Spain: October 1526, 16- 31

Pages 968-989

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.


October 1526, 16-31

16th Oct. 586. The Emperor to the Abbot of Najera.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d' Esp.
The King, &c. We wrote to you on the 21st of Sept., and have since received yours of the 10th of that month, though Lope Hurtado, who was to be the bearer, has not yet made his appearance.
Our Viceroy of Naples (Charles de Lannoy) will be at Cartagena, ready to sail with the fleet on the 20th inst., weather permitting. He takes with him the Germans who were in the Roussillon, and 3,000 picked Spaniards. We have also ordered considerable armaments to be prepared at Genoa, and have written on the subject to the Duke of Bourbon, who is to send thither certain artillery.
What you tell us concerning Antonio de Leiva (fn. n1) we firmly believe. We always held him in estimation, and therefore refused to listen to the many reports circulated about him. We could not easily shut our ears to the accusations preferred against him, though we were convinced that he was incapable of behaving otherwise than honourably, as he has done upon every occasion. We are the first to acknowledge his good services, and he will find us always grateful and disposed to reward him.—Granada, 16th Oct. (fn. n2) 1526.
Addressed: "Al Abad de Najera, Comisario General del Emperador en Italia."
Indorsed: "The King. 1526. Granada. To the Abbot of Najera, 16th Nov. By duplicate."
Spanish. Original draft in Secretary Soria's hand. pp. 1½.
20th Oct. 587. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 4.
(Cipher:) His last was dated the 15th inst. Has since then received the enclosed from Castro, (fn. n3) announcing the speedy arrival of the German reinforcements. The municipal officers of Innsbruck wrote to say that 12,000 of the best troops may be confidently expected in Italy before the end of this month, perhaps next week.
This Signory has had letters from their secretary at the Court of France (Andrea Rosso) of the 6th or 10th inst., stating that the King was much pleased to hear of the surrender of Cremona, and that his mother (Louise de Savoie) gave the courier who brought the news some ducats. (fn. n4) The King, moreover, hearing what had happened at Rome, had determined to despatch Renzo da Ceri to the Pope, promising his help in men and money, and offering, if required, to come down at the head of a powerful army.
They (the Venetians) say that letters have come from their ambassador at the Imperial Court (Navagero) in date of the 20th of September, advising that the Viceroy's fleet was not to be expected so soon—perhaps not in this present October—as the Germans, who were to be embarked in it, had been ordered to Valencia, to put down a rebellion of the Moriscoes in that locality.
The Archduke by the last accounts was at Vienna at the head of considerable forces. The nobles of Sclavonia had held their diet, made him their King, and sent him an ambassador. This news has come in a letter of the president of Lubiana (Louvayn) to the Austrian ambassador residing in this city. A diet was also held at Praga (Prague) on the 6th inst., and there was a question of electing the Archduke for their King, although the King of France, the Duke of Saxony, and a great lord in Bohemia were also pretenders to the Crown.
The Turk has crossed the Danube with all his army in the direction of Transylvania, whose Vayvod (Zapolsky) is still at the head of 100,000 men.
Hears that the castellan of Musa (Gian Jacopo de' Medici) has released the Venetian ambassadors, who were going to France, for a consideration of 5,000 cr. (escudos), paid down in specie.—Venice, 20th Oct. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Cesareæ, Catholicæ Maiestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Sanchez, 20th Oct."
Spanish. Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 48). pp. 1½.
21 Oct. 588. King Henry to Dr. Edward Lee, his Ambassador in Spain.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224, No. 10,
ff. 19–23.
His letters dated Granada the 7th and 17th of September came by Osborne Echingham, bearer of this present; also a paper in French containing the Emperor's answer to certain points, and the ambassador's own despatches to the Cardinal of York.
Inside the packet of letters there was one addressed to Don Yngo (Iñigo) de Mendoza, whom the Emperor despatched some time ago as his ambassador to this court, but as he (Mendoza) has not yet arrived, and there is no certainty of his coming, he being now detained in France owing to certain matters brought forward against him (fn. n5) (though we have lately written for his liberation and hope to have soon news of him), the letter has been forwarded to the Provost of Casselles (Theimseke), now resident ambassador in this court, that he may keep it until his (Mendoza's) arrival. The said Provost who came here, sent by the Duchess of Savoy (Margaret of Austria) to represent the Emperor, has likewise delivered to us a letter from the Emperor, signifying his desire for the continuance of our friendship and alliance, the establishment of peace in general, and with the King of France especially, the withdrawal of his armies from Italy, the payment of debts owing to us, &c.
We have moreover seen the copy of the brief addressed to the Emperor by our Holy Father, and the answer given to it; also a report of the last conferences held between the King of France and the Viceroy of Naples (Charles de Lannoy), and a note (billet) containing certain offers made by the aforesaid King for the release of the hostages, his sons. All which papers and letters We have attentively perused, and find so weighty and important for the better knowledge of present affairs, that after taking the opinion of some of our wisest councillors upon their contents, we have resolved to send you back the present bearer [Osborne Echingham] with our own answer to the Emperor's letter, a copy of which is herein enclosed, that you may in compliance with your other instructions know our wishes and intentions; and first of all you will thank the Emperor for the readiness with which he has accepted our suggestions and advice in this matter of the general peace. We are pleased to hear his assurances that he will devote himself to that object, and that he proposes to appoint us mediator. In the state in which Christendom is, a prompt remedy is required. The Turk has invaded Hungary in great force, and defeated its King, who, flying from the field of battle, where most of his nobles fell, was drowned in La Drave (?) Should the kingdom of Hungary, one of the strongest bulwarks of Christendom on that side, remain in the hands of the Infidel, there is no knowing what harm might be done to our holy religion, for unless the Christian Princes, now engaged in intestine wars, lay down their arms, and make a general league for the repulse (rebboutement) of the said Turks, they will inevitably overrun Germany.
You will ask the Emperor in our name to confirm by his acts the very honourable words and promises contained in his letter to us, and to do everything in his power for the establishment and consolidation of a lasting peace among Christians, trusting, as we do also, that the King of France, whose great virtues and particular zeal for the Christian religion and the cause of God are well known, will do his utmost to attain this desirable object. This much with regard to the affair in general. Entering more into particulars We must say that We cannot see how a matter of this magnitude, so pressing, and so important, can be brought to a desirable conclusion, or how it is possible that a meeting of Princes or their delegates can take place soon enough to be of use, for before the appointment of the said delegates and designation of the place of meeting, considerable time must elapse, and winter not being a very suitable season for Princes and other great personages to assemble and work at conferences, it would naturally follow that much valuable time would be lost. Were We, who have no direct interest in this affair, to accept the Emperor's offers, and become mediator between the belligerents, We should suggest that the ambassadors of the contracting parties, now residing at this our court, or who might be sent hereafter, should be properly empowered, not only to discuss and treat about the said general peace among Christians, but likewise to approve, sanction, and ratify the clauses of the treaty. To this end We have just written to our Holy Father, the Pope, and to our good brother, the King of France, as well as to the Venetians, exhorting them that, since they are willing to admit our mediation in the present business, they send to their respective ambassadors at this our court sufficient powers and suitable instructions, declaring their intentions and wishes in a clear and categorical manner, without digression, that they (the ambassadors) may at once discuss, settle and conclude their masters' private affairs, the general peace among Christians, and the formation of a league to repel the Turkish invasion. All this to be accomplished in such a manner that there be no need for the said ambassadors to consult their respective courts thereupon, or to send messengers backwards and forwards, as the delay caused by such proceedings might thwart and impede the issue of the negotiations.
We need scarcely tell you that similar exhortations must be addressed by you to our most beloved brother and nephew, the Emperor, advising him in our name to use all possible diligence in this affair, and to let us know in a plain and straightforward manner his intentions and wishes respecting the King of France, the general peace and projected repulsion of the Turk, which it now concerns him (the Emperor) more than any other Christian Prince to accomplish, if it be true, as asserted, that owing to the death of the last King of Hungary, without posterity, the Archduke Ferdinand, his brother, is to inherit that and his other kingdoms.
With regard to the offers made by the Emperor to the Pope, as he informs us in his letter, to lay down his arms, provided the Italian potentates do the same, there can be no doubt that such demonstration on his part is a sufficient proof that he (the Emperor) is in earnest and really wishes for peace. We have lost no time in acquainting the ambassadors of the Pope, of the King of France, and of the Venetians, residing at this our court, with so laudable a determination. Yet the said ambassadors assert that this declaration of the Emperor's is a mere form without meaning, inasmuch as instead of diminishing his Italian army he is daily increasing it, and sending thither his Viceroy of Naples (Charles de Lannoy) at the head of very considerable forces. Neither arc the affairs of Italy now in the state in which they were when the Duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza) was expelled from his dominions, a portion of which still remain in the hands of the Emperor, whilst another portion is occupied by the confederates. For this reason the ambassadors think that before a cessation of hostilities is proposed, the said Duke of Milan should be reinstated, or at least that his estate should be placed in neutral hands, until it be decided by law whether he (the Duke) is guilty or innocent of the charges brought against him.
Owing to the above objections it seems advisable that the Emperor declare at once his intentions respecting the Duchy of Milan and Francesco Sforza; because though he (the Emperor) cannot and ought not to be compelled to treat him otherwise than as his vassal and subject, and he (the Duke) could give hostages or some other sufficient security to surrender his estate if found guilty, yet the Italian potentates, who are now armed for their common defence, would not feel secure. For if the preliminaries of peace be adjusted, and the meeting of the above-mentioned plenipotentiaries take place, there must be at once a cessation of hostilities, and if the Italian Princes lay down their arms, in virtue of the truce thus made, and the Emperor ultimately remains in possession of the Duchy, the rest of Italy might be in fear of subjugation, whereby the negotiations for peace would be impeded, and a cause created for new and incessant wars.
You are also to inform our beloved nephew, the Emperor, how shocked We were to hear of the odious and unheard-of outrage committed by Don Ingo (Ugo) de Moncada, the Colonnese, and other of their adherents against the Pope's person (encontre la personne du Pappe), the particulars of which outrage we have no doubt have reached the Emperor's ears long before this. We are sure not only that the Emperor did not authorise or consent to such injurious treatment, but that he will be highly displeased at it, just as any other Christian Prince would be in a similar case, for really if the thing happened as related to us, there never was such an insult committed, not even by the Vandals, Goths, or any other barbarous nation; which execrable act is the more to be detested since, as we are informed, Imperial soldiers despoiled and plundered the Church of St. Peter and other temples and houses consecrated to God, and made most abominable use of the vases and ornaments of the same, such as was never before seen, read, or heard of, to God's great displeasure, to the infamy and shame of the offenders, and notable dishonour of the Apostolic See. We can assure you that the perpetration of such dishonourable acts by subjects of our beloved brother, cousin, and nephew, the Emperor, has been a matter of deep regret to us. Under the conviction, however, that such heinous acts have been committed without the Emperor's consent or advice, We have done, and are still doing, all that is in our power to mitigate, soften, and excuse the same, using all manner of arguments to persuade the ambassador of the Pope and other Christian Princes to bear the insult patiently. We are confident that, unless a new provocation and insult be offered, We shall find them inclined to the conclusion of a general peace. We have likewise exhorted our brother, the King of France, to offer the best possible terms for the release of his hostages, so that if a reasonable proposal can be agreed to on both sides, some good peace may be established that may enable us all to drive away the Turks from Hungary. To the execution of which purpose We shall not only devote all our care, efforts, and counsels, but also our means, as behoves a Christian King, although our dominions are perhaps further from danger than those of any other King.
Respecting the Emperor's intended coronation [in Italy], our advice is that since in so doing the Emperor is more actuated by his desire of becoming useful to Christianity, and preserving it against the attacks of the Turks and other infidels, as well of the heretic Lutherans, than by any private interest, considering that the Emperor cannot acquire greater glory or authority through it or a better right to the Empire, than that which he has now, the said act should be postponed. Should peace be made, and arrangements carried out for the repression of the Turk and his expulsion from Hungary, the Emperor's journey to Italy for the purpose of assuming the Imperial crown may easily be accomplished, and the ceremony performed without any of the Italian powers taking umbrage or suspecting his motives.
You can assure the Emperor that in this particular, as well as in all others in which our mediation may be asked or required, We shall act towards him as We would wish him to act towards us in a similar case; and that in what concerns the general peace, now in contemplation, he will find us so just and impartial a mediator and arbiter that neither he (the Emperor) nor any other Prince will have occasion to say that We have been biassed by hatred or affection to any of the parties concerned.
With regard to the debts he owes us, after hearing Don Iñigo de Mendoza's explanations on the subject, we intend to act with all reason, so that everything may be settled to his satisfaction. (fn. n6)
You shall take care that the Emperor's answer to this our letter reach us, as soon as possible, by the same Osborne Echingham, present bearer.
Addressed: "A notre ambassadeur à la cour de l'Empereur."
French. Contemporary copy. pp. 17.
22 Oct. 589. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 40.
Wrote on the last day of September and 1st of October by Knight Commander de Sanct Anton, whom Don Ugo despatched to Spain. Encloses duplicate.
His Holiness is still arming. He has sent for 3,000 Switzers and 2,000 Italians, besides 400 lances and 500 horse, and is every day making fresh levies. With these forces and those he had already at Rome his army will soon amount to 8,000 foot and 1,000 horse. He gives out that these preparations are only intended as a means of defence against the Viceroy, who he fears will not ratify his agreement with Don Ugo. (Cipher:) The Secretary's opinion is that if the Pope finds an opportunity of revenging himself on the Colonnese he will not let it slip, for he is highly incensed against them, principally against Vesoasiano, of whom he says diabolical things (diabluras).
(Common writing:) His Holiness' journey [to Spain] is still talked of, though not so warmly as at first. Meanwhile he is thinking of appointing legates to go to the various courts—Cardinal Edigio (Egidio) (fn. n7) to Spain, Campeggio to France and England. It is added that he has sent orders to Salviati (Bernardo), now his legate in France, to terminate his business there and return forthwith to his post near His Imperial Majesty. He (Perez) cannot say whether this last report be true or not, but this he knows for certain; namely, that the Portuguese ambassador in this city (Don Martin de Portugal) is going very soon to Spain on a mission. The Pope has announced it in consistory, and the ambassador has willingly accepted the office, believing that he will be the means of bringing the present quarrel to an end. The Pope's journey, therefore, very much depends on the answer, that shall be given to Don Martin or to his legate. He (the Pope) shows great desire that the war should be put an end to throughout Italy, and has so written to Don Ugo. Would like to have the Neapolitan galleys for his voyage, and has already begun making preparations, and asking his cardinals for money. Those who have none to give are to deliver up their plate, jewels, &c., and it is even said that the ornaments of churches will be sold for that purpose, and for the war His Holiness intends waging on the Turk. Don Ugo is at Puçol (Puzzuolo), Cardinal Colonna at Subiaco, and Vespasiano at Genençno. The latter was married the other day to a daughter of Luis de Gonzaga. (fn. n8) Ascanio Colonna is at Tallacoz (Tagliacozzo). Their forces scattered about the frontiers of Naples. It is to be presumed that, knowing as they no doubt do the Pope's warlike preparations, they are on the alert.
The Pope has somehow got possession of a letter which Don Ugo is said to have written to Vespasiano Colonna, requesting him to accompany him [to Rome] in force, as such was the Emperor's pleasure. He (the Pope) carries about the letter in his pouch (escarcela), shows it frequently, and says he intends to make it the principal ground for his complaint, when he next sees the Emperor. (Cipher:) The Secretary thinks that Vespasiano himself must have given Don Ugo's letter to the Pope, in order to excuse himself, for otherwise it could never have come to his hands.
Some days ago the Spanish residents (fn. n9) assembled at Sanctiago, where Bishop Felice addressed them in the Pope's name, saying His Holiness had heard that owing to recent occurrences the subjects of the Emperor were in some apprehension about their persons and property. They had nothing to fear from him, and now more than ever were to consider themselves secure, and follow their vocations and professions (oficios y beneficios) as before. But he begged that, since it was the custom of Spain that whenever a priest (alguno de corona) received injury, all clergymen took up arms in his defence, to stand up for him (the Pope) when attacked, or at least not side with his enemies. If any one of them was ill-treated, or had any complaint to make, he had only to apply to Bishop Felice, and his wrongs would be immediately redressed. The assembly returned thanks, and appointed the Bishops of Salamanca, Huesca, Castelamare arid Alguer to present their respects to His Holiness in the name of the whole congregation. The Pope received them very well, repeated the same assurances which Bishop Felice had made, brought to their recollection, with tears in his eyes, the late sacking of St. Peter and of his own palace, and then showed that the above-mentioned letter from Don Ugo to Vespasiano Colonna.
There was on the night of the 2nd inst. (fn. n10) a great commotion here at Rome. The great bell in Campodolio (Campidoglio), which had not been tolled for upwards of 60 years, began to sound the alarm. This was owing to the men on watch having seen in the distance the light of fires and a party of hunters and mistaking them for Colonnese. Until the truth was known, all was alarm and confusion in the city. Only the Pope was tranquil in the midst of it, and laughed heartily at those who brought him the news. Some believe that the whole thing was concocted for the purpose of seeing how the Romans would answer the call in case of attack. Upwards of 4,000 armed men, many on horseback, ran in this manner to the defence of the city walls, but it is to be presumed that had the Colonnese really made their appearance before Rome, not so many would have answered the bell.
(Cipher:) It is suspected that the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d' Este) is again in treaty with the Pope, and that the Venetians, though by no means his friends, are trying to detach him from the Imperial alliance.
(Common writing:) A brother of the Marquis of Mantua (fn. n11) has come to condole with His Holiness, and also to apply for a cardinal's hat, which, he says, has been promised to his mother the Marchioness (la Marquesana), (fn. n12) who is now here.
One of the Pope's captains, named Vitello, once before Milan, has arrived [in Rome], and is shortly to be followed by Count Guido [Rangone] and the rest, with the exception of Juan (Giovanni) de Medicis, who has taken pay from France, with 50 lances and 200 horse, and is to join the Marquis of Saluzzo. The rest of the Papal army [at Milan] is not to be disbanded until it be ascertained whether the Duke of Bourbon accepts or not the agreement made with Don Ugo, as the answer that was to have been brought by Don Francisco de Mendoza has not yet been received. That gentleman was detained at Modena, but when the Pope heard of it, he gave orders that he should be allowed to proceed on his journey. The excuse for his detention was that Guicardin (Il Guicciardino), fearing lest the garrison of Cremona should, when they heard of the Pope's agreement with Don Ugo, refuse to surrender the place, gave the governor of Mantua orders for all persons or messengers to be arrested, even if they came from the Pope. The alleged excuse may or may not be a right one, but the fact is that Don Francisco has already reached Piacenza, as the Pope says. We are daily expecting to hear from him, but hitherto no official news has been received of Cremona's surrender, which, according to the terms of the capitulation, was to have taken place the last day of September.
The sad intelligence from Hungary is, however, but too true. The Archduke is already in Austria, and on the 22nd of September entered Lintz. Travellers from Trent state that 10,000 Germans were ready to come down during the month of September, but up to the present day we have no news of their having arrived. Those who were at Carpi marched to the assistance of their comrades at Cremona, leaving that town in charge of the Duke of Ferrara; at least such is the rumour here at Rome.
Whilst writing the above a letter has been received from the Archduke, saying he was about to send the Papal nuncio at his court with a message for His Holiness, who on his side is preparing an embassy of condolence on the progress of the Turkish arms, and offers of his help and assistance, though he will not send him money, as he says he himself is in great want of it.
Some say that a brother (fn. n13) of Cardinal de Lorraine has taken a commission from the King of France to subsidize 800 lansquenets, with whom, and the other forces he has here, he is to invade the kingdom of Naples; but there is no reason to suppose that such an idea exists, especially as the Viceroy is daily expected there.
News has this moment been received of the surrender of Cremona, and of the entrance of the Venetians into that city to the cry of "Marco, Marco! Duca, Duca!" It is believed the Duke (Francesco Sforza) will soon be there. The Germans, 1,500 in number, went out with banners furled and without drums; 70 lances, 100 horse, and 300 Spanish infantry were to go to Naples by way of Ravenna, but it was supposed that they would return to Carpi, being too few in number to cross the Romagna.
The Pope's troops, with the single exception of the bands commanded by Juan (Giovanni) de Medicis, who, as above stated, is to join the Marquis of Saluzzo, have gone to Parma and Piacenza. The Marquis of Mantua (Federigo Gonzaga) has done the same with his men; (cipher:) so that the Venetians alone remain now in the field, although nothing is easier for them than to take into their service most of the Papal troops just dismissed, and even to subsidize them with the Pope's money.
Has been told that the brother of the Marquis of Mantua, who, as aforesaid, is now at Rome, has brought full powers from the Duke of Ferrara to treat with the Pope. They say that he has already concluded, or very nearly so, an agreement by means of which the Duke is to have Modena, receive the investiture of Ferrara and his other estates, and be appointed Commander-in-Chief (Capitan-General) of the League, and furnish a contingent in men-at-arms (lanças) and light horse (caballos).
The said Mantuan (Hercole Gonzaga) is to be created Cardinal. It is even asserted that he has the Papal bulls in his possession already, but that the whole thing is kept secret for fear of the other cardinals being scandalized and going over to the faction of the Colonna.
The Pope, it is added, does not intend to keep his agreement, being daily persuaded by the datary (Matheo Giberti) and by Cardinal Fernesia (Farnese) not to do so. They tell him that the last mishap (afruenta) was entirely his fault, for not keeping a sufficient force in Rome, and that the covenant then made [with Don Ugo] having been agreed to under compulsion is null, and therefore he (the Pope) can break it whenever he chooses, and at once commence hostilities against the kingdom of Naples. That and no other, as asserted, is the destination of the forces now collected in this city, mustering already 10,000 foot and upwards of 1,000 horse, besides others coming from Espoleto. As to money to defray the expenses of the expedition, the Pope relies on the alienation at 10% of 25,000 ducats, rent at Ripa, and in the customs (aduana), and the sale of certain houses and property of St. Paul's and other monasteries, which he hopes the Romans themselves will buy up.
In this manner does the Pope intend to revenge the injury received at the hands of the Colonnese. He, moreover, does not believe in the arrival of the German reinforcements, nor in that of the Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy), who, he says, will not come so soon as he is expected.
Has been told that in the negotiations with the Duke of Ferrara neither Alberto di Carpi nor Jacopo Salviati has a hand; they are being exclusively conducted by the datary (Matheo Giberti) with the greatest secrecy.
The Pope has agreed to give one of his nieces, called La Duchesina, in marriage to a son of the Duke of Ferrara, who, besides his contingent of men-at-arms and light horse, offers to give a sum of money for the pay of the Papal infantry, besides artillery, ammunition, &c. Hercole d' Este, for such is the name of the youth, is said to have brought with him for the Pope's signature the draft of the treaty which has been concluded and signed.
Renzo de Cherri (da Ceri), whom the Pope hitherto mistrusted, as he did not consider him sufficiently attached to his cause, has been sent for. He and Count Guido [Rangone] are to command the expedition against Naples. Vitello is to go to Florence. Orders have been issued to the heads of the boroughs (caporaones) at Rome to arm all men in their respective districts (regiones) with swords and pikes, to be ready at a moment's notice.
(Common writing:) The Pope has heard that Mons. de Bourbon will not ratify his agreement with Don Ugo. He shows discontent at this, and has written to the latter claiming his hostages back, and saying that since he (Bourbon) will not agree, matters must remain as they were before. No answer has yet come from Don Ugo, nor have we seen Mons. de Bourbon's letter to judge of his reasons for refusing.
(Cipher:) Much danger threatens the Colonnese from this assemblage of forces. He (Perez) has written to Don Ugo about it; presumes they will be on the alert.
(Common writing:) To-day, the 12th of October, His Holiness has news [from Milan] informing him that the Duke of Bourbon has had the agreement (concierto) publicly proclaimed in the camp, at which he (the Pope) is much gratified. The reason why the Duke delayed the ratification of the truce is that he had not been informed of it beforehand, and besides that he wished to know whether the Pope was bound by it to the restitution of Cremona, as there were no less than seven or eight companies (banderas) of his own infantry with the Venetians at the surrender of that place. Knight Commander Sanct Anton has just arrived from Milan with the same news, having passed through Sienna, where he went to recover, in accordance with one of the articles of the stipulation, the property taken from the Florentines. He has succeeded in having some of it restored, though some still remains in the hands of the captors. He (Sanct Anton) has suggested that a proper person should be sent to Sienna to claim the remainder, which the Pope is about to do.
A vessel has lately arrived in Pomblin (Piombino) with several Spaniards on board. On the 29th of Sept., the date of their departure from Cartagena, the Viceroy's fleet was still there. It had been detained in consequence of certain disturbances of the Moriscoes at Valencia, but the country being quiet again, the fleet was to sail immediately after issuing one month's pay to the men. Would to God it had come a month ago!
(Cipher:) The brother of the Marquis [of Mantua] has gone back. What he (Perez) said about his negotiations [for the Duke of Ferrara] is kept so secret that he cannot say for certain what truth there may be in the report, and whether the Duke has really forsaken the Imperial cause or not. He (Perez) continues, as before, to make him the medium of his correspondence with Alonso Sanchez and Don Ugo.
(Common writing:) The rest of the Papal troops from Lombardy are shortly expected in Rome. His Holiness keeps repeating his former assurances, viz., that they are only coining for his own defence. Three hundred musketeers who came the other day were by the Pope's command quartered at the palace of Ascanio Colonna, who was so angry when he heard of it that he has written to him (Perez) begging him to tell the Pope to remove the said force, or not to be astonished if he (Ascanio) should retaliate. The secretary intends one of these days to deliver Ascanio's message, but doubts whether His Holiness will take any notice of it.
Fabio Petrursis (Petrucci) is to go to Naples with a safe-conduct from Don Ugo. His journey has a double purpose; one of which is to beg pardon for his past offences, and offer his services to the Emperor. In the opinion of some, these latter ought to be accepted, for when the Siennese know that he is under the Emperor's protection, and may hereafter be placed in command of the city, they may become firmer adherents (andar mas derechos) to the Imperial service. The other is to receive the inheritance of his brother the citizen (el burgues) lately deceased at Naples.
Letters have been received from the Imperial Court in date of the 22nd of September, purporting that the ambassadors of France, Venice and Florence had received notice to quit, and that the Emperor had spoken angry words to the French (Mons. de Calvimont). Such dismissal of ambassadors at this time is very significative, and these people begin to fear that before the end of this month the Viceroy's fleet and the German reinforcements will arrive in Italy,
The Datary's servant who went the other day to France has returned. It is not generally known what has been the result of his mission, but he (Perez) hears that he brings an autograph letter of the King, in which he offers to come over in person to protect and defend the person of the Pope and the patrimony of the Church. On the other hand His Holiness shows much contentment at a letter he has received from his Nuncio (Castiglione), wherein he tells him that the Emperor is well disposed to conclude a general peace, which intelligence, coupled with the afflicting news received here of the progress of the Turk, will perhaps decide him (the Pope) to be no longer an obstacle to the said peace.
Has spoken to His Holiness in Don Ugo's name of the nuisance complained of by Ascanio Colonna. His answer was that the men who come to Rome must be quartered somewhere, at Cardinals' houses as well as those of other persons, for he (the Pope) has no other quarters to provide for them. Colonna therefore must have patience. Has written to him to pocket the affront and be quiet, but is much afraid that he will retaliate or do something whereby the present agreement may be broken.
This letter was begun a fortnight ago, when it seemed probable that the Portuguese ambassador (Don Martin de Portugal) would leave for Spain. As it is not yet decided whether he will go or not, he has made up his mind to send it by this conveyance. Hopes to God it will reach safely.
Intelligence has been received from the Duke of Ferrara that the Spaniards of Cremona intend to go to Carpi, and thence take the road to Pavia, or wherever they may be more useful to the Emperor, as they hear that were they to go to Naples they would be attacked and plundered on the road. As the said Spaniards left four hostages as security for their going to Naples, as stipulated in the capitulation, they are thinking of redeeming their comrades with the Venetian commissaries furnished for their security, whom they have imprisoned, which after all has proved a successful stratagem.
At every consistory which the Pope holds, there is a question of appointing legates, but hitherto no nomination has been made.—Rome, 22nd October 1526.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ, Cæsareæ, Catholicæ Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Rome. Perez, 22nd Oct."
Spanish partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 12.
22 Oct. 590. Joan de Castro to Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 75.
Wrote on the 15th inst., announcing his visit to George Fruntsperg. Came afterwards to this place (Innsbruck), where he found his (Sanchez's) letters of the 14th and 16th.
Everything is settled. Each captain has received money to pay his men on the road. Half-pay only to be issued from the day of the departure, which is to be the 12th at the latest. We muster 35 companies (capitanias) without including camp followers, who on this occasion are much more numerous than usual; 40,000 ducats per month will be required for the full pay of all this force, but Mons. de Bourbon writes to say: "Let the men come down immediately and the money shall not be wanting." We are accordingly coming in such force that when the Pope and the Venetians hear of it they will be anything but pleased. Calculates that this time, if money is not wanting, the Emperor will become sole master in Italy. Is going to Bolçano to collect his men for the general muster to be passed there on Friday next, the 2nd of November.
Good news of the Turk. Has heard in date of the 15th that His Highness the Archduke was at the furthermost village of his dominions, where he had held a conference with his sister (Queen Mary) for the purpose of taking possession of the crown of Hungary. The Vayvod of Transylvania (Zapolsky) opposes his election. The Bohemians have not yet decided, but are expected to vote in favour of His Highness, though the Duke of Saxony (John) is one of the pretenders to that crown. The Archduke's presence on the frontiers of Hungary has so reanimated the courage of the people that they flocked to him from all sides, and he found himself at the head of such a force that after detaching a portion for the security and protection of his frontiers, he was about to take the field with 7,000 horse and a considerable train of artillery. The Turk, after committing unheard of ravages and cruelties in Hungary, was retreating to Transylvania for the winter, intending to come back again next spring.
Indorsed: "Copy of a letter from Joan de Castro to Alonso Sanchez."
Spanish. Cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 75). pp. 2.
27 Oct. 591. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 58.
Wrote on the 22nd inst., and now encloses duplicate of his letter. Nothing new to report except that the Papal troops from Lombardy are fast approaching Rome, and will be sent towards the Colonnese territory. They are to cross the Tiber, three leagues below Rome, and then march in that direction. Those which the Pope had here, and which, according to his (Perez') former despatches, were leaving Rome secretly, have already reached Grutta Ferrata, an abbey of Cardinal Colonna's. They have likewise occupied Marino, and another place called Frascati, which belongs to Vespasiano Colonna, and is the residence of Marco Antonio's widow. He (Perez) has spoken about this to the Archbishop of Capua (Schomberg), intimating that the Pope's behaviour cannot be looked upon in any other light than as a breach of the agreement between him and Don Ugo. His answer was that although the Papal troops were in the above-mentioned towns, they had not taken them from the Colonnese. His Holiness had a right to quarter his troops wherever he thought best within the territory of the Church, just as the Emperor had in Spain or Naples, or in the estates and towns of his barons and nobility. Replied to him that nobody could dispute that right in time of peace, but that when people were at war with each other it looked very much like taking possession of them altogether.
The Pope sent for him (Perez) yesterday and begged he would write to Don Ugo and persuade him to accept a sum of money, which he would name, in exchange for the person of Filippo Strozzi, detained at Naples as hostage. He (Strozzi) would pledge himself to appear before the Emperor within a certain time. In case of the offer not being accepted, His Holiness was willing to send as hostage in his room the Duke Alessandro [de' Medici], his nephew. He was about sending the Archbishop of Capua to Don Ugo on this errand. Strozzi's wife was ill, and her husband's detention so preyed on her mind, that he (the Pope) was afraid she would die of grief (congoxa). The fact is that this lady is held in great estimation by His Holiness, and it is thought that the disease she is suffering from may be aggravated by her husband's absence. The Archbishop (Schomberg) left yesterday evening for Naples. On this occasion the Pope told him (Perez) that the troops at Grutta Ferrata and Frascati had received orders to move on. If any damage had been committed, it would be paid for. They had only been sent thither to make room for the Switzers, who could not be accommodated at Rome in the same quarters occupied by the Italians.
The departure of the Archbishop [of Capua] has caused great consternation among the people of this city, who imagine that the Viceroy has already landed somewhere on the coast of Italy. But the truth is that there is no news of him or his fleet, except that he was to sail from Cartagena on the 7th inst.
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ Cesareæ Catholicæ Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Rome. From Perez, 27th Oct."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 2.
28 Oct. 592. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 60.
Wrote on the 3rd inst. as by duplicate enclosed. On the 6th, Knight Commander of Sanct Antonio arrived from Naples with letters, and a message from Don Ugo de Moncada. He had a safe-conduct from the Pope. His commission was to ascertain whether the Papal troops were really leaving the camp before Milan, according to the agreement signed at Rome; also to know what the Duke of Bourbon intended to do in case of the Pope not fulfilling the conditions, or of the Viceroy refusing to ratify the trace on his arrival.
Francesco Guicciardini, lieutenant-general of the Papal forces, raised his camp on the 7th inst., leaving part of his artillery behind, for want of oxen, with only a few men to guard the guns. An edict was published on the 11th enjoining the men of this Imperial army not to interfere in any way with the Pope's subjects, but to treat them in a kindly and brotherly spirit as in time of peace. Part of the artillery is since gone, and the rest is to follow soon. Only Juan (Giovanni) de Medicis with his band remains behind, in the pay of France, as he pretends. He has sent thither a man, with a safe-conduct from the Duke of Bourbon, to inquire from the French King the terms of his service, &c., but the man has not yet returned, and our spies in the enemy's camp report, that Medicis is not inclined to wait any longer, and intends to join the Papal army. Four of his companies have already left the camp, and the rest will follow soon, as he says he does not choose to be under orders to the Marquis of Saluzzo.
The Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere) arrived here on the 16th inst., with the intention, as he said, of attacking us; but hearing that we were ready to receive him, and wished for nothing so much as an opportunity to measure our forces with his, has changed his mind, and now says he is about to fortify certain places 10 or 12 miles from Milan, to stop our supplies. Federico de Bozano (de Bozzolo) is to occupy Monza, close to Como and Monte de Broanço (Brianza?), with 2,000 infantry. Another strong detachment is to be sent to Melça and Cassano, in the direction of La Geradada (Ghiera d'Adda). He, himself, with the rest of the force will take possession of a district called Viagrassa, by which we receive our supplies from the other side of the Tesin (Ticino). This last district, however, is now being fortified by Bourbon's orders, and before he (the Duke of Urbino) arrives there with his heavy camp—which cannot possibly be accomplished in less than four or five days, though the place is only 14 miles from Milan—the whole will be strengthened ready to meet the enemy's approach. Now it is rumoured that the Duke is no longer going to Viagrassa, but intends to quarter for the winter at Monza, Melça and two abbeys close to his camp. He has begun to fortify those towns and monasteries, more in order to keep his men employed than to prepare the said winter quarters, for his forces are not considerable enough to allow such a division. His (the Abbot's) impression is that the Duke will not move from where he is until, through the arrival of the reinforcements we expect from Germany and Spain, he finds that he can no longer hold his ground. His plan seems to be to carry on a desultory war as long as he can, keeping his men out of their own country and in this estate of Milan, and thus gain time for the supplies he expects from Venice, Lodi and Cremona to arrive, and for the King of France, at whose request this war is being made, not the Duke Francesco's as was said at first, to negotiate with the Emperor for the deliverance of his two sons. Lastly, the Duke hopes that from want of money and provisions we shall be obliged to evacuate Milan, and that everything this Imperial army has gained will be lost in one day.
The rest of the men-at-arms and infantry brought from France by the Marquis of Saluzzo has arrived at Vercelli. They muster 100 lances and 700 or 800 foot, between Frantopins and Gascons, and have gone to Gatinaria, a town belonging to the Grand Chancellor of the Empire (Mercurino), intending to pass the river Sessia by the same ford, near which the Admiral of France (Bonnivet) was defeated and wounded three years and a half ago. Their intention is to cross the Tesin (Ticino), near its issue from Laco Maggiore, and come to this camp [before Milan]. A certain Count Filipo Tornielo, (fn. n14) a native of Novara, and a rebel to the Empire, has been despatched by the Marquis [of Saluzzo] with 200 musketeers to guide and conduct the said forces to the camp of the confederates; or, if he can, to gain possession of Novara, which Count Lodovico de Beljoyoso has lately occupied with 100 lances, 300 light horse, and 600 Italian infantry selected from the companies which Count Gayaço has under his command. Hearing that Torniello, as above said, had started for Gatinaria, Count Gayaço had gone to Novara to concert with Beljoyoso about attacking the said bands either whilst crossing the Sessia, or after they had passed it, before reaching the Ticino. The weather is bad and rainy; the rivers much swoollen and it is very doubtful whether either captain will be able to accomplish his object.
Andrea Doria has returned to Genoa with six galleys under the Papal flag. He was expecting two more, which were first to take the Portuguese ambassador at Rome (Don Martin de Portugal) to Provence. This would show that His Holiness does not intend to fulfil his agreement with Don Ugo. Believes that Doria's galleys have gone thither to keep company with the Venetian, whilst Pedro Navarro goes with his to join the French fleet now being prepared at Marseilles, to prevent, as they say, the Viceroy's arrival. Advices from Genoa confirm this last report. Count Navarro, however, had not left on the 25th inst., as he wished to take with him part of the Venetian galleys under a captain, and also some of Doria's, but neither this latter nor the Venetian captain would consent to this, on which account there was dissension among the commanders of the enemy's fleet.
The Spanish and Italian forces, formerly at Cremona, in pursuance of orders sent to them from hence, have crossed the territory of the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d' Este), and reached an estate which Count Synebaldo de Fliesco has in the mountain district of Genoa. They had already arrived close to that city, and were to come to Tortona, whence they will march on Alessandria or wherever they may be most useful.
The Germans [from Cremona] have already reached Trent, where they are being incorporated with the forces of George Fransperghe (Fruntsberg). Of captain Corradin, nothing is known for certain; some say he is gone to Mantua, others to Venice. God permit that he may be as useful to them as he was to us, for certainly he was the cause of the surrender of Cremona.
On the 25th the Duke of Bourbon had a letter from Jorge Fransperghe, dated the 19th from Fies, beyond Innsbruck. He purposed, on the 1st of November, to pass muster with 32 full companies of infantry at Marano and the adjoining villages, and take immediately after the most convenient route to come [to Italy], respecting which he now consulted the Duke. In addition to the 10,000 ducats which had been remitted to him from hence, he asks for 10,000 more to pay his troops on the road, but says that should the designation of the route and money tarry, he will undertake his march by the road he thinks best.
The last Imperial letters received at this camp are one of the 14th of August, which reached us on the 1st of Sept., and another of the 7th, received on the 16th inst. This last came by Alvaro Perez, who arrived in Genoa on the 12th, and says that when he left Cartagena, on the 1st, the Viceroy was to sail almost immediately, about the 6th. This and the reported voyage of Pedro Navarro to Marseilles make us hope that the Viceroy's fleet will soon be on the coasts of Italy; for as to Fruntsperg's Germans, they have been so long coming that we have very little confidence in them, especially as Lope de Soria writes from Genoa that there is a rumour aflcat among the people of the galleys, as well as among the Fregosi inside the city, that the Viceroy had returned to Court, and that the Emperor had sent him again to the King of France, a thing not at all improbable, considering what Lope Hurtado de Mendoça wrote last from Chamberi; namely, that the French King had sent to His Imperial Majesty one of the gentlemen of his bed chamber with new proposals, and that the said gentleman had met on the road a courier of the Emperor's going to the King [of France].
(Cipher:) By the above summary account of late events His Imperial Majesty will be able to judge how matters stand. The plans of the generals, whether the reinforcements arrive or not, are as follows. If the confederates raise their camp and march on Viagrassa, as announced, to try and reach Alessandria or Como, and thence go in pursuit of the enemy and offer him battle. If victorious, as we are sure to be, to follow up our success; if vanquished, to die and fulfil our duty. Such is Bourbon's determination. The Marquis [del Guasto], though exceedingly weak in consequence of his quartan ague, is bent upon fighting to the death (fasta que la quartana le dexe). Antonio de Leyva is still suffering from tertian, and intermittent fever; half crippled by his usual sciatic complaint, and so feeble that he can scarcely move in his couch. Though so great an invalid, he manages all matters appertaining to war, and is determined to have himself fastened on his horse, if he cannot ride otherwise.
This desperate resolution of the Imperial generals, as may be imagined, has been taken in consequence of our not having one farthing left out of the last 200,000 ducats; of our being thereby unable to issue any pay to the Germans here and at Pavia; of the total want of provisions, which is the cause of the Milanese abandoning their dwellings to the mercy of the Imperial soldiers; and lastly, of the constant dread in which we all are of the men committing all manner of outrages in order to obtain their daily food. No money or supplies are to be expected from Naples, and the Duchy itself is completely exhausted and ruined. In this emergency we are determined to fight the enemy or die in the attempt. If an agreement can be made with the King of France, under such securities as may reasonably be demanded from one who has already once broken his faith and sacrificed his own sons—who only live by the Emperor's clemency—let it be made as soon as possible, for it is evident that he (the French King) is feeding the present war, and proposing new conditions for the sole purpose of delaying the departure of the Viceroy's fleet until the winter season sets in, so that he may in the meantime improve his position. Should, however, peace with France be impossible, His Imperial Majesty had better make terms with the Pope, England and Venice, the more effectually to chastise the French King for his violation of the treaties and immoderate lust of power. Whichever of these two courses be adopted, it is essential that it should be put into execution immediately, and before the Turk, now master of Hungary, penetrates so far into Germany as to compel the Emperor to go thither with all his forces and arrest his progress.
(Common writing:) The Marquis and Bishop of Astorga have arrived at Chamberi. The Marquis writes to say that he wishes to take part in the war, and will afterwards go to Rome. Bourbon has accordingly written to the Duke of Savoy, requesting him to give them (the Marquis and the Bishop) a sufficient escort to come as far as Casal di Monferrado or Verceli, whither he purposes sending another escort that may bring them safely to the camp. Lope Hurtado [de Mendoça] will come also, if the French King persist in his refusal to grant him a safe-conduct.
Begs that captains be appointed to several companies of men-at-arms, which are at present under the command of mere lieutenants, and that other persons of rank (principales), well trained to war, be also sent for the command of the various troops. Cremona was lost owing to the want of a trusty and experienced Spanish Commander.
On the 19th inst. Countess of Chalante (fn. n15) was beheaded in this Castle of Milan, after having confessed that Don Pedro de Golisano, the lieutenant and cousin of Count Golisano, had murdered, at her instigation, two brothers, named Arduyn and Carlo de Masyn, both Piedmontese and strong Imperialists. Both were assassinated one night by the said Don Pedro, actually a prisoner in this castle waiting for his trial.—Milan, 28th Oct. 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. Abbot of Najera, 28th Oct."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 64). pp. 7.
29 Oct. 593. Antoniotto Adorno, Doge of Genoa, to his Secretary at the Imperial Court.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 108.
(Cipher:) We hear from Rome that His Holiness has appointed legates to various courts; Campeggio to the Emperor, Salviati to France, Cesarini to England.
Two days ago Andrea Doria anchored at Porto Fino with six Papal galleys. Two more remain behind for the purpose of conveying to Marseilles the ambassador of the King of Portugal. Doria's galleys are under the Pope's flag (è con la bandera del Papa), which is a sufficient sign that he (the Pope) does not intend to observe the agreement. If he has hitherto, it has been merely for the purpose of arming and getting ready. We consider this news of sufficient importance to be communicated to the Emperor, and therefore send this letter to Monaco by land, that it may from thence be forwarded to you.
Of the German reinforcements we know nothing in this city, and, though the Viceroy's fleet is daily expected, there are no signs yet of its coming. The citizens are discontented and grumble, as there is only food for the remainder of this month; so that, considering the little hope there is of a speedy succour, it would be but reasonable to begin talking about surrender [to the enemy]. We hope, however, to receive some wheat from Lombardy, which will, perhaps, enable us to drag on for a few days longer until the Viceroy's arrival, which must not be longer delayed. Should he not come very soon, so as to deliver us from the enemy's fleet in front of this port, you may consider us—and indeed we desire you to say so at the Imperial Court—as entirely lost; and, Genoa once in the hands of the enemy, the Imperial army will not be able to hold Lombardy.—Genoa, 20th Oct. 1526.
Indorsed: "Desifrato de' littere del Signor Duca di Genoa al suo Secretario."
Italian. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 2.
29 Oct. 594. Joan de Castro to Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 77.
(Cipher:) Has duly received his two letters of the 19th and 21st, to which he will answer briefly, as he wrote fully on the 22nd. Has come to Trent, where his company of soldiers is. On the 2nd of November a general review is to be passed, and immediately after the [German] forces will begin to march. Will inform him, with all possible secresy, of the route they are to take. Thanks him for having communicated the intelligence to Milan. Nothing could be more agreeable to him (Castro) than to know for certain that the Imperial generals are duly advised of their movements. This time they will come down in such force as to be capable of fighting the enemy single-handed.
Affairs in Hungary and Bohemia go on prosperously. His Highness' determination [to fight] has been enough to make the Turk abandon his conquest, and retreat to his dominions. He has 25,000 Hungarians with him, and a Diet is soon to be held at a town of the Archducal dominions, where the Vayvod, who has usurped the crown, will not be able to do much for his cause. Things, moreover, are in a very satisfactory state in Bohemia, and if the Hungarians do not do their duty voluntarily they shall by force.—Trent, 29th Oct. 1526.
Signed: "Joan de Castro."
Addressed: "To His Worship Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador at Venice."
Spanish. Original entirely in cipher. (fn. n16) pp. 1½.
30 Oct. 595. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 72.
(Cipher:) Wrote last on the 20th inst. Encloses copy of a letter (fn. n17) from Joan de Castro, announcing the arrival of the Germans. The Pope by all accounts is arming very fast. He must have two objects in view (debe de tirar à dos hitos): to prepare against the Viceroy's fleet coming to Italy, and to invade the kingdom of Naples.
Merchants' letters from Florence of the 20th state that a Florentine had arrived there on his way to Rome. He came from the King of France on an embassy to the Pope, to whom he is to present 20,000 cr. (escudos) in addition to his monthly contribution to the League. If the news be true—and there is no reason to doubt it—the Pope is determined to attempt Naples, and that explains why the French King sends him that money.
Hears also that the Pope has lately forwarded to this Signory certain overtures for a general peace, and that the Signory, after discussing the point in some of their last preghai, have answered that they have no objection to a general peace, provided it be not said that the chief object is the Turkish war; that the Duke Francesco Sforza be also included in the treaty and restored to his estate, and that the sons of the French King recover their liberty.—Venice, 30th Nov. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ Cesareæ et Catholicæ Maiestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Alonso Sanchez. 30th Nov."
Spanish. Original entirely written in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2.
31 Oct. 596. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 77.
(Cipher:) After his letter of yesterday, the 30th, he (Sanchez) received the enclosed from Joan de Castro. The speedy arrival of the German reinforcements has caused much alarm among these people (the Venetians), who, it would appear, have not the means to carry on the war. Were the Viceroy's fleet to arrive at this moment, there can be no doubt that the Emperor's enemies would get the punishment they deserve.
Has heard that the Venetians intended to keep Cremona and the Geradada (Ghiera d' Adda) for themselves, as preconcerted with the Pope and the King of France. The Pope was to get in compensation certain territories [in Italy], besides all those that the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d'Este) possesses at present; the King of France all the rest of the duchy of Milan. It appears, however, that when the King of England heard of this arrangement he would not consent to it. Matters, therefore, remain as they were. The Duke Francesco Sforza has already taken possession of Cremona, the delivery of which was delayed chiefly from the above reason.
Having received orders from Mons. de Bourbon and from Don Ugo not to quit Venice, he (Sanchez) intends to remain at his post until the Emperor's pleasure be known.—Venice, 31st Oct. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "Sacratissime Cesaree et Catholice Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Alonso Sanchez. 31st of Oct."
Spanish. Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 5.


  • n1. See the Abbot's despatch of the 10th of July (No. 485), exculpating Leyva from certain accusations at Court.
  • n2. The original has November instead of October, which is the right date, since the Viceroy's departure took place on the 24th.
  • n3. See No. 581, p. 960.
  • n4. "One hundred crowns," says Andrea Rosso in his letter of the 4th of Oct. See Rawdon Brown, Venetian Papers, vol. III., p. 611.
  • n5. "Pour aucunes matieres qui luy sont obiectees."
  • n6. "Quant à la contentacion de noz debtes, aprez avoir ouy la charge donnee à Don Yngo de Mendoza sur cest affaire nous demonstrerons au demourant conformables a raison, de sorte que notre dit trescher, et tresamé bon frère, cousin et beau nepveu l'Empereur aura toute cause destre content."
  • n7. Probably Egidius or Egidio, Cardinal of Sant Matheo, a native of Viterbo, who, on the election of Pope Clement VII., had seven votes in his favour.
  • n8. Luigi Gonzaga.
  • n9. "Toda la nacion Spañola," by which expression Germans, Neapolitans, Flemings and all other subjects of the Empire are meant; whence the appellative nacion now-a-days used in Spain, though in the familiar language of Andaluzia, as a synonym for "foreigner."
  • n10. This letter was begun about the 7th of June, as the writer himself says hereafter, and was not closed till the 22nd, which accounts for some of the contradictory reports contained in it.
  • n11. Hercole Gonzaga, born in 1505, created Cardinal in 1527. He died 2nd March 1563. See Genealogies Historiques, tom. II., p. 276.
  • n12. Marguerite Paleologo, daughter of Guillelmo, Marquis of Montferrato.
  • n13. Probably the Duke.
  • n14. "Al presenta (says F. Leandro Alberti, in his Descrittione d' Italia, p. 443), tratta l'armi valorosamente Filippo Torniello, essendo capitano de cavalieri di Carlo V. Imperatore." The references made to that valuable work are from the edition of 1577 (Venetia appresso Gio. Maria Leni, 4to), which has considerable additions. The first is of Bologna 1550, folio.
  • n15. Escalante?
  • n16. No deciphering is appended; but as both the Archduke and Joan de Castro, his servant, are known to have used the cipher which Sanchez sent them (see above, p. 808, No. 495), the present and other letters in the collection have been made out with the help of Sanchez' deciphering key by Don Antonio Rodriguez Villa, one of the pupils of the "Escuela de Diplomatica" at Madrid.
  • n17. Probably that of the 22nd. see No. 590.