Spain: October 1526, 1- 15

Pages 952-968

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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October 1526, 1-15

3 Oct. 575. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 2 vo.
Since his letter of the 30th Don Francisco de Mendoça has arrived at this camp on the 2nd inst., bearing the articles of the agreement between the Pope and Don Ugo. As the said Mendoça is soon leaving [for Spain], and will explain verbally all that has happened at Rome, he (the Abbot) need not confirm or rectify his former advices.
On the 1st inst. seven companies of Switzers left the enemy's camp to go to Rome. The Pope appears disposed to observe the agreement entered into with Don Ugo. The Abbot believes the Pope has no need of such force there. The Duke of Bourbon is by no means pleased with this arrangement (concierto), and says that he will give neither approval nor disapproval to it. Neither are the rest of the generals of this Imperial Majesty very well satisfied, believing that Don Ugo after his success might have obtained more advantageous terms.
The news of the King of Hungary having been routed and slain by the Turk turns out not to be true, as His Imperial Majesty will hear by a letter from Alonso Sanchez to Lope de Soria, a copy of which is enclosed. (fn. n1)
Advices from Como state that a German (tudesco) had arrived there, announcing that on the last day of September the Duke Ludovico (Louis) of Bavaria with 1,500 horse, and George Fransperghe (Fruntsperg) with 10,000 German infantry and a good park (escolta) of artillery, had left [for Italy].
The Duke of Urbino, as the shrewd (sabio) man that he is, deceived the garrison of Cremona. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, Germans and Italians, who left this place on the 29th ult., to succour that city, he managed matters so well that on the 1st inst., according to the terms of capitulation, his men took possession of the city without waiting till the 6th inst., as he had formally promised to do. The Germans, it is presumed, will take service with the League; Spaniards and Italians will save themselves (se salvaran) if they can.
Intelligence has been received from Genoa that the Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy) had sailed for Naples with the Imperial fleet, a sort of movement which under present circumstances does not seem to us very profitable.—Milan, 3rd Oct. 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najara."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. Abbot of Najera, 3rd Oct."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
3 Oct. 576. Knight Commander Aguilera to the Emperor. (fn. n2)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
ff. 10–2.
Don Francisco de Mendoça, brother of Diego Hurtado [de Mendoça?], took the other day to Spain, by Don Ugo's orders, the detailed account of the occurrences here, as well as a copy of the agreement (concordia) made with the Pope. Since then Don Ugo himself has departed [for Naples], leaving him (Aguilera) behind that he might report. Has done so whenever there was occasion for it.
In consequence of the late afflicting news from Hungary he (Aguilera) waited upon the Pope, and asked him whether it was true, as reported, that the Turk had taken Buda and was marching upon Vienna. The Pope answered, with tears in his eyes, that it was but too true, adding, "This is the time for the Emperor to show his greatness and his good intentions (santa intencion). As for me, I am determined to forget everything that has passed and be a mediator of peace between him and the King of France. If necessary I am ready to undertake personally the journey to Spain and France, and work there for the conclusion of a general and lasting peace, of which Christendom has now more need than ever."
Has no doubt His Holiness is in earnest and means what he says, out of fear of the Turk and the dangers to which the Christian religion may be exposed. All in this city, friends or enemies, are anxiously waiting to see what sort of demonstration the Emperor will make after these two great events, namely, the invasion of Germany by the Turk, and the sack [of Rome] by Don Ugo's troops, which last must be considered as important as the other, considering the desecration (disfamia) and offence done to the Church of St. Peter. Humbly requests His Imperial Majesty to ponder well these two things and the consequences likely to ensue for Christianity, and decide upon that which is best for God's service and his own, putting aside any private resentments, and forgetting the past.
The Pope is determined to go to Barcelona. He is already making preparations for his journey, though there are not wanting cardinals, ambassadors, and others who would dissuade him if they could. Says he has hitherto faithfully observed, and is disposed to observe in future, his agreement (concordia) with Don Ugo, only that from fear, as he says, of the Viceroy not ratifying the said agreement he is arming here [at Rome] that he may not be taken unawares a second time, as in the case of the Colonnese.
Has heard that the King of France is not at all displeased at the progress of the Turk, considering that whatever is done that way helps him in his affairs.
The Pope has told him (Aguilera) to write to Don Ugo respecting this journey he meditates [to Spain]. He wants the Spanish galleys that are at Naples, besides some ship or carack from Genoa. He wishes also that some arrangement should be made to maintain the tranquillity of Italy during his absence, for although he has concluded a truce of four months, neither the Venetians nor France are comprised in it. Has written to Don Ugo accordingly.—Rome, 3rd Oct. 1526.
Signed: "El Comendador Agylera."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Commander Aguilera, 3rd Oct."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 5.
3 Oct. 577. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 6.
After his letters of the 22nd and 27th ult.. (fn. n3) Don Francisco de Mendoça arrived with the news of the late occurrences at Rome and Don Ugo's agreement. The generals of this Imperial army and he (Caracciolo) are of one opinion; viz., that Don Ugo might have got much better terms; but since that could not be, and Cremona has fallen into the hands of the enemy, something has been gained by Doria's galleys going away (from Genoa), and the Pope's army being disbanded; otherwise this city [Milan] might have been in danger, especially as it is not known at what time the promised succour in men and money is likely to arrive.
(Cipher:) In reality the Duke [of Bourbon] is very vexed about this late agreement of Don Ugo's, and at the little regard he has shown for his honour and reputation, by coming to terms with the enemy without his consent or approval. Besides which by the articles of the truce he (the Duke) will not be able, as long as it lasts, to strike a blow on Piacenza or the land of the Florentines, as it was his intention to have done if the promised reinforcements arrived in time.
It is rumoured that the Imperial fleet now at Corsica is to go to Naples, which in his opinion is not a prudent measure. Don Francisco [de Mendoça], who is shortly to embark at Genoa, will acquaint the Emperor with the rest, and also with the impoverished state of this army. The citizens are daily deserting their homes, and leaving them to the mercy of the soldiers, who, notwithstanding the Duke's proclamations and edicts, are committing all manner of excesses to procure food, which is not to be had anywhere.—Milan, 3rd Oct. 1526.
Signed: "El Protonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. From Prothonotary Caracciolo, 3rd Oct. Duplicate."
Italian. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering between the lines, and also on separate sheet. pp. 2½.
4 Oct. 578. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
ff. 13–5.
Wrote last on the 29th of September. At the expiration of the time granted by the terms of the capitulation the garrison of Cremona refused to surrender that place, on the plea that the league being virtually dissolved by the Pope's agreement with Don Ugo, they were not bound to execute it. This notwithstanding, it is asserted that the city surrendered, some say on Monday, others on Tuesday last.
(Cipher:) Has been told that between the Duke Francesco Sforcia (sic) and the Venetians there is at present some difference of opinion respecting Cremona. The Duke wanted to enter it immediately, whilst the Signory proposed to put a governor (capitan) there in the city's name, as it were, but with the avowed intention of reserving the place to themselves. How the difference has ended he (Sanchez) has not heard.
Has heard from Secretary Perez in date of the 25th ult., enclosing a letter from Don Ugo, as well as a copy of the agreement (concordia) made with His Holiness. He (Sanchez) has been ordered to have the same duly notified to this Signory, that they may not afterwards plead ignorance. Has consulted an eminent lawyer of this city about the affair, and he thinks there is no need for him (Sanchez) to make such an intimation in the Emperor's name; it was for the Pope to do it, and invite them to subscribe the truce, for which two months' time had been allowed. Besides, the articles of the agreement (concordia) were known at Venice ever since the 24th, and the resident ambassadors had cognizance of them.
It is reported that the Signory's plan, after taking Cremona, is to send 6,000 of their infantry against Genoa. He (Sanchez) has written to Milan and Genoa about it.
Don Ugo's answer has come. His opinion is that he (Sanchez) ought to remain at Venice as long as the Venetian ambassador (Navagero) is not dismissed from the Imperial court.—Venice, 4th Oct. 1526.
Since the above was written the Provost of Buda has come to him (Sanchez) with a message from the Queen of Hungary (Doña Maria). He says that he has come from Potonia (Posonia), a village two German miles from the frontiers of Austria. The Queen was there, and had sent him on for the purpose of informing the Emperor of her position and affairs. The kingdom of Hungary, after the death of her husband (Louis), belonged to the Emperor. His authority and name were great in those parts, and there could be no difficulty in obtaining the same; but the negotiations ought not to be conducted by Germans, who are generally jealous (fn. n4) of the Hungarians. The Provost is a native of Dalmatia, and one of the late King's councillors, and apparently a wise and courteous man. He says that the King was drowned whilst attempting to cross a morass (unas paludes) with many of his nobility. The King's army mustered only 30,000, whilst the Turks were 200,000. The battle was fought at two German miles from the river Sdrava (Drave). Out of 12 bishops seven died in the encounter; but with all that the Hungarians did not lose many men on the occasion. The Turks were burning and wasting everything on their passage, the inhabitants deserting their villages and flying before them. The whole of Hungary on the farther side of the Danube was in the hands of the enemy, but this side had not yet been invaded. 80,000 horse and 200,000 foot might easily be raised for the defence, if there was a chief or king to command them. On the other side of the Danube the limits of Hungary are Bohemia, Poland and Transylvania. As the whole of those countries have taken up arms, and might attack the common enemy in Hungary, there is the danger of his approaching Austria and other of the Archduke's dominions before the Danube is frozen up.
(Cipher:) The Queen begs that a person of influence and learning be appointed by the Emperor, provided he be not a German, or Micer Andrea del Burgo, who (she says) is well known and much disliked in those parts.—Date ut supra.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 4th Oct."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 16). pp. 4.
6 Oct. 579. The Emperor to the College of Cardinals. (fn. n5)
B. N. Madrid,
E. 50. f. 139.
Tanto profecto animi dolore mens nostra discruciatur, dum ea quæ Romanorum Pontificum, vel Pontificiæ dignitatis debitum, non contra nos tantum (id enim equiori animo patiamur) verum in maximum Christiani nominis dedecus, contraque totius Reipublicæ (quam induceramus) pacem et tranquillitatem moliri audimus. Has decided to explain to them "moderatis tamen verbis" his line of conduct, and to beg redress from them in the name of the Empire and of the whole Christian world.
Upon his elevation to the Imperial dignity it was his firm purpose not to extend the limits of the Empire, and yet the fear of his aggrandisement soon plunged the whole of Christendom in war. It was high time that peace should be restored. With this intention he went to Germany and tried to reconcile princes who were quarrelling with one another. Whilst engaged in this work, well worthy of an Emperor, the King of France, quem uti patrem colebamus, seized every opportunity to do him harm, forcing him at last to have recourse to arms. Both the King of England and Pope Leo X., whom he (the Emperor) had often consulted on this subject, admitted to him the injustice of the French King. "Divina Justitia" was also in his favour, for though forsaken by all mortals, he still obtained a most signal victory over his enemy and made him his prisoner; summoned him, as it was his duty to do, to restore what his predecessors had robbed from his father and grandfather; concluded at last a treaty in which there was no clause inserted which did not benefit the cause of Christianity at large, and that of the Apostolic See in particular, Having received hostages, he released the King of France, and sent him back to his own country with due honour. Wrote then to the Pope and to all the Christian Princes, asking them to ratify and approve the treaty of peace concluded between himself and France, if they wished to establish the peace of the world on a solid foundation.
Soon after, however, to his great astonishment he (the Emperor) found that fresh causes of disturbance were in store; heard that the Pope, who was dissatisfied with him, was the cause of those disturbances; sent Don Ugo de Moncada to him with full powers to meet all demands and satisfy him; but was not successful.
Meanwhile the Nuncio, on the 20th of August, placed before him a Papal brief dated the 23rd of June. (fn. n6) The more he examined it the stronger was his conviction that the document was of such importance that it could not possibly have been issued without previous consultation with the cardinals on its contents. Felt it very deeply, "quis enim non miraretur stupetque," that the Vicar of Christ and so many dignitaries of the Church should have so inconsiderately addressed a letter of this kind to a Roman Emperor, the natural protector of the Holy See and the guardian of its honour. They have calumniated him, the best of the Christian Princes; him who has always been an obedient son of the Church, severed Parma and Piacenza from the Empire to give it to the Holy See, and completely disregarded the prayers of Germany, and of the whole Roman Empire, when its princes, assembled together at Worms, complained of so many grievances against, and oppressions from, the Papal See. And yet our natural affection and obedience to the Apostolic Chair made us shut our ears to such complaints. "Subactæ sunt ex ea de causa variæ rerum difficultates et incommoda; pullentat in dies magis Lutheranorum insania; gravamina ubique divulgantur; omnes unanimes remedium implorant; putant fieri generale Concilium, et quod et Lutheranorum impietati et Romanæ curiæ, ut justum est, oppressionibus obviam iri possit, in Civitate Spirense conciliabulum indicunt, ut in seditionibus ortis usque ad generalis Concilii decisionem ordo aliquis statueretur. Vidimus Germanorum animos in Sedem Romanam graviter commotos, verumque ne hujusmodi conciliabulum Germaniam à Romani Pontificis obedientia diverteret, Spirensem congregationem gravissimis pœnis prohibimus; eis tamen pollicemus, quanto citius fieri posset, generalis concilii indictionem fieri eventurum."
Begged the Pope to convoke a general council. The Pope thanked him for his measures against the Conventicle (Conciliabulum) at Spires, but answered that the general council must be delayed till a fitter time. The Emperor's devotion for the Pope was stronger than the claims of Germany. And yet the Pope does not hesitate without any plausible reason to denounce him as the disturber of peace and the enemy of Christendom.
Begs the cardinals to judge whether it is the Pope's interest and that of the Holy See to excite against him, who has always proved the advocate and protector of the Church, the passions of his enemies and induce them to take up arms. The Pope cannot prevent the Emperor from punishing one of his subjects guilty of the greatest crimes. To take up his cause will only increase the dangers of the Church and trouble the peace of Christendom.
Sent an answer to the Pope vindicating himself from the charges brought against him. Begged him to convoke a general council. Tells the cardinals all this in order that they may know the truth of the case, and not allow themselves to be persuaded that the Emperor entertains dark designs against the Holy See.
Begs them to use their influence with the Pope and to dissuade him from his "impious designs."
"Quam per Christianæ religionis salutem in generali Concilii indictione annuere negavit tunc iuxta juris ordinem, Reverendissimas Paternitates vestras et sacrum vester Collegium hactenus requirimus atque monemus ut de indictione Concilii a Paulo fieri petimus, eo negante, aut plus æquo differente, vos debito ordine procedentes præstari non differatis. Protestantes apud Omnipotentem Deum, si quid indè incommodi ac detrimenti Romanæ ecclesiæ ac Reipublicæ Christianæ accesserit, id non nostra sed eorum culpa futurum, qui suis affectibus potius quam Christi gloria ejusque populi saluti inservire maluissent."
Should the cardinals refuse to do what he asks from them, "Nos pro nostra erga Deum gratitudine, proque dignitate nostra Imperiali, qua eius gratuita benignitate fungimus, quibuslibet remediis ita in his pro virili providere procurabimus, ut nec Christi gloriæ, nec justitiæ nostræ, nec Republicæ Christianæ saluti paci et tranquillitati quovis modo defuisse videamur."—Dat. in civitate nostra Granata, 6 mens. Oct. 1526.
Yo el Rey. Alphonsus Valdesius.
Addressed: "Sacro Collegio Cardinalium in urbe Roma."
Latin. Original draft in the hand of Alphonso Valdes, Latin Secretary to Chancellor Gattinara. pp. 5.
9 Oct. 580. [The Switzers of Piaçenza] to the Captains of the Switzers at ——.
S. E. L. 2010,
f. 14.
This letter (fn. n7) from the elders has been written at the instigation of the captains of your own nation, who have remained behind. Envious at your being here [in Italy], and at their not having been able to come also, they give out that you left them in danger; that the league is broken; that our Lord [the Pope?] is no longer united with the most Christian King of France. All this, as you know, is a complete falsehood, and I can assure you that in a day or two the Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere) will join you with as large a force as he had before Cremona.
The most Christian King and the Pope are one and the same (una medesima cosa).
It would be a shame if the Switzers were to abandon the enterprise (ritornassero adietro).
You may be sure that the war you are now about to make will be honourable and profitable to all of us.—Piacenza, 9th Oct. 1526.
Italian. Contemporary copy. p. 1.
9 Oct. 581. Juan de Castro to Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 1.
Wrote last on the 6th inst., (fn. n8) and sent his letter through Rome. Yesterday (the 8th) a gentleman of Mons. de Bourbon arrived with a message for Micer George (Fruntsperg) and left immediately by post. He brought with him letters of credit to the amount of 6,000 gold cr. It would have been better if 30,000 had been remitted; but, nevertheless, the supply, though insufficient, will be of some help. Fruntsperg writes to say he had tried Flanders, but there was no money to be had there; he was waiting for an answer from Nuremberg.
The Archduke is to leave for Vienna on the 7th. Hopes soon to have good tidings from Bohemia. The Turk is still at Buda, where he seems to have received greater injury from the Jews than from the Christian natives themselves.
Since the above was written, he (Castro) has heard that the Hungarian nobles in Croatia and in other countries have elected the Archduke for their King, and that the Bohemians have done the same, although the election has not yet been proclaimed. The Vayvod [of Transylvania] has not yet answered "yes" or "no." The Turk on the 1st inst. threw a bridge over the Danube, and crossed it with his army. The operation lasted three days, and he (Soliman) with his guard (escuadron) was the last to pass, that none of his men should remain behind.
Addressed: "To Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice."
Spanish. Copy. p. 1.
11 Oct. 582. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 20.
In November of last year, upon the application of the Marquis of Pescara, he (Sanchez) procured 6,000 ducats for the Imperial army, which he advanced out of his own property and that of his friends and relatives; for the liquidating of which the Marquis sent him (Sanchez) certain bills on the treasury of Naples, which a merchant of this city discounted, He had already begun to pay him (Sanchez) when the present war broke out, and the Signory issued an order forbidding, under pain of death, the payment of any sum whatever to His Majesty's ministers and ambassadors, and others suspected of being Imperialists. The merchant of course refuses to pay. In vain has Sanchez represented that the debt was contracted long before the present war broke out; that the money is his own, and that the Signory has no right to seize on the property of an ambassador; the order has not been revoked. Begs His Imperial Majesty to command his treasurers at Naples to pay him his disbursements, principal and interest.—Venice, 16th Oct. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "Sacre Ces.. et Cathce. Mti."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Venice, Alonso Sanchez, 21st Oct."
Spanish. Original. pp. 1½.
11 Oct. 583. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 24.
(Cipher:) The enclosed copy of a letter from Joan de Castro dated Hispruc (Innsbruck), will inform his Imperial Majesty much better than he can how the matter of the German reinforcements stands, and what are the last news of the Turk. The Queen of Hungary (Mary) had gone to Vienna, there to hold an interview with her brother the Archduke.
At the date of the last advices from Cremona the garrison had left: the Germans for their native country; the Spaniards, as is generally believed, for the kingdom of Naples, though many doubt of their being allowed to reach their destination. The Venetians, who at first were supposed to have designs on Genoa, are now thinking of joining the camp of the Confederates at Milan, there to consult with the generals, and decide on the best plan of campaign. Cremona was still held in the name of the League, and the ambassador of the Duke Francesco Sforcia (Sforza), who has resided here so long, is to go to France very shortly. (fn. n9)
He (Sanchez) has had a letter from Prothonotary Caracciolo, of Milan, in date of the 8th, requesting him, in the Duke of Bourbon's name, not to move from Venice, as his presence in this city might soon be required. As Don Ugo's orders coincide with these, he (Sanchez) will remain until he hears from the Emperor.
The Turkish ambassador has arrived. He says that his master, the Sultan, is returning to Andrinopoli for winter quarters, and that certain arrangements have been made with the Vayvod of Transylvania (Zapolsky) to leave him as tributary King of Hungary. Such at least is the interpreter's report, as communicated by the Signory to the Provost of Buda, now residing in this city.
The Signory have had letters from their ambassador in Spain (Andrea Navagero) of the 1st inst., stating that the Emperor had given him notice to quit his court without waiting for an answer from home. Meanwhile news came—some say from Italy, about the progress of the league, others from Germany and Hungary, about the Turkish invasion—and the Emperor in consequence had sent him (the ambassador) a message to suspend his departure. Hears from the same source that the ambassadors of the confederated powers, and the French ambassador (Mons. de Calvimont) among them, had been received in private audience by the Emperor; that the French ambassador spoke more imperiously (mas alto) than the occasion warranted; but that the ambassadors of the Pope and Venice spoke in courteous terms, at which the French King was much displeased when he heard of it, as he would have preferred their using haughtier language.
Letters from Rome of the 5th inst. mention that the Pope had found the means of raising by loan 300,000 ducats, one third immediately, and the two remaining at very short dates. With this money he (the Pope) purposes secretly to help the League.
Encloses another letter from Joan de Castro, just received.
Hears that the Duke Francesco Sforcia is already established at Cremona, and that everything is being done there in his name.—Venice, 11th Oct. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ, Cesareæ et Catholicæ Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 11th Oct."
Spanish. Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 27). pp. 5.
14 Oct. 584. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 29.
Wrote on the 28th of Sept. last by a courier of the Doge, who went by sea. Has not heard from home since the 14th Aug., and consequently has no news of the Viceroy's fleet, the arrival of which is anxiously expected by the Genoese. (Cipher:) The enemy's galleys are still cruising before this port, and capturing all vessels coming with provisions. Wheat comes occasionally from Lombardy, though not in sufficient quantity to calm the apprehensions of these inhabitants. who from fear of a famine begin to throw out hints that they had better make their peace with the League than suffer such discomfort. It will be no fault of his (Soria) or of the Doge if wheat should fail altogether for the support of the population. Has written about it to the Duke of Bourbon, to Don Ugo, and to Naples. Has also sent messengers to Corsica and Sardinia to induce the Viceroy, on his arrival, to come immediately to this coast, since his presence can no longer be required at Naples, now that a four months' truce has been made with His Holiness, as the Emperor must know already, and will be more particularly informed by Don Francisco de Mendoza, present bearer.
(Common writing:) On board the enemy's galleys are the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber (Ghinucci), whom the Pope is now sending to the Kings of France and England, to notify his agreement with Don Ugo, and one Paulo de Rezo (Paolo di Reggio), who also goes to the Emperor for the same purpose.
The Pope's legate at the Imperial Court (fn. n10) had arrived at Lyons; but no sooner did he hear of the entry of Don Ugo and the Colonnese at Rome than he started post-haste for the King's court [at Cognac?] to ask favour and help for the Pope.
(Cipher:) This Doge and Community having insisted upon their former protests, viz., that they cannot in any way support the cost of the present armament, he (Soria), after consulting Mons. de Bourbon on this particular, and obtaining his permission, has decided to pay out of the funds destined to the armament of the fleet the 500 Spanish infantry who came for the defence of this city. From want of sufficient artillery only four caracks and one bark (barcha) and three galleons have been armed up to the present time, but the Doge and Community think—and he (Soria) shares their opinion—that it is far preferable to have a few vessels well manned and armed with powerful artillery, than many indifferently armed.
Pestilence has broken out in this city, which, coupled with war and famine, is not an agreeable prospect for the Genoese. This and the intrigues of the Fregosi, by no means well disposed towards the Emperor, are sufficient reasons for him (Soria) to avoid as much as possible giving any cause for discontent. He has, therefore, helped them as much as he could out of the funds of the Imperial treasury, and also out of his own property. Some time ago he lent the Community a good sum of money to buy wheat, and only the other day had his own plate made into coin, as there is none in the market just now, the people in anticipation of a war hiding whatever valuables they possess.
(Common writing:) The Duke of Bourbon has sent for the Spanish infantry that was at Alessandria, and is concentrating the Imperial troops round Milan, no doubt with the intention of taking the offensive and attacking the enemy's camp, now that the Papal troops have left. Fabricio Marramao, with 1,500 Italians, has replaced the Spaniards at Alessandria.
Intelligence has been received here that the French were arming some galleys in Provence, and trying also to get Andrea Doria into their service; (cipher:) but this and other like rumours are purposely spread by the Pope and the Venetians to maintain their cause. It is a sort of device that one sees through easily (es latin que se dexa entender facilmente). Hears also that some of the Papal troops who left the camp before Milan have been secretly enlisted by the Venetians, and that the Pope, besides, is collecting at Rome as large a force as he can, infantry and cavalry. All those who know his Holiness' late agreement with Don Ugo must necessarily wonder at such warlike preparations. He (the Pope) declares publicly that he is going to His Imperial Majesty, but nobody believes him; on the contrary, those who know his naturally vindictive temper think that his intention is to take revenge for the late injuries inflicted on him by Don Ugo and the Colonnese. (fn. n11)
(Common writing:) The Duke of Ferrara has not yet made any demonstration in the Imperial service, except forwarding the ambassador's correspondence, which, however, in the present state of things is no small service. One of his servants who went the other day to Milan told him (Soria) that his master intends soon to take the field in person, and collect round him the Spaniards who, according to the conditions of the capitulation, left Cremona on the 3rd inst.
(Cipher:) Alvero (sic) Perez arrived at Genoa on the 12th, gave him (Soria) the Emperor's letter of recommendation, and communicated part of his commission. Perceiving how very important it is, has given him advice and told him what precautions he is to take for the security of his person and papers. Will direct him as befits the Imperial service. Has made no attempt to ascertain his name and profession, but there is an odour of friar about him (luego me olió á frayle), though it must be said that he is very well disguised, (fn. n12) as Don Francisco de Mendoça will report.
(Common writing:) No news of the German reinforcements, except that they were collecting together at Trent, and would soon come down (calar), under the command of the Duke Lewis of Bavaria and George Fransperg (Fruntsperg). They muster 10,000 foot and 1,500 horse in all, and are to arrive in Italy this month.
The Siennese are very much alarmed owing to the Pope's troops and those of the Florentines congregating about their frontiers. They fear that the Pope will not stand by the agreement made with Don Ugo. Encloses copies of what the said Siennese have lately written to their agent (hazedor) here, and what the Cardinal of Sienna (Piccolomini) writes from Rome on the same subject. (fn. n13)
It is again rumoured that Andrea Doria, with the Pope's consent, is to join his galleys to those of France and Venice before this port: a very creditable thing indeed for the Pope to do!—Genoa, 14th Oct. 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Genoa. Lope de Soria, 14th Oct."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 7½.
15th Oct. 585. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 35.
(Cipher:) Wrote last on the 11th inst. As no letters from Don Ugo had been received at Genoa up to the 4th, and nothing was known about the agreement between His Holiness and him, he (Sanchez) now encloses copy of the same. Would have forwarded one much sooner, only he thought the terms of the agreement would have been faithfully observed, for a time at least; that couriers would have been allowed to pass, and all the Emperor's ministers and agents in Italy officially informed of it. He is not without suspicion that the Pope will not fulfil his late engagements. Secretary Perez is of the same opinion. He writes in date of the 11th that the Pope was making great preparations; he had sent for 3,000 Switzers and as many Italians from his camp, and had, besides, 400 men-at-arms and 500 light horse. All this (Perez says) is being done out of fear of the Viceroy, and of the forces assembled in Naples, but in his (Sanchez's) opinion all these armaments are intended against that kingdom, and to help the league. Such at least is the belief of several Venetians with whom he (Sanchez) has conversed and who ought to know something about it. He is the more convinced of this, that no letters from Don Ugo have been received either at Milan or at Genoa. The Pope knows very well that Naples is at present scantily provided with means of defence, and intends no doubt to invade that kingdom before the Viceroy's arrival. For no other purpose is this collecting of troops and money just now. Ever since the agreement was made the Papal Nuncio in this city has been, and is still, in secret communication with the Signory.
Though he (Sanchez) announced in his last despatch the departure of the Spaniards who composed the garrison of Cremona, he finds now that the report was untrue. Some say that their captains have been retained as prisoners of war, and the men disarmed at the Duke Francesco Esforcia (Sforza's) instigation, until he (the Duke) is put in possession of Como, and paid the 30,000 ducats promised by the capitulation of Milan. Others say that the Pope will not allow them to pass through his territory, either to go to Naples, as agreed, or to join the Spaniards at Carpi. Cannot find out the real truth, though he has made every inquiry. Fears that the men are irretrievably lost.
Has received the enclosed from Castro, (fn. n14) though his letter of the 6th has not yet come to hand.
Yesterday the Archbishop of Regi, (fn. n15) a German, who is going first to Rome and afterwards to Spain, on a mission of the Archduke, called upon him (Sanchez) and said that his charge was in reference to Lather and his sect.
Has this moment received a letter from Secretary Perez, in date of the 11th, showing a certain uneasiness about the Pope's armaments, which he suspects are intended against Naples. The Pope was dissatisfied at Mons. de Bourbon's refusal to ratify the agreement. He (Sanchez) believes the whole to be nothing but an excuse and a hoax (excusa y burla).—Venice, 15th Oct. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Sanchez, 15th Oct."
Spanish. Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 40). pp. 4.


  • n1. The copy here alluded to is not in the volume. The words are: "La nueva quel Turco huviesse roto y muerto al Rey de Ungria no es verdadera como se dixo;" but there is no need to observe that in this instance Alonso Sanchez, generally so careful and exact in his information, was sadly mistaken.
  • n2. Ramiro Nuñez de Aguilera was his full name.
  • n3. See above, No. 557. That of the 27th is not in the volume.
  • n4. "Pues no trate las negociaciones por medio de alemanes que son muy celosos? á los ungaros."
  • n5. Sandoval, lib. XV., cap. 18, published in abstract the Papal brief of the 23rd June, as well as the Emperor's answer and the letter which the Nuncio (Balthasar Castiglione) placed subsequently in his hands. He also gives the substance of this one addressed to the cardinals, which for greater security was directed by express to Juan Perez in Rome, to be delivered at the College.
  • n6. The answer is under No. 550; the brief itself has not been found in the Spanish Archives, though it existed in Sandoval's time.
  • n7. It was probably intercepted by the Imperialists, and a copy of it sent to Spain. It appears to have been addressed by the Swiss captains of Piacenza to some of their comrades who deserted the Pope's banners about this time. See above, p. 945.
  • n8. The letter here alluded to not being in the collection of the Royal Academy or at Simaneas, it is to be presumed that it fell into the hands of the Confederates, Indeed, Guicciardini mentions two or three instances of letters being intercepted. Istoria d'Italia, lib. XVII.
  • n9. Francesco Taverna, appointed by the Duke to be his representative in France.
  • n10. Giovanni Cardinal Salviati returning from his residence as Legate in Spain. He arrived at Lyons on the 24th of September. See a letter of Marco Antonio Venire in Rawdon Brown, Ven. State Papas, vol. II., p. 609, III.
  • n11. "Pero nadie lo quiere creher, antes piensan los que lo conocen y saben su condicion, que es vendicativo, que pensará en vengarse de esto que le han fecho Don Ugo y los Coloneses."
  • n12. It will be seen hereafter that under a false name this individual was no other than the general of the Franciscan friars, Fr. Francisco de Quiñones, afterwards created Cardinal of Santa Croce by the Pope.
  • n13. Neither of the papers here mentioned is in vol. A. 39 of the Royal Spanish Academy.
  • n14. See above, No. 581, p. 960.
  • n15. The deciphering, in Secretary Soria's hand, has "El arçobispo de Regi (sic) que es aleman." I presume that Regi is meant for Alba Regale, Alba Real, Alba Regia, as the city of Stuck Weisemburg was called at this time. If so, the archbishop here mentioned as having visited the Imperial ambassador at Venice must be Joannes Statilius, who in 1528 was sent by the King of Hungary to France. See Rawdon Brown, Venet. State Papers, III., p. 166.