Spain: September 1526, 21-25

Pages 927-937

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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September 1526, 21-25

21 Sept. 556. Articles of the Truce between Pope Clement VII. and Don Ugo de Moncada.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 39,
f. 39.
It has been agreed between His Holiness Pope Clement VII. on one side, and the Illustrious Don Ugo de Moncada, captain-general of the Imperial fleet, the Emperor's ambassador, on the other:
1st. There will be a suspension of hostilities by land as well as by sea, and a truce of four months, beginning from the present day, in all the lands and districts of the duchy of Milan, Genoa, Florence, Ferrara and Sienna, in all which countries commercial intercourse is to be carried on as before, His Holiness promising to withdraw from thence his armies and fleets, and bring the same within the estates of the Church.
2nd. A term of two months to be granted to the friends and allies of both contracting parties to approve of the said suspension of hostilities.
3rd. That the good-will of our Holy Father and his readiness to observe the present truce may become more manifest, the Pope consents that the Magnificent Philipus à Strozzis (Filippo Strozzi) from this very moment, and within two months one of the sons of the Magnificent Jacopo de Salviatis, Prior of Rome, or of Don Lorenzo (his brother?), constitute themselves prisoners and remain as hostages with Don Ugo. The said Salviatis, however, being allowed, if he chooses, to redeem his son for a sum of 30,000 ducats within the said period of time.
4th. Full indulgence and absolution to be granted to the Colonnese, their vassals and adherents, and generally to all others concerned in the last invasion (in hoc insultu).
5th. Immediately after signing the present truce Don Ugo will give orders for all his troops and those of the Colonnese who came to Rome with him to withdraw to the kingdom of Naples under the guidance of commissaries appointed by His Holiness.
6th. His Holiness in his own name, and Don Ugo in that of the Emperor, promise to observe the above, &c., which the College of Cardinals assembled has also approved and ratified.
Done in the castle of Sanct Angelo "in cameris mediæ residentiæ Sanctissimi Domini Nostri, coram Sanctitate sua et Sacro Collegio Cardinalium," and in the presence of the same Don Ugo de Moncada and of the witnesses called for the purpose, namely, the Illustrious and Reverend Don Martin of Portugal, ambassador of the King of Portugal, and the Reverend Dom. Bernardo, Bishop of Treviso (Episcopus Tarvisinus), Governor of Rome, in the year 1526, the 21st of September.
Latin, Contemporary Copy. pp. 2.
22 Sept. 557. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 355.
The Emperor must have heard the news from Hungary and the danger in which Austria, and indeed the whole of Germany is, through the Turkish invasion. This is the time for bringing about a lasting peace between the Christian Princes, for which it is above all things requisite to furnish such supplies of men and money to this Imperial army as to make it at least equal in number to that of the enemy. In this manner His Imperial Majesty will be enabled to invite the Princes of Christendom to march against the Infidel, and if they refuse, will not be responsible before God for the calamities that may afflict Christianity.
The news from this place are that the enemy continue still in their fortified camp; the Venetians in front of Cremona. According to our reports they were to make another assault to-day. The garrison is making a most gallant defence. The army of the Pope has been reinforced with Switzers (Elveci). (fn. n1) The French have advanced as far as Piacenza, intending to join the troops in front of Milan (questi altri).
(Cipher:) No news yet of the arrival of the Germans or of those who are to come with the fleet. The Imperial army is without money. The soldiers foraging at will. If the succours come in time for us to go out and try our fortune, well and good; otherwise nobody can say what will become of us, though we will fight to the last extremity. If, however, peace could be made, that would by far be the best means of overcoming the present difficulty. Every one [of the belligerents] should give up something of his own to help on such an arrangement (et ogni uno per tal efecto se debe taglidre un pezzo del mantello).
(Common writing:) Il Morone has been brought here [to Milan] to be examined. He (Caracciolo) has consulted with the Duke of Bourbon, whose advice is to postpone (temporigiare) the examination for a few days, till it is seen what turn affairs take.—Milan, 22nd Sept. 1526.
Signed: "El Protonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Catholicæ, Cesareæ Maiestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. From Prothonotary Caracciolo, 23rd (sic) Sept. Answered."
Italian. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 6.
22 Sept. 558. Francesco Guicciardini to Proveditor Pesero.
S. E. L. 201,
f. 11.
Does not send the news (avvisi) from Rome, because he (Guicciardini) is sure that the Magnifico Pisani has done that already. He (the Proveditor) will see that there was plenty of reason for the speedy arrival of the Marquis [of Saluzzo] being so urgently called for, and that our position is a dangerous one. Certainly there was reason to expect such a resolution as that which has been taken in a case of this importance.
Notwithstanding his orders from Rome, which are explicit enough on this point, he (Guicciardini) has taken upon himself the responsibility of sending for the Marquis [of Saluzzo] who otherwise would perhaps not have come at all, as he is naturally very irresolute.
Hopes to God that without disorder on the part of these bands the late accident (fn. n2) will be remedied, and that if the Marquis join us, as there can be no doubt he will, we shall be enabled to carry out our undertaking. The Proveditor knows quite well how much has been done on our part before proceeding to this extremity, and that if we have not been listened to, the fault does not lie with those who have freely spoken out their minds, but with those who have refused to hear (non e già la colpa di chi ha havuto bona lingua, ma di chi a mala orechia).—Casaneto, 22nd Nov. (sic) 1526.
Indorsed: "Al Provedditor Pesero, delli XXII. di Novembre 1526. Di Casaneto."
Italian. Contemporary copy.
23 Sept. 559. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 372.
Encloses duplicates of his two letters of the 9th and 12th inst., though the events which have since taken place render perhaps such a precaution unnecessary.
As Don Ugo de Moncada has written informing the Emperor of his arrival at Rome, and what has been done there, he (Perez) need not dwell on the subject further than to say that but for the sacking of St. Peter and of the Papal palace His Holiness might not for a thousand years have been induced to come to terms, (fn. n3) as His Imperial Majesty will judge by the articles of the treaty of which a copy is enclosed. The truth is that the Pope has felt this more than anything else, and that he utters such lamentations and wailings, that to hear him, moves one to pity. So do his people [and the cardinals of his party], who have lost a good deal by the sack. It is to be hoped, however, that with the holy peace, which is likely to be the consequence of Don Ugo's successful enterprise, the damage done will soon be repaired, and things resume their old course, for certainly the Emperor has had no hand in it. It would be advisable for His Imperial Majesty to write a letter to the Pope, in his own hand, expressing his regret for what has happened, and assuring him of the filial love and affection he has always borne him. This is the most that can be done in the present state of affairs; (cipher:) and if the Emperor return a gracious answer to the Pope's proposal, about which he is now writing to his nuncio (Castiglione), of going over to Spain and holding an interview with him, he (Perez) has no doubt that His Holiness will be pleased, and matters satisfactorily arranged. Has been told so by the Archbishop of Capua (Schomberg), who is a staunch friend to the Imperial cause. But the Emperor must not on this occasion use over-much courtesy (cortesias) and say that he himself will come and see him here, for in the said Archbishop's opinion the Pope will much prefer going to Spain himself, as he thinks that he may there settle his affairs to greater advantage.
(Common writing:) His Holiness complains bitterly of the Colonnese, who, he says, deceived him at the time the truce was made. He appears determined to take his revenge on them when the opportunity shall occur (muestra voluntad à satisfacerse cuando tubiere tiempo). He also complains of the Romans, none of whom stirred in his defence or tried to arrest the fury of the Imperial troops, but the truth is that the people were afraid of having their houses sacked, and each attended to his own affairs.
Begs for an increase of salary and payment of his arrears, that he may the better do the Imperial service.—Rome, 23rd Sept. 1526.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ Cesareæ, Catolicæ Maiestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Rome. Perez, 23rd Sept. Answered."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. Pp. 2.
23 Sept. 560. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 365.
Wrote last on the 20th, advising how the Hungarians had again surprised and defeated the Turks, who, elated by their last victory, had imprudently scattered their forces throughout the invaded country. The news, however, has not been confirmed, and there is every reason to fear that it is not true. However, the Archduke's ambassador residing here has had letters from Trent and Innspruck of the 16th and 17th, informing him that the Vayvod of Transylvania, Jean Zapolsky, and another great baron of that kingdom would soon take the offensive, and were only waiting for reinforcements from Bohemia and Germany.
(Cipher:) He (Sanchez) has already informed the Emperor that his letter of the 10th consulting Don Ugo de Moncada as to his future destination, and asking whether, according to orders, he had better go to Naples or Milan, was intercepted by the Signory. Has written again through another channel, but has had no answer yet. As it is, were Don Ugo's answer to come he (Sanchez) would not be able to quit Venice for ten days at least, as he is still very weak and unable to undertake a journey. Is moreover in great perplexity, for now that the Archduke is gone to Austria, to prepare for meeting the Turk and to see to the defence of Hungary and Bohemia, he (Sanchez) cannot conceive of what use he can be there, and thinks he had better remain in Italy.
Joan de Castro writes from Innsbruck on the 12th and 14th inst. that when the Archduke, his master, heard of the defeat and death of King Louis [at Mohatz] he left immediately for Vienna at the head of his army, in order to defend the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, which now belong to him. (fn. n4) He had left that city (Innsbruck) on the 11th, but before his departure had given order to raise certain moneys on his family jewels, with which to raise 10,000 effective infantry (no en pagas, sino en numero) to send to Italy. Micer George Fransperg (Fruntsperg) and one of the municipal officers (regentes) of Innsbruch had already started for Augusta (Augsburgh) on that errand, and there was every probability of their being successful, so that before the end of this month such a reinforcement of Germans would arrive in Italy as to be able by themselves to give the enemy battle.
The same Castro writes to say he has had letters from Cremona of the 6th assuring him that the garrison is strong and full of spirit. He had answered them that they might rely upon speedy succour.
At the Diet of Innsbruck the resolution was taken of giving the Archduke 5,000 men, armed and paid at the expense of the county of Tyrol for five months. The citizens had besides offered their own sons, and the villages implicated in last year's rebellion had sent him deputies, who, with tears in their eyes, had asked for pardon. The Imperial Diet had also resolved to assist the Archduke with 10,000 men, and all other German Princes had individually made similar offers.
Has received from Don Ugo de Moncada a letter dated the 14th, of which a copy is enclosed. Its contents will sufficiently inform the Emperor of the plans and intentions of that captain. Has also heard from Secretary Perez, in date of the 19th, that the Pope showed in gesture and manner that he much feared the arrival of the Viceroy and of the Archduke with the German reinforcements, and felt apprehensive about Naples, owing to the Collateral Council of that kingdom having expelled (licenciado) his Nuncio. His Holiness in consequence had again begun to enlist troops, and had sent Capin (Chiapino) for 4,000 Switzers, although others said that he had gone to France on a mission to the King to request that he would make some agreement with His Imperial Majesty, in which he (the Pope) might be included.—Venice, 23rd Sept. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 23rd Sept. Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 4.
24 Sept. 561. The Collateral Council of Naples to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 374.
Send copies of Don Ugo's letters up to this day, but not of his treaty with the Pope, because it has not been received up to the time of the courier's departure.—Naples, 24th Sept. 1526.
Addressed: "To His Imperial Majesty at his Court in Spain."
Spanish. Copy. p. 1.
24 Sept. 562. The Marquis del Guasto to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 280.
Advises the return of the messenger sent to the Archduke, and the answer he has brought. Owing to the defeat and death of the King of Hungary [Louis] by the Turk, and the march of the latter on Vienna, the Infante (Ferdinand) finds it difficult to send the promised reinforcements. Begs and prays for the quick arrival of the Viceroy's fleet, because if Cremona be lost the Imperialists will not be able to remain one day more at Milan, but will be obliged to fall back on Pavia and Alessandria.
The Duke of Bourbon has sent 30,000 ducats for the Germans to come down.
His Imperial Majesty must not be too confident respecting the castle of Milan. It is by no means as well provisioned as it ought to be.
Things, indeed, are in such a state that the loss of their own lives is nothing in proportion to the damage likely to result to the Emperor's honour and reputation.
Knows for certain that the Marquis of Mantua (Frederigo Gonçaga) has entered into some sort of compact with the confederates, and promised to be neutral for a period of three years. This he (the Marquis of Mantua) has done, on the ground that his ambassador (Soardino) at the Imperial court had never been able to obtain a satisfactory answer to his applications.
Expresses fears for the loss of Cremona, whose garrison cannot possibly hold out much longer.
Reports the death of Captain Bustamante, Commander Corvera, and a brother of Juan de Mercado, all of them excellent officers, and begs that their brothers and relatives may be taken care of.
Refers for other particulars to his letter (of the 28th of Aug.) to Juan Bautista [Gastaldo y] Gutierrez. Does not sign the present letter owing to his weak state, his strength having been lately much reduced by illness.—Milan, 24th Sept. 1526.
Post data.—Hears that the enemy [before Milan] have been rejoicing at the taking of Cremona, which they say has surrendered. The Marquis of Saluzzo and Federigo Bozano (di Bozzolo) have not joined the Duke of Urbino at Cremona, as was anticipated, but are coming here to swell the enemy's camp.
Indorsed: "Relacion de las Cartas del Marques del Gasto."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract. pp. 3.
24 Sept. 563. Joan de Castro to [Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice].
M. Re.
Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 384 vo.
Has this moment received a letter from Micer Jorge Fransberg (Fruntsperg) at Augusta (Augsburgh) informing him that although he had taken with him the Archduke's jewels to the value of 60,000 ducats, besides the pledge of the Ducal Chamber at Innsbruck, &c., he had been unable to obtain money from the bankers in that city. This being the time of year when, in expectation of the Francfort fair, the merchants have less money at their disposal, they could not supply the sum required. Besides which, the treasury [of the city] was exhausted by the late wars, and they had to provide for the expense of their contingent for the projected expedition against the Turks, which is to consist of 10,000 men. The said Fruntsperg had then returned home, and sent for three merchants to contract a loan in three different cities. One had gone to Nuremberg; another to Verona, and the third to Argentina (Strasburgh). He had, besides, sent a captain of his to Madame Marguerite [in the Low Countries], begging her to send him forthwith part of the 200,000 ducats said to have been remitted by the Emperor in bills of exchange, unless she wished to see the estates of her two nephews totally destroyed and lost. Lastly, the said Fruntsperg has written to Mons. de Bourbon, representing the Archduke's wants, and that the men were ready to start at a moment's notice, provided the money were sent. Hears that 200,000 ducats have lately been received in Genoa, and yet no portion, however small, of that sum has been sent to the Archduke. Fruntsperg, however, is very active, and omits nothing that may be conducive to the Emperor's service.—Innspruck, 24th September 1526.
Signed: "Joan de Castro."
Addressed: "To the most magnificent [Alonso Sanchez], Imperial Ambassador in Venice."
Indorsed: "Copy of letter of Joan de Castro of the 24th of September, at Innspruck."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. p. 1.
25 Sept. 564. Master Salamanca to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 392.
The very moment His Holiness (the Pope) heard the sad and afflicting news from Hungary he called for a Consistory, whereto he summoned all the cardinals, and the ambassadors and agents (hazedores) of the Christian Princes in this city, among whom he [Salamanca] was one, as servant and vassal of His Highness [the Archduke], whose dominions in Austria and the adjoining provinces border upon Hungary. Many a plan was there proposed for the remedy of so great and imminent a danger, but none was considered so expedient as that of making a truce and agreeing to a cessation of war between His Imperial Majesty and all the Christian Princes, that they might thereby be enabled to help and assist the said kingdom of Hungary, for so many years the bulwark of Christendom. Accordingly His Holiness resolved that all Christian Princes should be written to and requested to use their common and individual influence upon His Imperial Majesty in order to have the said truce and cessation of war quickly negotiated and concluded. The meetings of the Consistory, however, ended much sooner than was anticipated, for three days after Don Ugo de Moncada with the Colonnese entered this city, after having performed the signal and remarkable feat of arms of taking Rome.
Thinks it advisable to inform His Majesty of all this, that the good and righteous intentions of His Holiness may be fully appreciated, with the help of which, and the Emperor's well-known and constant love of peace, it is hoped that the Turk will be humiliated and conquered, and the Christian religion spread and exalted.
Letters have been received here from Hispruque (Innsbruck) purporting that His Highness, with part of his army, had gone to Vienna, to wait there for the forces which the German Princes and the Innspruck Diet had promised to send him.—Rome, 25th of September 1526.
Signed: "El Maestro Salamanca."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Rome. From Master Salamanca, 25th September."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 1¼.
25 Sept. 565. Berenguer de Requesens to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 377.
Were the galleys of Naples at Genoa, as they ought to be, the French fleet would not dare go there and capture, as they have done of late, several vessels laden with wheat and biscuit coming from Sicily. Nor would the Papal galleys go about unmolested, for certainly if we were ordered out of this port, they would not escape without a compliment and salute on our part.
The two Sicilian galleys under his orders are badly provided, wanting the four elements that can alone make them fit for service. Begs for orders to Lope de Soria to borrow at Genoa the money required for fitting them up properly. He himself cannot do it; he has no credit, owing to the last bills on the treasury of Naples having been dishonoured on presentation, though they were ultimately paid. Requests that the ordinary pay of his galleys be issued every month in advance from the Sicilian treasury.
Addressed: "To His Imperial Majesty, &c."
Spanish. Copy. pp. 2.
25 Sept. 566. Jayme de Requesens to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 379.
Repeats the same statements, and adds that had not Don Berenguer [his brother?] and he (Jayme) pawned their own silver plate to pay the crews, the galleys would have been disarmed. Not one has its proper contingent of men; that which he commands has 18 galley slaves below the right number, many are leaving as their time of service is up, and among those who remain there are about 15 who are too old for the handling of the oars. Begs that orders be sent to Sicily to provide him with men and money.
Addressed: "To His Imperial Majesty, &c."
Spanish. Copy. pp. 1½.
25 Sept. 567. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 386.
A rumour was spread this morning that the garrison of Cremona being without powder and ammunition had agreed to surrender within the present month of September unless succoured by an army strong enough to cause the besieging forces to retire from before its walls. All lives and property to be safe; the Spaniards to go to Naples, the Germans back to their own country. The moment he (Sanchez) heard the news he despatched a messenger to one of the Archduke's servants (fn. n5) at Innspruch, begging that the Germans might come down immediately. Fears they will not arrive in time, and as it is not likely that the Imperial army at Milan is in a position to relieve the city, considers Cremona as lost, and, which is worse, in the hands of the Venetians, from whom it will not be easy to recover it.
His Imperial Majesty has no doubt heard from Don Ugo, as well as from Milan and Genoa, how that captain and the Colonnese entered Rome on the 20th, and on the 21st made a convention with the Pope. Does not know for certain what the conditions are, as the Signory intercepts all letters addressed to him, but as far as he can guess the Papal troops are to evacuate Lombardy, and his galleys are also to return to Civittà Vecchia; there is to be a truce of four months. Some add that Venice is also comprised in the convention, and that in case of refusal the Papal forces by land as well as by sea are to join the Imperialists and compel the Signory to abide by it. Others say that the Venetians are allowed one month's time for subscribing to the conditions. However this may be, it is not likely that the Venetians will ratify the agreement made by the Pope, as they would have to restore Lodi, Cremona, and the whole of the Geradada (Ghiera d' Adda). God grant that His Holiness keep his word, and that the expected reinforcements from Germany and Spain come soon!
Is anxiously waiting for letters from Don Ugo. As soon as he hears from him, will take his leave of the Signory and depart. His presence, however, can be of very little use at the Archduke's court, if it be true, as generally asserted, that the King of Hungary was killed in the battle [of Mohatz], and that the Vayvod of Transylvania (Zapolsky) has made himself King of Hungary.—Venice, 25th Sept. 1526.
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 25th Sept. Answered."
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.


  • n1. "Li Suizi (sic) di Germania et de la armata de V. Mta non sono ancora comparsi." The Prothonotary often calls the Switzers Elveci, i.e., Helvetii, and the Germans Swici.
  • n2. The same remarks made elsewhere apply to this letter of Guicciardini, the historian; there must be an error in the date, and September substituted for November. The accident (accidente) alluded to must be the sack of Rome by the Colonnese, which, as already stated, preceded by nearly one month the capitulation and surrender of Cremona.
  • n3. "Si el saco quo se hizo en san Pedro y Palacio no se hubiera hecho, habia mil años que tal cosa no se habia asi acertado para hacer venir al Papa en lo que vino."
  • n4. In consequence of Archduke Ferdinand having married Maria Anna, sister of the King of Hungary, he claimed and finally obtained her brother's inheritance.
  • n5. Juan de Castro?