Spain: September 1526, 26-30

Pages 937-952

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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September 1526, 26-30

26 Sept. 568. The Emperor to Charles de la Noy, (fn. n1) Viceroy of Naples.
S. E. Leg. 1454,
f. 63.
Appoints him his ambassador, procurator, &c. for the conclusion of peace, and for removing all causes of discord between him (the Emperor) on one side, the Pope and the rest of the Italian Princes on the other.—Granada, 26th Sept. 1526.
Addressed:. "Carolo de la Noy, Viceregi Neapolis."
Latin. Original draft. p. 1.
26 Sept. 569. Archduke Ferdinand to Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 384
We have received letters of the 18th August last, of the 9th and 12th inst., and also a despatch from Spain, of which the enclosed is a copy. Although the Emperor, our brother, replies at length to our letters of admonition and warning respecting Italy, and the necessity there is of speedy succour there, he does not say a word about money, without which nothing can be effected. Nevertheless, hearing from you and from the Duke of Bourbon that remittances were soon expected from Spain, We sent trusty persons to the city of Augusta (Augsburg), for the purpose of inquiring from the merchants there whether it was not possible to have the money before the arrival of the expected bills. Our people having obtained an answer in the negative you may easily imagine the disappointment this caused us; for besides the great exhaustion of our family dominions, We happened to receive about that time the painful intelligence of the King of Hungary's death, and of the advance of the Turks upon Buda, which naturally imposed upon us the paramount duty of looking to the defence of Christianity, threatened by the Turk's formidable power.
And yet, bearing, as we ought, in mind the Emperor's wishes and instructions respecting our family interests in Italy, We resolved to apply to this object part of the provision made by us against the Infidel. We, therefore, sent Jorge Fransperch (Fruntsperg) to Augusta (Augsburg) with our own family jewels, amounting in value to upwards of 60,000 ducats, with full powers to raise money on the same, besides pledging with the consent of the three estates the revenues of our Ducal Chamber at Innsbruck. On such securities Fransperch (Fruntsperg) is to borrow from the said merchants the sum required for a month's pay of the 12,000 men now being raised, to be led without delay to Italy, as we have already informed Mons. de Bourbon by our letter of the 8th inst., which Micer Benedetto took. We hope that by George's speedy arrival in those parts the Imperial army may obtain an easy victory over the enemy.
The Turk is advancing, and We are informed from various quarters that he will soon be at Buda, as there is nobody there to oppose him. We are, however, doing our utmost here to defend our patrimonial estates.—Lintz, 20th of September 1526. (fn. n2)
Indorsed: "Copy of letter from the Infante (Archduke) of the 20th of September, at Lintz."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 1¼.
28 Sept. 570. Antoniotto Adorno, Doge of Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 396.
The news he has to advise is of such importance that he has not hesitated to fit out a brigantine to convey the messenger to Spain. His ambassador at Court will communicate the intelligence, or the secretary in his absence.
His Imperial Majesty has no doubt heard of the Pope having been besieged in St. Angelo; of the Turks having been defeated by the Hungarians, and perhaps also of the surrender of Cremona, which is said to have capitulated; all which events make him (Adorno) more anxious than ever for the arrival of the Viceroy with the fleet.
The Community are doing all they can for the Emperor's service, but money is very scarce and the expense is great. He himself is so poor that since he resumed the office of Doge he has sold six castles, and mortgaged an estate of his yielding 500 ducats in the kingdom of Naples.—Genoa, 28th Sept. 1526.
Signed: "Antoniotto Adorno."
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ, Cesaræ Catholicæ, Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. From the Doge, 28th Sept. Answered."
Italian. Original. pp. 2.
28 Sept. 571. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 398.
Wrote on the 17th by Leonardo Grimaldo, who went by land to Monego, to avoid these galleys of the League cruising in front of Genoa. Grimaldo was to embark there for Barcelona. Sends the duplicate of his letter, as well as others from Venice.
The last news received is that on the 29th of August last the King of Hungary (Louis) was routed and slain [at Mohatz]. A servant of the Duke of Bourbon, who left Innspruck on the 17th inst., relates that the Archduke had been obliged to send to Vienna, under Marco Siti, (fn. n3) part of the German infantry that was to have come down into Lombardy; that owing to that the expected reinforcements would not reach Milan so soon, but that 10,000 men under George Fransperg (Fruntsperg) would be in Italy before the end of this month. May God forgive the Pope and his confederates for having caused all this damage to Christianity. For if no proper remedy be applied, such as an alliance with the King of France and other Christian Princes, and the conclusion of a solid and durable peace permitting them to march against the common enemy of our faith, the harm likely to result will be incalculable. The Turk, after possessing himself of the whole of Hungary, is sure to cross the county of Friolo (Friuli), and once in Italy it will be difficult to expel him.
With the above sad news a more consoling one has been received here, which in that on the 20th inst. at night the Colonnese entered Rome, and took possession of the Papal Palace, which they sacked, together with some cardinals' houses. The Pope retired to the castle of St. Angelo, and on the following day an agreement was entered into, in virtue of which His Holiness was to recall his troops from Lombardy, and his galleys from these seas. The order has since been transmitted, and is now being executed, for Andrea Doria Bailed yesterday for Liorna (Livorno) and Civittà Vecchia with his eight galleys, leaving here the 16 galleys of France under Count Pedro Navarro, and the 13 of the Venetians, with whom Archbishop Fregoso now is. Were His Holiness to send similar orders to his captains before Milan, as it is rumoured that he has done already, both Lombardy and Genoa would be secure from the enemy, as it is not to be presumed that Venice and the Marquis of Saluzzo with his bands could hold out against the Imperial forces.
(Cipher:) Active preparations are now being made at Genoa to fit out such a force as may go out [of port] and drive off the enemy's galleys. This, however, ought not to be attempted without great probability of success, for it would not do to compromise thereby the safety of Genoa before the arrival of the Viceroy's fleet.
(Common writing:) This Doge and Community declare they are quite unable, owing to their extreme poverty, to contribute their share towards the expenses of the fleet now being armed. It is in fact so great that he (Sanchez) has been obliged to advance the monthly pay of two companies of Spanish infantry brought here for their defence, and which the Community offered to take in their pay. (Cipher:) Has been obliged to wink at this and other similar irregularities arising from the damage and losses which this city has lately sustained from the enemy, through the capture of vessels laden with corn, &c. The inhabitants are generally discontented. It is a very bad sign that whenever he (Soria) proposes any measure which the Community dislike, they immediately begin threatening to make terms with the enemy, &c., and the truth is that many in this city, principally the Fregosi, are no friends to the Emperor.
(Common writing:) Owing to the above reasons, and others no less weighty, the ambassador has taken upon himself to pay the Spanish infantry out of the Imperial treasury, applying to that purpose part of the 30,000 ducats lately remitted for the expense of the fleet, inasmuch as they (the Genoese) will not be able to arm so many vessels as they thought at first, from want of sufficient artillery.
At Milan matters continued the same at the date of the last advices. The Papal troops and the Switzers were close by, at half a league from the city, skirmishing daily with our soldiers. In one of these skirmishes, on the 16th ult., Captain Corbera was killed. (fn. n4) The Switzers had deserted and were deserting in great numbers. Hieronymo Moron had been transferred to the castle of Milan.
At Cremona there had been lately many assaults and encounters. The Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere) was doing all he could, as the Venetians had set their minds upon taking the city. The Marquis of Saluzzo had arrived [in Italy], but it was doubtful whether he would join the Venetian camp before Cremona, or the Papal forces in front of Milan. It was added that the Marquis' bands received their pay from the Papal treasury and from the Venetians, so as to make it appear that they were not in the service of France.
Has received letters from the governor of Rezzo (Reggio) stating that on the 14th inst. Count Lodovico di Lodron arrived at Mantua and intimated to its Marquis (Federigo Gonzaga) the following orders from the Emperor:—
1o. He was to grant passage through his estate and procure provisions for any German bands, or any other troops or persons coming into Lombardy for the Imperial service.
2o. He was to furnish timber and other materials for the construction of a pontoon wherever it might be required for the crossing of the said troops.
3o. Not to league himself with any of the Emperor's enemies, but to be in open hostility against them.
4o. To declare himself as shortly as possible either the friend or the enemy of the Empire.
5o. To allow levies to be made in his estate for the Emperor's service, and give all due securities to the recruiting captains, &c.
The same governor (of Reggio) writes in date of the 21st that the garrison of Cremona was on the point of capitulating to the enemy. Hopes the intelligence is not true, as the news has not been otherwise confirmed.
The last occurrences at Rome must have been exclusively the work of Don Ugo de Moncada and Ascanio Colonna, supported by the rest of the Colonnese, because he (Soria) has been informed that Ascanio refused to sign the truce, that he might not have his hands tied by the engagement.
Is about to send to the Duke of Bourbon, at Milan, the remainder of the last 100,000 ducats. Fancies that it will not go far towards paying the debts of the Imperial army.—Genoa, 27th Sept. 1526.
Postscriptum.—Intelligence has this moment been received confirming the news about Cremona. The garrison capitulated on the 14th on the following conditions:—Safety to persons and property (personas y ropa); the Germans to go freely home, and the Spaniards to Naples. There has been in consequence great rejoicing on board the Venetian galleys in sight of this port. If the news turn out true, and the German reinforcements do not arrive soon, the enemy is sure to march on Genoa. They will find us prepared to receive them; we are not to be easily reduced by forces, however numerous.
Has delayed until this day the departure of the brigantine, in the hope of hearing from the Duke [of Bourbon], but there are no despatches from him, and the Doge says he cannot wait any longer, and that he must needs inform the Emperor of the late news, as well as of his inability to carry out his orders without money. Encloses also a letter received from Alonso Sanchez in date of the 20th.
The surrender of Cremona is still spoken of. They say now that the garrison has stipulated that if they are relieved before the expiration of this month, things will remain as they are. Others assert that the city has surrendered to the French. However this may be, he (Soria) thinks that Cremona will prove a bone of contention between the Venetians and the rest of the confederates.
Letters from Ferrara add some details to the above account of Don Ugo's entry into Rome. He arrived before that city on the 20th with 4,000 foot and 1,000 cavalry, besides two guns; took possession of the Sacred Palace (Sacro Palacio) and of some houses belonging to cardinals, and routed and killed most of the horsemen the Pope had collected for his defence; the whole of Rome was out in the streets crying "Impero! Impero!" Don Ugo and the Colonnese were expecting reinforcements, 3,000 infantry and four more guns. On the 21st the agreement was signed. Bologna had revolted in consequence, and was about to give admittance to the Bentivoglio (los Bentivollas). Bitelo (Vitello) and other Papal captains had left the army and started in the direction of Sienna, giving out that their bands would soon follow them; but it might be after all that they only went away in execution of some such orders as those received by Andrea Doria.
(Cipher:) Begs to observe that the present Pope is a Florentine, and owes his election to the Emperor; that the King of France, once a prisoner, recovered his liberty through the Imperial mercy, and that neither the one nor the other has acknowledged with gratitude the favours bestowed upon them. He (Soria) makes bold to mention this in order that when the time shall come for making an agreement with His Holiness, the clauses of such agreement may be so binding that he (the Pope) cannot, if he will, do mischief; otherwise he is sure to break his promises and engagements.—Genoa, 28th Sept. 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. Lope de Soria, 28th Sept. Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (fol. 406). pp. 7.
29 Sept. 572. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 410.
Wrote last on the 25th. (fn. n5) Has not yet heard from Don Ugo. Knows, however, from a credible source that he (Don Ugo) and the Colonnese are exceedingly sorry for what has happened at Rome. They could not avoid it. Are now doing all they can to restore to the Pope whatever is found among the men [of the spoil]. The agreement made with His Holiness includes also Ferrara, Genoa, Sienna, and Florencia (Firenze). The truce to last four months, and the confederated powers to be comprised in the convention within two months' time, if they desire it. It is not likely that the Venetians will approve of this, as they are almost sure of getting Cremona, and have already in their possession Lodi and the whole of the Geradada (Ghiera d' Adda). Cannot find out whether the Pope's troops have already begun to evacuate Lombardy. Fancies they have not, or that the operation will be a very slow one, that they may give the Venetians time to take Cremona.
(Cipher:) It is generally asserted here (at Venice) that the Pope will not observe the treaty. He (Sanchez) is of the same opinion. Thinks that His Holiness will go on dissembling and gaining time until he is fully armed and prepared for another invasion of his territory. Is the more inclined to believe this, that he hears that 2,000 of the Switzers in the Pope's pay are marching on Piacenza on their way to Rome. It is, moreover, stated that although his own troops, as agreed, may retire from the field of battle, he (the Pope) will have at his disposal the French bands under the Marquis of Saluzzo. His Holiness is exceedingly hurt (sentido) at what has happened, and is about to send legates to the various Christian Princes, and to the Emperor also, to complain, as he says, of the manner in which he has been treated, intending henceforwards to fix his residence at Bologna, and not return to Rome. This last, however, is only a rumour.
Has heard from various sources that the Venetian Secretary in France (Andrea Rosso) writes in date of the 19th that it was generally believed at that court that the Emperor would shortly come to Italy. The French King had said that, such being the case, he would come also at the head of a powerful army. (fn. n6) One of the parties to whom he (Sanchez) is indebted for the above information relates that Andrea Rosso had received letters from the Venetian ambassador in Spain (Navagero) purporting that the Emperor had signified to him that he was not to write any more to the Signory. The letter said nothing about the Venetian ambassador being sent away (despedido), but nevertheless he (Sanchez) intends leaving as soon as he hears from Don Ugo. It is reported here that the enemy intercepted the other day a letter of the Archduke to Mons. de Bourbon announcing the speedy arrival of George Fransperch (Fruntsperg) with the Germans. The Austrian ambassador has advices from Trent of the 24th confirming that intelligence.
The Signory is apparently making naval preparations although the works have not yet commenced. The season moreover, is too far advanced for their galleys, when ready, to take to the sea. Neither is the destination of the said armament known; but as some of their bands are bordering on Pulla (Apulia), as the Pope is generally supposed not to be disposed to observe the treaty, and might perhaps be tempted to invade Naples, the Venetians may perhaps be called upon to help by sea. Perhaps it is only a feint to call off the attention of Don Ugo, who is reported as about to join the Imperialists at Milan with the forces under his command. At any rate the coast of Apulia ought to be provided for, were it for no other purpose than that of defence against the Infidel.
(Common writing:) The news of the Turk and of Hungary are contradictory. Some say that King (Louis) is still alive, and that the Vayvod of Transylvania wants to make himself King of Hungary; that the Archduke (Ferdinand) wishes for the same, as the kingdom belongs to him by right of his wife and that owing to that there was discord between the two pretenders. It is even surmised that the Vayvod will make some sort of agreement with the Turk and be King of Hungary. With regard to the Turk some say that he is marching triumphantly on Vienna; others that the Vayvod with the Germans and Bohemians are pressing upon him on all sides, so that he cannot escape without being defeated. The Hungarians had sacked the German and Italian merchants of Buda, after which the Turk had taken possession of that city and slaughtered all the inhabitants from 13 years upwards, those under that age having been sent as captives to Turkey.
(Cipher:) There is a rumour afloat that this Signory is trying to take in its pay part of the Germans last in Cremona, and that their captains are not disinclined to accept the offer. It was not Captain Coradino, however, but a friend of Gasinar, the chief of the peasants (villanos), who was likely to go over to the enemy.
Whilst writing the above he (Sanchez) has received the enclosed letters from the Archduke and from Joan de Castro.
An ambassador from the Turk (fn. n7) is expected here, who comes, as usual, to announce his last victory over the King of Hungary. The Signory will send him another to congratulate him.—Venice, 29th Sept. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To his most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 29th Sept. Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 5½.
30 Sept. 573. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 1.
Wrote on the 10th inst., and now encloses the duplicate. (fn. n8) Since then a gentleman of the Duke of Bourbon, who was at the court of the Archduke, has returned from Yspruque (Innspruck), bringing very sad intelligence from those parts. (Cipher:) The King of Hungary (Louis) had been defeated and slain by the Turk. On the 11th inst. the Infante (Archduke Ferdinand) had embarked at Yspruque (Innsbruck) for Leuca, where the Archduchess was. He had despatched Captain Marco Çite (Sitig?) to Vienna with a good band of Germans.
(Common writing:) The Pope and the rest of the confederates may now consider what harm they have done to Christianity by their unruly passions and injustice. This was the moment for their coming to their senses and concluding a lasting peace with His Imperial Majesty, instead of which some of them, as is suspected, have brought down the Turk upon us.
(Cipher:) This last news has by no means improved our situation in Italy, as the enemy is likely to take courage and carry on the war with greater vigour. Begs for speedy succour in men and money. 24,000 ducats in bills have been remitted to George Fransbergue (Fruntsperg) that he may bring us 8,000 or 10,000 Germans, now more than ever wanted for the defence of this place and Cremona.
(Common writing:) The Papal army, entirely composed of Switzers, is still in a strongly fortified camp. It musters 7,000, though lately about 2,000 of them have left the service. The Marquis of Saluzzo and Frederico Bozano (da Bozzolo) were expected at the camp, having arrived at Placenzia (Piacenza) with 4,000 infantry levied in Piedmont, 250 lances and 300 light cavalry. The Duke of Urbino has done nothing yet against Cremona; he was thinking of mining a portion of the walls so as to blow them up with gunpowder. (fn. n9) Our men were making a stout defence. On the 7th the garrison sallied out and slew a good number of the enemy, and again on the 13th they took three banners from them, as appears from the letters of Thomas Sanchez de Baeça and other captains in command of that garrison.
(Cipher:) The better to defend Cremona the Duke of Bourbon has sent to request the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d' Este) to send thither 8,000 or 10,000 pounds of gunpowder, escorted by 200 or 300 musketeers (escopeteros). It is presumed that they will have no difficulty in reaching the place by night and delivering the ammunition.
(Common writing:) The Marquis del Guasto has completely recovered his health. Leyva is still suffering from fever and ague, but not so intensely as at first.
On the 18th, as Juan de Urbina and Captain Corvera were reconnoitring certain trenches and parapets of the enemy, the latter received a hackbut shot in the head, and died instantly. On the following day Captain Çucaro attacked and routed a squadron of light cavalry, 150 strong, consisting entirely of Romans and Venetians, slew many of them, and brought back [to the camp] 40 prisoners. At about the same time a very brave officer of this Imperial army, Sancho de Frias by name, ensign (alferez) to Antonio de Leyva, attacked with only 15 men-at-arms of his company a body of musketeers (escopeteros) and hackbutiers (arcabuceros), 150 strong, and slew or captured most of them.
On the 19th the Duke of Bourbon sent for Hieronimo Moron, who was at Treço, to have him kept under close guard in this castle [of Milan], and also to ask his advice and assistance (pedirle ayuda y consejo) under the present circumstances. The Duke [of Bourbon] has already begun to sound him concerning the help (ayuda) in money which he (Moron) is willing to give. He answers in general terms that he is ready to serve His Imperial Majesty to the utmost of his power, meaning no doubt that he will pay a considerable sum of money to obtain his liberty. Prothonotary Carachiolo (Caracciolo), who is now here for the purpose of prosecuting, would willingly have submitted him to another interrogatory, but the Duke of Bourbon has told him to suspend all proceedings for the present. As Moron, who is undoubtedly the most valuable witness who can be brought against the Duke and his accomplices, is in bad health, and might not improbably die, instructions should at once be sent to the Prothonotary to have him re-examined.
No news from France or from Switzerland. At Rome the Colonnese and Don Ugo de Moncada, perceiving that the Collateral Council of Naples refused, without the Emperor's express order, to send them money for the invasion of the lands of the Church, had decided to sign a truce.
The enemy's galleys were until lately in front of Genoa, but contrary winds and stress of weather had obliged them to put out to sea. They had captured some vessels laden with corn [from Sicily] and bound for that city.
(Cipher:) On the 24th news came to this camp that Cremona had surrendered to the enemy. Immediately on the receipt of this intelligence a council of war was summoned, when by Moron's advice (con el parecer de Moron) it was decided to wait within Milan for the reinforcements coming from Spain and Germany, and to watch for the approach of the Venetians, who were reported to be on the road [to Milan], in order to cut off our supplies from the country. (fn. n10)
(Common writing:) On the 26th, six Germans, three Italians, and three Spaniards arrived at this camp with a safe-conduct of the Duke of Urbino, captain-general of the League. They came from Cremona and were the bearers of certain articles of capitulation under which the place had offered to surrender. Unless relieved by the end of this month the garrison had agreed to give up the place. The Duke of Urbino], moreover, had consented to wait till the 6th of October, and promised safe-conducts to the Germans to return home, to the Spaniards and Italians to go to Naples.
(Cipher:) It is suspected that Colonel Corradin and the other German captains have been bribed by the enemy, for the garrison was not in want of supplies, except perhaps ammunition, and yet as before stated, without waiting for the promised succour, they suddenly determined to capitulate, and asked the Spaniards to do the same. On the 29th the emissaries returned to Cremona with a message from the Duke to the garrison, commanding them to hold out at least until the 6th of October. This the Germans would not promise in the name of their comrades, though the Duke has offered them one month's pay for the six days of this present month and all their arrears, besides Cremona should be succoured within the said period of time, or otherwise retaken from the enemy. Spaniards and Italians make no objection to this, and if the Germans only do their duty, thus giving time for the gunpowder and musketeers to arrive, the city may still be saved.
On the 25th the Marquis of Saluzzo and Frederigo Bozano (da Bozzolo) arrived at the Pope's camp with 4,500 men, between Frantopines (fn. n11) and Piedmontese, 250 lances and 300 light horse.
On the 27th letters came from the Doge of Genoa and others announcing that on the 20th Don Ugo [de Moncada] and the Colonnese with 5,000 or 6,000 men had entered Rome, at three hours of the night, defeated and put to the sword the Pope's guard, to the number of 1,500 men. The Pope with some of his cardinals and servants had fled to the castle [of St. Angelo], when his palace and those of the cardinals and others attached to his person were completely sacked. On the 21st an agreement between the Pope and Don Ugo had been signed, the former consenting to withdraw his land and sea forces. Consequently on the 26th Andrea Doria with his eight galleys raised the siege of Genoa. Similar orders had been forwarded to the Pope's army, but it is believed that these will not be obeyed immediately, thus giving time for Cremona to surrender, as otherwise the French [and Venetians] would remain alone in the field.
Juan (Giovannino) de Medicis is so ill with fever that he cannot ride.
On the 28th news came from the Doge of Genoa of the arrival of the Imperial galleys at a port of the island of Sardinia, called Bechon. The same intelligence was communicated by Pedro Navarro to the Marquis of Saluzzo on the 29th, with the addition that the Venetian and French galleys were three miles off Genoa.
We are anxiously expecting to hear of the arrival of the Imperial fleet in that port (Genoa) in order to succour Cremona, if it has not surrendered to the enemy, as there is every reason to fear that it has.—Milan, the last day of September 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najara."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. Abbot of Najara, 30th Sept."
Spanish. Holograph mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (fol. 4–5) pp. 5.
30 Sept. 574. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
ff. 418–21.
As Don Ugo de Moncada wrote on the 24th inst., giving the news of the 20th and enclosing copy of the articles agreed to with the Pope, as Don Francisco de Mendoza, the bearer of those despatches, left this for Milan, and was to embark at Genoa [for Spain], and as Don Ugo himself has since forwarded a duplicate of his letters by Commander Sanct Anton, also going to Genoa, he (Perez) has nothing to advise, except that His Holiness sent the other day to France one of his chamberlains, named Paulo di Rezzo (Reggio), who is afterwards to go as ambassador to His Imperial Majesty. Another personage is shortly to be sent to England, viz., the auditor of the Apostolic chamber (Ghinucci), once King Henry's ambassador at this court. This latter goes to Marseilles by sea. His Holiness goes on levying troops. Very close guard is kept at the gates of the city, which are shut one hour before night, and not opened until daylight the next day. What all these precautions mean he (Perez) cannot guess, for certainly during the four months of the truce agreed to on the 21st of September they have nothing to fear from us. Some people think that the Pope will not abide by the convention, owing to which the subjects of the Empire now living at Rome feel some anxiety about their persons and property, knowing, as they do, that some of the Pope's courtiers are urging him to this breach of faith.
Cardinals Farnese and Monti have lately returned to Rome. Hears that their lamentations at what occurred on the 20th inst. are very great, and that they magnify the event beyond measure. Cardinal Sanctiquatro has also returned [to Rome], but hitherto has not communicated with him (Perez).
Ten of the Imperial galleys that were at Naples came the other day close to Ostia, landed part of their crews, and did some damage in the interior. The Pope is exceedingly angry, and has complained bitterly to Perez about it, and also about certain reprisals (represarias) which some of the Imperial light cavalry have made, as it is asserted, upon vassals of the Church. No sooner did the Secretary hear of this than he wrote to Don Ugo who gave immediate orders for the property to be returned to its owners, and for Commander Yeart to go back to Gaeta with the galleys. None of the messages Don Ugo sent could be conveyed to him at sea, which was the reason of his landing at Ostia and causing the damage complained of by His Holiness. But the Papal troops on their side have made similar ravages, and it has been mutually agreed that a compensation shall be given on either side.
Notwithstanding the above securities the Imperialists at Rome are much alarmed, principally since the news has come that the city of Cremona capitulated on the 24th. The intelligence has been received with joy by these people, whose spirits had been rather depressed since the events of the 20th. Don Ugo is now at Subiaco, accompanied by Cardinal Colonna, and the report is that Ascanio (Colonna) is going to Aquila with most of the forces under his command.
(Cipher:) Hears that Count Petillano (Pitigliano) is about to offer his services to the Emperor. The Countess writes to say that if her husband's offer is accepted he will give as hostage a daughter of theirs with a competent dowry to be married in the kingdom [of Naples] to whomsoever the Emperor pleases. The Count is a person of quality, and greatly esteemed among the Orsini. If his services are accepted he cannot have less than a condotta of 100 light horse. Wants to know what answer he shall return to his application. Has written on the subject to Don Ugo, who without the Emperor's express command dares not appoint the Count to that post.
(Common writing:) Some people here think that His Holiness will go to Pisa, and thence to Spain, that is, in case of his intended visit being agreeable to the Emperor.
The departure of the Archduke for Hungary is also considered as certain. He is to go thither, to the assistance of the Queen widow, at the head of 20,000 foot and 2,000 horse. Great preparations are being made in Austria for the coming campaign against the Turks.
(Cipher:) On the 29th a consistory was held, whereat the Pope's journey to France and Spain was fully discussed. His Holiness announced his project of visiting both the Emperor and the King at their respective courts in order to bring about universal peace, adding that if any of the cardinals wished to accompany him he should be welcome. Some people, however, are of opinion that if the Pope really starts on this journey he will not go beyond France, but will stay at Aviñon (Avignon). The Secretary considers it his duty to inform His Imperial Majesty of this rumour that he may be on his guard.
(Common writing:) After the above was written, has had a letter from Alonso Sanchez, the ambassador at Venice, directed to Don Ugo. Encloses copy of it. (fn. n12) If the news contained in the said letter be true, many thanks must be given to God for what has been hitherto done. The Venetians, however, seem to think otherwise.
The news about Cremona has turned out to be true. The town capitulated on the 24th.
Active preparations for war are still being made in this city; men are daily being enlisted, and the report is that the Pope is afraid of the Viceroy (when he comes) not choosing to accept the convention made with Don Ugo.
As before stated, the Pope's journey is very much talked of. Monti, it is said, will remain as legate in Rome. Other cardinals are to accompany the Pope, though most would prefer remaining at Rome if they had the choice, there being great difference of opinion as to whether His Holiness ought to visit the Emperor or the King of France first.
Meanwhile this city is being fortified. Bulwarks and redoubts are being erected at almost every gate and across the bridges; men enlisted for the army, and all owing, as before stated, to their fears of the Viceroy.
The galleys of Andrea Doria have arrived at Livorno, and it is believed that the army before Cremona has also raised their camp, although the news of the capitulation of that city has not yet been thoroughly confirmed. His Imperial Majesty will no doubt know the truth of the matter either from Milan or from Genoa, for here at Rome we only know what our enemies choose to publish.
The wife of Vespasiano Colonna, a daughter of Luigi Gonzaga, has arrived at Genençano. (fn. n13)
Don Ugo has gone to Puzzuolo [in Naples] to put the Imperial fleet in order. He had previously sent to Milan and to Genoa one of his captains, Commander Sanct Anton, to collect information about the state of affairs and let him know the result of his inquiries. The commander is to pass through Sienna and request the inhabitants of that place to restore any property or goods they may have taken from the Florentines since the signature of the convention. And it is well needed that they should do so, for complaints are continually arriving of depredations and raids made by the Siennese, at which the Pope, as might naturally be expected, is daily more and more incensed.
(Cipher:) His Imperial Majesty may, however, be sure of one thing, namely, that the Pope is undecided, and that his going first to Spain or to France will very much depend upon the sort of answer he receives to his request, for there are many people about his person who are trying to persuade him to visit the French King first, and His Holiness, from fear of being left in the lurch, dares not give up the chance he thinks he has with France and Venice.—Rome, 30th of September 1526.
P.S.—The above was closed and sealed, when this morning, the 1st of October, the sad intelligence was received at Rome of great disasters in Hungary. He (Perez) was at the Palace when the Venetian ambassador came in, and, before obtaining admission to the Pope, announced with sorrowful countenance that the Turks had got possession of Buda, put to the sword all men above the age of thirteen, and sent the rest of the population to Turkey as captives. The Queen was wandering from place to place; in some of them she had even been refused admittance, and the enemy was triumphantly marching upon Vienna. When the awful news was communicated to the Pope he burst into tears There is to be another consistory to-day, wherein most likely the question of his journey will be discussed. It will then be known whether he decides to go first to His Imperial Majesty or to the King of France. Whatever his resolution may be, there can be no doubt that the danger now threatening Christendom will hasten his journey.
Doria's galleys already at Civittà Vecchia.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholi Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Secretary Perez, Rome, 1st of October."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 7.


  • n1. Thus in the original, which, as well as many other letters in the collection, is in the handwriting of Alfonso Valdes, Latin Secretary to the Emperor. I need scarcely observe that the Viceroy's name is generally written Lanoy and Lannoy, whilst he himself often signed his name La Noy.
  • n2. The original letter is said to have been written wholly in the cipher usually employed by Sanchez.
  • n3. Elsewhere called Citi, Setig, and Sitig.
  • n4. "A los 16 del pasado." But this is a mistake. Corbera was killed on the 18th of September, as will be seen in a subsequent letter of the Abbot of Najera.
  • n5. See No. 567, p. 936.
  • n6. "Y se creia ó decia que V. Magd. personalmente quiere venir á Italia, y que el Rey de Francia dice que viniendo V. Magd. verná él tambien, y que será tan presto como V. Magd. en ella, y que bravea de venir con poderosisimo exercito."
  • n7. His arrival is recorded in a despatch of the Doge and College to Gasparo Spinelli, Venetian secretary in England, dated the 13th of October. Marco Minio was the nobleman elected by the Signory to congratulate the Turk upon his victory. See Rawdon Brown, Venetian State Papers, vol. III., p. 612–3.
  • n8. See above, No. 540, p. 889.
  • n9. "Y atiende de presente a cortar la muralla por hazerla caer con poluors."
  • n10. He paid 20,000 ducats down. "Girolamo Morone (says Guicciardini) condannatto alla morte compose la notte precedente alla mattina destinata al supplizio di pagare ventemila ducati, al qualle effetto era stata fatta la simulazione di decapitarlo, con i quale uscito di carcere diventò subito col vigore del suo ingegno di prigione del Duca di Borbone suo Consigliere."— Dell' Isteria d'Italia, lib. XVII.
  • n11. Also called Fantopines (from the Italian fanti?); they were originally from Gascony, and the neighbouring provinces of France.
  • n12. Not in the volume.
  • n13. "Ya es venida á Gen[en]çano su muger de Vespasiano Colonna ques hyja de Luis Gonzaga." There were about this time no less than three Gonzagas of the name of Luigi or Lodovico, as may be seen in Affo: Vita di Luigi Gonzaga detto Rodomonte, Parma 1780, 4to. This last, who was the son of another Lodovico Gonzaga, and born in 1500, must be the personage here alluded to; but, whilst Affo (loco laudato, fol. 75) makes him marry in 1528 Isabella Colonna, another writer, Salazar (Glorias de la Casa Farnese, p. 44), says that Luis Gonzaga, Prince of Sabionetta, married Isabel Colonna, daughter of Vespasiano, Duke of Trajetto, and Count of Fondi.