Spain: July 1525, 1-10

Pages 219-234

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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July 1525, 1-10

4 July. 123. Jean le Sauch to the Emperor.
K. u K. Haus- Hof-
u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223, No. 40.
Commander Peñalosa has no doubt informed His Imperial Majesty of the answer made by this King and Legate to the various points of the Commissioners' joint charge; also that a gentleman (fn. n1) has been sent along with the said Commander, bearing instructions and full powers for the English ambassador [in Spain] to treat on the said matter and others equally important.
Madame has since written to say how a gentleman, (fn. n2) sent by the Regent Louise, had arrived at her court, begging she would mediate between the Emperor and the King of France, so that peace might be concluded on fair terms. The said gentleman, however, had made no new overtures; and when Madame had interrogated him as to whether he had any new offers to make, he had answered in the negative. Upon which Madame Margaret had said to him: "Let Madame the Regent of France know first what the demands are on the part of the Emperor and King of England, and if she finds them too excessive, let her say so. I shall be glad to mediate in this affair, and render every good office possible, provided the Regent or the King, her son, make offers that are acceptable." After which the gentleman went away, and returned to France.
Jean Jockin is back in London. The Legate has told him (Le Sauch) that he has come for the purpose of obtaining a safe-conduct for the Chancellor d'Allençon [and others] who were here this last winter, and whom the Regent of France is now about to send again [to England], with certain overtures about the peace, likewise to be transmitted to the Emperor [in Spain]. The Legate added that after the Chancellor's arrival [in London], and when he had explained his charge, he (Le Sauch) should be fully informed of the whole.
About a week ago, the said Legate complained to him (Le Sauch) of certain false and malicious reports about his person, which, he said, had been forwarded to His Imperial Majesty. They were spread (he added) by wicked and ill-intentioned people, always ready to misinterpret his words and acts. Hearing which, he (Le Sauch) took the opportunity of denying the fact, as he knew full well that neither Mons. de Bèvres, nor the President (Laurens), nor himself had ever written a single word against the Legate. The Cardinal then produced the abstract of a letter to Madame, dated the 20th of April last, and the duplicate of which was duly forwarded to Spain, wherein the above-named Commissioners and he (Le Sauch) had really used the expressions complained of. The letter being read and acknowledged to be their own, the Cardinal expressed his astonishment, adding: "This is very wrong indeed, for I never said to Madame's Commissioners the words here attributed to me." He (Le Sauch) replied that Monsieur de Beures and President (Laurens) were men of honour, incapable of telling a falsehood; they understood Latin well, and had written the draft of the letter just read. He had no doubt they would maintain their assertion. The Legate then said: "I very much doubt that they will, for my words on that occasion have been most singularly misinterpreted. What I said was: 'If you will not assist us or do anything in this affair, take care lest you drive us to despair, for we shall be obliged to look to our own affairs in another quarter, and do so and so.' Between a conditional warning of this kind, and the assertion that 'we were ready to execute our threat,' there is a very great difference, which Madame's Commissioners cannot fail to recognize. You ought to have reported according to truth, bearing in mind the affection I always professed—and still profess—to the Emperor. I hope, however, that Mons. de Bevres and the President (Laurens) will acknowledge their error, and make proper amends for it. I appeal to their conscience and to your own." His (Le Sauch's) answer was: He was ready to write to his colleagues on the subject and report the conversation he had just had [with the Cardinal]; as far as he himself was concerned, he should have no difficulty in stating, to the best of his recollection, the Cardinal's words at the time.
After this, having consulted the copy-book, and read attentively the said letter of the 20th of April last, he (Le Sauch) found in the paragraph immediately following that which the Cardinal had read the accurate description of what passed when President Laurens remained alone with him, when, in reference to the said conditional warning and threat, the Cardinal said, in very explicit terms: "I will not do it; but still you ought not drive us to despair, lest we should execute our threat."
Hopes that the Emperor's discontent does not proceed exactly from these and similar expressions, as reported and transcribed in the Commissioners' joint despatches, and that discontent, if it exists, has another and more ancient origin. Having called again on the Cardinal, and communicated the above doubt to him, he said: "I am aware that Mons. du Rœulx has likewise written against me; but I take God to witness that he has no reason whatever for complaint;" and then he went on describing the kind and benevolent manner in which he had treated him (Du Rœulx) on all occasions. How far this assertion of the Cardinal may be consistent with truth is a matter to be settled between the two parties, and on which he (Le Sauch) avoids expressing an opinion. But from whatever source the said discontent may proceed, there can be no doubt that the Cardinal is marvellously affected by it. He (Le Sauch) has frequently heard him lament, with sorrow on his countenance, that, notwithstanding the signal services rendered by him to the common cause and to the Emperor in particular, he has been unable to gain his confidence and persuade him of his goodwill and constant affection, His Imperial Majesty having often listened to the malicious and false reports of his ambassadors without the least reason or foundation for so doing, as if he (the Cardinal) could be so indiscreet or devoid of sense as to do and say what has been imputed to him. "If the Emperor" (he added) "will only consider what I have done for his service, he will find that I have good reasons to complain, if such injurious reports are admitted and credited, without further examination or inquiry. I will, nevertheless, continue to work, as I have done hitherto, for the common weal of the Emperor and of the King, my master, who, I know for certain, bears him greater affection and love than to any other Prince in the world." I should be very ill-advised indeed if I were induced to act against my sentiments and professions; even if I did—which I never shall—I would take care not to declare my intentions. I am not the man to destroy the work of my own hands, as the events will show, and I sincerely hope to live long enough to vindicate every one of my acts before the Emperor, and regain his full confidence."
He (Le Sauch) thanked the Cardinal for his goodwill and intentions, and begged him to persevere in them, assuring him that everything would come right in time, and that His Imperial Majesty was not—as he must have had occasion to judge—an ungrateful or vindictive Prince.
His Imperial Majesty knows best what services the Cardinal may have done him. Such, however, is his authority with the King, his master, that nothing important is decided without his counsel and advice, now more than ever. He (Le Sauch) deems it necessary to state his opinion on these matters, that the Emperor may act accordingly.—London, 4 July 1525.
Signed: "Jehan de le Sauch."
Addressed: "A sa Majesté de l'Empereur Roi d'Espaigne."
French. Original. pp. 3.
5 July. 124. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d.
Esp. No. 27.
On the 14th of June last the bills of exchange for 80,000 and 20,000 ducats on Genoa were duly received and cashed, save 15,000 cr. (escudos), which remained in the hands of Ansaldo Grimaldo until their acceptance by the Viceroy and Council of Naples. They have since been paid, but as the above sums are insufficient for the increasing wants of this Imperial army, and the money promised by the Venetians is not forthcoming, the Marquis of Pescara and Antonio de Leyva have been raising money on their own plate and jewels, to the amount of 15,000 crowns. The former has written besides to Naples, to say that if the Treasurer and Council of Naples do not accept his bills they are to mortgage or sell the whole of his landed property in that kingdom.
The Venetians have decided not to pay the 80,000 ducats of their share unless His Imperial Majesty first confirms the league made with them, or we can show them proper powers to that effect, which is only a usual device of their own whenever they want to gain time. Out of the 50,000 cr. (escudos), afterwards reduced to 40,000, which the King of England remitted in bills of exchange upon Venice some time before the battle of Pavia, 30,000 were paid at once. There remained 10,000, of which one half has just been paid, owing to the exertions of the Imperial ambassador in that city, Alonso Sanchez, but there is very little chance of recovering the remaining 5,000. The same may be said about Lucca and Sienne, whose contributions are respectively 5,000 and 10,000 crowns. Neither has the Pope paid the remaining portion of his share, namely, 20,000 crowns, so that money is scanty and our debts are considerable.
Respecting the ssImperial troops now quartered on the estates of the Church, His Holiness insists upon their being sent somewhere else, according to promise. The Duke of Bourbon and Marquis of Pescara have entreated him to allow the men-at-arms to remain where they now are for a fortnight or twenty days more, as they have no place to send them to. It is feared that the Pope will not consent to this; and if so, it will be necessary to send them to Piedmont, where the rest of the cavalry and most of the infantry are quartered. But, according to intelligence received from that country, the vassals of the Duke of Savoy have taken up arms to resist the entrance of our soldiers in their walled-in towns and other places of importance. On the 23d of June last, he (Najera) started for Turin, with a view to persuade the Duke [of Savoy] to allow our men to keep their quarters; but, finding on his arrival that he had left that very day for Savoy, he (Najera) went on and overtook him at a place called Novales, at the foot of the Moncennis, where Captain Çucar (fn. n3) was taken prisoner. The Duke referred the matter to the Infanta (Beatrix), his wife, and to his brother, Count of Geneva, who, after much altercation, agreed to pay, within ten days, 15,000 cr. (escudos) towards the maintenance of the Imperial army, on condition, however, that, previous to the payment of the said sum, the whole of our infantry should evacuate his territory, and that upon the delivery of 15,000 more the men-at-arms should do the same. This proposition he (Najera) refused to accept, but offered instead to withdraw the whole of the infantry on the payment of 20,000 crowns down and 10,000 more at a short date, and send them to the marquisate of Saluzzo, there to feed on their own account, provided the provisions were sent from the Duke's lands. As to the men-at-arms no agreement could possibly be made, as there was no place to send them to.
Having made the said offer, he (Najera) returned to Milan, to communicate with the Duke of Bourbon, the Marquis of Pescara, and Antonio de Leyva, who decided to go to Piedmont, there to correct and punish some excesses which the soldiers, owing to their total destitution and want of money, are committing at present, and to see to their being quartered in the way least offensive to the inhabitants. They will leave in two or three days, with 20 pieces of artillery, intending to take possession on their way of the marquisate of Saluzzo, and give it up to the Count of Geneva, as well as for the sake of frightening the Duke of Savoy, who, from fear of the enemy, presumes to shut the gates of his own house against his friends, and have the Imperial soldiers slaughtered in their quarters. It must be said, however, that the Duke is very sorry at what has happened, and would willingly suffer any annoyance for the Imperial service, but his vassals are French at heart, and will never tolerate the quartering of our troops amongst them. Only the other day, at Turin, because a Spaniard, on Corpus Christi day, happened to kick a dog in the street, the people rose in arms, killed five or six soldiers of our nation, wounded, dangerously, a great many, and assailed the house where Johan de Leyva (fn. n4) was at the time, having gone thither for the purpose of treating with the Duke [of Savoy] and Count of Geneva about the troops' quarters. And, though the latter have promised to give reparation and punish the guilty parties—for which purpose they have sent 400 arquebusiers (escopeteros)—nothing has been done yet; and there is every reason to think that the said force is rather intended for the protection of their own people than for the detection and punishment of the offenders. The Infanta, however, regrets the ill-treatment of our soldiers as much as if the army were her own. She resides generally at Turin; the estates that form her dowry have been respected, and no troops quartered in them, which is but a small reward for her good wishes and the love she professes to His Imperial Majesty.
The Marquis del Gasto (Guasto) is with the men (con la gente) in Piedmont. If the Duke of Bourbon, Marquis of Pescara, and Antonio de Leyva have not gone yet on their intended journey [to Saluzzo], it is owing to their wish to conclude first with the Venetians, and try to unravel the intrigues of the Italian Princes, and penetrate into their secret dealings with France, especially since the King's departure for Spain, which has created such a sensation and given rise to such suspicions in Italy that it must be considered as the source and origin of all their present intrigues.
The most Reverend Legate Cardinal Salviatis left Parma on the 2d inst. to embark at Spezzia. He takes with him five galleys, three of the Pope, and two of the religion [of Malta]. He is an honest and worthy man, and has always been favourably disposed towards the Emperor, to whom he is now sent. A gentleman, belonging to his suite, passed the other day through this city [Milan] on a mission to Madame [Louise], the Regent, to inform her of his voyage to Spain and other things. He is to wait for him at Nice.
The Bishop of Vayus (Bayeux), a shrewd Italian and thorough Frenchman, (fn. n5) was some days ago at Verona, his native city. From thence he went to Rome, and afterwards to Venice, where he was to meet a gentleman of Madame, the Regent of France, with instructions of what he (the Bishop) was to negotiate in her name. As, on his arrival at Venice, the French messenger had not yet come, and the Bishop wished to do something about his commission, he went to the Signory, and proposed to them to intercede and be the means of the French King's liberation. The said messenger arrived some days after and started for Rome.
It is reported that the object of the Duke of Savoy's journey to Spain is to procure for Madame, the Regent, the liberation of the King, her son, and the conclusion of peace. But he (Najera) has reasons to believe that Mons. de Lignan, the son-in-law of his Excellency (Mercurino di Gattinara) the Emperor's Chancellor, has lately brought such a resolution on the part of His Imperial Majesty as is likely to impede his departure, unless the Duke, as he gives it to be understood, goes to Spain for his own private affairs, and to accompany the Emperor on his intended visit to Italy.
Captain Bracamonte arrived on the 3d inst., bringing letters of the 14th of June, to which he (Najera) has no answer to make, save saying that the Emperor's orders shall be faithfully executed, and all attention given to the preservation and maintenance of this Imperial and victorious army. He (Najera) entreats the Emperor to decide as soon as possible on the best course to be pursued not to keep these troops inactive and at such a heavy expense, against the will and the detriment of the poor country people, and prevent the maturing of the wicked plans which the Italian and other Princes seem to have conceived out of envy at the Emperor's aggrandisement. Thanks the Emperor for the grant of a pension of 500 ducats a year on the bishopric of Ciudad-Rodrigo, and for the promise of future favours.
Has heard from Lope de Soria, Imperial ambassador in Genoa, that bills of exchange have been received in that city to the amount of 25,000 ducats, for the fitting out and provisioning of the galleys that are to take Mons. de Bourbon to Spain. As there is very little chance of their being made ready immediately, and as His Imperial Majesty may have since taken another decision in consequence of the departure of the Imperial galleys for Spain, he (Soria) wishes to know what he is to do with the money no longer required for that purpose. The Duke of Bourbon is of opinion that it cannot and must not be applied to any other purpose. The Marquis of Pescara, Antonio de Leyva, and he (Najera) are of a different opinion; they think that the money may he spent for the use of the army; and have accordingly written to the ambassador (Soria), requesting him to do so; but as he (Lope de Soria) might not consider himself at liberty to make such employment of the money in his hands, the Emperor is humbly entreated to sanction the said application of the funds, that the wants and sufferings of this army may be somewhat alleviated.—Milan, 5th of July 1525.
Signed: "El Abbad de Najera." Closed and sealed on the 8th.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty, etc."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Milan. Abbot of Najera. 8th July."
Spanish. Holograph. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 11.
5 July. 125. Prothonotary Caracciolo, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 9.
(Cipher:) His Holiness, as it would appear, is not at all satisfied at his not getting possession of Rezzo (Reggio) and Rubiera, as he anticipated. Is also suspicious and much afraid, because (he says) the King of France has been conducted [to Spain] by the Viceroy [Charles de Lannoy]. The Italians, and principally the Milanese, are ill-treated by the soldiery, and much discontented. Has written to Mons. de Bourbon and Antonio de Leyva to take care that no disaster ensues from the excesses of both Germans and Spaniards.—Venice, the 5th of July 1525.
Signed: "Il Protonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred Imperial Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Prothonotary Caracciolo, 3 July, No. 4. Answered."
Italian. Holograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 3.
5 July. 126. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 10.
(Cipher:) Since he wrote yesterday has heard on good authority that Cavaglier Casale, ambassador of the King of England, lately sent to the Pope at Rome, has told His Holiness that His Imperial Majesty's aggrandisement ought to be looked into, and that neither the King [of England] nor his ministers saw with pleasure his growing power. That if the whole of Italy would now unite in a league against the Emperor, he (the King) would not fail to join them and grant his help and protection. It appears, however, that His Holiness has not yet answered the above overtures in the manner that the English ambassador expected. In his (Caracciolo's) opinion this step shows that the King of England is afraid of the Emperor's coming to a final arrangement with the King of France, to the detriment of all Italy, and without thinking of him.
It might be that Casale had made no such proposals, or if he had, that they were conceived in different terms, and yet the channel through which the intelligence has been received is that of a very prudent and faithful person. However, this may be, one thing is certain, that the King of England, the Pope, the Venetians, and all the rest of sssthe Italian confederated Princes are full of suspicion and doubt concerning His Imperial Majesty's intentions.—Milan, the 5th of July 1525.
Indorsed: "Paragraph of letter from Prothonotary Caracciolo in cipher."
Italian. Contemporary copy deciphered. p. 1.
7 July. 127. The Cardinal of York to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 37.
f. 98.
Has heard from the King's ambassadors residing at the Imperial court that for some time back certain reports have been made likely to injure his reputation, the authors of them having attributed to him words and expressions that he never uttered, and which, being misinterpreted by his enemies, might lead to the belief that, either from passion or from other motives, he had forsaken those sentiments of respect and affection which he has always entertained towards His Imperial Majesty. The above malicious reports, which, as above-stated, are the work of his enemies, cause him deep affliction and regret, inasmuch as he had reason to expect that his love for the Emperor, and the constant assiduity with which he has forwarded his affairs—displaying the same zeal and attention in them as if they concerned the King, his master alone—would be repaid otherwise than by listening to calumnies about his person. God knows with what care and solicitude he has attended to the Emperor's affairs, as if they were his own, and as if he had been his vassal and councillor, trembling at even the least appearance of danger.
Such being the case, and unable to bear any longer the gratuitous accusations brought against him and his acts, the Cardinal has not hesitated to exculpate himself with the Emperor's ambassadors in as plain, straightforward, though respectful terms, as if he had been in the Imperial presence. For it would seem that, owing to some sinister purpose which he (the Cardinal) cannot discover, or to his thoughts and sentiments having been misunderstood, the Imperial ambassadors and agents in this kingdom have so misrepresented what he said on various occasions as to make him appear hostile and ungrateful. He leaves it to the Emperor's prudence and judgment to decide whether, in case of his having decided to follow a different course from the one hitherto pursued, he was likely to reveal to such false councillors and unfaithful servants, as the Emperor's ambassadors at this court are, the secrets of his heart and thus disconcert all his plans. The above seems to him a sufficient reputation to those who, by such injurious reports, wish to tarnish his reputation. Begs His Imperial Majesty to believe that as long as he lives he will never fail to foster that amity and good intelligence now existing between the Emperor and the King, his master. Doubts not but that His Imperial Majesty, whose virtues, kindness, and clemency are well known, will take the above reasons into consideration, and trust to his professions; for God, who penetrates the secrets of the human heart, knows well that he loves the Emperor, more indeed than any other Prince in Christendom, the King, his master, excepted, and as much as he loves his own person.—Westminster, 7th of July 1525.
That His Imperial Majesty may judge how much the Cardinal takes the above things to heart, he appends his signature, so well known to him, begging him to excuse if, owing to a fluxion from his eyes, this letter is not entirely written in his own hand.
Signed: "T. Cardinalis Eboracensis."
Addressed: "A la Sacrec et Royalle Majeste de l'Empereur."
French. Original. pp. 2.
7 July. 128. Antonio de Leyva to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d.
Esp. No. 25.
Has received by Bracamonte the Emperor's letter, dated the 14th of June, from Toledo, which reached Milan on the 3d July. Is glad to hear that His Imperial Majesty regards his poor services; they are not so great as he could have wished, but his intentions are good. Begs His Imperial Majesty to remember the services of those captains who were with him at Pavia, and grant them his favours, for it will act as a stimulant for the future. Has often applied for leave to go home and attend to his own private affairs, and to the payment of his debts, which are considerable; but since the Emperor thinks that he (Leyva) ought not to quit Italy, and that his presence in the camp is necessary, he will remain at his post as long as required.
Has mentioned in some of his preceding letters how destitute the army is of everything since the Viceroy's departure, and the great sums that are owing to the soldiers for arrears of pay. The Marquis of Pescara and he (Leyva) have tried to procure money among their friends, pledging everything they had left, and sending orders to Naples to sell whatever property they possess in that kingdom; but still the sum raised by such means is nothing in comparison of the immediate and pressing wants of this army. As the soldiers have no money to pay for food, they commit lamentable excesses, which cannot be avoided, the consequence being that the country people are getting exceedingly hostile to them.
Has likewise informed His Majesty of the change which this sudden departure of the Viceroy for Spain with the King of France has produced in the minds of the [Italian] people. They are afraid that His Imperial Majesty will make such an agreement with the French King as will bring on their ultimate destruction and ruin, that being the reason why they are making all sorts of experiments to form a league for the security and protection of Italy, as they say, and against any future aggrandisement of His Imperial Majesty. All Italy joins in such a project, and not one of its Princes remembers the favours received at the Imperial hands. We shall be on our guard not to allow these people to harm us; but want of money to pay the troops is very much against us. Had we the means of concentrating our forces [in Lombardy], the confederates would never dare to do what they are doing.
The Marquis and the Abbot have both written in cipher what they know about these Italian intrigues; and since the Emperor knows what they are about, let him send money and instructions, and everything shall be made right by striking the first blow, as it would not do to wait patiently for the enemy's attack.
(Cipher:) Has a friend in France, named Galeaço Birago, a native of this city (Milan), and a man of great talent (grande ingenio), who wishes to become the Emperor's servant. He now forms part of the Privy Council of the King of France; and as he knows a good deal about these recent negotiations and plans of the Italian Princes has secretly sent a secretary (councillor) of his to report what is going on, and promises to do the same in future. The secretary has also conferred with the Marquis of Pescara and with the Abbot of Najera, and revealed to them all the Italian intrigues. It appears that the Pope and the Venetians have asked the French King to help them with 10,000 Switzers and 50,000 ducats for the expenses of the war they meditate against the Emperor; infantry and cavalry they do not ask for, as they consider they have enough in Italy. Galeaço only wishes to be allowed to come back [to Milan]. Has promised him that if he continues to do good service in this way, the Emperor will grant his request and bestow his favours on him. Had we only money to pay the Imperial troops and concentrate them, we should have nothing to fear from these intrigues, and His Imperial Majesty might at once chastise those whom he considers his enemies.
(Common, writing:) Has lately been trying to obtain from the Duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza) some grant of land or such like reward for Garci Manrique, Sancho Lopez, and others who were with him at Pavia. The Duke has promised, but not done anything yet in their favour. Begs His Imperial Majesty to write to the Duke and remind him of his promise, since he has gained so much by their services; he (Leyva) will consider this a great favour.
M. de Bourbon and the Marquis of Pescara left yesterday for Brecil (Verceli) in Piedmont, to attend to the Imperial army quartered in that country. He (Leyva) remains [at Milan] for the purpose of procuring money for the troops, now quartered on the estates of the Church, which the Pope wants us to evacuate immediately.
Sends his own servant, Morales [to the Emperor], upon his own private affairs. (fn. n6) —Milan, 7th of July 1525.
Addressed: "To the Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty. Anthonio de Leyva, 7th July 1525."
Spanish. Origina, partly holograph. pp. 5.
7 July. 129. The Abbot of Najera, Imperial Commissary in Italy, to the Grand Chancellor, Mercurino di Gattinara.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 24.
Captain Bracamonte arrived at Milan on the 3d inst., bearing letters for him and others of the 15th of June last. Has heard from his brother, Dr. Diego Marin, that His Imperial Majesty has been pleased to grant him, at the Chancellor's request, a pension of 500 ducats on the bishopric of Ciudad-Rodrigo. Returns his most grateful thanks for such a favour, which he has no doubt is entirely owing to his powerful influence.
Respecting the state of affairs, he (the Abbot) has nothing to add to the contents of his last despatch. Begs that he (the Chancellor) may use all his influence with the Emperor to execute at once his designs on Italy, in order to avoid the enormous expense of keeping so large an army unemployed, and thus relieve the poor people from the misery of having the soldiers quartered upon them. This would remove all temptation for the Venetians and other Italian Princes to treat with France, as they are said to be doing at present. Indeed some of the parties who have received most favours, and who are continually getting new proofs of the Imperial munificence, are precisely those who display the greatest activity in these negotiations against the Emperor's interests.
The constancy of the said people during the last war prevents him (the Abbot) from believing in such rumours and in what Mons. de Liñan (Lignan) told him at Turin on the 25th of June last; yet the matter is so important that he has not hesitated to apprise His Imperial Majesty of this fact, in order that if the information should turn out true, the perpretators of such a misdeed may be punished according their deserts.—Milan, 7th July 1525.
Signed: "El Abbad de Najera."
Addressed: "To His Excellency Mercurino di Gatinaria (sic) Grand Chancellor, etc. at the Imperial Court."
Indorsed: "To the Grand Chancellor. 1525. From the Abbot of Najera, 7th July."
Spanish. Holograph. p. 1.
7 July. 130. Antonioto Adorno, Doge of Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 16.
Wishes that fortune would be favourable to him, for then he would spare no trouble to show his goodwill towards His Imperial Majesty. God does not permit that he should be in a condition to do him service, for his own resources and those of his city are diminishing every day, and man cannot do, for want of means, what his inclination and love of the Imperial service would otherwise prompt him to do. No provision has yet been made for the four caracks and galleys which His Imperial Majesty has ordered to be got ready for his passage, owing to the pestilence which is still raging in the city, as his own ambassador [in Spain] will no doubt inform him.—Genoa, 7 July 1525.
Signed: "Antonioto Adorno."
Addressed: "To the Imperial Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. From the Doge of Genoa. 7th July. Answered."
Spanish. Original. p. 1⅓.
7 July. 131. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 18.
On the 2d inst. Captain Bracamonte arrived with the Imperial despatches for the Doge and for him (Soria), besides others for the Duke of Sessa [at Rome], for Milan, and Venice. These last he has forwarded to their address by express messengers of his own.
Has placed the Emperor's last letter in the Doge's hands, and conversed with him and the Community respecting the four caracks to be got ready for the Emperor's passage. Their answer was that owing to the pestilence which has begun to show itself, and to the inhabitants having left the city in numbers, they could not reply at once, but would let him know on the fourth day what could be done about it. They accordingly called this very day (7th of July), and informed him (Soria) of their willingness to fit out the four caracks, properly manned, and with their crews paid for a period of two months, as on a trading expedition, (fn. n7) provided, however, His Imperial Majesty advanced the money required for the armament, and paid the crews of the said caracks as long as they were in his service. They also engaged to refund the money as soon as the citizens, now absent, returned to town, when they would be able to hold their councils and provide the means. This the ambassador believes they will do very readily, as both the Doge and Community seem much inclined to the Imperial service.
As there are now in the ports of Spain, at Iviça, Lamota, (fn. n8) and Cartagena, five good Genoese caracks, His Imperial Majesty might, if required, lay an embargo on some of them, besides engaging these four for a period of two months. Besides which, as many caracks of this port go periodically to Iviça to load salt, nothing easier than to retain any of them for the Imperial service, pay the crews, and then recover the money from this Republic. By this process no time would be lost, and the Genoese could in the meanwhile provide sufficient means for the payment of the sums thus advanced.
Has written to the Duke of Bourbon, asking his opinion and advice about this and other points, for, since the date of the last Imperial despatch, matters have changed considerably. The galleys are no longer in this port, and the King of France has sailed for Spain. If, therefore, the Duke intends to cross over [to Spain], it will be necessary to lay hold of some of the caracks and vessels now in this port, and fit them out for his crossing. He (Soria) has already retained for that purpose two very good ones, quite new, that were bound for Iviça. Will follow entirely the Duke's instructions and orders on the subject, and has written to him to say that merchant vessels can be procured almost to any amount on this coast; but galleons, properly manned and provided with artillery, there are none. Brigantines and other small vessels may also be had, but if these and the two aforesaid caracks are to be mounted with ordnance, the pieces must come from Lombardy, for there are none here.
Stefano Grimaldo has accepted and will pay when due the bills of exchange for 24,000 ducats drawn by his brother Nicolao.
Has ordered 2,500 hundredweight of biscuit to be made, as it will always be useful for the Imperial fleet; part or the whole of this the Duke [of Bourbon] might take when he sails for Spain.
Captain Sarmiento not having made his appearance in Genoa, he (Soria) has given orders to suspend the fitting-out of the galley he was to command, for, besides that, it is not prudent to arm a single galley and send her on without other vessels to keep her company. This Republic, however, has promised to keep the said galley in readiness and place her at His Majesty's disposal when wanted, though without crew or armament of any sort, as their present want of funds will not allow them to make any provision for it.
If the said caracks are to take troops these shall be paid at the time and in the manner specified in the Imperial despatches, though he (Soria) is of opinion that no more forces are required, the Viceroy having already taken with him 2,000 Spanish infantry. Everything, however, shall be done according to the Duke's instructions. He (Soria) has communicated with him, but as yet has had no answer.
With respect to the Genoese galleys now in Spain, he has nothing to add, since they are already in the Imperial service. Will endeavour to obtain from the Doge the supply of powder and ammunition required, and has also written to the Duke [of Bourbon] about the ordnance that is to come from Lombardy to arm the said caracks.
There is a rumour afloat that the Marquis de Pescara left Milan on the 4th inst. to go to Piedmont, owing to the resistance made there by some of the towns and villages to have the troops quartered among them. All that country is in a state of excitement. The inhabitants of Mondevi, among others, have refused to receive the soldiers billeted upon them, and some forces are now marching in that direction with artillery.
The Duke of Savoy [Carlo Emmanuele III.] has crossed the Alps and gone to France, alleging that the Regent [Louise de Savoie] has sent for him to accompany her to Spain, where she is to hold an interview with His Imperial Majesty.
Whilst writing the above the Pope's Legate (Salviatis) has entered this port with his fleet of galleys and those of the Grand Master of Rhodes. Both are going to Spain.—Sestri de Poniente (of the West), 7 July 1525.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
P.S.—8th July. The present is a duplicate of the despatch taken by Secretary Seron. (fn. n9) Encloses copies of letters since received from the Duke of Bourbon and Marquis de Pescara. Will do everything in his power to follow the instructions of both those generals, and retain as much of the money of the last exchange as he possibly can until he hears again from Spain. As His Imperial Majesty might in the meantime decide about the Duke's journey being postponed, the expense attending a sea armament might be spared. (fn. n10)
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty.
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Lope de Soria, 7th of July."
Original. Spanish. pp. 3½.
10 July.
132. The Duke de Bourbon to the Imperial Ambassador, Lope de Soria.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 29.
Yesterday (the 9th), between the 20th and 21st hours, his letter, enclosing despatches from Spain, was received. Begs that as soon as the bills of exchange are accepted and paid, he may proceed to the distribution of the money in the manner pointed out by his steward, Monsieur de Varena (Varennes).
Being summoned by His Imperial Majesty to Spain in all haste upon most important business, he (Soria) must with all possible diligence get ready for him the three large caracks and two more vessels, mentioned in his last, properly fitted out with every necessary for his voyage. Must beg the Doge and Community, in his name, to keep in readiness not only the said five ships, but all the eight which the Emperor has ordered, so that on the arrival of the Spanish galleys—which, according to the last advices, cannot fail to enter the port of Genoa within a very short period of time—he may at once sail for Spain. This is the greatest favour he can receive at the ambassador's hands, whose prudence and zeal are well known to him.
Glad to hear that the plague at Genoa is not so bad as at first reported, and will not impede his negotiations.—Novara, 10 July 1525.
Addressed: "To Don Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa."
Indorsed: "Copy of letter of the Duke of Bourbon to Lope de Soria."
Italian. Contemporary copy. p. 1.


  • n1. Curzon, who arrived at Toledo on the 30th June. See Brewer, Letters and Papers, &c., vol. iv., part i., p. 661.
  • n2. Perrott de Warthy, groom of the bed-chamber to Francis. See above, p. 201.
  • n3. Sandoval calls him Chuchar and Chucharo; he was an Albanese.
  • n4. There were about this time two officers of the name of Johan or Juan de Leyva; one a nephew of Antonio, the general who so gallantly defended Pavia against the French, the other a natural son of Juan Martinez de Leyva, Antonio's father.
  • n5. Called elsewhere Bishop of Tricarico; for such was his see before his promotion to that of Bayeux in France. His name was Ludovico or Luigi, count of Canossa. Many of his letters were collected by Thomasso Porcacchi, and published in the collection intitled: Lettere di Principi a Principi, &c.
  • n6. This last paragraph and the preceding one are both in Leyva's hand.
  • n7. "Como suellen salir por sus mercaderias."
  • n8. Lamata in the original; but La Mota is a small seaport on the eastern coast of Spain, between Alicante and Carthagena.
  • n9. Secretary of the Council of Aragon and on a mission to Naples.
  • n10. This last paragraph or postscriptum was added to the duplicate of the same letter in A. 35, ff. 20–21.