the investiture as well as the bulls and briefs granted by Pope Leo [the Tenth] thereupon, on the plea that His Imperial Majesty cannot be Emperor and King of Naples at the same time. They add that when the Pope loses all hope of an arrangement with the Emperor, he is sure to have recourse to this last expedient. This, however, he (Perez) does not know for certain; he only repeats what he hears.
Our Agustin Folleta (Micer Augustino Foglieta) has entirely lost the Pope's favour. He has quitted the Palace and is now residing in Rome at ...... (fn. n6) under the apprehension that if the Pope's affairs do not turn out well, he will wreak his vengeance on him, and on all those who have endeavoured to thwart his project. He (Perez) need not remind His Imperial Majesty of the virtues, learning, purity and zeal for the Imperial service which the aforesaid Micer Foglieta has shown on every occasion, as he knows that Don Juan Manuel (fn. n7) in old times wrote strongly in his favour. But if at any time a person of great parts and reputation, well acquainted with state affairs, and political intrigues both here and in France is wanted, the Emperor could not do better than employ him. He (Perez) has said nothing to him on the subject, but is quite sure that he would willingly accept a post in one of the Imperial Councils.
Has been told that if the Pope could be certified that the Emperor was not going to make war on him, he would induce the Romans to stand security for him. But it is to be doubted whether the inhabitants of this city will ever subscribe to such a condition, for they dislike him (the Pope) owing to the many taxes he has imposed, and is still imposing upon them, as well as to the scarcity and dearth of provisions, for every day a certain quantity of loaves of bread is taken to his camp along the Neapolitan frontier. In fact such is the want of wheat at Rome that people are actually dying of hunger.—Rome, 16th November 1526.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, &c."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 1½.
19 Nov. 616. Jean Bouton (fn. n8) to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Rep. P. C. Fasc.
224, No. 11.
Arrived in London on the 14th inst. Was rejoiced to hear from the Emperor, as he has had no news [from Spain] for a long time. Waited first on the Cardinal, to whom he delivered the message whereof he was bearer. Did the same to the King. As far as he can judge, both took it very well, and seem desirous to maintain the alliance and friendship which has hitherto existed between England and the Empire. Will write more in detail when he reaches Flanders, whither he purposes going to-morrow in order to acquaint Madame (Margaret of Savoy) with the delivery of his charge, the answer made by the King and Legate, and so forth. Hears that Don Iñigo has arrived in Flanders. If so, he must be told to come [to London] as soon as possible, that the present negotiations may be brought to a close.
As the King of England is now sending to Spain the Bishop of Oulsestre (Worcester), auditor of the Apostolic chamber (Girolamo Ghinucci), he (Bouton) will be brief, and limit himself to announcing his speedy return to Spain.
Has found in London as the Emperor's resident ambassador the Provost of Cassel (Theimseke), who came four months ago and has not yet received one farthing of his salary. Recommends him to the Emperor's notice, as he is a very worthy man, and full of zeal for the Imperial service.—London, 19th of November.
Signed: "J. Bouton."
"Sire pour ung petit pais vous ne maures james par mer; je suis tout blanc."
Addressed: "A l' Empereur."
French. Holograph. pp. 2.
19 Nov. 617. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 128.
Wrote on the 19th of October last, as by duplicate enclosed.
On the 31st the enemy raised their camp and went in the direction of Pioltela, four miles from hence on the road to Cassano, where a bridge had been thrown over the Adda ready for their passage. We are waiting to see whether they really cross that river or go to Lodi and Marignano, as they give out. Their retreat is said to be caused by the rains and the cold setting in. All our army went out in pursuit of the enemy, as far as a hospital (ospital) called Sanct Gregorio, beyond the range of the city walls; the Marquis del Guasto armed and on horseback, though much reduced by his quartan fever; Antonio de Leyva stretched on a litter, as he could not possibly ride; the Duke of Bourbon very active, going from one place to another, trying to discover a weak point whereat to attack the retreating enemy with 1,000 musketeers and the light horse. The day passed in this manner till the 23 hours, when our troops came back to Milan without having attempted anything, as the enemy were still formed in squadrons within their camp. Had we had pioneers, and provisions, and waggons to carry the same; had we been sure that during our absence the Milanese, who have Imperialists quartered upon them, would not seize the opportunity and desert their dwellings, we should undoubtedly have marched in pursuit of the retreating enemy.
(Cipher:) The general opinion here is that the confederates will not cross the Adda until they know for certain that the expected reinforcements from Germany are about to enter Lombardy. Besides which, the soldiers of this Imperial army have lately become so mutinous, clamouring incessantly for their pay, and threatening to sack Milan if their arrears are not paid, that it is very doubtful whether they will obey orders and march against the enemy. With the consent of the generals a deputation is now going to the Emperor to solicit the payment in full of the said arrears. The men-at-arms have appointed one Sancho Lopez Gallego, lieutenant of Count of Altamira's company, a discreet and able officer who has served in these wars, and principally at the siege of Pavia under Leyva; the light horse one of their captains named Christoval de Alarcon. The infantry have not chosen captains for this mission, but are sending four private soldiers.
Begs to observe that the deputation is instructed to demand the full payment of their arrears without deducting the time during which they have been quartered on the Milanese and living at their expense.
However preposterous the demand, it must be granted to them, or else there is risk of a mutiny. Thinks that if their claims are fully acknowledged, and a portion of their arrears, say one fourth, is paid down, they may be persuaded to serve as hitherto, and march against the enemy.
The warder (alcayde) of Tarento accompanies the above deputation. He has lately been appointed Colonel of light horse, with a gratuity of 100 crowns per month. The command of the rest of the cavalry has been given by Mons. de Bourbon to Count Gayaço and to Captain Çucaro.
(Common writing:) On the 7th Knight Commander Urrias with the Spaniards of Cremona, and Count Lodovico Beljoyoso with 100 lances, 200 light horse, and 500 foot from Novara, routed three companies of Vasques and Gascons (vascos y gascones) lately arrived from France, and who had pitched their tents in a district called Gaya, not far from that city (Novara). The enemy mustered 700 men in all, but so furious was the attack of the Imperialists that not one of them escaped, most being killed on the spot, and the remainder made prisoners. They have since been conducted to Novara, whence they will be sent to serve in the galleys, unless the King of France releases the many Spaniards he has in his fleet, besides the Duke of Bourbon's servants taken whilst crossing France with his horses.
In consequence of the above defeat, 3,000 of the enemy who were encamped close to Novara, at a place called Sant Olegio, on the Ticino, for the purpose of cutting off the supplies coming to this city, have retreated by way of Gattinara into Piedmont, of which country most of them are natives. Perhaps their intention is to relieve four companies of their infantry now shut up in Asti, which Fabricio Marramaldo is investing with 1,200 Neapolitans from the garrison of Alessandria. Should the said captain succeed in taking possession of Asti, all the country beyond Pò and Ticino will be free from the enemy, and the roads to Genoa more secure than they have been hitherto.
Don Ugo's Secretary (Espinar) arrived in Genoa on the 14th inst. The Viceroy's fleet was at Mahon in Menorca, shortly to set sail for Cabe (Calvi?) in the island of Corsica, there to wait for the Doge's answer to his letters of inquiry, &c. (Cipher:) Has been requested to come to Genoa without delay, as the fleet is most wanted there to drive the enemy off its shores. It will then be decided whether the Imperial fleet is to go to Rome or to Florence, or whether it will be preferable that the troops on board be landed at some point of the coast, and march on Piacenza or some other city in the lands of the Church. This, however, will depend in a great measure upon George Fruntsperg's speedy arrival with his Germans, and upon the Duke of Ferrara being satisfied with the Emperor's decision as brought by Espinar.
(Common writing:) On the 16th a gentleman whom Mons. de Bourbon had sent to the Archduke returned to this camp. He says that on the 5th, the date of his departure, the Infante (Archduke Ferdinand) was at Linça (Lintz), preparing to go to Vienna, The Turk had set fire to Buda, and sent, as captives, beyond the Danube 20,000 of the inhabitants who had been spared from the almost general slaughter.
The Pope is arming, and no letters come from Rome. His Imperial Majesty knows no doubt by this time what the Pope's intentions are. God in his justice will not allow those who so unjustly make war on him (the Emperor) to prevail, but will permit full vengeance to be taken of them. (fn. n9)
After the above was written, a valet of the Marquis del Guasto, who left Mantua on the 16th, has arrived. He says that the Marquis (Federigo Gonzaga) had letters announcing that George Fruntsperg had passed Lades (Ladice) and was already in the Mantuan territory with all his forces and 22 pieces of artillery, and that the Marquis was to give him passage through his estate, and furnish, besides, provisions for his men. The intelligence must be true, for the enemy left Pioltella yesterday, and moved their camp three miles beyond to Gorgonzola and Inçago, (fn. n10) and to-day, we hear, are still closer to the river Adda, which they will no doubt cross to-morrow or after.
Intelligence has likewise been received that the Turk, after setting fire to Buda and to almost all the other cities of Hungary—with the single exception of a few strong places and the citadel of that city (fn. n11) —and slaughtering all the inhabitants save 8,000 or 10,000 Hungarians whom he carried off as slaves, had retreated to the other side of the Danube. He had left a good force for the defence of Belgrade, and the Vayvod (Zopolsky) with an army remained as governor of the kingdom [of Hungary]. The Bohemians had elected the Archduke for their King.
This very day we hear from Genoa that the Viceroy has arrived in Corsica and anchored in the Gulf of Sant Florencio with all his forces. The Duke of Bourbon is sending one of his chamberlains called Mons. de Pelu. As soon as the plan of the future campaign is agreed upon between the said Viceroy, Bourbon, and George [Fruntsperg], His Imperial Majesty shall hear of us.—Milan, 19th Nov. 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najara."
P.S.—On the 5th inst. Bonifacio Vizconde (Visconti?), he who once attempted to assassinate the Duke Francesco Esforcia (Sforza), wishing to take service with us, arrested a servant of Archbishop Fregoso, who was posting from Savona to the enemy's camp, and brought him to Milan with all the papers and correspondence whereof he was the bearer. There was among these a letter signed by Pedro Navarro, Andrea Doria, and the Venetian Proveditor, from the galleys in front of Genoa, to the Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere) and to the Marquis of Saluzzo, requesting them to take up a position with the forces under their command at Sarrabal, Gaui, and other towns at the foot of the Genoese ridge of mountains, so as to cut off the supplies of wheat from Lombardy. Genoa (said the letters) was on the point of surrendering for want of provisions. The plan is no doubt well conceived, but as George Fruntsperg and his Germans are fast advancing, it is to be hoped that Genoa will hold out a few days longer, and then everything else will go on aright. The enemy in the meantime are trying to arrest the progress of the Germans, and have sent eight or ten companies of their infantry across the Adda, to occupy, as they say, the passes.
Our last news from George [Fruntsperg] are of the 25th Oct. He writes from home (de su casa) to the Duke of Bourbon, saying he will without fail muster his men on the 2nd inst. at Marano and Bolzano, and start on the following day (the 3rd) with 31 companies of infantry, artillery, cavalry, &c. He (George) proposes coming by the pass of Corvara, so as to cross the river Lades (Ladice) between Vicenza and Verona, in the neighbourhood of the Ferrarese, with whose Duke (Alfonso d'Este) he has secret understanding, or else by the Rocca d'Anfa, so as to cut across between Verona and Bressa (Brescia) into the marquisate of Mantua. Should the Duke prefer a shorter route, he (Fruntsperg) offers to come through the land of the Grisons, leaving his artillery behind.
The Duke is of opinion that immediately after his landing at Genoa the Viceroy ought to march straight upon Rome; whilst George Fruntsperg with his Germans, 500 lances, and 500 light horse, invades the territory of the Venetians by Bergamo, and the Duke himself with the rest of the Imperial forces attacks Bologna and Florence. Even supposing the Germans did not come in time, the Duke could easily undertake the expedition to Venice, whilst the Viceroy, after landing at Genoa, might come to Piacenza and from thence march on Florence and Rome. Antonio de Leyva with a small Spanish force and the Germans of Fruntsperg, besides the above-mentioned lances and light cavalry, might remain in guard of this camp, to make head against the Venetians, and attend to Milan and the whole of Lombardy. Such is the plan of campaign which, after much discussion, has been settled upon. The Duke has just sent one of his gentlemen (Mons. de Pelu) to the Viceroy, to inform him of his determination, and also to ask him for money, if he has brought any with him, for without that indispensable element no plan, however well conceived, can be carried into execution, since both Germans and Spaniards will not move out of Milan unless previously paid their arrears.—Milan, date ut supra.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. The Abbot of Najera, 19th Nov."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 151). pp. 8.
20 Nov. 618. Garci Manrique, Governor of Gaeta, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 135.
As a reward for his services at Pavia and other places in Italy, the Emperor was pleased to grant him 600 waggon-loads of salt from Barletta every year. Finds that this grant, owing to various causes, is insufficient for his support. Begs that it may be commuted for an equivalent in the tratas (exportation of grain) of Sicily, or some other fiscal dues, as his brother, (fn. n12) Don Francisco de Mendoza, now going to His Imperial Majesty in Spain, has charge to represent. Owing to the late rumours of war, the Collateral Council have sent to Gaeta, where he now is, as governor (capitan de armas) with a force of 300 foot. Will do his duty to the utmost,—Gaeta, 20th Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Garci Manrique."
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ, Cesareæ et Catholicæ Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Garcia Manrique, 20th Nov."
Spanish. Original. pp. 1½.
21 Nov. 619. Don Iñigo de Mendoza to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u. Staats Arch.
Wien, Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224.
Sire,—From the French court [of Lyons], and by special messenger despatched by the ambassador (Mr. Praet), I informed your Majesty how on my arrival at that place I waited upon the King and upon his mother (Louise de Savoie), and told them both of my going to England as resident ambassador. It was then agreed between M. de Praet and myself, that as the frontier could not be crossed without a proper passport (carta de passo) he should procure me one. No difficulty was made at first, the King's secretary (Robertet) having promised to grant me a safe-conduct in his master's name, as I had occasion to inform your Imperial Majesty in my former despatch. Since then, however, there has come a message from the Grand Steward of France (Montmorency), intimating that the Emperor and the King, his master, being no longer at war, no safe-conduct was needed for my journey. The King, however, would appoint a gentleman of his chamber to accompany me, and see me across the frontier of his dominions.
Upon this assurance I determined to wait until the expected English embassy should arrive, that I might collect information and learn how matters stood in that quarter, knowing for certain, as I had occasion to inform your Imperial Majesty in a former despatch, that the King of England, though included in the Italian league, had not yet affixed his signature to the treaty. Perceiving, however, that my departure was indefinitely postponed, that the gentleman who was to accompany me did not make his appearance, and that the English ambassador, (fn. n13) on his arrival, showed me no courtesy whatever, but, on the contrary, shunned my presence as much as he could, I consulted your Majesty's ambassador at the French court (Praet) as to what I had better do under the circumstances. After mature deliberation both of us were of opinion that, in case of my not being allowed to proceed on my mission, as we had every reason to fear, it was far better for the Imperial service, considering our present relations with England, that my arrest should take place on the road to that country, and whilst on my mission thither, than at the French court. I, therefore, insisted again upon quitting Lyons, and earnestly requested the fulfilment of the promise made by the King's steward, who at last sent me a message through Secretary Robertet to say I might start at once on my journey, as I should soon be joined on the road by the aforesaid King's gentleman.
Calculating, therefore, that if arrested on the road your Imperial Majesty might have a more plausible excuse for delaying the execution of what the King of England is now demanding, I set out on my journey, closely followed by the said gentleman of the King's chamber, who, as I afterwards learned, travelled the same marches as myself, having previously sent notice to all the frontiers from Lyons to the sea, and principally to Calais, not to supply post-horses to any person whomsoever. In this manner I was allowed to proceed as far as Hanques (sic), the last town of that district, where, in pursuance with orders whereof he was the bearer, the said King's gentleman summoned a number of horse and foot, with whom he surrounded the inn where I was, made me his prisoner, and conducted me some 40 leagues beyond into the interior of the country, to this Castle of Arques, where I have now been a prisoner for nearly four months, (fn. n14) and so closely watched that it has been quite impossible for me to inform your Imperial Majesty of this occurrence, or of the fact that some time before my arrest I took the precaution to destroy my instructions and the letters I had for the King of England. Indeed, had these fallen into the hands of the French, as I had every reason to apprehend, and had your Imperial Majesty ordered fresh ones to be made out, this French King might have told his brother of England how very different my former instructions were, and how scanty and limited my powers to treat. I likewise took care to acquaint Madame the Governess of the Low Countries (Margaret of Savoy) with the event, that she might inform the King of England of my arrest, and also communicate the intelligence to Spain. These people, however, have made such a noise about it, circulating the news far and wide, that I consider this last precaution as entirely useless, and have not the least doubt that your Imperial Majesty long ago heard of it.
I have reasons to believe that my arrest has been planned between the Cardinal of England (Wolsey) and Madame the Regent [of France], for they understand each other perfectly. Thinking I was the bearer of despatches, such as the King of England naturally expects to receive in the present condition of affairs, and that my mission had a different object, they imagined that by seizing my person and papers they ensured also the success of their plans. But if they hoped thereby to establish friendly relations with the English King, they must have been sadly disappointed, for, as I said before, I destroyed not only my instructions, but the very letters I had for the King and Cardinal of England.
Your Imperial Majesty will now be able to reconsider the matter, and, if necessary, extend my commission and increase my powers, since the King of France being ignorant of the contents of my instructions, he of England may easily be persuaded to believe that I was fully empowered to treat, especially when he sees the fear and suspense prevailing in France.—Arques, 21st Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Don Iñigo de Mendoza."
Addressed: "To His Imperial Majesty the King of Spain."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 7.
22 Nov. 620. Antoniotto Adorno, Doge of Genoa, to his Secretary in Spain.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 109.
Encloses duplicate of his despatch of the 16th. Three days after, on the 19th, His Holiness told the Neapolitan ambassador (Muxetula) that he had received news of the Viceroy's fleet, 32 sail strong, having reached Corsica. It is thought here that the galleys of the League will attack and defeat it.
The said Muxetula again remonstrated with His Holiness, and requested he would refrain from pronouncing sentence against the Colonnese but to no purpose. Yesterday a consistory was held, whereat the Cardinal, his brothers and nephews were deprived of their honours, dignities and benefices to the fourth generation. The execution of this sentence was delayed five or six days, until an answer should come from Naples. Cannot say what the Collateral Council will decide on this matter, but his impression is that His Holiness will still prosecute his vengeance, for he swears he must for the honour of the Church obtain satisfaction for the injury received.
The disputation (fn. n15) took place, and neither of the parties was vanquished in it. Very naturally His Holiness could not own that he was wrong in this matter, because if he did he would be bound to indemnify the Colonnese for their losses, which are, as stated above, very considerable.
(Cipher:) In his (Perez') opinion, whatever the answer from Naples may be, and whatever the danger in thus attacking the Emperor's friends and allies contrary to the terms of the last agreement, the Pope will go on making war on the Colonnese until he has actually destroyed them. He thinks that by revoking then the sentence of privation and restoring the Colonnese to their dignities and offices everything will be forgotten.
(Common writing:) The Germans left Trent on the 11th inst., and were coming down by way of Bresa (Brescia). Every hour the news of their arrival is expected in Italy. The Venetians were preparing to defend their territory, and the greater part of their forces had left Milan for that purpose; two bridges had been thrown over the Adda for the passage of the remainder.
(Cipher:) Guicciardino and a gentleman of the King of France have lately been trying to gain the Duke of Ferrara over to their cause. But they will get nothing from him, for the Duke sees the Emperor's growing power in Italy, and has besides heard that a servant of Don Ugo (Espinar) has arrived at Monaco, bringing from Spain the acceptance of all his terms. He has written to Don Ugo to inform him of all this, as well as of the brilliant offers that have been made to him by Alberto di Carpi and the Datary (Giovanni Matheo Giberti) in the Pope's name.
The latter has again applied to Don Ugo for the release of Filippo Strozzi, and the discharge of Jacopo Salviati's bond for 30,000 ducats, promising, if his request be complied with, to abstain from hostilities against the Colonnese.
His Imperial Majesty has just lost, on the 18th inst., a good vassal and servant in the person of Christoval Brezeño. (fn. n16) He died from a wound in his thigh made with a pair of scissors.—Rome, 22nd Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ Cesareæ, Catholicæ Maiestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Rome. Perez, 22nd Nov."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2.


  • n1. No date; but placed as it is in the volume between two other minutes of the 16th Nov., addressed to Commander Aguilera and Secretary Perez, I have not hesitated to date it as above.
  • n2. This and other paragraphs are substantially the same as in the preceding letter to the Abbot.
  • n3. The Duke of Guise, brother of Francis, Cardinal of Lorraine.
  • n4. The same ecclesiastic mentioned elsewhere, and whose real name was Fray Francisco de Quiñones.
  • n5. "Y crehen que viendose su Santidad desesperado de concierto con V. Magd que procedera con su Ungria adelante. Yo no lo afirmo esto por Evangelio, pero digo que me lo han dicho asi." The word Ungria, if not a mistake of the deciphering clerk, must mean "design, project or intention."
  • n6. "En las casas de parte." This word, which the deciphering clerk omitted to interpret, is no doubt intended for the name of some cardinal or personage attached to the Imperial cause.
  • n7. Don Juan Manuel was Charles' ambassador at Rome from May 1520 to Sept. 1522, when he was succeeded by the Duke of Sessa.
  • n8. Esquire Button, otherwise called "le Sieur de Courtbaron." See Brewer, Letters and Papers, vol. IV., pp. 578–86. In a letter of Gasparo Spinelli to the Doge and Signory, dated London, 10–11th of August, the arrival is mentioned of an ambassador sent by the Lady Margaret (of the Low Countries) in the room of the Provost of Cassel, recalled; but there must be some error in the date for Mons. de Courtbaron, as he himself says in his letter, arrived in London on the 14th of November, and found Theimseke still at his post.
  • n9. "Dios es justo, y dará a V. Mt. entera vengança de sus enemigos que tan injusta y malamente le hazen la guerra."
  • n10. Gorgongiola and Inzago in Lombardy.
  • n11. "Salvo los castillos fuertes y especialmente el castillo y la estala? del Rey en Buda."
  • n12. "Segun que de mi parte suplicará á V. Mt. Cesarea Don Francisco de Mendoça, mi hermano." Though in these times brothers often assumed different names, some taking that of the father, whilst others called themselves after the mother, there is reason to believe that hermano must here be taken in the sense of member of the same religious confraternity, since both Garcia Manrique and Francisco de Mendoza happened to be knights of Santiago.
  • n13. Dr. John Clerk, Bishop of Bath and Wells, who was sent about this time to France to negotiate the marriage of the Princess of (England), Mary, with the Dauphin son of Francis.
  • n14. Don Iñigo's detention took place in August.
  • n15. See above, No. 615, p. 1006.
  • n16. Thus written in the manuscript. Probably a mistake for Briceño, which is a common Castillian name.