Spain: November 1526, 1-15

Pages 989-1002

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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November 1526, 1-15

3 Nov. 597. Prothonotary Caraciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 86.
Wrote last on the 3rd of Oct. Had written before on the 12th of September announcing the disasters in Hungary. Since then the enemy have raised their camp and retired beyond the River Lambro to a place called Pioltella, on the road to Cassano, seven miles from this city [of Milan]. Their intention appears to be to retain possession of Monza, a very important position in the Duchy for receiving supplies, &c.
The Duke of Bourbon, accompanied by the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva, though both were prostrated by disease and unable to put on armour, rushed out of this camp in pursuit of the retreating enemy, but found them so entrenched and in such good order that nothing could be done.
(Cipher:) As he (Caracciolo) has been commanded to give his opinion on Italian affairs, he will not hesitate to say that a general peace with honourable conditions is very desirable under present circumstances; for even if the promised reinforcements from Spain and Germany were to come shortly, there is no money to pay so considerable a number of men. Even if there was money, the Spaniards could no longer live in a city completely ruined and exhausted, whose inhabitants fly by hundreds and desert their homes rather than be subjected to the exacting cruelties of such guests. The men themselves are in a state of mutiny. Not a day passes without their coming to the Duke's quarters littering threats and all manner of angry words (brute parole e fatti). The generals do all they can to calm down the soldiers, but it is feared that, clamorous as they are for the arrears of their pay, which are considerable, they will one of these days execute their threats and sack Milan, without any one of us being able to prevent it. Taking the Imperial troops out of Milan and following the enemy's steps, so as to be able to fight him on his own ground, is a dangerous experiment, which, though proposed by some of the generals, has been disapproved by the rest; for the men will not abate in their demands, and insist upon being paid in full, though not only the infantry, but the men-at-arms and light cavalry also have been for many months foraging entirely on the Milanese (comiendo à discrecion).
The above considerations and the probability of the Turks marching upon Vienna—whither the Archduke must needs repair with all his forces if he wants to arrest their progress—render peace highly desirable under present circumstances. The Emperor has always wished for it. The Pope, France and Venice cannot refuse if honourable terms be offered to them. At any rate, if no other means of securing peace can be found, it is indispensable not to neglect this brave Imperial army, which, if allowed to exert its valour, is sure to wrest from the enemy that which cannot be obtained by fair means.
(Common writing:) Antonio de Leyva is dangerously ill. The Marquis suffering from double tertian ague (due terzane). He has already spent his own fortune and that of his friends, and yet he is indefatigable in the exercise of his duty, doing all he can for the Imperial service.
(Cipher:) The Duke is also very active; he never rests, encouraging the men and persuading them to have patience; but words will not satisfy them, they want deeds.—Milan, 3rd Nov. 1526.
Signed: "El Protonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. Caracciolo 3rd Nov."
Italian. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 92). pp. 6.
3 Nov. 598. The Same to the Grand Chancellor Mercurino Gattinara.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 90.
(Cipher:) Illustrissimo mio signore honoratissimo, &c. Encloses a letter for his Imperial Majesty on the state of affairs, and the dangers to be apprehended from the mutinous temper of the men, exasperated as they are by the want of provisions and money. Earnestly entreats him to apply a remedy to the threatening evil. Milan, 3rd Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Al Illmo Signor mio honoratissimo el Gran Cancell. de sua Maestà."
Italian. Original in cipher. No deciphering appended p. 1.
3 Nov. 599. Antoniotto Adorno to his Secretary in Spain.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 108.
Spinar (Espinar), Don Ugo's secretary, and Donato de Tassi (Taxis) have both arrived at Monaco. At the time of their departure from Spain the fleet had not yet left Cartagena, which news has so discouraged the citizens of this place (Genoa) that I greatly fear some popular commotion. We have scarcely food for ten days, and even that must come from Lombardy at great risk and expense. Novi is defended by 1,200 foot and 100 light horse, who are there for the sole purpose of ensuring the scanty supplies that come from Lombardy. Had that town fallen into the enemy's hands, you would already have heard of our surrender. That place (Novi) and Gavi are the two keys to Genoa. This last ought not to be, as it is now, in the hands of Guasco, but to have been restored to us. Indeed, had we not refused to deliver the castle to him, our communications with Lombardy would have been interrupted by this time. Intelligence has reached us from Venice that the Signory had resolved in one of their last preghai to besiege this city by land, since the blockade by sea did not produce the desired effect. It is a wonder to me how we have been able to maintain ourselves against so many enemies without and within the city, for besides the Fregosi, who continue as hostile as ever to our party (the Adorni), and the two factions of the Plebeians and Nobles, which last is now in power, there is another party denominated of the Union (La Unione) from that which many inhabitants of this city are trying to bring about.
Domenicho Sauli writes from Venice to his friends here, that he has received letters from Andrea Navagero, the Venetian ambassador at the Imperial Court, in date of the 27th, advising that the Emperor had only 20 ships and 6,000 German infantry at his disposal. Most of the latter had perished in different encounters with the Moors [of Valencia], and those who remained had refused to embark unless they previously received the arrears of their pay, viz., 21 months. In fact the said ambassador assures the Signory that the Viceroy's fleet will not leave the shores of Spain this year.
We do not hear of the Pope having, as was reported, named the legates who are to go to the various courts. On the contrary, we hear that military preparations are now being made on a great scale, and that the Papal army at Rome will soon muster 12,000 foot, 300 men-at-arms and 1,000 light horse. Whom these forces are intended against nobody seems to know for certain; but in all probability the Colonnese will be the first to feel their weight. It is evident that the Viceroy on his arrival cannot do otherwise than attack His Holiness in his own estates. His best plan would be, after relieving this port and driving away the enemy's galleys, to land part of his forces on the gulf of La Spezzia, and march upon Florence, which city, being almost defenceless, cannot offer much resistance, and afterwards attack Bologna, which being done, the Pope must necessarily come to terms.
All the wheat and merchandize which the enemy's galleys have taken from us is being sold in the most scandalous way, a thing unprecedented in the annals of history; for whenever peace has been concluded between belligerents, private property has been restored on both sides, especially when there has been no previous declaration of war, as in this present case, and when Genoa has given no offence to the confederated powers. We, therefore, beg the Emperor to retaliate on the property and goods of all Frenchmen, Venetians and Florentines now established and residing in his dominions of Spain, Flanders, Sicily and Naples.
As the Imperial ambassador [in Venice] must have written the news of the Turk, I need not say anything on the subject.
The confederates raised their camp in front of Milan during the latter days of October, after sending on their artillery and heavy luggage. The enemy, however, retreated in such good order, that Mons. de Bourbon deemed it imprudent to follow them in force, though he sent in pursuit of them some light cavalry and detached foot (fanti bandati), to pick up the loiterers. They have taken the direction of Cassano upon Adda, their first march being to Pioltello, five or six miles from Milan.
The Duke Francesco Sforza is now at Cremona, which adheres to him alone (sta à nome suo solo). He has a good garrison within the walls.
Signor Gio. de' Medici has not yet left the camp of the confederates. Monza is still occupied by the enemy. The Imperial generals at Milan cannot make out what the enemy's plans may be, whether they still intend to cross the Adda, or to pitch their tents between that river and Milan.
Dertona (Tortona) had been taken by the enemy through the treason of some of its inhabitants, who introduced inside a company of volunteers (aventureros) with their captain. My nephew, (fn. n1) however, has since recovered the town, and taken Vigisolo and other villages from the enemy.
The enemy seems intent upon attacking Genoa. I have written to Mons. de Bourbon to send us reinforcements, and some officer of reputation to command the whole, for Marramaldo and his men are not to be trusted in the event of an attack.
You are to thank His Imperial Majesty for the promise he has made of giving us Livorno and Petra Sancta as soon as the war against the Florentines is at an end, and you will take care that the Imperial mandate be despatched for execution to Mons. de Bourbon and to the Viceroy.
Addressed: "To our Secretary at the Imperial Court."
Italian. Contemporary copy. pp. 2½.
5 Nov. 600. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d' Esp.
Wrote last on the 27th Oct. by Don Ugo [de Moncada], enclosing duplicate of his letter dated the 22nd, which went by way of Ferrara and Genoa. The duplicate of that of the 27th is also enclosed.
Don Ugo having heard that His Holiness was collecting forces and preparing artillery, begged him (Perez) to call and tell him (the Pope) in his name that were any attempts made on the lands of the Colonnese he (Don Ugo) would be obliged to defend them, as they were under the Emperor's protection, and included in the late truce. The Pope's answer was that he was determined now, more than ever, to keep his promise, and abide by the agreement (concierto) made with Don Ugo; and yet, notwithstanding these and similar asseverations that the Pope is daily making, he (Perez) knows as a positive fact that not later than the 2nd inst. he sent reinforcements to the frontier of the Colonnese, besides four large guns, ten falconets, several waggons of powder and ammunition, shovels, pickaxes, spades, levers, scaling ladders, cart wheels, timber and rope, and everything else required by pioneers (gastadores). The Baron del Burgo (Borgo?), a Sicilian, lately arrived from Hungary, where he was Papal Nuncio, has accepted the command of these forces on condition of not serving against the Emperor, whose subject he is.
At the moment he (Perez) is writing intelligence has been received that the above-mentioned artillery forces are close by at Marino, Frascati, Grutaferrata and Tagacoz (Tagliacozzo?), all places which formerly belonged to the Colonnese. It is added that Ascanio Colonna intends to come with infantry and cavalry to defend other fortresses still stronger than those, and that Vespasiano will do the same. It is, however, generally believed that all these armaments are destined for an invasion of the kingdom [of Naples]. They expect Renzo de Cherri (da Ceri) from France, and say that he is coming fully empowered by King Francis to spend 20,000 ducats monthly on similar armaments; also that the French fleet, under Pedro Navarro, is to go to Savona, to sail thence for Sicily and invade the island, with the aid of the emigrants (foraxidos), whom Cesare Imperatore (fn. n2) commands. Others say that all these forces are intended against Naples, which is to be attacked by sea, whilst the Papal army invades it by land on this side, and that they will muster 10,000 or 12,000 foot and 1,200 horse, besides the Orsini, who, with their bands, have been taken into the pay of France.
The Archbishop of Capua (Schomberg) has returned from Naples, whither he was sent to procure the liberation of Filippo Strozzi. He came back without him, as neither Don Ugo nor the Collateral Council would consent to his release, however great the securities offered by the Pope, who is anything but satisfied at the refusal, as likewise the wife of the said Strozzi. The Archbishop adds that at Naples preparations of money and provisions were being made in consequence of the Pope's armaments.
A Frenchman arrived the other day, the same person whom the French King sent to the Pope (fn. n3) after Don Ugo entered Rome. It is rumoured that he has made great offers in the name of his master, who (he says) proposes coming down with all his forces for the protection of the Church and of the Pope's sacred person, at which all here are exceedingly proud.
A bull has been issued for the sale at 10 per cent. of 200 offices, which, as stated in one of his (Perez's) former despatches, are worth 1,000 ducats each. Every cardinal is compelled to buy one of these offices, and those who have no ready money give up their plate and dine off earthenware. The bull is founded upon the undertaking against the Turk, and the entrancei nto Rome of Don Ugo and the Colonnese. These last, it is said in the bull, broke their faith to the Pope. At first Don Ugo was also included in the general anathema, but his name has since been left out, so that only the Colonnese are mentioned in it. Does not send by this conveyance the bull and a quantity of other papers—rather impertinent than otherwise (no muy bien dichos), which are daily published here, though said to come from abroad—because the packet would have been too bulky. Has, however, forwarded to Don Ugo a copy of the bull, which goes by the title of "Mons Fidei."
Fears that the Pope's troops, now marching towards the frontiers of Naples, will stop every estafette on the road, though the Pope has lately sent orders to the chief of his commissariat to allow all couriers to pass. This, however, will cease when the war breaks out, and in his (Perez's) opinion hostilities will commence as soon as the Pope is fully prepared, for it is not likely that he will go on spending so much as 60,000 ducats every month, as they say he is doing, to no profit, although each of the confederates contributes his share of the expenses.
The Pope is making much of a certain Abbot of Farfa, (fn. n4) son of Giovanni Giordano Ursino (Orsino), who, they say, will undertake to conquer the county and duchy of Tallacoz (Tagliacozzo) in Naples, to which he pretends to have a right. All the emigrants (foraxidos) of Aguila (Aquila) have found shelter here, at Rome, under the impression that they will powerfully assist in an invasion of the Abruço (Abruzzo), as well as in the taking of that town [Aquila]. Has given Don Ugo notice of the enemy's designs.
Hears from Naples that the Viceroy is shortly expected. On the 21st of October last he (Lannoy) was at Alicante, and was to set sail in two or three days for Genoa. Read to the Pope the paragraph in Don Ugo's letter conveying the above intelligence, and he (the Pope) answered, "It is most needful that the Imperial fleet come as soon as possible, for I hear Genoa is in great want of wheat." Perhaps the Pope thought, as many here seem to think, that the news is false, and that we only spread it to prevent the intended expedition against Naples.
Thirty-five companies of German infantry were to pass review at Maran (Marano), close to Trent, on the 2nd inst., and to start without fail on the 6th.
The Turk had crossed the Danube, notwithstanding that the Vayvod had defeated him in a battle, and taken Ibrahim Pasha, his most favourite general, prisoner. The Infante (Ferdinand), who was at Vienna with 8,000 foot and 200 horse, had been elected King of Bohemia; the barons of Hungary who were soliciting his aid [against the Turk] had also promised him the crown of that kingdom.
(Cipher:) The garrison of Cremona is now at Alexandria (Alessandria). The Pope says that he very much prefers their being in Lombardy to their going to Naples, as at first intended, which in his (Perez's) opinion is another proof that the invasion of Naples was decided upon long ago, and that all these warlike preparations of the Pope have no other object.
There is no more talk of His Holiness going to Spain or sending legates to the various Princes. The Portuguese ambassador's (Don Martin de Portugal) departure has also been put off, and there is every reason to think that the Pope is intent upon doing us all the harm he can. Were one to believe in his protestations, the Emperor could never have had so affectionate a father; but the deeds do not suit the words. His Imperial Majesty, therefore, must consider what is best for his interests under the present circumstances. The general opinion is that an agreement ought to be made with the King of France on the best terms possible. This point once gained, the Emperor will easily carry out his plans in Italy.
(Common writing:) It is reported that Cardinal Colonna, in consequence of an invitation received from the Collateral Council of Naples, has gone thither for the purpose of discussing with Don Ugo the plan of the future campaign. He (Colonna) is now residing at Castil Capuano.
The Venetians have removed their quarters to Viagrasa and Monça, where they intend passing the winter. Their object is said to be to intercept the road to Pavia, and the supplies going to the Imperial camp. They intend to do the same with respect to Genoa, and for that purpose will attack a strong place called Nove, where the Doge usually keeps his stores of provisions. It is added that they are to send 8,000 of their troops against Naples and Sicily, on board the French galleys.
Miçer Jacopo Salviati prefers paying Don Ugo 30,000 ducats to sending his own son as hostage, as agreed; (cipher:) from which it may be inferred that His Holiness' intentions are far from good, since he (Salviati) is willing to disburse such a large sum to free his son. Has written to Don Ugo informing him of this and other matters.
Nothing new concerning the Duke of Ferrara. He is no doubt waiting to see how matters go on (que mundo corre) and will then incline to whichever side suits him best.
(Common writing:) Don Ugo and the Collateral Council [of Naples] have commissioned a certain Miçer Giovanni Antonio Muxetula to come to Rome and negotiate with His Holiness respecting the affairs of the Colonnese. The Pope has sent him a brief that he may come in safety.
The Pope's troops are now at Genençano and about that frontier, threatening a very strong place called Paliano (Pagliano), where Vespasiano Colonna is said to have stored numerous and well-appointed artillery, with plenty of ammunition. It will prove rather tough work for the Pope's troops, for the Colonnas keep the place well garrisoned and in a good state of defence.
Has been told that recruits flock from all parts to the Pope's camp on the frontiers, and that the whole force is to consist of 20,000 foot. The Ursinos (Orsini) are working with all their might (sacan fuerza de flaqueza), and enlist as many men as they can for the Pope. Renço de Cherri (da Ceri) has been promised a cardinal's hat for one of his brothers, the hand of a daughter of Jacopo Salviati, and a fine estate in the kingdom of Naples, if he will only take the command of the Papal forces. The report is worth mentioning, though it may in the end prove untrue.—Rome, 5th Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ Cesareæ, Catholicæ Maiestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Rome. Perez, 5th Nov. Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (dated the 6th). pp. 6.
5 Nov. 601. Memorandum in Chancellor Gattinara's handwriting. (fn. n5)
S. E. L. 1554,
f. 497.
The following are the letters to be written and the points to be considered respecting Rome and other countries.
First of all the mission of [Cesare] Ferramosca to His Holiness Pope Clement VII.
2nd. The ratification of the truce concluded between the Pope and Don Ugo [de Moncada] with the insertion of certain articles.
3rd. The answer to the Pope's brief, lamenting the last occurrences at Rome and alluding to the Emperor's journey to Italy, letters of credence, &c.
4th. Letters to the College of Cardinals in general, and to everyone of them in particular. All letters to be letters of credence.
5th. To Cardinal [Pompeo] Colonna, to Ascanio and Vespasiano Colonna, to each of them separately, telling them that the Emperor has duly received their letters of the 24th of September, written conjointly with Don Ugo de Moncada, containing the account of occurrences at Rome, &c.
6th. To Cardinal Cesarino and Giovanni Georgio Cesarino, his uncle, thanking them for the offers of service made to Don Ugo.
7th. To Cavaliere Ursino (fn. n6) and Mario Ursino, thanks for similar offers.
8th. To the people (populo) and Senate of Rome in general, and to the Conservatore of the said city in particular, with simple credence (simple crehencia).
9th. To the Governor of Rome and Archbishop of Capua (Schomberg) letters of credence.
10th. Ten more letters in blank to several members of the Orsini and Colonna families.
11th. To the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d' Este) and the Doge of Genoa (Antoniotto Adorno) simple credence, as likewise to the Signories of Sienna and Lucca.
12th. To Julio di Capua, Federico and Diomedes Carapha (Carrafa), Conte di Sarno, Hanibal di Genaro, and ten more Neapolitan gentlemen, credence and thanks for their services under Don Ugo. The drafts of these last [letters] to be in Spanish, and to be made out by Secretary Garcia.
13th. Answer to the Duke of Bourbon's letter apprising him of the Viceroy's departure, the ships and number of men he has with him, the money sent to Germany, &c.
To the Viceroy and to Don Ugo. To Alvaro Perez in case His Imperial Majesty decide to call him still by this name. (fn. n7)
14th. To the King of England, informing him of the late occurrences at Rome, and of what the Emperor has written to the Pope thereupon (if required enclose also a copy of the Imperial letter). A similar letter to the ambassador who resides at the French Court (Praet), that he may communicate the intelligence to King Francis.
15th. To Madame the Governess of the Low Countries, and to the Infante (Archduke Ferdinand) letters describing the Pope's affliction, although this cannot be done for certain until the news arrive [from Rome]. To inform the said Princes of the measures which the Emperor purposes to take, &c.
16th. To other Kings and Princes it does not seem so indispensable to write just now.
17th. The matters concerning Perez, Aguilera, (fn. n8) Alonso Sanchez, Abbot of Najera, and Lope de Soria have been put into Secretary Soria's hands to make suitable answers thereto.
Spanish. Holograph minute by Gattinara. pp. 2.
7 Nov. 602. Clement VII. to the Emperor.
S. Pat. Re. Bul.
Suelt. Leg. c.f. 127.
Has been informed by his nuncio, Count Baldassar Castiglione, that he (the Emperor) is inclined to conclude peace. The news of this intelligence has filled him with joy. Is ready to make peace on such conditions as he can honourably accept.—Rome, 7th Nov. 1526.
Addressed: "Imperatori Carolo, Regi Hispaniarum."
Latin. Original on vellum.
9 Nov. 603. The Emperor to the College of Cardinals.
S. E. L. 1554,
f. 503.
Expresses in the strongest terms his regret and sorrow at what has happened [at Rome]. It was all done against his will, and against that of his captains, by a mutinous soldiery. Was very much affected at hearing the news, especially at a time when he was meditating and planning with his brother (the Archduke) an expedition against the Turk for the defence of Christianity.—Datum Granatæ, 9th Nov. 1526.
Addressed: "Sacro Collegio Cardinalium."
Latin. Original draft in the handwriting of Alfonso Valdés. p. 1.
9 Nov. 604. The Emperor to Erasmus of Rotterdam.
S. Pat. Re. Estado,
1554, f. 553.
Congratulates him upon his having become "ex professo," an enemy of Luther. Exhorts him to continue in that path.—Granada, 9th of Nov. 1526.
Addressed: "Erasmo Rotterodamo."
Latin. Original draft. p. 1
9 Nov. 605. The Emperor to Giovanni Giorgio Orsino.
S. E. L. 1554,
f. 501.
Writes in credence of Cesar Ferramosca, whom he now sends to Rome and to other parts of Italy to beg they will remain faithful to his cause. (fn. n9) —Granada, 9th Nov. 1526.
Addressed: "Johanni Georgio Ursino."
Latin. Original draft pp. 1.
12 Nov. 606. Antoniotto Adorno, Doge of Genoa, to his Secretary, in Spain.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 109.
The confederates have removed their camp at Peschiera Malignano, and other places close to Monza. This has been done, as they say, at the Pope's express desire, who is no less anxious than the French and the Venetians that this our city should be attacked by land. For this purpose Gio. de' Medici went on Sunday, the 4th inst., to Piacenza with orders to throw a bridge over the Pò there, but it is to be hoped that when he hears of the speedy arrival of the Germans he will abandon his enterprise. Letters of the 8th from Mons. de Bourbon announce that within six or seven days, at the latest, Fruntsperg's bands will be in Lombardy.
Count Philippo Torniello and Gasparo del Mayno are still in the Novarese with considerable bands. Mons. de Bourbon has resolved to send the Marquis del Guasto against them with a strong force, but up to this date he has not left the camp.
The Italian and Spanish infantry lately from Cremona were enabled to cross the Pò some time ago. They may now be considered as saved, and able to join the Imperial camp.
Advices from Savona confirm the news of the French fleet "de vele quadre" being in the port of Villafranca. It is therefore to be feared that the galleys of the Religion of [St. John] of Rhodes will also join them.—Genoa, 12th Nov. 1526.
Addressed: "To our Secretary in Spain."
Italian. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 1½.
12 Nov. 607. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 99.
Wrote last on the 14th of October by Don Francisco de Mendoza, who sailed in a brigantine which he (Soria) fitted out for him. On the 1st inst. a servant of this Doge who left Spain on the 24th of September arrived, but brought no despatches for him (Soria). A letter, however, has arrived from Espinal, Don Ugo's secretary, informing him of his arrival at Monego (Monaco) in company with Donato de Taxis. Both left the Imperial Court on the 12th of October at Granada and brought despatches for him and other Imperial agents in Italy. Is very anxious to hear what news there is of the Viceroy's fleet, for certainly it is now wanted more than ever. Hopes that Don Francisco de Mendoza has reached Spain in safety.
(Cipher:) The last intelligence from Rome is contained in the enclosed letter of Secretary Perez to him [Soria], dated the 18th of October. The general opinion there is that the Pope will not fulfil his treaty with Don Ugo, and that the troops he is now collecting at Rome are destined against the Colonnese and the kingdom of Naples.
After giving His Holiness due notice of his arrival, Alvaro Perez left the other day for Rome, having first obtained from Cardinal Cortonna at Florence, and from the Datary (Giovanni Matheo Giberti), the required safe-conduct.
Encloses two letters from Alonso Sanchez, as well as the copy of another which that ambassador has written to him (Soria) from Venice. The account he gives of the state of the Imperial army at Milan is certainly not reassuring, and unless sufficient means be provided for the forces now coming to Italy, all that has hitherto been spent will be unavailing. Mons. de Bourbon says that the men are getting every day more clamorous and insolent. He has written to the Doge and to him (Soria) to procure him 30,000 ducats wherewith to pay part of their arrears to the Germans and Spaniards, who are so mutinous and disobedient as to be completely unmanageable. He (Soria) is very sorry that he cannot back the Duke's petition. The merchants will not advance more money except on bills drawn upon them, and endorsed by their correspondents in Spain; and as to applying to the Community it is out of the question in the present state of things.
The Spaniards who composed the garrison of Cremona are safe in Novara and its neighbourhood. Owing to the Pope's lieutenant (Guicciardini) and the Duke of Urbino refusing to ensure their march to Naples, they considered themselves entitled to return to Lombardy, which they have done. (fn. n10) The Germans left for their native country, and it is now asserted that some of them are coming back with Fruntsperg.
The enemy's fleet has been increased of late by 10 ships and galleons, besides two caracks, which they captured some time ago, laden with wheat for this port. It is asserted that some French galleys and those of Rhodes are to join them soon at Villafranca di Niça. With these forces they give out that they will attack the Viceroy's fleet so as to prevent his landing on this coast. We have in port four caracks and three galleons, besides the six galleys, a sufficient force for our defence, though not strong enough unless in combination with the Viceroy's, to drive off the confederated fleet. Indeed, should not the latter arrive within 20 days, there is no knowing what will become of us all, for the people here are again holding meetings, and promoting the old idea of a union, with exclusion of both Fregosi and Adorni from the government of the Community, and under a chief (presidents) appointed by France. Knowing this, the commanders of the enemy's fleet are trying to allure the citizens with the hope that all vessels, wheat and merchandize taken from them will be restored; the Datary (Giberti) and Andrea Doria also write urging them to make terms and forsake the Emperor's cause.
Juanin (Giovannino) de Medici has arrived at Piacenza. He must have been informed of the speedy arrival of the Germans in Lombardy, for he seems disposed to dispute with them the passage of the Pò ..... (fn. n11) —Genoa, 12th Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. Soria, 12th Nov."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 7.
12 Nov. 608. The Same to the Grand Chancellor Gattinara.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 105.
The enclosed for the Emperor will inform him of the state of things. The delay in the arrival of the promised reinforcements may prove a serious check to the Emperor's affairs.
Forwards a packet of letters just received from Mussiur de Liñan (Mons. de Lignano), his son-in-law.
Count of Santa Severina has died at Naples, leaving a vacancy in the Collateral Council of that kingdom. He (Soria) would apply for it, if he were sure that the Chancellor would favour his suit.—Genoa, 12th Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the most Illustrious Count of Gattinara, Grand Chancellor of the Supreme Council [of Estate] of His Imperial Majesty, &c. at Court."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.


  • n1. "Dertona era redutta in mano de inimici essendosseli introdutto un capitano con compagnia de ventureri; pero nostro nepote ha recuperata detta cita et ha redutto anche ad obedientia Vigisolo et alcuni loci."
  • n2. A Sicilian nobleman supposed to have been concerned in Cardinal Volterra's celebrated conspiracy in 1523. See Bergenroth, vol. II., p. 559. He had a brother named Francesco, whom Guicciardini (Istoria d'Italia, III., 396) calls Francesco Imperiale.
  • n3. Renzo da Ceri is said by Sanuto (v. Rawdon Brown, vol. II. p. 611) to have been sent by King Francis to Rome on this occasion; but as he was not a Frenchman, perhaps another ambassador is here meant. About this time a messenger of the Queen of France (Lorenzo Toscano) is said to have reached Rome (Guicciardini, lib. XVII.). His name is elsewhere said to be Daubreq.
  • n4. Napoleone Orsino, Abate di Farfa, about whom, see Guicciardini (IV. pp. 203–89). He was the son of Giangiordano Orsino.
  • n5. Ferramosca's departure from Spain having taken place in November, I have been induced to place here this minute in the handwriting of the Grand Chancellor, which, like most others, has the day of the month in blank. A copy of this is in Bergenroth's collection, vol. IV., fol. 323, in Brit. Mus., Add. 28,575, and is headed thus: "Lo que se ha de despachar para Roma y otras partes; en Castellano Garcia y Lallemand; en Latin Valdés."
  • n6. Drafts of letters to Giovanni Georgio Orsini, Ruberto Orsino, and Mario Orsino, dated Granada, 9th Nov., are at Simancas, Ferramosca being accredited to each of them separately.
  • n7. See above, Soria's letter, where the arrival at Genoa of Fr. Francisco de Quiñones, under the pseudonym of Alvaro Perez, is mentioned, p. 964.
  • n8. "Las materias de Perez Aguilera, Alonso Sanchez," &c. Thus written it is difficult to decide whether Perez Aguilera is meant for only one person, or whether Secretary Perez and Knight Commander Aguilera are intended. I rather incline to the latter reading, and have accordingly placed a comma to separate the two names.
  • n9. There is a note in the Chancellor's own hand thus conceived: Similar circular letters, mutatis mutandis to be addressed to Ruberto Ursino, Mario Ursino, to the Governor of Rome, to the Archbishop of Capua (Capuano), Cardinal Colonna, Vespasiano and Ascanio Colonna; Senatui P. Q. R. et Conservatoribus, &c. Gattinara's original draft ordering this and other letters to be written is printed at p. 996, under No. 601.
  • n10. "I cavalli e i fanti Spagnuoli avendo passato il Pò per tornarsene nel Regno di Napoli, ed essendo fatta loro qualche difficultà dal Luogo Tenente di concedere le patenti e i salvocondotti sufficienti, perche era molesto al Pontefice que andassero á Napoli, preso (sic) al improviso il camino per la montagna di Parma e di Piacenza, e depoi passato con celerità il Po, alla Chiarella si condussero salvi nella Lomellina, e dipoi á Milano."—Guicciardini, Istoria d' Italia, lib. XVII.
  • n11. The letter is almost entirely in cipher, but so torn and mutilated that scarcely one half of it can be read. No deciphering, however, is appended.